The Present State of Virginia
by Hugh Jones
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Transcriber's note:

Some typographical and punctuation errors have been corrected. A complete list follows the text.

Words italicized in the original are surrounded by underscores.

Letters superscripted in the original have been placed in {} brackets.

Sabin's Reprints.

No. V.






No. 175 JS




A particular and short Account of the Indian, English, and Negroe Inhabitants of that Colony.

Shewing their Religion, Manners, Government, Trade, Way of Living, &c. with a Description of the Country.

From whence is inferred a short VIEW of MARYLAND and NORTH CAROLINA.

To which are added, Schemes and Propositions for the better Promotion of Learning, Religion, Inventions, Manufactures, and Trade in Virginia, and the other Plantations.

For the Information of the Curious, and for the Service of such as are engaged in the Propagation of the Gospel and Advancement of Learning, and for the Use of all Persons concerned in the Virginia Trade and Plantation.

GEN. ix. 27.

God shall enlarge JAPHETH, and he shall dwell in the Tents of SHEM, and CANAAN shall be his Servant.


Chaplain to the Honourable Assembly, and lately Minister of James-Town, &c. in Virginia.


Printed for J. CLARKE, at the Bible under the Royal-Exchange. M DCC XXIV.





Of the Original of the Indians, Europeans, and Negroes. 1


Of the Government, Religion, Habits, Wars, Lives, Customs, &c. of the Indians of North America 7

Of the French Settlements and Apelachian Mountains 13

Of the Tramontane Order and Expedition, and of Christanna 14

Of Indian Worship and Principles 15

Of the Conversion of the Indians 19



Of the English Settlements in Virginia and Maryland 21


Of the Metropolis Williamsburgh, the College Capitol, Governor's House, and the Church, &c. 25


Of the Situation and Nature of the Country of Virginia, and its Coasts, &c. 33


Of the Negroes, with the Planting and Management of Indian Corn and Tobacco, and of their Timber, Stock, Fruits, Provision, Habitations, &c. 36


Of the Habits, Customs, Parts, Employments, Trade of the Virginians; and of the Weather, Coin, Sickness, Liquors, Servants, Poor, Pitch, Tar, Oar, &c. 43


Of Germanna, the Palatines, Wine, Hemp, Flax, Silk, Sumack, Trees, Fruits, Coals, Tracts of Land, Health, Militia, the Mannacan Town, Titles, Levies, Burgesses, Laws, and general Assembly 59


Of the State of the Church and Clergy in Virginia 65


Of Authors concerning Virginia, and its publick Officers, Guard-Ships, and the State of Maryland and North Carolina, &c. 75


1. Scheme. Of Education in Virginia 83

2. Scheme. Of Religion in Virginia 95

3. Scheme. Of Arts, Projects, Inventions, and Manufactures in Virginia 112

4. Scheme. Of Trade in Virginia, and the other Plantations 138


Dedications and Prefaces, which are prefix'd to most Books, being regarded by few Readers, I think it best for my present Purpose briefly to mention in an Introduction, what I would have known concerning the Occasion, Nature, and Use of this Treatise, before I enter upon the main Work it self.

When I considered the great Benefit that arises to the Publick, from the large Colony of Virginia, I observed, that tho' it be thus advantageous, yet it is capable of great Improvements still, and requires several Alterations, both with Regard to its own Welfare, and the Interest of Great Britain. Observing moreover, that few People in England (even many concerned in publick Affairs of this kind) have correct Notions of the true State of the Plantations; and having been eagerly applied to frequently, by Persons of the greatest Figure, Experience, and Judgment in political and national Concerns, for Information concerning all the Circumstances of Virginia, I was requested to digest methodically, and publish, what I knew and thought of these Matters; and being in a great Measure injoined to it by a noble Patron, I have here complied with his Commands, with the best of my Knowledge and Judgment.

* * * * *

For want of better Information, many that are most willing, capable, or obliged to promote Religion, Learning, Arts and Trade in Virginia, are either at a Loss how to set about it rightly, or else having engaged themselves therein, have in a great Measure miscarried in their Attempts, because true and particular Accounts of it are very difficult to be obtained; and this Country is altered wonderfully, and far more advanced and improved in all Respects of late Years, since the beginning of Colonel Spotswood's Lieutenancy, than in the whole Century before his Government, which he may be esteemed to have discharged with a commendable, just, and prudent Administration; a prosperous Administration, glorious for himself, and advantageous both for the Crown and the Plantation; whilst he was Lieutenant Governor of that Colony; whilst that Colony was honoured with such an excellent Governor; whilst that Governor was happy in such a flourishing, large, and fertile Colony.

* * * * *

And as this Country has made such a considerable Progress, under the Management of the late Governor Spotswood; so have we all imaginable Prospect that it will in the same regular course proceed towards its greatest Perfection, under the Care and Conduct of the present Governor Colonel Drysdale.

* * * * *

The Scales of Justice are now fix'd there upon their true Balance, and the Course of Trade is nearly confined to its right Channel.

* * * * *

Arts, Sciences, Trades, and useful Inventions are now planted there in some Measure, and with due Cultivation may thrive wonderfully.

* * * * *

Providence has furnish'd this Province with all Necessaries of Life, and Industry may supply it with all Conveniences and Advantages, for Profit, Ease, and Pleasure.

* * * * *

The best Measures have been concerted and proposed, and Schemes have been nicely drawn for the Encouragement of useful Discoveries and laudable Undertakings, both for the Security and Benefit of the Publick.

* * * * *

And as in Blessings temporal, so in spiritual Concernments, might the Virginians abound, were the Attempts that have been, or may be, made for the due Regulation of the Church, as well as State, brought to Maturity: Were the Laws more plain and particular in Relation to Livings; so that the Labours of the Clergy might be rewarded with less Trouble and Ill-Will in their Preferment to Parishes, and collecting their Dues and Salaries; and were the Principles and Practice of Religion more firmly establish'd, which might easily be done without interfering with the Interest of the People, or Constitution of the Government; with but few Corrections and Alterations, and but little additional Expence.

* * * * *

More especially at this eminent Juncture of his Majesty's most Christian Goodness, in converting his Palace at Whitehall into a College of Preachers; and founding in the Universities Courts of Statesmen perfectly instructed in modern Languages and History.

* * * * *

For if at Home he has in this Respect, as well as others, excelled his Royal Predecessors, why may we not hope that his charitable Benefactions may likewise be extended Abroad to the Church and College of the most antient and loyal Colony of Virginia? Through the Means of such great and good Governors in Church, as his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his Lordship the Bishop of London; the first of which eminent Patrons of Religion and Learning is Chancellor of the College of William and Mary at Williamsburgh in Virginia; and to the other belongs the weighty Care and Charge of the Church and Clergy of all that and the other English Plantations.

* * * * *

Why may we not hope that the College founded and endowed there by King William and Queen Mary of ever blessed Memory, may partake of the royal Favours of our present most gracious Sovereign? Why may we not hope that the Church confirmed there in each Reign since Queen Elizabeth's, may be duly regulated by the pious Directions of his present Majesty?

* * * * *

These are Actions suitable to the Genius of our mighty Monarch: These are Undertakings worthy of the Negotiation of such pious and learned Bishops; to whose Consideration the following Sheets are in the most submissive Manner offered, humbly requesting their Lordship's Excuse for this presumptive Freedom; occasioned by the zealous Affection which I have for the Colony, which principally induced me to this Work, in order to vindicate the Place and People from undeserved Calumny, to make publick true Informations of them, to proclaim to the World their just Praises, and to prove as instrumental as possible in the Service of Religion, Learning, Arts, advantageous Undertakings, and the Trade of that Plantation; to do which, I think my self strictly obliged by Gratitude and Conscience.

* * * * *

There are several Books upon this Subject, but none descends to the present State and Circumstances of this Colony, nor proposes what Methods may seem most conducive to the Promotion of its best Interest in all Respects; but without particular Knowledge of these Things no useful Designs can be carried to the best Advantage, neither by the Government, Societies, Companies, nor by private Persons.

* * * * *

Wherefore I composed this as a Supplement to those other Books; treating herein for the most Part of such Heads, as are altogether omitted, or but slightly accounted for, or described by others.

* * * * *

For though some may have perfect Information and true Notions of these Things; yet the generality of Mankind are utter Strangers to what I here specify, and entertain commonly very erroneous and monstrous Thoughts concerning the Country, Lives, Religion and Government of the Virginians; so that there seemed a great Necessity for a Book of this kind; which I have made as plain and intelligible as I possibly could, and composed in the best Method that I could devise for the Service of the Plantations, more particularly Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina, where I have been.

* * * * *

I have industriously avoided the ornamental Dress of Rhetorical Flourishes, esteeming them unfit for the naked Truth of historical Relations, and improper for the Purpose of general Propositions.

* * * * *

Besides its Truth and my real Design of publick Service, this mean Piece has little to recommend it to the Approbation of Mankind, and to introduce it to a candid Reception in the World. Nevertheless I venture to present it with the greatest Submission to the Candour of the Reader, with Hopes that it may meet with a kind Acceptance; humbly requesting the following Favours of the Readers, viz.

* * * * *

That they would be pleased to excuse and correct the Errors of the Press.

* * * * *

That if any material Alterations have happened to be made that I know not of, since I left Virginia (which is above two Years) they will give favourable Allowances for my Accounts of such Things, and not censure me as if I endeavoured to impose Falshoods upon the World; and I hope the same will be granted for any trivial Mistakes which I may have made through Forgetfulness, or for want of Opportunity of Consultation and Advice in any small circumstantial Point, or in any proper Name.

* * * * *

And lastly, since Improvement might be made for the joint Advantage of Virginia and Great Britain in so many particular Respects; therefore I hope what I have instanced in the following State and Schemes will be look'd upon as sufficient for my Purpose, without making Mention of several other beneficial Things of the Nature and Use of which I have but little Knowledge; such as Cotton, Pepper, with the large thick Husks of Acorns for the Diers Use, with the like.




Of the Original of the Indians, Europeans, and Negroes.

One main Cause, why the Gospel is not propagated with better Success among the Infidels, and why it is not more strictly followed by such Europeans as inhabit the American Plantations, is the little right Knowledge that Superintendants of the Church have of them, from imperfect Accounts and false Information; for before we can entertain any tolerable Idea of the Tenents, and Inclinations of any People; it is requisite we should know something of their Original, Temper, and Government; for want of which much Cost and Labour have been in vain expended, and many pious Designs and Projects frustrated.

And as the Progress of Religion, so for the same Causes, and in the same Manner, is the Improvement of Arts, Sciences, and Trade, much retarded.

I shall therefore exhibit a short View of the present Inhabitants of Virginia; which are Indians, English, and Negroes, with a Description of the Country: After which their Morals and Manners may more plainly and briefly be described; from whence may easily be inferred an Account of Maryland and North Carolina, nearly agreeing with Virginia in many Respects.

The Indians may be term'd Aborigines; for to pretend to determine their Pedigree exactly, with the Time and Manner of seating this unknown World, to me seems as morally impossible, as it is naturally to account for the Complexion of their Bodies, and the Temper of their Minds.

So that the best History of them till late Years is but meer Guess-work, of which my Sentiments are these:

We know that all Nations of the World are the Descendants of Noah's three Sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: From the youngest (from some promised Blessings) may we suppose the Europeans and Western Asiaticks to be descended. From Canaan the Son of the middlemost issued the Canaanites, and from some of his Sons might spring the Egyptians, Moors, Negroes, and other Inhabitants of Africa.

From Shem sprung Eber, and from Eber's eldest Son Peleg sprung the Hebrews, and from Eber's younger Son Joktan are derived the East, and (I suppose) their Cousins the West-Indians of America. For in Peleg's Days the Earth was divided, Gen. x. 25. and his Brother Jocktan's Dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a Mount of the East, v. 30. By these were the Nations divided in the Earth after the Flood, v. 32.

To me the Indians of America seem to be some of the Posterity of Shem, driven thither by Providence, for Causes unknown to us, which might easily be done (in large Boats or Canoes and Periaguas) from the Eastern Parts of Asia, their Grandfather Jocktan's Country; which is not improbable: Since a Storm might drive them off from the Shore, and the trade Winds, which blow constantly one Way half the Year, might carry them directly to America, over the vast South Sea Ocean; in which Passage their greatest Danger of Death might be Hunger and Thirst; but they, that know the Indians, know also, that they can bear Want a prodigious while; and what might they not bear, when the Divine Power was miraculously concerned in it, for Purposes known to the Almighty only?

Indeed for what we have yet discovered, we don't know, but the Continent of America may be join'd to Tartary; from whence (if so) they might have an easy, though tedious Conveyance. Be it how it will, I am of Opinion, that they are descended from Asia, and not Africa; because in their copper Colour, long black Hair, strait proper Shape, and haughty Carriage, they are somewhat like the East-Indians; whereas they seem to be of a different Breed from the Negroes, who are blacker, have uglier Faces and Bodies, and are of a more servile Carriage, and slavish Temper: Besides, the Africans circumcise, which with other Jewish Customs, I imagine, they may derive from Egypt; whereas the Indians use no such Practices: Moreover they hate, and despise the very Sight of a Negroe; but they seem to like an East-Indian, and fear and revere the Whites.

What some may object in Contradiction to the Universality of the Deluge; that the Communication between Asia and America was washed away by it; thence inferring that the Americans are of Antidiluvian Families, may (I presume) be exploded, when we remark, that in most Places, at a great Depth, and far distant from the Sea, are many great Beds of strange Shells, and Bones, and Teeth of Fish and Beasts vastly different from any Land or Water-Animals now found in those, or any other Parts of the World; so that notwithstanding all the curious Speculations of Philosophers to reconcile this with Reason, and ascribe for it natural Causes; yet to me it appears evidently to be a Token, and Relict of the general Flood of Noah. For these Shells and Bones might be easily preserved from Corruption, and mouldering so long a Time, whilst covered with a great Thickness of dry Earth, and kept from Air; to which when they are exposed they soon decay.

The best true Account that we have of the Primitive wild Inhabitants of the Earth, not civilized by Government, nor assisted by Learning, Arts and Communication with Strangers, is of the Canaanites; whose State of Nature the Indians still retain, resembling them in most Respects, who may be their Cousins descended from Joktan, and may be some cursed Generations, for Reasons hidden from us. For which Causes they might be separated from the rest of Mankind, and be debarred the Light of Grace, and kept in their barbarous Ignorance, for their obstinate Rebellion against God; till of his gracious Goodness and Mercy he be pleased in his appointed Time to compleat their Conversion, and be more favourable to them.

I have a much truer and clearer Notion of the Canaanites, Hebrews, &c. since I have seen the Indians, than I could have before, who afford living Examples of the primitive Savages, and Idolaters.

To confirm this, observe; that as the Inhabitants of the Land of Canaan, who were vanquished by the Israelites, and were principally descended from Canaan the fourth Son of accursed Ham, being a Mixture of several remarkable Nations that were great and idolatrous, and in an especial Manner hateful to God, with frequent Wars and Barbarities among themselves; in like Manner are the American Indians, as savage, idolatrous, unbelieving, numerous, monstrous, idle and delighting in War and Cruelty as their antient Relations the Inhabitants of the Land of Canaan; and have as many different Nations, Languages, and strange Names and Customs as the Canaanites, the Jebusites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Perizites, and the Gergisites. The Indians being subdivided into as many Branches and Sovereignties as they, intermixt with as hideous Neighbours, as the Gigantick Philistines of the Race of Misraim; with the Moabites and Amorites, Descendants of Lot by his own Daughters; with the Midianites and Edomites, the Posterity of Midian and Esau.

The Senecaa Indians in their War Dress may appear as terrible as any of the Sons of Anak. The Usherees, Shuterees, and Cherackees are full as formidable as the Hittites, Jebusites, and Amalakites; and a Tuskaroodau is as savage and strange as any Canaanite, that dwelt by the Sea; and a Pomunkee, Sapony, or Sugarr is as fierce and frightful as any Amorite that dwelt upon or beyond the Mountains; and Powhatan, Oppechancanough and Wickmaunatauchee have fought many Battles not unlike Og, Sihon, and Chederlaomer.

In my mean Judgment it seems not improbable that when Noah had cursed the Posterity of Ham, and reserved different blessings for Shem and Japheth, God set a distinguishing Colour upon their Bodies, and ingrafted in their Nature various Tempers, and endowed them with separate Talents. From whence their Posterity are of three different Complexions and Countenances, as is apparent in White, Black, and Brown People, which by Mixtures, or from Climates or otherwise are subdivided: Particularly the brown Children of Shem have two peculiar Aspects different from each other, and distinct from all the rest; one proper to the Jews, the Sons of Peleg, and the other belonging to the East and West-Indies, the Sons of Joktan, Peleg's younger Brother.

To the white Posterity of Japheth, viz. to the Europeans in particular are Noah's Words (Gen. ix. 27.) very applicable, where he said, that God should enlarge Japheth, and he should dwell in the Tents of Shem, and Canaan shall be his Servant; which seems fulfilled in our Possession of Lands in the East and West-Indies, the Tents of the Sons of Shem, where Canaan or the Negroe is our Servant and Slave; and as it is said of him in the 25{th} Verse, a Servant of Servants is Canaan unto his Brethren.

For the Negroes seem evidently to be Descendants from some of the Sons of Canaan. For it is not to be supposed that the Jews destroyed them all, for the Families of the Canaanites were spread abroad, Gen. x. 18. so that probably in process of Time they possessed Africa. As for the Blessing upon Shem in the 26{th} Verse, and Canaan being his Servant; this appears to be fulfilled in the Jews in Part, descended from Peleg, Heber's eldest Son; from whom sprung Abraham the Father of the Faithful, in whose Seed the Lord God of Shem may be said to be blessed according to Noah's Prophecy, who made Part of Canaan Slaves, and took them Captive. And as for the other Branches of Shem's Posterity by Joktan (which Sound is not quite lost in either of the Indies) I take them to be the East and West-Indians, Chinese, and Tartars; and it may be the Persians, for whom with their Cousins the Jews, none but God knows what Blessings may still be reserved in Store, it being to be hoped that they and all the Ends of the World may be converted, and see and partake of the Salvation of our God; so that by all may the Lord God of Shem at length be blessed.

Thus far, as to my Notions of the Original of the Indians, whom I imagine to be descended from some of the Sons of Joktan, second Son of Eber, sprung from Shem, Noah's eldest Son: With a Derivation of the Whites from Japheth the youngest, and the Negroes from some of the Sons of Canaan, Descendant of Ham, Noah's second Son.


Of the Government, Religion, Habit, Wars, Lives, Customs, &c. of the Indians of North America, and of Christanna.

As to the Government and Life of the Indians, they live in a kind of patriarchal Manner, variously diversify'd, not unlike the Tribes and Families mentioned in the Old Testament. Every small Town is a petty Kingdom govern'd by an absolute Monarch, assisted and advised by his great Men, selected out of the gravest, oldest, bravest, and richest; if I may allow their Dear-Skins, Peak and Roenoak (black and white Shells with Holes, which they wear on Strings about their Arms and Necks) to be Wealth.

Sometimes there are general Emperors, who have several petty Kingdoms in some Measure under their Protection and Power.

They dwell in Towns some twenty, some a hundred Miles, and some farther from one another, each Town having a particular Jargon and peculiar Customs; though for the most Part they agree in certain Signs, Expressions, and Manners.

They are frequently at War with all their Neighbours, or most of them, and treat their Captive Prisoners very barbarously; either by scalping them (which I have seen) by ripping off the Crown of the Head, which they wear on a Thong by their Side as a signal Trophee and Token of Victory and Bravery. Or sometimes they tie their Prisoners, and lead them bound to their Town, where with the most joyful Solemnity they kill them, often by thrusting in several Parts of their Bodies scewers of Light-wood which burn like Torches. The poor Victim all the while (which is sometimes two or three Days) not shewing the least Symptom of Grief, nor Sign of Pain, but bearing it with a scornful Sullenness.

In their Rejoicings and Wardances they with the most antick Gestures, in the most frightful Dress, with a hideous Noise, enumerate the Enemies, that they have murder'd, and such like Exploits.

They attack always by Surprize, and will never stand their Ground when discovered; but fly to Ambush, whither the Enemy may pursue with Peril of his Life.

They are made for running very swiftly, and are nicely dextrous at fishing, hunting, and fowling; whereby they support themselves and Families with Venison, Fish, wild Turkies, &c.

The Women do all the hard Labour, such as cutting down the Trees, planting Corn, &c. carrying Burthens and all their other Work; the Men only hunting, fishing and fowling, eating, drinking, dancing and sleeping.

The Boys still use Bows and Arrows for Exercise, with which they are very dextrous; but the Men always use Fire-Arms, which with Ammunition they buy of us with their Dear-Skins, going rarely out unarmed.

They are so wonderfully quick-sighted, that they will swiftly pursue by Eye the Track of any Thing among the Trees, in the Leaves and Grass, as an Hound does by the Scent, where we can't perceive the least Mark or Footstep.

They cohabit in some hundreds of Families, and fix upon the richest Ground to build their wooden Houses, which they place in a circular Form, meanly defended with Pales, and covered with Bark; the middle Area (or Forum) being for common Uses and publick Occasions. The Women in order to plant their Indian Corn and Tobacco (to clear the Ground of Trees) cut the Bark round; so that they die and don't shade the Ground, and decay in Time.

Wherever we meet with an old Indian Field, or Place where they have lived, we are sure of the best Ground. They all remove their Habitation for fear of their Enemies, or for the Sake of Game and Provision.

They have small Sweating Houses like Ovens; out of which when they are almost smothered with Heat, they run into a River, which they always contrive to build their Towns near.

This Practice in all Distempers often kills vast Numbers in Sicknesses, which are new to them.

They have no Notion of providing for Futurity; for they eat Night and Day whilst their Provision lasts, falling to as soon as they awake, and falling asleep again as soon as they are well crammed.

Their Fish, Flesh, and Fowl, they either barbacue on an high Gridiron, or broil on sharp Sticks before a Fire, which they always keep in the Middle of their Cabbin; and they lie upon Boards and Skins raised like Benches round about their Room.

Their Drink is Water, unless they can get Rum; with which they make themselves the greatest Beasts, never ceasing as long as they have Liquor to drink, and can keep awake.

I have known, when Cows have been given them, that they let them go dry for Laziness in neglecting to milk them, and die in the Winter for want of Fodder.

They commonly wear a Dear-Skin, putting their Arms thro' the Holes of the Shoulder, with a Flap ty'd before and behind to cover their Nakedness; though they buy often Matchcoats or Blankets now, to defend them from the Wet and Cold, and think themselves very fine in such Coats as our common Soldiers wear, or of any taudry Colours: Besides this, some pin Pieces of red or blue Cloth about their Legs, and make Moccasons or leather Purses for their Feet, with which they can travel in the Woods, without Danger of Thorns or Stumps. For all the Country is but one continued Forest, with Patches of some hundred Acres here and there cleared; either being formerly seated by Indians, or the Trees being burnt in Fire-Hunting, or cut down for Plantations.

Their Children almost as soon as born, are ty'd flat on their Backs to a Board; and so may be flung on the Ground, or put to lean against any Thing, or be flung over their Neck in Travelling, or hung upon a Bough, as Occasion requires.

This occasions them to be exactly strait; so that it is a Miracle to see a crooked or deformed Indian.

Their Hair is very black, coarse and long; and they are all over daubed frequently with Bear's Oil.

Each Nation has some distinguishing Mark, especially in the Cut or Tie of their Hair, in which they are very whimsical and comical.

They often wear Shells hanging upon their Breasts, with Feathers or a Deer's Tail in their bored Ears or Hair, with a Wolf or Fox-Skin for a Snapsack; with other odd Accoutrements.

In their Opinion, they are finest when dressed most ridiculously or terribly. Thus some have their Skins all over curiously wrought with blewish Lines and Figures, as if done with Gun-Powder and Needles, and all of them delight in being painted; so that when they are very fine, you may see some of them with their Hair cut off on one Side, and a long Lock on the other. The Crown being crested and bedaubed with red Lead and Oil; their Forehead being painted white, and it may be their Nose black, and a Circle of Blue round one Eye, with the Cheek red, and all the other Side of the Face yellow, or in some such fantastical Manner. These Colours they buy of us, being persuaded to despise their own, which are common and finer.

They are treacherous, suspicious and jealous, difficult to be persuaded or imposed upon, and very sharp, hard in Dealing, and ingenious in their Way, and in Things that they naturally know, or have been taught; though at first they are very obstinate, and unwilling to apprehend or learn Novelties, and seem stupid and silly to Strangers.

An Instance of their resolute Stupidity and Obstinacy in receiving a new Custom, I have seen in the prodigious Trouble of bringing them to sell their Skins, and buy Gunpowder by Weight; for they could not apprehend the Power and Justice of the Stilliard; but with the Scales at Length they apprehended it tolerably well; though at first they insisted upon as much Gunpowder as the Skin weighed, which was much more than their Demand in Measure. They have Geographical Notions, as to the Situation of their own Country, and will find the Way to very remote Places in a surprizing Manner; steering by the Course of the Rivers, &c. or by the Trees, whose North Side is easily known by the Moss.

Thus I know, that Wickmannatauchee (a great King among the Southern Indians) whom I saw just before, and since, when he made his Escape from his Enemy Indians at Christanna, where his Queen and abundance of his People were slain, and he ty'd in order to be carried away Prisoner; yet broke loose, and ran directly Home several hundred Miles stark-naked, without Arms or Provision, in the Month of March, when the Trees afforded no Fruit; neither did he go near any other Nation, till he got to his own; therefore I suppose Roots were his Provision, and Water his Liquor, unless by some cunning Method (with which they abound) he caught Fish, Fowl, or Venison; and as for Fire I know they can kindle that by rubbing of certain Sticks together.

They count their Time by Days, or by the Return of the Moon, and Cohonks, a sort of wild Geese. They walk one after another in a Line, are very serious in Debates, speak but one at a Time; and in Negotiations all agree to what either proposes or approves of, and are not easily imposed upon; and when affronted, they highly resent Injuries, and being treacherous are no more to be trusted than tame Lions, who can't wholly lose their savage Hearts.

They have tolerable good Notions of natural Justice, Equity, Honour and Honesty, to the Rules whereof the great Men strictly adhere; but their common People will lye, cheat, and steal.

They seldom commit Violence upon the English, but when provoked, or put on by others.

The French, that are seated upon the River of St. Laurence and the Messisippi, and the Lakes between them in Canada and Lovisiana, which extend behind all the English Plantations along the Heart of North America a vast Way, from the most Northern Parts of the French Settlements, which are contiguous quite to the Gulf of Mexico, are numerous, and through the Policy of their late King intermarry with the Indians; by which means being united with them, they often set them on to destroy the English, which may prove dangerous in Case of a War with France.

But to prevent more Mischiefs of this kind, Providence has secured us from them by a continued Ridge of vast high Hills, called the Apelachian Mountains, running nearly under the Meridian, as being passable but in very few Places; which Mountains through the Care and Conduct of the Honourable Colonel Spotswood are secured for his Majesty, tho' not guarded as yet; which might easily be done to the great Safety and Encouragement of back Settlements in a vast rich Country Westward of the Settlements of Virginia, some hundred of Miles from the Sea quite to the Mountains, which might prove a Terror to the French Indians and Planters, in Case of Inroads and Irruptions, and become a Safeguard to the Trade of those Places.

Governor Spotswood, when he undertook the great Discovery of the Passage over the Mountains, attended with a sufficient Guard and Pioneers and Gentlemen, with a sufficient Stock of Provision, with abundant Fatigue passed these Mountains, and cut his Majesty's Name in a Rock upon the Highest of them, naming it MOUNT GEORGE; and in Complaisance the Gentlemen from the Governor's Name, called the Mountain next in Height, Mount Alexander.

For this Expedition they were obliged to provide a great Quantity of Horse-Shoes; (Things seldom used in the lower Parts of the Country, where there are few Stones:) Upon which Account the Governor upon their Return presented each of his Companions with a Golden Horse-Shoe, (some of which I have seen studded with valuable Stones resembling the Heads of Nails) with this Inscription on the one Side: Sic juvat transcendere montes: And on the other is written the tramontane Order.

This he instituted to encourage Gentlemen to venture backwards, and make Discoveries and new Settlements; any Gentleman being entitled to wear this Golden Shoe that can prove his having drank His Majesty's Health, upon MOUNT GEORGE.

He built a Fort called Christanna, which tho' not so far back, yet proved of great Service and Use; where at his sole Expence (I think) I have seen Seventy Seven Indian Children at a Time at School, under the careful Management of the worthy Mr. Charles Griffin, who lived there some Years for that Purpose; from whom I have been informed of most of the Indian Customs and Principles, that I here mention, except such as I have seen and known my self.

These Children could all read, say their Catechisms and Prayers tolerably well; but this pious Design being laid aside thro' the Opposition of Trade and Interest, Mr. Griffin was removed to the College to teach the Indians, instructed there by the Benefaction of the Honourable Mr. Boyle.

The Indians so loved and adored him, that I have seen them hug him and lift him up in their Arms, and fain would have chosen him for a King of the Sapony Nation.

The Southern Indians, that came several hundred Miles to meet the Governor, there to treat of War, and Peace, and Trade, though they had several murthered by their own Northern Enemies, (even under the Mouths of our great Guns, and whilst we were there) which made them somewhat jealous that we had betray'd them; yet left several Children under his Care, and engaged themselves to send more, though they themselves would not relinquish their Barbarity; for they in reasoning with us by Interpreters, asked Leave to be excused from becoming as we are; for they thought it hard, that we should desire them to change their Manners and Customs, since they did not desire us to turn Indians: However, they permitted their Children to be brought up in our Way; and when they were able to judge for themselves, they were to live as the ENGLISH, or as the INDIANS, according to their best liking.

The Indians have a blind Worship and Sacrifice, Priests, and Physicians, and Expiation, with howling Lamentations and Purgation at their Burials: All which I have seen at the Funeral of their Slain at Christanna, whom they buried thus; having made Holes like Saw-Pits, and lined them with Bark and Sticks, they wrapped the Bodies in the best Cloth they could buy with the Skins of the Deceased, and laid them in the Graves, with all the Cloths, Skins and Nicknacks of the Dead: Then they covered the Body hollow with Sticks, and flung in the Earth with mournful Noise; so the Bodies lay as in Coffins.

The Priest or Physician in curing the Wounded, made an hideous Noise, singing certain Charms, with particular Actions and Forms of Incantation, to which he ascribed the Cure, tho' I believe this is done only to blind the common Indians; for I observed he did not begin his Operation, till he had been in the Woods. Then he shut us all out for an Hour, and when we were readmitted, I perceived he had been using certain Roots and Herbs that I knew not.

Upon Enquiry, we have from them these their Notions of the State of the Dead.

They believe that they go to Mohomny that lives beyond the Sun, if they have not been Wicked, nor like Dogs nor Wolves, that is, not unchast, then they believe that Mohomny sends them to a plentiful Country abounding with Fish, Flesh and Fowls, the best of their Kind, and easy to be caught; but if they have been naughty, then he sends them to a poor barren Country, where be many Wolves and Bears, with a few nimble Deer, swift Fish and Fowls, difficult to be taken; and when killed, being scarce any thing but Skin and Bones.

They allow Polygamy, if the Man can maintain his Family, as I have been informed.

They punish Adultery in a Woman by cutting off her Hair, which they fix upon a long Pole without the Town; which is such a Disgrace that the Party is obliged to fly, and becomes a Victim to some Enemy, a Slave to some Rover, or perishes in the Woods.

They have certain Hieroglyphical Methods of characterizing Things; an Instance of which I have seen upon the Side of a Tree where the Bark was taken off.

There was drawn something like a Deer and a River, with certain Strokes and Dashes; the Deer looking down the River, which we interpreted to be left for Information to some of their stragling Company, that certain of them were gone down that River a Hunting, and others were gone different Ways.

I know by the Boys at the College, that they have an excellent Genius for Drawing; and I fancy by Art they might be made some of the best Masters of Painting and Limning, to which they seem naturally inclined.

They hate Injury and Oppression; and I have been told they have some capital Punishments.

Besides the French, the Traders of some Companies and Countries often set the Indians on to injure the English on the Frontiers, out of a barbarous inhuman Design; and often private Injuries done by some of our ordinary or vile People (who esteem and use the Indians as Dogs) are repaid with publick Barbarity.

An Instance of their Resolutions for Satisfaction, we have in the Death of Major Wynne, who was shot by an Indian, because one of our Servants had killed one of their great Men; and upon the Trial of the Indian, they pleaded that we were the Aggressors, and that they never rest without Revenge and Reprisals; and that now they said we and they were equal, having each lost a great Man: Wherefore to avoid more Bloodshed, there was a Necessity to pardon the Indian.

They report that the Northern Indians send out Bodies of young Fellows yearly, who dare not return without a certain Number of Scalps or Prisoners, in order to train them up, and qualify them for great and fighting Men.

Now these, and such as are set on by others, do some Mischief (tho' but very seldom) in the Frontier Plantations, tho' they be guarded with Rangers; and these with such as think themselves injured are the Indians that make Wars, and such Disturbance in the Northern and Southern Colonies: But the tributary Indians, of which there are but four very small Nations in Virginia on this Side the Mountains, keep to the Bounds allowed them, and seldom do any Hurt, being sure to be punished for Offences in a great Measure by our Laws, since we protect and shelter them, by permitting them to live among us; tho' sometimes they will pretend to claim their prior Right to all our Lands, as Blunt King of the Tuskaroodaus did, when he told Colonel Spotswood that the Country belonged to them before we English came thither; so that he thought they had a better Title than we, and ought not to be confined to such narrow Limits for Hunting.

To retort this Argument, the Governor told him that Mohomny took the Ground from them and gave it us, because we did as he bid us, but they would not.

Blunt answered, that they could not tell what Mohomny would have them do; and asked how we knew.

The Governor then told him that Mohomny sent his Son to us, who lived a long time with us, and told us and taught us what we should do; and then he went back again to his Father.

With this King Blunt seemed satisfied and surprized; and after a Pause, he said, he had talked with several Governors and other English, but he really never before heard that Mohomny had a Son.

I relate this, to shew how by Degrees, after proper Methods, they may be humoured, and brought to have some Notions of the true Religion, when their Capacity and Temper is rightly studied and managed; for we must give Milk to such Babes in Faith.

Some indeed, after seeming Conversion have apostatized and returned to their own Ways, chiefly because they can live with less Labour, and more Pleasure and Plenty, as Indians, than they can with us; but this might easily be remedied by making a plentiful Provision for them, especially those at the College, by sending some to Sea, and putting out others to Trades, and not letting them idle away their Time, nor return to their Towns so soon, before they be perfect in the Understanding and Approbation of our Customs and Religion, and have seen some more of the World, and be handsomly provided for; for then if they returned, they might do Good to themselves and others.

This might by Degrees convert all the tributary and neighbouring Indians; and the Northern and Southern Nations might be managed by Missionaries from the Society, and the College Indians.

These inland People are vastly numerous, as I have been told by the Traders, who are sent out amongst them seven or eight hundred Miles, with about a hundred Horses, and stay there sometimes for Years together.

The Missionaries that are now sent, generally keep among the English, and rarely see an Indian; or when they do, know but little how to manage them; for you may as well talk Reason, Philosophy, or Divinity to a Block, as to them, unless you perfectly understand their Temper, and know how to humour them.

I believe indeed, Mr. Andrews, Missionary to the Northern Indians, in the late Queen's Time, did great Good among them in seven Years: In which Time, he found out something of their Nature, and translated Part of our Prayers and Psalms into their Language: Which Book when he gave me, he told me that it had not the desired Effect, neither did his Preaching avail as much as could be wished, because Policy and Interest intervening often superseded the Promotion of the Gospel, and the debauched Lives and vile Practices of our ordinary People give Examples very pernicious to Religion; for the Indians think, that they may surely be allowed the same Liberty as we; and if our Folks don't act, as they say, they should, the Indians may think the Christian Profession to be a Cheat, when our pretended Principles are contradicted by our Actions.

I have here specified some general Customs and Notions of the Indians, without a superficial Knowledge of which Things the Government and Society for propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, may be at great Trouble and Expence, and yet make but small Progress in the Propagation of Learning, Religion and good Manners among the Heathen Indians of America; who in Gross may all be said to be such, as I have here given an Account of.



Of the English Settlements in Virginia.

The first Discovery made for the English in North-America, was in the Year 1584, (a hundred and forty Years ago) by Captain Philip Amidas, and Captain Arthur Barlow, by the Protection and Encouragement of Queen Elizabeth; with the Persuasion and Direction of Sir Walter Raleigh.

They anchored at Roenoak Inlet, now belonging to the Government of North Carolina, and from the Virgin Queen, and the apparent Purity of the Indians, and primitive Plenty of the Place, that new discover'd Part of the World was named Virginia.

After that, Sir Richard Greenvile, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Walter Raleigh carried on the Project, and made Advancements in it, with the Leave of the Government; which were promoted and continued by the Merchants of London, Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth; with Variety of Accidents, Successes and Disappointments in Respect of their Trade and Possessions, and War and Peace with the Indians; especially under the Conduct of Captain Smith, who was employed by the Company of Merchants incorporated by King James I. in 1606; and has written a large History of his particular Transactions.

They then fixed chiefly at, and near James Town, on a small Island in James River, till the Year 1609, when they sent out Settlements to Nansemond, Powhatan, and the Year after to Kiquotan.

After that the Plantations of Virginia were formed into a Government, managed first by three, and afterwards by one Governor, to whose Assistance in a small Time they added Counsellors; and in 1620, they called an Assembly of Burgesses, who being elected by the People, met the Governor and Council at James Town, and debated Matters for the Improvement and good Government of the Country.

About this Time the Dutch brought over some Negroes for Sale, who are now wonderfully encreased; besides the constant Supplies of them imported yearly.

At this Time, they made new Settlements, laid out and apportioned Lands, some to the Governor, some for a College and Indian School, some to the Church and Glebes, and some to particular Persons; and carried on Salt Works and Iron Works, besides Tobacco.

This Prosperity of the Colony so encouraged its Increase, that one thousand three hundred People have gone over in one Year to settle there; upon which they made County Courts for the Tryal of some Causes and Criminals under the General Court and Assembly; but private Interest and Quarrels byassing the Governors and other Persons concerned, often introduced ill Success, Faction, and Indian Wars.

The fatal Consequences of this Male-Administration cry'd so loud, that King Charles I. coming to the Crown of England, had a tender Concern for the poor People, that had been betrayed thither and almost lost: Upon which he dissolved the Company in 1626, reducing the Country and Government into his own immediate Direction, appointing the Governor and Council himself, and ordering all Patents and Processes to issue in his own Name, reserving to himself a Quit-Rent of two Shillings for every hundred Acres of Land.

In this happy Constitution, the Colony of Virginia has prosperously encreased gradually and wonderfully, to its present most flourishing Condition.

Indeed Bacon's Rebellion against the Governor occasioned a great deal of Bloodshed and Disturbance; but that after his Death soon ceased.

The assured good Report of this vast Tract of Land and happy Climate encouraged several Gentlemen of Condition and good Descent, to transport themselves and Families, and settle in this new Paradise; some for the Sake of Wealth, some for Religion, and others because they could not well live elsewhere; and others because they dared not, or cared not to stay at Home.

But one particular Occasion that sent several Families of good Birth and Fortune to settle there, was the Civil Wars in England; for Sir William Barkley the Governor being strong for the King, held out the last of all the King's Dominions against the Usurper; and likewise proclaimed King Charles II. before the Restoration.

This safe Receptacle enticed over several Cavalier Families, where they made many Laws against Puritans, tho' they were free from them; which had this good Success, that to this Day, the People are as it were quite free from them, being all of the Church of England, without the odious distinguishing Characters of High or Low among themselves. Indeed, there are a few Quakers in some of the worst Counties, where Clergymen are unwilling to settle, such as the lower Parts of Nansemond County; but these might easily be brought over to the Church; and I am fully persuaded that the Growth of their Doctrine might be easily nipped in the Bud, by very plain Methods.

Among other Persons of Distinction that went over to settle in Virginia, was the noble Caecilius Calvert Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholick, who with his Family, Friends and Attendants, was willing to retire thither for the free Exercise of his Religion.

He obtained a Patent for all that vast Part of Virginia, which lies to the Northward of the great River Potowmack; which was confirmed to his Son and his Heirs in the Year 1633.

This Province was named Maryland from the Royal Consort of King Charles I. and remains still the Propriety of the present Lord Baltimore and his Heirs, with the Restriction of their being Protestants; and is perhaps the largest Estate in the World belonging to any one Person, that is not a Prince.

Though the Church of England be establish'd in Maryland; yet it is a Sanctuary for Papists, who are pretty numerous there, and enjoy the Freedom of their Priests and Mass in a great Measure, without Molestation.


Of the Metropolis Williamsburgh, and the College, Capitol, and Governor's House, and the Church, &c.

The first Metropolis, James Town, was built in the most convenient Place for Trade and Security against the Indians, but often received much Damage, being twice burnt down; after which it never recovered its Perfection, consisting at present of nothing but Abundance of Brick Rubbish, and three or four good inhabited Houses, tho' the Parish is of pretty large Extent, but less than others. When the State House and Prison were burnt down, Governor Nicholson removed the Residence of the Governor, with the Meeting of General Courts and General Assemblies to Middle Plantation, seven Miles from James Town, in a healthier and more convenient Place, and freer from the Annoyance of Muskettoes.

Here he laid out the City of Williamsburgh (in the Form of a Cypher, made of W. and M.) on a Ridge at the Head Springs of two great Creeks, one running into James, and the other into York River, which are each navigable for Sloops, within a Mile of the Town; at the Head of which Creeks are good Landings, and Lots laid out, and Dwelling Houses and Ware Houses built; so that this Town is most conveniently situated, in the Middle of the lower Part of Virginia, commanding two noble Rivers, not above four Miles from either, and is much more commodious and healthful, than if built upon a River.

Publick Buildings here of Note, are the College, the Capitol, the Governor's House, and the Church. The Latitude of the College at Williamsburgh, to the best of my Observation, is 37 deg.. 21'. North.

The Front which looks due East is double, and is 136 Foot long. It is a lofty Pile of Brick Building adorn'd with a Cupola. At the North End runs back a large Wing, which is a handsome Hall, answerable to which the Chapel is to be built; and there is a spacious Piazza on the West Side, from one Wing to the other. It is approached by a good Walk, and a grand Entrance by Steps, with good Courts and Gardens about it, with a good House and Apartments for the Indian Master and his Scholars, and Out-Houses; and a large Pasture enclosed like a Park with about 150 Acres of Land adjoining, for occasional Uses.

The Building is beautiful and commodious, being first modelled by Sir Christopher Wren, adapted to the Nature of the Country by the Gentlemen there; and since it was burnt down, it has been rebuilt, and nicely contrived, altered and adorned by the ingenious Direction of Governor Spotswood; and is not altogether unlike Chelsea Hospital.

This Royal Foundation was granted and establish'd by Charter, by King William and Queen Mary, and endowed by them, with some thousand Acres of Land, with Duties upon Furs and Skins, and a Penny a Pound for all Tobacco transported from Virginia and Maryland, to the other Plantations; to which have been made several additional Benefactions, as that handsom Establishment of Mr. Boyle, for the Education of Indians, with the many Contributions of the Country, especially a late one of 1000 l. to buy Negroes for the College Use and Service.

The Society is a Corporation establish'd for a President, six Masters or Professors, with a hundred Scholars, more or less.

For some Causes that I can't account for, the Revenue is not improved as much as might be wished; neither is the College brought to that Method of Education and Advantage, as it might be; tho' 'tis hoped, that in a few Years it will, like the Palm Tree, grow to the greater Perfection, under the weighty Obstacles that load it.

The Salary of the President Mr. James Blair, has been lately ordered to be reduced from 150 to 100 l. per Ann.

The Salary of the Fellows (one of which I have been several Years) is 80 l. per Ann. each, with 20 s. Entrance, and 20 s. a Year for Pupilage for each Scholar: The Payments are sometimes made in Current Spanish Money, and sometimes in Sterling Bills.

The Nature of the Country scarce yet admits of a Possibility of reducing the Collegians to the nice Methods of Life and Study observed in Oxford and Cambridge; tho' by Degrees they may copy from thence many useful Customs and Constitutions.

When the College shall be compleatly finished, and Scholarships founded, then is the Trust to be transferred from the Trustees to the President and Masters; but at present it is managed by a certain Number of Governors or Visitors, (one of which is chosen yearly Rector) appointed first by the Trustees, elected out of the principal and worthiest Inhabitants.

These appoint a Person, to whom they grant several Privileges and Allowances to board and lodge the Masters and Scholars at an extraordinary cheap Rate.

This Office is at present performed in the neatest and most regular and plentiful Manner, by Mrs. Mary Stith, a Gentlewoman of great Worth and Discretion, in good Favour with the Gentry, and great Esteem and Respect with the common People.

Great Pity it is, but the noble Design of this College met with more Friends to encourage, and Benefactors to advance, its flourishing State.

One Happiness is, that it has always a Chancellor in England, chosen by the Governors or Feoffees; to whose Patronage and Direction it may have Recourse upon emergent Occasions.

The last Chancellor was the late Bishop of London; and the present is his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Chancellor continues in that Office but seven Years; so that it may happen as soon as he has obtained a perfect Knowledge and Acquaintance with the Persons and Affairs belonging to the College, his Term is expired: Besides their Business in other momentous Affairs at Home may divert them, and the Distance of the Country may prevent them from obtaining true Notions, and exact Accounts of the Nature of the Colony and the College; so that for these Reasons, they can't do for it the Good, which they otherwise might: For their better Information, and for Direction of all, in promoting Religion and Learning in this Plantation, I have made Publick this Account of it, and its Inhabitants.

Fronting the College at near its whole Breadth, is extended a noble Street mathematically streight (for the first Design of the Town's Form is changed to a much better) just three Quarters of a Mile in Length: At the other End of which stands the Capitol, a noble, beautiful, and commodious Pile as any of its Kind, built at the Cost of the late Queen, and by the Direction of the Governor.

In this is the Secretary's Office with all the Courts of Justice and Law, held in the same Form, and near the same Manner, as in England; except the Ecclesiastical Courts.

Here the Governor and twelve Counsellors sit as Judges, at the General Courts in April and October, whither Trials and Causes are removed from Courts, held at the Court-Houses Monthly in every County by a Bench of Justices and a County Clerk.

Here are also held the Oyer and Terminer Courts, one in Summer, and the other in Winter, added by the Charity of the late Queen, for the Prevention of Prisoners lying in Gaol above a Quarter of a Year before their Trial.

Here are also held Courts Martial, by Judges appointed on Purpose, for the Trial of Pyrates; likewise Courts of Admiralty, for the Trial of Ships for illegal Trade.

The Building is in the Form of an H nearly; the Secretary's Office, and the General Court taking up one Side below Stairs; the Middle being an handsom Portico leading to the Clerk of the Assembly's Office, and the House of Burgesses on the other Side; which last is not unlike the House of Commons.

In each Wing is a good Stair Case, one leading to the Council Chamber, where the Governor and Council sit in very great State, in Imitation of the King and Council, or the Lord Chancellor and House of Lords.

Over the Portico is a large Room where Conferences are held, and Prayers are read by the Chaplain to the General Assembly; which Office I have had the Honour for some Years to perform. At one End of this is a Lobby, and near it is the Clerk of the Council's Office; and at the other End are several Chambers for the Committees of Claims, Privileges, and Elections; and over all these are several good Offices for the Receiver General, for the Auditor, Treasurer, &c. and upon the Middle is raised a lofty Cupola with a large Clock.

The whole is surrounded with a neat Area, encompassed with a good Wall, and near it is a strong sweet Prison for Criminals; and on the other Side of an open Court another for Debtors, when any are removed thither from other Prisons in each County; but such Prisoners are very rare, the Creditors being there generally very merciful, and the Laws so favourable for Debtors, that some esteem them too indulgent.

The Cause of my being so particular in describing the Capitol is, because it is the best and most commodious Pile of its Kind that I have seen or heard of.

Because the State House, James Town, and the College have been burnt down, therefore is prohibited in the Capitol the Use of Fire, Candles, and Tobacco.

Parallel to the main Street mentioned is a Street on each Side of it, but neither quite so long nor broad; and at proper Distances are small cross Streets, for the Convenience of Communication.

Near the Middle stands the Church, which is a large strong Piece of Brickwork in the Form of a Cross, nicely regular and convenient, and adorned as the best Churches in London. This from the Parish is called Bruton Church, where I had the Favour of being Lecturer.

Near this is a large Octogon Tower, which is the Magazine or Repository of Arms and Ammunition, landing far from any House except James Town Court-House; for the Town is half in James Town County, and half in York County.

Not far from hence is a large Area for a Market Place; near which is a Play House and good Bowling Green.

From the Church runs a Street Northward called Palace Street; at the other End of which stands the Palace or Governor's House, a magnificent Structure, built at the publick Expence, finished and beautified with Gates, fine Gardens, Offices, Walks, a fine Canal, Orchards, &c. with a great Number of the best Arms nicely posited, by the ingenious Contrivance of the most accomplished Colonel Spotswood.

This likewise has the ornamental Addition of a good Cupola or Lanthorn, illuminated with most of the Town, upon Birth-Nights, and other Nights of occasional Rejoicings.

At the Capitol, at publick Times, may be seen a great Number of handsom, well-dress'd, compleat Gentlemen. And at the Governor's House upon Birth-Nights, and at Balls and Assemblies, I have seen as fine an Appearance, as good Diversion, and as splendid Entertainments in Governor Spotswood's Time, as I have seen any where else.

These Buildings here described are justly reputed the best in all the English America, and are exceeded by few of their Kind in England.

In every Part of this Town are excellent Springs of good Water, or else may be made good Wells; and the Ground falling on both Sides, conveys the Water and Rain by small Channels into the Creeks; but to make the main Street exactly level, the Assembly lately gave a considerable Sum, which was expended in removing Earth in some Places, and building a Bridge over a low Channel; so that it is now a pleasant, long dry Walk, broad, and almost level from the College to the Capitol.

Williamsburgh is now incorporated and made a Market Town, and governed by a Mayor and Aldermen; and is well stock'd with rich Stores, of all Sorts of Goods, and well furnished with the best Provisions and Liquors.

Here dwell several very good Families, and more reside here in their own Houses at publick Times.

They live in the same neat Manner, dress after the same Modes, and behave themselves exactly as the Gentry in London; most Families of any Note having a Coach, Chariot, Berlin, or Chaise.

The Number of Artificers is here daily augmented; as are the convenient Ordinaries or Inns for Accommodation of Strangers.

The Servants here, as in other Parts of the Country, are English, Scotch, Irish, or Negroes.

The Town is laid out regularly in Lots or square Portions, sufficient each for a House and Garden; so that they don't build contiguous, whereby may be prevented the spreading Danger of Fire; and this also affords a free Passage for the Air, which is very grateful in violent hot Weather.

Here, as in other Parts, they build with Brick, but most commonly with Timber lined with Cieling, and cased with feather-edged Plank, painted with white Lead and Oil, covered with Shingles of Cedar, &c. tarr'd over at first; with a Passage generally through the Middle of the House for an Air-Draught in Summer.

Thus their Houses are lasting, dry, and warm in Winter, and cool in Summer; especially if there be Windows enough to draw the Air.

Thus they dwell comfortably, genteely, pleasantly, and plentifully in this delightful, healthful, and (I hope) thriving City of Williamsburgh.


Of the Situation and Nature of the Country of Virginia, and its Coasts, &c.

Under the Meridian is extended the Expanse Bay of Chesapeak, esteemed one of the noblest and safest Bays in the World.

The Land on the East Side of it is called the Eastern Shore, the Northern Part of it belonging to Maryland, and the Southern containing Accomack and Northampton Counties belonging to Virginia; at the extreme Point of which lies one of the Capes of Virginia, the other being opposite to it, one called Cape Henry, and the other Cape Charles; without these runs a bold Shore Southward, being the Coast of North Carolina.

After Ships are clear of England, they need go near neither Land, Rocks, nor Shoals, but in a direct Course might cross the vast Atlantick Ocean about a thousand Leagues nearly W. S. W. till they make Land somewhat to the Southward of the Capes; then knowing (by their Latitude, or Landmarks, or by certain Trees) what Land they are near, they may easily get within the Capes, unless they happen to be kept off to Sea for some Time by blustering Northwesters; or unless they carelessly fall upon Cape Hatteras, or other Shoals on that Coast, in known Latitudes; so that this may be esteemed as easy a Voyage as any.

There are belonging to Virginia four principal Rivers (neither of them inferior upon many Accounts to the Thames or Severn) that empty themselves into the Bay after they have glided some Hundreds of Miles fromwards the Mountains, the Western Bounds of Virginia.

The most Southerly of these Rivers is called James River, and the next York River, the Land in the Latitude between these Rivers seeming most nicely adapted for sweet scented, or the finest Tobacco; for 'tis observed that the goodness decreaseth the farther you go to the Northward of the one, and the Southward of the other; but this may be (I believe) attributed in some Measure to the Seed and Management, as well as to the Land and Latitude: For on York River in a small Tract of Land called Digges's Neck, which is poorer than a great deal of other Land in the same Latitude, by a particular Seed and Management, is made the famous Crop known by the Name of the E Dees, remarkable for its mild taste and fine Smell.

The next great River is Rappahannock, and the fourth is Potowmack, which divides Virginia from the Province of Maryland.

These are supplied by several lesser Rivers, such as Chickahommony and others, navigable for Vessels of great Burthen.

Into these Rivers run abundance of great Creeks or short Rivers, navigable for Sloops, Shallops, Long-Boats, Flats, Canoes and Periaguas.

These Creeks are supplied with the Tide, (which indeed does not rise so high as in Europe, so prevents their making good Docks) and also with fresh-Water-runs, replenished with Branches issuing from the Springs, and soaking through the Swamps; so that no Country is better watered, for the Conveniency of which most Houses are built near some Landing-Place; so that any Thing may be delivered to a Gentleman there from London, Bristol, &c. with less Trouble and Cost, than to one living five Miles in the Country in England; for you pay no Freight for Goods from London, and but little from Bristol; only the Party to whom the Goods belong, is in Gratitude engaged to freight Tobacco upon the Ship consigned to her Owners in England.

Because of this Convenience, and for the Goodness of the Land, and for the sake of Fish, Fowl, &c. Gentlemen and Planters love to build near the Water; though it be not altogether so healthy as the Uplands and Barrens, which serve for Ranges for Stock.

In the Uplands near the Ridge generally run the main Roads, in a pleasant, dry, sandy Soil, free from Stones and Dirt, and shaded and sheltered chiefly by Trees; in some Places being not unlike the Walks in Greenwich Park.

Thus neither the Interest nor Inclinations of the Virginians induce them to cohabit in Towns; so that they are not forward in contributing their Assistance towards the making of particular Places, every Plantation affording the Owner the Provision of a little Market; wherefore they most commonly build upon some convenient Spot or Neck of Land in their own Plantation, though Towns are laid out and establish'd in each County; the best of which (next Williamsburgh) are York, Glocester, Hampton, Elizabeth Town, and Urbanna.

The Colony now is encreased to twenty nine Counties, naturally bounded (near as much as may be) one with another about as big as Kent; but the frontier Counties are of vast Extent, though not thick seated as yet.

The whole Country is a perfect Forest, except where the Woods are cleared for Plantations, and old Fields, and where have been formerly Indian Towns, and poisoned Fields and Meadows, where the Timber has been burnt down in Fire-Hunting or otherwise; and about the Creeks and Rivers are large rank Morasses or Marshes, and up the Country are poor Savannahs.

The Gentlemen's Seats are of late built for the most Part of good Brick, and many of Timber very handsom, commodious, and capacious; and likewise the common Planters live in pretty Timber Houses, neater than the Farm Houses are generally in England: With Timber also are built Houses for the Overseers and Out-Houses; among which is the Kitchen apart from the Dwelling House, because of the Smell of hot Victuals, offensive in hot Weather.


Of the Negroes, with the Planting and Management of Indian Corn, Tobacco, &c. and of their Timber, Stock, Fruits, Provision, and Habitations, &c.

The Negroes live in small Cottages called Quarters, in about six in a Gang, under the Direction of an Overseer or Bailiff; who takes Care that they tend such Land as the Owner allots and orders, upon which they raise Hogs and Cattle, and plant Indian Corn (or Maize) and Tobacco for the Use of their Master; out of which the Overseer has a Dividend (or Share) in Proportion to the Number of Hands including himself; this with several Privileges is his Salary, and is an ample Recompence for his Pains, and Encouragement of his industrious Care, as to the Labour, Health, and Provision of the Negroes.

The Negroes are very numerous, some Gentlemen having Hundreds of them of all Sorts, to whom they bring great Profit; for the Sake of which they are obliged to keep them well, and not over-work, starve, or famish them, besides other Inducements to favour them; which is done in a great Degree, to such especially that are laborious, careful, and honest; tho' indeed some Masters, careless of their own Interest or Reputation, are too cruel and negligent.

The Negroes are not only encreased by fresh Supplies from Africa and the West India Islands, but also are very prolifick among themselves; and they that are born there talk good English, and affect our Language, Habits, and Customs; and tho' they be naturally of a barbarous and cruel Temper, yet are they kept under by severe Discipline upon Occasion, and by good Laws are prevented from running away, injuring the English, or neglecting their Business.

Their Work (or Chimerical hard Slavery) is not very laborious; their greatest Hardship consisting in that they and their Posterity are not at their own Liberty or Disposal, but are the Property of their Owners; and when they are free, they know not how to provide so well for themselves generally; neither did they live so plentifully nor (many of them) so easily in their own Country, where they are made Slaves to one another, or taken Captive by their Enemies.

The Children belong to the Master of the Woman that bears them; and such as are born of a Negroe and an European are called Molattoes; but such as are born of an Indian and Negroe are called Mustees.

Their Work is to take Care of the Stock, and plant Corn, Tobacco, Fruits, &c. which is not harder than Thrashing, Hedging, or Ditching; besides, tho' they are out in the violent Heat, wherein they delight, yet in wet or cold Weather there is little Occasion for their working in the Fields, in which few will let them be abroad, lest by this means they might get sick or die, which would prove a great Loss to their Owners, a good Negroe being sometimes worth three (nay four) Score Pounds Sterling, if he be a Tradesman; so that upon this (if upon no other Account) they are obliged not to overwork them, but to cloath and feed them sufficiently, and take Care of their Health.

Several of them are taught to be Sawyers, Carpenters, Smiths, Coopers, &c. and though for the most Part they be none of the aptest or nicest; yet they are by Nature cut out for hard Labour and Fatigue, and will perform tolerably well; though they fall much short of an Indian, that has learn'd and seen the same Things; and those Negroes make the best Servants, that have been Slaves in their own Country; for they that have been Kings and great Men there are generally lazy, haughty, and obstinate; whereas the others are sharper, better humoured, and more laborious.

The Languages of the new Negroes are various harsh Jargons, and their Religions and Customs such as are best described by Mr. Bosman in his Book intitled (I think) A Description of the Coasts of Africa.

The Virginia Planters readily learn to become good Mechanicks in Building, wherein most are capable of directing their Servants and Slaves.

As for Timber they abound with excellent good; having about eight Sorts of Oak, several Kinds of Walnut-Tree, and Hickory and Pignut, Pine, Cedar, and Cypress for Shingles; which Covering is lighter than Tiles, and being nailed down, are not easily blown off in any Tempest or Gust.

The Oak, &c. is of quick Growth, consequently will not last so long as ours; though it has a good Grain, and is freer from Knots, and will last long enough for Shipping, and ordinary Uses.

When a Tract of Land is seated, they clear it by felling the Trees about a Yard from the Ground, lest they should shoot again. What Wood they have Occasion for they carry off, and burn the rest, or let it lie and rot upon the Ground.

The Land between the Logs and Stumps they how up, planting Tobacco there in the Spring, inclosing it with a slight Fence of cleft Rails. This will last for Tobacco some Years, if the Land be good; as it is where fine Timber, or Grape Vines grow.

Land when tired is forced to bear Tobacco by penning their Cattle upon it; but Cowpen Tobacco tastes strong, and that planted in wet marshy Land is called Nonburning Tobacco, which smoaks in the Pipe like Leather, unless it be of a good Age.

When Land is tired of Tobacco, it will bear Indian Corn or English Wheat, or any other European Grain or Seed, with wonderful Increase.

Tobacco and Indian Corn are planted in Hills as Hops, and secured by Wormfences, which are made of Rails supporting one another very firmly in a particular Manner.

Tobacco requires a great deal of Skill and Trouble in the right Management of it.

They raise the Plants in Beds, as we do Cabbage Plants; which they transplant and replant upon Occasion after a Shower of Rain, which they call a Season.

When it is grown up they top it, or nip off the Head, succour it, or cut off the Ground Leaves, weed it, hill it; and when ripe, they cut it down about six or eight Leaves on a Stalk, which they carry into airy Tobacco Houses; after it is withered a little in the Sun, there it is hung to dry on Sticks, as Paper at the Paper-Mills; when it is in proper Case, (as they call it) and the Air neither too moist, nor too dry, they strike it, or take it down, then cover it up in Bulk, or a great Heap, where it lies till they have Leisure or Occasion to stem it (that is pull the Leaves from the Stalk) or strip it (that is take out the great Fibres) and tie it up in Hands, or streight lay it; and so by Degrees prize or press it with proper Engines into great Hogsheads, containing from about six to eleven hundred Pounds; four of which Hogsheads make a Tun, by Dimension, not by Weight; then it is ready for Sale or Shipping.

There are two Sorts of Tobacco, viz. Oroonoko the stronger, and Sweetscented the milder; the first with a sharper Leaf like a Fox's Ear, and the other rounder and with finer Fibres: But each of these are varied into several Sorts, much as Apples and Pears are; and I have been informed by the Indian Traders, that the Inland Indians have Sorts of Tobacco much differing from any planted or used by the Europeans.

The Indian Corn is planted in Hills, and weeded much as Tobacco.

This Grain is of great Increase and most general Use; for with this is made good Bread, Cakes, Mush, and Hommony for the Negroes, which with good Pork and Potatoes (red and white, very nice and different from ours) with other Roots and Pulse, are their general Food.

Indian Corn is the best Food for Cattle, Hogs, Sheep and Horses; and the Blades and Tops are excellent Fodder, when well cured, which is commonly used, though many raise good Clover and Oats; and some have planted Sanfoin, &c.

In the Marshes, and Woods, and old Fields is good Range for Stock in the Spring, Summer, and Fall; and the Hogs will run fat with certain Roots of Flags and Reeds, which abounding in the Marshes they root up and eat.

Besides, at the Plantations are standard Peach-Trees, and Apple-Trees, planted out in Orchards, on Purpose almost for the Hogs.

The Peaches abound, and are of a delicious Taste, and Apple-Trees are raised from the Seeds very soon, which kind of Kernel Fruit needs no grafting, and is diversify'd into numberless Sorts, and makes, with good Management, an excellent Cyder, not much inferior to that of Herefordshire, when kept to a good Age; which is rarely done, the Planters being good Companions and Guests whilst the Cyder lasts. Here Cherries thrive much better (I think) than in England; tho' the Fruit-Trees soon decay, yet they are soon raised to great Perfection.

As for Wool, I have had near as good as any near Leominster; and it might be much improved if the Sheep were housed every Night, and foddered and littered as in Urchinfield, where they have by such Means the finest Wool; but to do this, would be of little Use, since it is contrary to the Interest of Great Britain to allow them Exportation of their Woollen Manufactures; and what little Woollen is there made might be nearly had as cheap, and better from England.

As for Provision, there is Variety of excellent Fish in great Plenty easily taken; especially Oysters, Sheepsheads, Rocks, large Trouts, Crabs, Drums, Sturgeons, &c.

They have the same tame Fowl as in England, only they propagate better; but they exceed in wild Geese and Ducks, Cohoncks, Blew-Wings, Teal, Blew-Wings, Teal, Swans, and Mallard.

Their Beef and Veal is small, sweet, and fat enough; their Pork is famous, whole Virginia Shoots being frequently barbacued in England; their Bacon is excellent, the Hams being scarce to be distinguished from those of Westphalia; but their Mutton and Lamb some Folks don't like, though others extol it. Their Butter is good and plentiful enough. Their Venison in the lower Parts of the Country is not so plentiful as it has been, tho' there be enough and tolerably good; but in the Frontier Counties they abound with Venison, wild Turkies, &c. where the common People sometimes dress Bears, whose Flesh, they say, is not to be well distinguished from good Pork or Bacon.

They pull the Down of their living Geese and wild and tame Ducks, wherewith they make the softest and sweetest Beds.

The Houses stand sometimes two or three together; and in other Places a Quarter, half a Mile, or a Mile, or two, asunder, much as in the Country in England.


Of the Habits, Customs, Parts, Imployments, Trade, &c. of the Virginians; and of the Weather, Coin, Sickness, Liquors, Servants, Poor, Pitch, Tar, Oar, &c.

The Habits, Life, Customs, Computations, &c. of the Virginians are much the same as about London, which they esteem their Home; and for the most Part have contemptible Notions of England, and wrong Sentiments of Bristol, and the other Out-Ports, which they entertain from seeing and hearing the common Dealers, Sailors, and Servants that come from those Towns, and the Country Places in England and Scotland, whose Language and Manners are strange to them; for the Planters, and even the Native Negroes generally talk good English without Idiom or Tone, and can discourse handsomly upon most common Subjects; and conversing with Persons belonging to Trade and Navigation from London, for the most Part they are much civilized, and wear the best of Cloaths according to their Station; nay, sometimes too good for their Circumstances, being for the Generality comely handsom Persons, of good Features and fine Complexions (if they take Care) of good Manners and Address. The Climate makes them bright, and of excellent Sense, and sharp in Trade, an Ideot, or deformed Native being almost a Miracle.

Thus they have good natural Notions, and will soon learn Arts and Sciences; but are generally diverted by Business or Inclination from profound Study, and prying into the Depth of Things; being ripe for Management of their Affairs, before they have laid so good a Foundation of Learning, and had such Instructions, and acquired such Accomplishments, as might be instilled into such good natural Capacities. Nevertheless thro' their quick Apprehension, they have a Sufficiency of Knowledge, and Fluency of Tongue, tho' their Learning for the most Part be but superficial.

They are more inclinable to read Men by Business and Conversation, than to dive into Books, and are for the most Part only desirous of learning what is absolutely necessary, in the shortest and best Method.

Having this Knowledge of their Capacities and Inclination from sufficient Experience, I have composed on Purpose some short Treatises adapted with my best Judgment to a Course of Education for the Gentlemen of the Plantations; consisting in a short English Grammar; an Accidence to Christianity; an Accidence to the Mathematicks, especially to Arithmetick in all its Parts and Applications, Algebra, Geometry, Surveying of Land, and Navigation.

These are the most useful Branches of Learning for them, and such as they willingly and readily master, if taught in a plain and short Method, truly applicable to their Genius; which I have endeavoured to do, for the Use of them, and all others of their Temper and Parts.

They are not very easily persuaded to the Improvement of useful Inventions (except a few, such as Sawing Mills) neither are they great Encouragers of Manufactures, because of the Trouble and certain Expence in Attempts of this kind, with uncertain Prospect of Gain; whereas by their staple Commodity, Tobacco, they are in hopes to get a plentiful Provision; nay, often very great Estates.

Upon this Account they think it Folly to take off their Hands (or Negroes) and employ their Care and Time about any thing, that may make them lessen their Crop of Tobacco.

So that though they are apt to learn, yet they are fond of, and will follow their own Ways. Humours, and Notions, being not easily brought to new Projects and Schemes; so that I question, if they would have been imposed upon by the Missisippi or South-Sea or any other such monstrous Bubbles.

In their Computations of Time, Weights and Measures both of Length, Superficies, and Solidity, they strictly adhere to what is legal; not running into precarious Customs, as they do in England. Thus their Quart is the true Winchester, their Hundred is 100, not 112, and they survey Land by Statute Measure.

Indeed, what English Coin is there, is advanced in Value; so that a Shilling passes for 14 d. and a Guinea goes by Tale for 26 s. but the Current Money is the Spanish which in Reality is about 15 l. per Cent. inferior to our English Coin, as settled by Law; but frequently the Value of this varies in Respect of Sterling Bills according to the Circumstances of Trade; Currency and Sterling being sometimes at a Par; but for the Generality 10 per Cent. Discount is allowed for Sterling Bills.

As for Education several are sent to England for it; though the Virginians being naturally of good Parts, (as I have already hinted) neither require nor admire as much Learning, as we do in Britain: yet more would be sent over, were they not afraid of the Small-Pox, which most commonly proves fatal to them.

But indeed when they come to England they are generally put to learn to Persons that know little of their Temper, who keep them drudging on in what is of least Use to them, in pedantick Methods, too tedious for their volatile Genius.

For Grammar Learning taught after the common round-about Way is not much beneficial nor delightful to them; so that they are noted to be more apt to spoil their School-Fellows than improve themselves; because they are imprisoned and enslaved to what they hate, and think useless, and have not peculiar Management proper for their Humour and Occasion.

A civil Treatment with some Liberty, if permitted with Discretion is most proper for them, and they have most Need of, and readily take polite and mathematical Learning; and in English may be conveyed to them (without going directly to Rome and Athens) all the Arts, Sciences, and learned Accomplishments of the Ancients and Moderns, without the Fatigue and Expence of another Language, for which most of them have little Use or Necessity, since (without another) they may understand their own Speech; and all other Things requisite to be learn'd by them sooner and better.

Thus the Youth might as well be instructed there as here by proper Methods, without the Expence and Danger of coming hither; especially if they make Use of the great Advantage of the College at Williamsburgh, where they may (and many do) imbibe the Principles of all human and divine Literature, both in English and in the learned Languages.

By the happy Opportunity of this College may they be advanced to religious and learned Education, according to the Discipline and Doctrine of the established Church of England; in which Respect this College may prove of singular Service, and be an advantageous and laudable Nursery and strong Bulwark against the contagious dissentions in Virginia; which is the most ancient and loyal, the most plentiful and flourishing, the most extensive and beneficial Colony belonging to the Crown of Great Britain, upon which it is most directly dependant; wherein is establish'd the Church of England free from Faction and Sects, being ruled by the Laws, Customs, and Constitutions of Great Britain, which it strictly observes, only where the Circumstances and Occasion of the Country by an absolute Necessity require some small Alterations; which nevertheless must not be contrary (though different from and subservient) to the Laws of England.

Though the Violence of neither Whig nor Tory reigns there, yet have they Parties; for the very best Administration must expect to meet with some Opposition in all Places; especially where there is a Mixture of People of different Countries concerned, whose Education and Interest may propose to them Notions and Views different from each other.

Most other Plantations, especially they that are granted away to Proprietors, are inferior to Virginia: where the seeming Interest and Humour of the Owners often divert them from Pursuit of the most proper Methods; besides, they cannot have such a right Claim to the Favour of the Crown, nor demand its best Protection, since they may often interfere with its Interest: whereas Virginia is esteemed one of the most valuable Gems in the Crown of Great Britain.

Thus Virginia having to itself (with Maryland) the staple Commodity of Tobacco, has a great Advantage of all other Plantations on the Continent for the Encouragement of the Crown; whereas others belonging to Gentlemen, or having no peculiar Trade, cannot expect such Power to advance and promote their Interest.

To this add, that Virginia equals, if not exceeds, all others in Goodness of Climate, Soil, Health, Rivers, Plenty, and all Necessaries, and Conveniencies of Life: Besides she has, among others, these particular Advantages of her younger Sister Maryland, viz. Freedom from Popery, and the Direction of Proprietors; not but that Part of Virginia, which is between the Rivers Potowmack and Rappahannock belongs to Proprietors, as to the Quit-Rent; yet the Government of these Counties (called the Northern Neck) is under the same Regulation with the other Parts of the Country.

If New England be called a Receptacle of Dissenters, and an Amsterdam of Religion, Pensylvania the Nursery of Quakers, Maryland the Retirement of Roman Catholicks, North Carolina the Refuge of Run-aways, and South Carolina the Delight of Buccaneers and Pyrates, Virginia may be justly esteemed the happy Retreat of true Britons and true Churchmen for the most Part; neither soaring too high nor drooping too low, consequently should merit the greater Esteem and Encouragement.

The common Planters leading easy Lives don't much admire Labour, or any manly Exercise, except Horse-Racing, nor Diversion, except Cock-Fighting, in which some greatly delight. This easy Way of Living, and the Heat of the Summer makes some very lazy, who are then said to be Climate-struck.

The Saddle-Horses, though not very large, are hardy, strong, and fleet; and will pace naturally and pleasantly at a prodigious Rate.

They are such Lovers of Riding, that almost every ordinary Person keeps a Horse; and I have known some spend the Morning in ranging several Miles in the Woods to find and catch their Horses only to ride two or three Miles to Church, to the Court-House, or to a Horse-Race, where they generally appoint to meet upon Business; and are more certain of finding those that they want to speak or deal with, than at their Home.

No People can entertain their Friends with better Cheer and Welcome; and Strangers and Travellers are here treated in the most free, plentiful, and hospitable Manner; so that a few Inns or Ordinaries on the Road are sufficient.

As to the Weather, the Spring and Fall are not unlike those Seasons in England, only the Air is never long foggy, nor very cloudy; but clear, sometimes of a bluish Colour, occasioned by the thin Smoak, dispersed in the Air, from the Flames of the Woods and Leaves, which are fired in Hunting, to drive the Beasts from their lurking Places; or in the Spring to burn the old Leaves and Grass, that there may be the better Pasture the next Summer.

The Months of December, January and February are generally much colder, and June, July and August are much hotter than in England; tho' sometimes 'tis on a sudden very cool in Summer, and pretty warm in Winter, the Weather being governed by the Wind; which with sudden Storms from the North-West, and sometimes from the West and South-West bring violent Gusts or Tempests, with Thunder, Lightning, and Rain very terrible, but soon over.

The North West Winds are exquisitely sharp and cold, proceeding from Clouds arising from the vast Lakes and prodigious snowy Mountains that lie to that Quarter; but the Southerly Winds and others are very warm.

The Days and Nights are there always much nearer the Equality of twelve Hours, than in the Latitude of England.

At the sudden Changes of the Weather, from Heat to Cold, People are apt to take Cold, often neglecting to shift their Cloaths with the Weather; which with Abundance of Damps and Mists from the Water, and by eating too plentifully of some delicious Fruits, makes the People subject to Feavers and Agues, which is the Country Distemper, a severe Fit of which (called a Seasoning) most expect, some time after their Arrival in that Climate; but the Goodness of God has furnished us with a perfect Catholicon for that Sickness, viz. the Bark; which being taken and repeated in a right Manner, seldom fails of a Cure, unless the morbifick Matter comes to a Head again from fresh Causes, and so returns with Mastery; upon which Recourse must be had to the same specifick Remedy; besides which there are several Ways of Cure, but none so universal and sure as that.

Some for Want of timely Care, through Ignorance or Obstinacy, will permit the Distemper to lurk about them so long, till at last it has reduced them to an irrecoverable, lingering, ill Habit of Body; especially if they live meanly, drinking too much Water, and eating too much salt Meat; and this Cachexy generally ends their Lives with a Dropsy, Consumption, the Jaundice, or some such Illness.

Besides this, some are troubled with the dry Gripes, proceeding from Colds (I suppose) which take away for a long Time the Use of the Limbs of some, especially hard Drinkers of Rum; some that have lain out in mighty cold Weather have been Frost-bitten, and lost their Fingers or Toes.

There is no Danger of wild Beasts in traveling; for the Wolves and Bears, which are up the Country, never attack any, unless they be first assaulted and hurt; and the Wolves of late are much destroyed by Virtue of a Law, which allows good Rewards for their Heads with the Ears on, to prevent Imposition and cheating the Publick; for the Ears are crop'd when a Head is produced.

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