Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1 - Volume 1: Essentials of Cookery; Cereals; Bread; Hot Breads
by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences
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81. Rice Bread.—Very often variety is given to bread by the addition of rice, which imparts an unusual flavour to bread and effects a saving of wheat flour. Oatmeal and other cereals may be used in the same way as rice, and bread containing any of these moist cereals will remain moist longer than bread in which they are not used.

RICE BREAD (Sufficient for Three Loaves)

1/2 c. uncooked rice 1-1/2 c. water 1 Tb. salt 1 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. fat 1/2 yeast cake 1 c. lukewarm liquid 6 c. white flour 1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Steam the rice in a double boiler in 1 and a half cupfuls of water until it is soft and dry. Add the salt, sugar, and fat, and allow all to become lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm liquid, and add it to the rice. Put all in the mixing bowl, stir in 2 cupfuls of flour, and allow the mixture to become very light. Add the remainder of the flour and knead lightly. Let the dough rise until it has doubled in bulk and knead to reduce the quantity. Place in greased pans. When the loaves have risen sufficiently, bake for about 50 minutes.

82. SALT-RISING BREAD.—Recipes for bread would be incomplete if mention were not made of salt-rising bread. Such bread differs from ordinary bread in that the gas that causes the rising is due to the action of bacteria. Salt-rising bread is not universally popular, yet many persons are fond of it. Its taste is very agreeable, and, as a rule, its texture is excellent; however, it always has an unpleasant odour. The method given in the accompanying recipe for salt-rising bread differs in no way from the usual method of making it. It is very necessary that the first mixture of corn meal, salt, sugar, and milk be kept at a uniformly warm temperature in order to induce bacteria to grow. Any failure to make such bread successfully will probably be due to the violation of this precaution rather than to any other cause.

SALT-RISING BREAD (Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 c. fresh milk 1/4 c. corn meal 1 tsp. salt 2 tsp. sugar 2 c. lukewarm water 7 c. white flour 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Scald the milk and pour it over the corn meal, salt, and sugar. Allow this mixture to stand in a warm place for several hours or overnight, when it should be light. To this batter add the warm water and enough flour to make a drop batter. Allow this to stand in a warm place until it is light; and then add the remainder of the flour so as to make a dough, and knead. Allow this to rise, shape it into loaves, put it in pans, let it rise again, and bake.


83. While the preceding recipes call for bread in the form of loaves, it should be understood that bread may be made up in other forms, such as rolls, buns, and biscuits. These forms of bread may be made from any of the bread recipes by adding to the mixture shortening, sugar, eggs, fruit, nuts, spices, flavoring, or anything else desirable. Since these things in any quantity retard the rising of the sponge or dough, they should be added after it has risen at least once. Rolls, buns, and biscuits may be made in various shapes, as is shown in Fig. 18. To shape them, the dough may be rolled thin and then cut with cutters, or the pieces used for them may be pinched or cut from the dough and shaped with the hands. After they are shaped, they should be allowed to rise until they double in bulk. To give them a glazed appearance, the surface of each may be brushed before baking with milk, with white of egg and water, or with sugar and water. Butter is also desirable for this purpose, as it produces a crust that is more tender and less likely to be tough. Rolls, buns, or biscuits may be baked in an oven that has a higher temperature than that required for bread in the form of loaves, as is indicated in Fig. 4, and only 15 to 20 minutes is needed for baking them. If such forms of bread are desired with a crust covering the entire surface, they must be placed far enough apart so that the edges will not touch when they are baking.

So that experience may be had in the preparation of rolls, buns, and biscuits there are given here several recipes that can be worked out to advantage, especially after proficiency in bread making has been attained.

84. Parker House Rolls.—Of the various kinds of rolls, perhaps none meets with greater favor than the so-called Parker House rolls, one of which is shown at a, Fig. 19. Such rolls may be used in almost any kind of meal, and since they are brushed with butter before they are baked, they may be served without butter, if desired, in a meal that includes gravy or fat meat.

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast 1 pt. lukewarm milk 4 Tb. fat 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 3 pt. white flour 1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Pour the remainder of the warm milk over the fat, sugar, salt, and dissolved yeast, all of which should first be put in a mixing bowl. Stir into these ingredients half of the flour, and beat until smooth. Cover this sponge and let it rise until it is light. Add the remainder of the flour, and knead until the dough is smooth and does not stick to the board. Place the dough in a greased bowl, and let it rise again until it doubles in bulk. Roll the dough on a molding board until it is about 1/4 inch thick. Then cut the rolled dough with a round cutter; brush each piece with soft butter; mark it through the center, as at b, Fig. 19, with the dull edge of a kitchen knife; and fold it over, as at c. Place the pieces of dough thus prepared in shallow pans, about 1 inch apart, and let them rise until they are light, when each roll will appear like that shown at d. Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

85. Dinner Rolls.—As their name implies, dinner rolls are an especially desirable kind of roll to serve with a dinner. They should be made small enough to be dainty, and as an even, brown crust all over the rolls is desirable they should be placed far enough apart in the pans to prevent them from touching one another, as shown in Fig. 20 (a). If they are placed as in (b), that is, close together, only part of the crust will be brown. When made according to the accompanying recipe, dinner rolls are very palatable.

DINNER ROLLS (Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast 1 c. lukewarm milk 2 Tb. sugar 2 Tb. fat 1 tsp. salt 3 c. white flour 1 egg white 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Put the sugar, fat, salt, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl, and pour the remainder of the milk over these ingredients. Stir half of the flour into this mixture and allow the sponge to rise. When it is light, add the egg white, which should first be beaten, and the remainder of the flour, and then knead the dough. Let the dough rise until it doubles in bulk. Roll out the dough until it is 1/2 inch thick, and then cut out the rolls with a small round cutter. Place these in a shallow pan and let them rise until they are light. Then glaze each one with the white of egg to which is added a little water and bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

86. LUNCHEON ROLLS.—If rolls smaller than dinner rolls are desired, luncheon rolls will undoubtedly be just what is wanted. Since these are very small, they become thoroughly baked and are therefore likely to be even more digestible than bread or biscuit dough baked in a loaf. For rolls of this kind, the following recipe will prove satisfactory:

LUNCHEON ROLLS (Sufficient for 2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast 1-1/4 c. lukewarm milk 2 Tb. sugar 2 Tb. fat 1 tsp. salt 4 c. white flour 1 egg white 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Combine the ingredients in the manner directed for making dinner rolls. Shape the dough into biscuits the size of a small walnut, place them in a shallow pan, spacing them a short distance apart, and let them rise until they are light. Next, brush the tops of them with melted butter, and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

87. WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS.—Rolls made of whole-wheat flour are not so common as those made of white flour, and for this reason they appeal to the appetite more than ordinary rolls. Whole-wheat rolls have the same advantage as bread made of whole-wheat flour, and if they are well baked they have a crust that adds to their palatableness.

WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 pt. lukewarm milk 1 cake compressed yeast 1 tsp. salt 3 Tb. sugar 4 Tb. fat 2 c. white flour 4 c. whole-wheat flour 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Set a sponge with the lukewarm milk, in which are put the yeast cake, salt, sugar, fat, and white flour. Allow this to become very light, and then add the whole-wheat flour. Knead this dough and allow it to double in bulk. Then shape it into rolls, allow them to rise, and bake for 15 to 20 minutes.

88. GRAHAM NUT BUNS.—Buns made of graham flour and containing nuts are not only especially delightful in flavour, but highly nutritious. Because they are high in food value, they may be served with a light meal, such as lunch or supper, to add nutrition to it. The recipe here given will result in excellent buns if it is followed closely.

GRAHAM NUT BUNS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast 2 c. lukewarm milk 4 Tb. brown sugar 2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. fat 2-1/2 c. white flour 1 egg 1 c. chopped nuts 3-1/2 c. graham flour 1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm milk. Place the sugar, salt, fat, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl and add the remainder of the warm milk. Stir in the white flour and let the sponge thus formed rise. Then add the egg, which should first be beaten, the nuts, and the graham flour. Knead the dough and shape it into buns. Let these rise and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

89. NUT OR FRUIT BUNS.—Nuts or fruit added to buns made of white flour provide more mineral salts and bulk, substances in which white flour is lacking. Buns containing either of these ingredients, therefore, are especially valuable in the diet. Besides increasing the food value of the buns, nuts and fruit improve the flavour and make a very palatable form of bun. Buns of this kind are made as follows:

NUT OR FRUIT BUNS (Sufficient for 2 Dozen Buns)

4 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. fat 1 tsp. salt 1 cake compressed yeast 1 c. lukewarm milk 3 c. white flour 3/4 c. chopped nuts or raisins 1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Add the sugar, fat, and salt to the yeast dissolved in a little of the milk. Then stir in the remainder of the milk and half of the flour. Allow this sponge to rise until it is very light, and then add the remainder of the flour and the nuts or the raisins. Knead at once and form into buns. Let these rise until they are light. Then moisten them with milk and sprinkle sugar over them before placing them in the oven. Bake for about 15 minutes.

90. SWEET BUNS.—Persons who prefer a sweet bun will find buns like those shown in Fig. 21 and made according to the following recipe very much to their taste. The sweetening, eggs, and lemon extract used in this recipe give to the white buns a delightful flavour and help to lend variety to the usual kind of bun.

SWEET BUNS (Sufficient for 1-1/3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast 1 c. lukewarm scalded milk 1/4 c. sugar 2 Tb. fat 1 tsp. 1 tsp. salt 3-1/2 c. white flour 2 eggs 1 tsp. lemon extract 1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a small amount of the lukewarm milk and add it to the sugar, fat, salt, and remaining milk in the mixing bowl. Stir into this mixture half of the flour, beat well, and let the sponge rise until it is light. Add the eggs, which should first be beaten, the lemon extract, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth. Let the dough rise again and then shape it into rolls. Allow these to rise, and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

91. COFFEE CAKE.—When an especially good kind of biscuit that can be served for breakfast and eaten with coffee is desired, coffee cake made according to the following recipe should be used. Cinnamon sprinkled over the top of such cake imparts a very pleasing flavour, but if more of this flavour is preferred 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon may be mixed with the dough.

COFFEE CAKE (Sufficient for One Cake)

1 cake compressed yeast 1/2 c. lukewarm milk 1 Tb. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 2 c. white flour 1 egg 2 Tb. fat 1/4 c. brown sugar 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm milk and add the sugar and the salt. Stir in 1 cupful of flour and let the mixture rise. When the sponge is light, add the beaten egg, the fat and the brown sugar creamed, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth and allow it to rise until it is double in bulk. Then roll the dough until it is 1/2 inch thick, place it in a shallow pan, and let it rise until it is light. Brush the top with 1 tablespoonful of melted butter and sprinkle it with 3 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon and 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. Bake 10 to 15 minutes in a moderately hot oven.

92. CINNAMON ROLLS.—To make cinnamon rolls, which are preferred by some persons to coffee cake, use may be made of the preceding coffee-cake recipe. However, instead of rolling the dough 1/2 inch thick, roll it 1/4 inch thick and brush it with melted butter. Then sprinkle it with 1 tablespoonful of cinnamon, 1/2 cupful of light-brown sugar, and 1/2 cupful of chopped raisins. Next, roll this as a jelly roll and cut the roll into 1/2-inch slices, as shown in Fig. 22. Place these slices close together in a shallow pan and let them rise until they are light, as in Fig. 23. Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.


93. As every one knows, TOAST is sliced bread browned by means of heat. To make toast is not a difficult process, but a certain amount of care must be exercised if good results are desired. The slices used for toast may be cut thick or thin, depending on whether the persons for whom the toast is made prefer a soft or a dry toast and whether the digestibility of the toast is to be taken into consideration. If thick slices are used and they are toasted the usual length of time necessary to make the surfaces brown, the centre of the slices will remain soft. Toast made of thin slices and toasted over a slow fire becomes dry and crisp during the process of browning and is more digestible than that which is moist. Such toast will not lose its crispness unless the pieces are piled in a heap while they are hot and are allowed to soften from the moisture that collects. While toast is usually served in the form of slices, just as they are cut from the loaf, the pieces may be cut into shapes of various kinds; in fact, toast becomes more attractive if it is cut in unusual shapes. The crust of toast may be trimmed off or left on, as desired.

94. If the best results are desired in the making of toast, considerable attention must be given to the heat that is to produce the toast. Whatever kind is employed, it should be steady and without flame. Before a coal or a coke fire is used for this purpose, it should be allowed to burn down until the flame is gone and the coals are hot enough to reflect the heat for toasting. If a gas toaster is used, the gas should be turned sufficiently low for the bread to brown slowly. Very good results are obtained from the use of an electric toaster, also. This device has become a rather common household article where electricity is used in the home, and by means of it the toast can be made on the table and served while it is fresh and hot. In whatever way toast is made, it will lose much of its attractiveness unless it is served while it is fresh and before it loses its heat. If toast becomes burned, either from a flame that is too hot or from inattention on the part of the person who is preparing it, it may be made fit for use by scraping it lightly with a knife or by rubbing it across a grater, so as to remove the burned portion.

95. MILK TOAST.—Milk and toast make a combination that is liked by many persons, and when these two foods are combined the result is known as milk toast. To make milk toast, simply pour over the toast rich milk that has been heated and seasoned with salt, a little sugar, and a little butter. Thin white sauce may also be used for this purpose if desired.

96. FRENCH TOAST.—Possibly no dish in which toast is used is better known than the so-called French toast. Both milk and egg are used in making this dish, and these of course add to the food value of the bread. French toast made according to the following recipe will prove very satisfactory.

FRENCH TOAST (Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 egg 1 c. milk 2 tsp. sugar 8 slices of bread 1/2 tsp. salt

Beat the egg and add it to the milk, salt, and sugar. Dip each slice of bread into this liquid, turn it quickly, and then remove it. Place the bread thus dipped in a hot frying pan and saute it until the under side is brown; then turn it and brown the other side. Serve hot with sirup or jelly.


97. Bread that has become stale need not be wasted, for there are many uses to which it may be put. As such bread has lost much of its moisture, it is desirable for toast, for it browns more quickly and makes crisper toast than fresh bread. Thick slices of it may also be cut into cubes or long, narrow strips and then toasted on all sides, to be served with soup instead of crackers. Still another use that can be made of stale bread is to toast it and then cut it into triangular pieces to be served with creamed dishes or used as a garnish for meats, eggs, and various entrees. Left-over toast may also be cut in this way and used for these purposes.

98. The ends of loaves, crusts trimmed from bread used for sandwiches, or stale bread or rolls that cannot be used for the purposes that have been mentioned can also be utilised, so none of them need be thrown away. If such pieces are saved and allowed to dry thoroughly in the warming oven or in an oven that is not very hot, they may be broken into crumbs by putting them through a food chopper or rolling them with a rolling pin. After the crumbs are obtained, they should be put through a coarse sieve in order to separate the coarse ones from the fine ones. Such crumbs, both coarse and fine, may be kept for some time if they are put into jars or cans.

It is a very good plan to keep a supply of bread crumbs on hand, for there are numerous dishes that require the use of bread in this form. For instance, bread crumbs are used for all kinds of scalloped dishes; for making puddings, such as bread pudding, brown Betty, etc.; for stuffing fish, fowl, and such vegetables as tomatoes and peppers; for covering the top of baked dishes, such as various egg and cheese dishes; for breading steaks and chops; and for covering croquettes or oysters that are to be fried. They may also be added to muffins, griddle cakes, and even yeast-bread dough. With so many uses to which bread crumbs can be put, no housewife need be at a loss to know how to utilise any scraps of bread that are not, for some reason, suitable for the table.

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(1) Mention the ingredients required for bread making.

(2) From what kind of wheat is bread flour usually made?

(3) (a) What is gluten? (b) Why is it necessary for the making of bread?

(4) (a) What is meant by a blend flour? (b) When is its use indicated?

(5) How may the kind and quality of flour be judged in purchasing it?

(6) (a) What is yeast? (b) What things are necessary for its growth? (c) What temperature is best for its growth?

(7) (a) What is produced by the growth of yeast? (b) What part does this play in bread making?

(8) What determines the quantity of yeast to use in bread making?

(9) (a) What will hasten the bread-making process? (b) What will retard it?

(10) Give the general proportions of the main ingredients used for making a loaf of bread.

(11) What are the advantages of: (a) the long process of bread making? (b) the quick process?

(12) What is: (a) a sponge? (b) a dough?

(13) (a) Why must bread dough be kneaded? (b) How is it possible to tell when dough has been kneaded sufficiently?

(14) At what temperature should bread be kneaded?

(15) How should bread be cared for after it is removed from the oven?

(16) What points are considered in the scoring of bread?

(17) What part of bread making may be done in a bread mixer?

(18) What are the differences in time and oven temperatures in baking rolls and bread?

(19) Mention briefly the procedure in making rolls, buns, and biscuits.

(20) Score a loaf of bread you have made and submit the points as you have scored it.

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1. Closely related to yeast breads, or those in which yeast is used as the leavening agent, are breads known as HOT BREADS, or QUICK BREADS. As these names indicate, such breads are prepared in a very short time and are intended to be served while they are fresh and hot. Hot breads, to call such breads by the name in common use, are made by baking a batter or a dough mixture formed by mixing flour, liquid, salt, and a leavening agent. The nature of the mixture, however, is governed by the proportion of flour and liquid, the two ingredients that form the basis of all bread mixtures; and by incorporating with them such ingredients as eggs, sugar, shortening, flavouring, fruits, nuts, etc. there may be produced an almost endless variety of appetising hot breads, which include popovers, griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, soft gingerbread, corn cake or corn bread, Boston brown bread, nut loaf, and baking-powder and beaten biscuit. Because of the variety these hot breads afford, they help considerably to relieve the monotony of meals. In fact, the housewife has come to depend so much on breads of this kind that their use has become almost universal. As is well known, however, certain kinds are typical of certain localities; for instance, beaten biscuit and hoe cake are characteristic of the Southern States of the United States, while Boston brown bread is used most extensively in the New England States and throughout the East. The popular opinion of most persons is that hot breads are injurious. It is perhaps true that they may be injurious to individuals afflicted with some digestive disturbance, but, at any rate, the harmful effect may be reduced to a minimum by the correct preparation and baking of these foods.


2. Hot breads are quickly and easily made, but in this part of cookery, as in every other phase of it, certain principles must be understood and applied if the most satisfactory results are desired. These principles pertain chiefly to the ingredients used, the way in which they are measured and handled, the proportions in which they are combined, the necessary utensils, and the proper baking of the mixtures that are formed.

In the first place, the quality of the ingredients should be carefully considered, because on this depends the quality of the finished product. No one who prepares foods can expect good food to result from the use of inferior materials. Next, the proportion of the ingredients demands attention, for much importance is attached to this point. For instance, in making a certain kind of hot bread, the quantity of flour to be used is regulated by the quantity of bread that is desired, and the quantity of flour governs, in turn, the quantities of liquid, leavening, and other ingredients that are to be put into the mixture. When the proportions of ingredients required for a hot bread are known, it is necessary that the ingredients be measured very accurately. Leavening material, for example, will serve to make clear the need for accuracy in measuring. A definite quantity of leavening will do only a definite amount of work. Therefore, if too little or too much is used, unsatisfactory results may be expected; and, as with this ingredient, so it is with all the materials used for hot breads.

The handling of the ingredients and the mixture has also much influence on the success with which hot breads are produced. A heavy touch and excessive handling, both of which are usually characteristic of the beginner, are more likely to result in a tough product than is the light, careful handling of the expert. However, as skill in this matter comes with practice, no discouragement need result if successful results are not forthcoming at the very start in this work. A good rule to follow in this particular, and one that has few exceptions, is to handle and stir the ingredients only enough to blend them properly.

In addition to the matters just mentioned, the utensils in which to combine the hot-bread materials and bake the batters or doughs are of importance. While none of these is complicated, each must be of the right kind if the best results are expected. The final point to which attention must be given is the baking of this food. Proper baking requires on the part of the housewife familiarity with the oven that is to be used, accuracy in judging temperature, and a knowledge of the principles underlying the process of baking.

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3. As has been pointed out, the ingredients that are actually required in the making of hot breads are flour, liquid, salt, and leavening, and to give variety to breads of this kind, numerous other materials, including sugar, shortening, eggs, fruit, nuts, etc., are often added. With the exception of leavening agents, none of these ingredients requires special attention at present; however, the instruction that is given in Bread regarding flour should be kept in mind, as should also the fact that all the materials for hot breads should be of the best quality that can be obtained.

As is known by this time, leavening agents are the materials used to leaven, or make light, any kind of flour mixture. These agents are of three classes, namely, organic, physical, and chemical. The organic agent is the oldest recognized leavening material, it being the one that is used in the making of yeast breads; but as a complete discussion of this class of leavening agents is given in Bread and as it is not employed in the making of hot breads, no consideration need be given to it here. Physical leavening is accomplished by the incorporation of air into a mixture or by the expansion of the water into steam, and chemical leavening agents are the most modern and accurate of all the agents that have been devised for the quick rising of flour mixtures.


4. PHYSICAL LEAVENING consists in aerating, or incorporating gas or air into, a mixture that is to be baked, and it is based on the principle that air or gas expands, or increases in volume, when heated. It is definitely known that when air is incorporated into dough and then heated, the air increases 1/273 of its own volume for each degree that the temperature is increased. For instance, if the temperature of an aerated mixture is 65 degrees Fahrenheit when it is put into the oven, the air or gas will have doubled in volume by the time it has reached 338 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, the success of aerated bread depends to some extent on the temperature of the mixture when it goes into the oven. The colder it is at that time, the greater is the number of degrees it will have to rise before it is sufficiently baked, and the more opportunity will the gas have to expand.

5. The air or gas required for physical leavening is incorporated into a mixture by beating or folding the batter or dough itself, or by folding beaten egg whites into it. If the mixture is thin enough, the beating may be done with a spoon or an egg beater; but if it is thick enough to be handled on a board, air may be incorporated into it by rolling and folding it repeatedly. If eggs are to be used for aerating the batter or dough, the entire egg may be beaten and then added, but as more air can be incorporated into the egg whites, the yolks and whites are usually beaten separately. To make the white of eggs most satisfactory for this purpose, it should be beaten stiff enough to stand up well, but not until it becomes dry and begins to break up. In adding the beaten egg white, it should be folded carefully and lightly into the mixture after all the other ingredients have been combined. Beaten egg white may be used to lighten any mixture that is soft enough to permit it to be folded in.

6. To insure the best results from mixtures that are to be made light by means of physical leavening agents, certain precautions must be taken. Such mixtures should be baked as soon as possible after the mixing is done, so that the gas or air will not pass out before the dough is baked. Likewise, they should be handled as lightly and quickly as possible, for a heavy touch and too much handling are often the cause of imperfect results. For baking aerated mixtures, heavy irons are better than tin muffin pans; also, the pans that are used should be heated before the mixture is put into them, so that the batter or dough will begin to expand immediately. Gem irons should be filled level with an aerated mixture.


7. CHEMICAL LEAVENING is brought about by the action of gas produced by an acid and an alkali. All chemical leavening agents are Similar in their action, and they are composed of an acid and an alkali. When an acid and an alkali are brought together in the presence of moisture and heat, the result is the rapid production of carbon dioxide, a gas that expands on being heated, just as all other gases do. In expanding, the gas pushes up the batters or doughs, and these, when baked, set, or harden, into porous shapes. In addition to forming the gas, the acid and the alkali produce a salt that remains in the bread, and it is this salt that is responsible for the harmful effect usually attributed to chemical leavening agents.

8. The first chemical leavening agents were devised by housewives themselves. They consisted of a combination of saleratus, an alkali made from wood ashes, and sour milk or molasses. The results obtained were more or less satisfactory, but never entirely accurate or certain. Later on, chemists by employing the same idea combined an alkali with an acid in powder form and produced an accurate and satisfactory leavening agent in the form of baking powder. The discovery of baking powder, however, has not displaced the use of other combinations that form chemical leavening agents, for soda is still combined with sour milk, molasses, and cream of tartar in the making of various hot breads. Therefore, so that a proper understanding of the various chemical leavening agents may be obtained, a discussion of each is here given.

9. SODA AND SOUR MILK.—When soda is used with sour milk for leavening purposes, the lactic acid in the milk is so acted upon by the soda as to produce gas. However, these two ingredients—soda and sour milk—do not make an absolutely accurate leavening agent, because the quantity of acid in the sour milk varies according to the fermentation that has taken place. For example, sour milk 48 hours old contains more acid than sour milk that is kept under the same conditions but is only 24 hours old.

The proportion of these ingredients that is usually effective in batters and doughs for hot breads is 1 level teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of sour milk. So as to derive the best results in using these chemical leavening agents, it will be well to observe that if they are mixed together in a cup the milk will bubble and may, provided the quantity is sufficient, run over. These bubbles are caused by the gas that is formed when the acid and soda meet, and when they break gas escapes, with the result that some of it is lost. Formerly, it was the custom to mix these leavening substances in this way, and then to add them to the other ingredients. Now, however, in order that all gas produced may be kept in the dough mixture, the soda is sifted in with the dry ingredients and the sour milk is added with the liquid ingredients.

10. A point well worth remembering is that sour milk and soda may be substituted for sweet milk and baking powder in a recipe that calls for these ingredients by using 1 teaspoonful of soda to each pint of sour milk. This information should prove valuable to the housewife, especially if she has accumulated a supply of sour milk that should not be wasted. Occasionally it will be found that baking powder and soda are required in the same recipe, but this occurs only when an insufficient amount of soda to produce the desired result is specified.

11. SODA AND MOLASSES.—Although molasses, which is a product of sugar cane, is sweet, it contains an acid that is formed by the fermentation that continually occurs in it, an evidence of which is the tiny bubbles that may be seen in molasses, especially when it is kept in a warm place. Because of the presence of this acid, molasses may be used with soda to form a chemical leavening agent, and when they are combined in hot breads or cake, the chemical action of the two produces carbon dioxide. However, accurate results cannot always be obtained when these ingredients are used, for the degree of acidity in molasses is as uncertain as it is in sour milk. Molasses that is old or has been kept in a warm place will contain more acid than molasses that has been manufactured only a short time or that has been kept cool to retard fermentation.

The proportion of soda to molasses that can usually be relied on for hot breads and cakes is 1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 cupful of molasses, or just twice the quantity of soda that is generally used with sour milk. To produce the best results, the molasses should be mixed with the liquid ingredients and the soda sifted in with the dry ones. As molasses burns very quickly in a hot oven, all breads or cakes containing it as an ingredient should be baked in an oven of moderate temperature.

12. SODA AND CREAM OF TARTAR.—Some housewives are inclined to use soda and cream of tartar for leavening purposes; but there is really no advantage in doing this when baking powder can be obtained, for some baking powders are a combination of these two ingredients and produce the same result. In fact, the housewife cannot measure soda and cream of tartar so accurately as the chemist can combine them in the manufacture of baking powder. Nevertheless, if their use is preferred, they should be measured in the proportion of twice as much cream of tartar as soda. As in the case of soda alone, these leavening agents should be sifted with the dry ingredients. A small quantity of cream of tartar is used without soda in such mixtures as angel-food cake, in which egg white alone is used to make the mixture light. The addition of the cream of tartar has the effect of so solidifying the egg white that it holds up until the heat of the oven hardens it permanently.

13. BAKING POWDER.—Without doubt, baking powder is the most satisfactory of the chemical leavening agents. It comes in three varieties, but they are all similar in composition, for each contains an alkali in the form of soda and an acid of some kind, as well as a filler of starch, which serves to prevent the acid and the alkali from acting upon each other. When moisture is added to baking powder, chemical action sets in, but it is not very rapid, as is apparent when a cake or a muffin mixture is allowed to stand before baking. The bubbles of gas that form in such a mixture can easily be observed if the mixture is stirred after it has stood for a short time. When both moisture and heat are applied to baking powder, however, the chemical action that takes place is more rapid, and this accounts for its usefulness in baking hot breads and cake.

14. The price of the different kinds of baking powder, which usually varies from 10 cents to 50 cents a pound, is generally an indication of the ingredients that they contain. Powders that sell for 40 to 50 cents a pound usually contain cream of tartar for the acid, the high price of this substance accounting for the price of the powder. Powders that may be purchased for 30 to 40 cents a pound generally contain acid phosphate of lime, and as this substance is cheaper than cream of tartar, a baking-powder mixture containing it may well be sold for less. The cheapest grade of powders, or those which sell for 10 to 25 cents a pound, have for their acid a salt of aluminum called alum. Still other powders that are sometimes made up to sell for 20 to 30 cents a pound contain a mixture of phosphate and alum.

15. As baking powders vary in price, so do they vary in their keeping qualities, their effectiveness, and their tendency toward being injurious. Most phosphate and alum powders do not keep so well as the cream-of-tartar powders, and the longer they are kept, the less effective do they become. The powders that contain phosphate yield more gas for each teaspoonful used than do the other varieties. Much controversy has taken place with regard to the different kinds of baking powder and their effects on the digestive tract, but authorities have not yet agreed on this matter. However, if foods made with the aid of baking powders are not used excessively, no concern need be felt as to their injurious effect. The housewife in her choice of baking powder should be guided by the price she can afford to pay and the results she is able to get after she has become well informed as to the effect of the different varieties. She may easily become familiar with the composition of baking powder, for a statement of what substances each kind contains is generally found on the label of every variety. This information is invaluable to the housewife, as it will assist her considerably in making a selection.

16. The proportion of baking powder to be used in a batter or a dough is regulated by the quantity of flour employed and not, as is the case with soda and molasses or sour milk, by the quantity of liquid, the usual proportion being 2 level teaspoonfuls to 1 cupful of flour. Sometimes this proportion is decreased, 6 or 7 teaspoonfuls being used instead of 8 to each quart of flour in the making of large quantities of some kinds of baked foods. In adding baking powder to a mixture, as in adding other dry leavening agents, it should be sifted with flour and the other dry ingredients.

17. Although baking powder may be purchased at various prices, a good grade can be made in the home without much effort and usually for less than that which can be bought ready made. For these reasons, many housewives prefer to make their own. The following recipe tells how to make a cream-of-tartar powder that is very satisfactory:


1/2 lb. cream of tartar 1/4 lb. bicarbonate of soda 1/4 lb. corn starch

Weigh all the ingredients accurately. If the cream of tartar and the bicarbonate of soda are to be purchased from a druggist, it will be better for him to weigh them than for the housewife, as he uses scales that weigh accurately. After all the ingredients are weighed, mix them together thoroughly by sifting them a number of times or by shaking them well in a can or a jar on which the lid has been tightly closed. The baking powder thus made should be kept in a can or a jar that may be rendered air-tight by means of a lid, or cover.

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18. The utensils required for the making of hot breads consist of two kinds: those in which the ingredients are prepared and combined to form the mixture and those in which the mixture is to be baked. As soon as it is known just what ones are needed to carry out the recipe for the hot bread that is to be made, they, together with the necessary ingredients, such as milk, fat, flour, baking powder, salt, eggs, etc., should be collected and arranged in the manner shown in Fig. 1, so that they will be convenient. Usually, much of the success of hot breads depends on the quickness and dexterity with which the ingredients are put together, and if the person making them has to interrupt her work every now and then to get out a utensil, she will find that her results will not be so satisfactory and that she will use up more energy than the work really demands. The pans in which the mixture is to be baked need particular attention, for they should be greased and ready to fill before the mixing is begun. If they are to be heated, they should be greased and put into the oven a few minutes before the mixture is ready to be put into them, so that they may be taken from the oven and filled at once.


19. Fig. 1 serves very well to illustrate the utensils required for preparing hot-bread mixtures. These consist of a bowl a of the proper size for mixing; a smaller bowl b for beating eggs, provided eggs are to be used; two standard half-pint measuring cups c, one for dry ingredients and the other for wet ingredients; a tablespoon d, a case knife e, and a teaspoon f for measuring and mixing; an egg beater g and a flour sifter. Of course, if an egg whip is preferred, it may take the place of the egg beater, but for some hot-bread mixtures use will be found for both of these utensils.


20. The kind of utensil required for the baking of hot-bread mixtures depends entirely on the nature of the mixture and the recipe that is to be prepared. For popovers, popover cups similar to those shown in Fig. 2 or gem irons are necessary. Muffins require muffin pans like those illustrated at h, Fig. 1; Boston brown breads need cans that have tight-fitting lids; soft ginger bread, nut loaf, and corn cake are baked in loaf pans; baking-powder or beaten biscuits are placed in shallow pans or on oiled sheets; griddle cakes must be baked on griddles; and waffles require waffle irons. None of these utensils are likely to present any difficulty in their use except griddles and waffle irons, so in order that these may be thoroughly understood and good results thereby obtained, explanations of them are here given.

21. GRIDDLES.—A style of griddle in common use is illustrated in Fig. 3, and while it is circular and has a projecting handle, griddles of different shapes and fitted with different handles are to be had. Such utensils are made of numerous materials, but the most satisfactory ones are constructed of steel, iron, soapstone, and aluminum. Steel and iron griddles must be greased before cakes are baked on them so as to prevent the cakes from sticking; for this reason they are less convenient than soapstone and aluminum griddles, which do not require any grease.

The size of griddle to use is governed by the number of persons that are to be served. One that is unusually large, however, should be avoided if a gas stove is used for cooking, as it is difficult to heat a large griddle evenly on such a stove, and even a small one must be shifted frequently so that some spots will not be hotter than others. In this respect, a griddle made of aluminum has the advantage over the other kinds, for this material conducts the heat evenly over its entire surface.

Before a new steel or iron griddle is used, it must be tempered so as to prevent the food that is to be baked on it from sticking. If it is not tempered, much time will be consumed before its surface will be in the right condition to permit baking to proceed without difficulty, and this, of course, will result in wasting considerable food material. Tempering may be done by covering the griddle with a quantity of fat, placing it over a flame or in a very hot oven, and then allowing it to heat thoroughly to such a temperature that the fat will burn onto the surface. This same precaution should be observed with new waffle irons and frying pans made of steel or iron if the best results from such utensils are desired.

22. WAFFLE IRONS.—A waffle iron, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, consists of two corrugated griddles fastened together with a hinge in such a way that the surfaces nearly touch when the handles are brought together as in Fig. 4 (a). These griddles are so suspended in a frame that they may be turned completely over in order to allow each side to be exposed to the heat. The waffle iron illustrated in Fig. 4, shown closed in view (a) and open in (b), is intended for a coal range. In order to use it, a stove lid is removed from one of the openings and the waffle iron is set in the opening, which allows the griddle part to be turned. The waffle iron shown in Fig. 5 is intended for a gas range. As will be noticed, the griddle part rests on a base that is deep enough to permit it to be turned. In using a waffle iron of either kind, it should be heated while the waffle mixture is being prepared; then it should be thoroughly greased on both sides. No excess fat, however, should be used, as it will run out when the griddle is turned over.

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23. BATTERS AND DOUGHS.—The mixtures from which hot breads are produced are of different consistencies, and familiarity with them is necessary if good results in the making of such breads are desired. This difference in the consistencies is due to the proportion of flour and liquid used, a small proportion of flour producing a batter and a large proportion, a dough. It will be well to note, however, that some kinds of flour thicken a mixture much more readily than do others. Experience in the handling of flour teaches how to vary the other ingredients of a recipe in order to make them correspond to the difference in flour, but the person who lacks a knowledge of cookery, or has had very little experience in the handling of foods, must know the general proportions that are correct under most circumstances. The names of the mixtures that the ingredients produce are thin batter, thick batter, soft dough, and stiff dough.

24. A THIN BATTER is one in which the general proportion of liquid and flour is 1 measure of flour to 1 measure of liquid. Such a batter, when poured, immediately seeks its own level and has the consistency of thin cream. The most common examples of thin batters are popovers and griddle cakes.

A THICK BATTER, which is known as a drop, or muffin, batter, is one that is made of 2 measures of flour and 1 measure of liquid. A batter of this kind may be poured, but it will not immediately seek its own level. Muffins, gems, puddings, and cakes are made of thick batters.

A SOFT DOUGH is one whose proportions are 3 measures of flour and 1 measure of liquid. A dough of this kind will stand up alone—that is, without support at the sides—and has more of the properties of a solid than of a liquid. Baking-powder biscuits, tea rolls, and certain kinds of cake are made of this form of dough.

A STIFF DOUGH is made of 4 measures of flour and 1 measure of liquid. Such a dough will not cling to the mixing bowl, can be handled with the hands, and will not stick when rolled out on a board. Pie crust, hard cookies, and beaten biscuit are made of such dough.

25. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL PROPORTIONS. While the general proportions just mentioned remain the same in the majority of cases, they vary somewhat when ingredients other than liquid and flour are added. Shortening and eggs in particular change the quantity of liquid required, less liquid being necessary when these ingredients are used. To get the best results from a new recipe, it is always advisable upon reading the recipe to notice the proportions that are given and then to try to judge whether they bear a close enough resemblance to the general proportions to make a successful dish. For instance, if a griddle-cake recipe calls for 3 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid, the cook who understands what the general proportions for such a batter ought to be would know immediately that the recipe calls for too much flour. Likewise, she would know that a recipe for baking-powder biscuits that calls for 2 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid would make a dough that would be too soft to handle. Besides enabling a woman to judge a recipe, a knowledge of the correct proportions for things of this kind makes it possible for her to combine the ingredients for a certain recipe without resorting to a cook book, or, in other words, to originate a recipe. Because of the importance of such an understanding, attention should always be given to details that will assist in obtaining a thorough knowledge of this matter.


26. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS.—Before the mixing of the ingredients that are to be used in the batters and doughs of hot breads is begun, all that are needed for the recipe selected should be collected and properly measured. Always sift the flour that is to be used for this purpose. This is a rule that never varies with regard to flour to be used for any dough mixture or as a thickening agent. Then, to prevent the flour from packing too solidly, measure it by dipping it into the cup with a spoon. To obtain the proper amount, heap the cup and then level it with the edge of a knife. Measure with a spoon whatever dry leavening agent is called for, and be sure that it does not contain any lumps. If salt, sugar, and spices are to be used, measure them carefully. Mix the leavening agent, the salt, the sugar, and the other dry ingredients with the flour by sifting them together once or twice. Measure the butter or other fat by packing it in the spoon and then leveling it with a knife. Be particular in measuring the liquid, using neither more nor less than is called for. Regarding this ingredient, it should always be remembered that when a cupful is required, a half-pint cup full to the brim is meant and that any fraction of a cupful should be measured with the same exactness.

27. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.—The manner in which a batter or a dough is mixed is very important, for much of the success of the finished product depends on the order in which the various steps are accomplished. Two general methods of combining the ingredients for such mixtures have been devised and either of them may be followed, because they produce equally good results.

In one of these methods, the fat is worked into the dry ingredients and the liquid then added. As eggs are usually considered a liquid ingredient, they are beaten and added to the rest of the liquid before it is mixed with the dry ingredients. However, if eggs are to be used for leavening, only the yolks are added with the liquid ingredients, the whites being beaten separately and folded in last.

The other method is used only when the mixtures are to contain a small quantity of fat. In this method, all the liquid ingredients, including the eggs, are first mixed together. Then the dry ingredients are combined and sifted into the liquid. The fat is melted last and beaten into the dough mixture. If the mixture to be handled is a stiff one, the fat should be put in cold, for adding melted fat makes the dough soft and sticky and therefore difficult to handle.


28. REGULATING THE OVEN.—When the ingredients have been properly combined, the mixture is ready to be baked. With the exception of waffles and griddle cakes, the baking of which is explained in connection with the recipes, all hot breads are baked in the oven; therefore, while the mixture is being prepared, the oven should be properly regulated in order that the temperature will be just right when it is time to start the baking. Particular thought should be given to this matter, for if no attention is paid to the oven until the mixture is ready to be baked, it will be necessary to allow the mixture to stand until the heat of the oven can be regulated or to put it into the oven and run the risk of spoiling the food. To prevent either of these conditions and to insure success, the fuel, no matter what kind is used, should be lighted before mixing is begun, so that the oven may be heating while the mixture is being prepared, unless, as is sometimes the case, there are steps in the preparation of the mixture that consume considerable time. For instance, looking over raisins and cleaning them or cracking nuts and picking the meats out of the shells should be done before the rest of the ingredients are prepared or the oven is regulated.

29. CORRECT OVEN TEMPERATURES.—Quick breads that are to be baked in the form of loaves require an oven temperature of from 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Muffins, biscuits, and the smaller varieties of these breads need a higher temperature, 425 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit being best. As they are not so large, the heat has less dough through which to penetrate, and consequently the baking can be accomplished more quickly.

30. DETERMINING AND REGULATING OVEN TEMPERATURE.—Regulating the oven and testing its temperature present very little difficulty to the housewife of experience, but they are not always easy problems for the woman who is learning to cook. However, if the untrained and inexperienced cook will observe her oven closely and determine the results of certain temperatures, she will soon find herself becoming more successful in this matter. To assist the housewife in this matter, as well as to help in the saving of much loss in fuel and in underdone or overdone food, many stoves are equipped with an oven thermometer, an indicator, or a thermostat. The thermometer is more likely to be reliable than the indicator, as it has a column of mercury like that of any other thermometer and is graduated; also, a certain kind may be secured that can be used with any sort of oven. The indicator is in the form of a dial with a hand attached to a metal spring. This spring contracts and expands with the changes in the temperature of the oven and thus causes the hand to point out the temperature. The thermostat is a device that automatically regulates the heat of the oven. On a stove equipped with a thermostat, it is simply necessary to set the device at the temperature desired. When this temperature is reached, the device keeps it stationary.

31. If neither an indicator nor a thermometer is available, the heat of the oven may be determined in other ways. Some housewives test the oven with the hand, and while such a test is more or less dependent on experience, those who use it find it very satisfactory. If the hand can be held in the oven while 15 is counted slowly, the temperature is that of a moderate oven and will be right for the baking of loaves. An oven that is of the proper temperature for muffins or rolls will permit the hand to be held in it while only 10 is counted slowly. Those who do not test with the hand find that placing a piece of white paper in the oven is an accurate way of determining its temperature. Such paper will turn a delicate brown in 5 minutes in a moderate oven, and a deeper brown in 4 minutes in a hot oven.

32. PROPER PLACING OF THE MIXTURE IN THE OVEN.—As is pointed out in Essentials of Cookery, Part 1, the top of the oven is hotter than the bottom. This truth and the fact that in an oven, as in any other space, air expands and rises on becoming heated, are points that have much to do with the baking of quick breads, for these are mixtures that rise after being placed in the oven. So that they may rise properly, they should be placed on the bottom first; then, as they become heated, they will have a tendency to rise as the air does. If the food is placed near the top first, the heated air will be likely to press it down and retard its rising. As soon as the rising is completed and the food has baked sufficiently on the bottom, it should be moved up so that it will brown on the top.

33. TESTING THE BAKED MIXTURE.—Recipes for baked dishes usually state the length of time required to bake them, but such directions cannot always be depended on, because the temperature of the oven varies at different times. The best way in which to judge whether the food has baked the necessary length of time is to apply to it one of the reliable tests that have been devised for this purpose.

Probably the most satisfactory test is to insert a toothpick as deep as possible into the center of the loaf. The center, rather than some other part of the loaf, is the place where the testing should be done, because the heat penetrates a mixture from the outside and the center is therefore the last part to bake. If the toothpick comes out without particles of dough adhering, the mixture is sufficiently baked in that place and consequently throughout the loaf. In case the dough sticks to the toothpick, the baking is not completed and will have to be continued. Since this is a test that is frequently used, a supply of toothpicks, preferably round ones, should be kept in a handy place near the stove.

Another fairly accurate means of testing baked mixtures that do not form a very hard crust consists in making a dent in the center with the finger. If the dent remains, the baking must be continued, but if it springs back into place, the baking is completed.


34. Hot breads, in contrast with yeast breads, are intended to be eaten hot, and, to be most satisfactory, should be served as soon as possible after they are baked. They usually take the place of bread in the meal for which they are served, but there are various ways of using them whereby variety is given to them and to the meal. A favorite combination with many persons is hot biscuits or muffins served with honey. If honey is not available, jam, preserves, or sirup may be substituted to advantage. A mixture made like baking-powder biscuits and baked or steamed is especially good when served with chicken or meat stew poured over it. The same mixture sweetened and made a trifle richer may be served with fruit and cream for short cake. For afternoon tea, tiny muffins and biscuits about the size of a 50-cent piece are very attractive. Then, too, if they are split and buttered, they may be served with salad for a light luncheon.

Hot breads baked in the form of a loaf require some attention as far as preparing them for the table is concerned. Gingerbread and corn cake are better if they are broken rather than cut while hot. In case they are preferred cut, a sharp knife should be employed, and, to obtain slices that have a good appearance, the knife should be heated and the cutting done before it cools. Usually, gingerbread is served plain, but the addition of icing improves it considerably and provides a simple cake that can be used for dessert.

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35. POPOVERS.—A delightful change from the puffs, muffins, and biscuits that are usually served for breakfast or luncheon is afforded by means of popovers, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 6. Popovers are not difficult to make. For them is required a thin batter in equal proportions of liquid and flour. In giving the method for mixing popovers, some of the older cook books recommend beating for 5 minutes just before they are baked, because the lightness was formerly supposed to be due to the air that is incorporated by this beating. It is possible, however, to make very light popovers with only enough beating to mix the ingredients thoroughly, and it is now known that the rising is due to the expansion of water into steam in the mixture. This knowledge is useful in that it saves time and energy.

POPOVERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. flour 1/4 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg

Mix the flour, salt, and milk in a bowl, and then drop in the unbeaten egg. Beat all with a rotary egg beater until the mixture is perfectly smooth and free from lumps. Grease and warm gem irons or popover cups. Then fill them about two-thirds full of the popover batter. Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes or until the popovers can be lifted from the cups and do not shrink when removed from the oven.

36. POPOVERS WITH FRUIT.—Popovers made according to the preceding recipe are particularly good if fruit is added to them. To add the fruit, cut a slit in the side of the popovers as soon as they are removed from the oven and insert a few spoonfuls of apple sauce, marmalade, preserves, jelly, or canned fruit. These may be served either warm or cold as a breakfast dish, or they may be sprinkled with powdered sugar and served with cream for a dessert or a luncheon dish.

37. NUT PUFFS.—An example of a thin batter not in equal proportions of liquid and flour is afforded by nut puffs. In hot breads of this kind, aeration is used as the leavening agent. In order to assist with the incorporation of air, the egg yolk is well beaten before it is added; but the greater part of the lightness that is produced is due to the egg white, which is beaten and folded in last. The addition of nuts to a batter of this kind considerably increases its food value.

NUT PUFFS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg 1 Tb. fat 1/4 c. chopped nuts

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together, and add the milk and beaten egg yolk. Melt the fat and add it and the chopped nuts. Beat the egg white stiff and fold it into the mixture carefully. Fill hot, well-greased gem irons level full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven about 20 minutes.

38. WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS.—Puffs in which use is made of whole-wheat flour instead of white flour are also an example of a thin batter that is made light by aeration. If desired, graham flour may be substituted for the whole-wheat flour, but if it is a coarser bread will be the result. This coarseness, however, does not refer to the texture of the bread, but is due to the quantity of bran in graham flour. Whole-wheat puffs, as shown in Fig. 7, are attractive, and besides they possess the valuable food substances contained in whole-wheat flour, eggs, and milk.

WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. whole-wheat flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg 1 Tb. fat

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together and add the milk and the egg yolk, which should be well beaten. Melt the fat and stir it into the batter. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it in carefully. Heat well-greased gem irons, fill them level full with the mixture, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


39. PROCEDURE IN BAKING GRIDDLE CAKES.—During the preparation of the batter for griddle cakes, have the griddle heating, so that it will be sufficiently hot when the cakes are ready to be baked. Each time, before the baking is begun, grease the griddle, provided it is the kind that requires greasing, by rubbing over it a rind of salt pork or a small cloth pad that has been dipped into a dish of grease. In greasing the griddle, see that there is no excess of grease, as this burns and produces smoke.

When the griddle has become hot enough for the batter to sizzle when it is put on, the baking may be started. Pour the batter on the griddle from the tip of a large spoon, so that the cakes will form as nearly round as possible. When the top surface is full of bubbles, turn the cakes with a spatula or a pancake turner, and allow them to brown on the other side. By the time the cakes are sufficiently browned on both sides, they should be cooked through and ready to serve. If they brown before they have had time to cook through, the griddle is too hot and should be cooled by moving it to a cooler part of the stove or by reducing the heat. A very important point to remember in the baking of griddle cakes is that they should not be turned twice, as this has a tendency to make them heavy.

40. GRIDDLE CAKES.—As is generally known, griddle cakes are thin batters that are made light with a chemical leavening agent. Eggs are often used in such batters, but it is possible to make very excellent griddle cakes without the use of any eggs. It should also be remembered that the use of too much egg is more certain to make the cakes tough and less palatable than if none is used. The kind of flour used for griddle cakes has much to do with the consistency of the batter used for them. If, when the first cakes are placed upon the griddle, the batter seems to be either too thick or too thin, liquid or flour may be added to dilute or thicken the batter until it is of the right consistency. For instance, if bread flour is used, more liquid may be needed, and if pastry flour is used, more flour may be required.

GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 1/4 c. sugar 1 egg 2-1/4 c. milk 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Beat the egg, add to it the milk, and pour this liquid slowly into the dry ingredients. Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add the melted fat. Bake the cakes on a hot griddle as soon as possible after the batter is mixed.

41. SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES.—Very delicious griddle cakes may be made by using sour milk and soda for the liquid and leavening instead of sweet milk and baking powder. Besides being particularly appetising, such cakes serve to use up left-over milk that may have soured. There is very little difference between the ingredients for this recipe and one calling for sweet milk, except that sour milk, which is a trifle thicker in consistency than sweet milk, requires less flour to thicken the mixture.

SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour 1/2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. soda 2 c. sour milk (not thick) 1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, salt, sugar, and soda. Add to these the sour milk and the egg well beaten. If the milk is thick, the quantity should be increased accordingly. Beat the mixture thoroughly and bake at once on a hot griddle.

42. CORN GRIDDLE CAKES.—The addition of corn meal to a griddle-cake mixture adds variety and food value and produces an agreeable flavor. Where corn meal is cheap, it is an economical ingredient to use in griddle cakes and other hot breads.

CORN GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal 1-1/2 c. boiling water 2 c. milk 2 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 1-1/2 tsp. salt 1/4 c. sugar 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Add the corn meal to the boiling water, boil 5 minutes, and turn into a bowl. Then add the milk. Next, mix and sift the flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar, and stir them into the first mixture. Beat the egg and add to the whole. Finally, stir in the melted fat. Bake on a hot griddle.

43. RICE GRIDDLE CAKES.—If a change in the ordinary griddle cakes that are used for breakfast is desired, rice griddle cakes should be tried. Besides lending variety, the addition of rice to a griddle-cake mixture helps to use up any left-over rice that may have been cooked for another purpose. Steamed or boiled rice used for this purpose should be broken up with a fork before it is mixed in the batter, so that the grains of rice will not stick together in chunks.

RICE GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 1/4 c. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 c. cold cooked rice 1 egg 1-1/2 c. milk 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Work the rice into the dry ingredients. Add the egg, well beaten, the milk, and the melted fat. Bake on a hot griddle.

44. BUCKWHEAT CAKES.—Buckwheat flour is used for griddle cakes more than for any other purpose. When used in this way it has a very typical flavor that most people find very agreeable. Many prepared buckwheat flours, to which have been added the quantity of leavening agent necessary to raise the mixture, are on the market for the convenience of those who do not desire to prepare the mixture at home. As a rule, these contain a combination of buckwheat and wheat flour. To make cakes from these flours, add the required amount of liquid, either milk or water, and a little sugar, if necessary, and then proceed to bake them on a griddle. While there is no objection to the use of such flours if they are found agreeable, it is more expensive to use them than to make up the buckwheat mixture at home. A recipe for buckwheat cakes that proves very satisfactory is the following:

BUCKWHEAT CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. scalded milk 1/2 c. fine bread crumbs 1/2 tsp. salt 1/4 yeast cake 3/4 c. lukewarm water 1-1/2 c. buckwheat flour 1/2 c. white flour 1 Tb. molasses 1/4 tsp. soda

Pour the scalded milk over the bread crumbs and add the salt. Dissolve the yeast cake in 1/2 cupful of the lukewarm water and add this to the bread crumbs and milk. Stir in the buckwheat and the white flour, and let the mixture rise overnight. In the morning, stir it well and add the molasses, the soda, and 1/4 cupful of lukewarm water. Bake on a hot griddle.

If cakes are to be baked the next day, retain 1/2 cupful of the batter, to which may be added flour, milk, salt, and molasses. By doing this each day, a starter may be had for a long period of time. If a strong buckwheat flavor is desired, use all buckwheat flour, but if only a slight buckwheat flavor is desired, make the proportion of wheat flour greater and that of the buckwheat smaller.


45. PROCEDURE IN BAKING WAFFLES.—The procedure in making waffles is very similar to that in making griddle cakes. While the waffle mixture is being prepared, heat the waffle iron. Then grease it thoroughly on both sides with a rind of salt pork or a cloth pad dipped in fat, being careful that there is no excess fat, as it will run out when the iron is turned over. With the iron properly greased and sufficiently hot, place several spoonfuls of the batter in the center and close the iron. By so doing, the batter will be pressed out to cover the entire surface. In pouring the batter, do not cover the entire surface of the iron with batter nor place any near the outside edge, for it is liable to run out when the iron is closed. In case this happens, be sure to put in less batter the next time. Allow the waffle to brown on the side near the fire and then turn the iron, so as to brown the other side. When the waffle is sufficiently brown, remove it; then grease the iron and repeat the process.

46. WAFFLES.—The form of hot bread known as waffles, which are illustrated in Fig. 8, offers the housewife an excellent opportunity to add variety to meals. Practically no one dislikes waffles, and they are especially appetising when sprinkled with powdered sugar or served with sirup. They are often served with chicken or other gravy.

WAFFLES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. salt 2 eggs 1-2/3 c. milk 2 Tb. melted fat

Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together. Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately. Add the beaten yolks and the milk to the dry ingredients and then stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg whites stiff and fold them into the batter. Bake according to the directions given in Art. 45.

47. RICE WAFFLES.—Rice waffles offer an excellent means of utilizing left-over rice. Such waffles are prepared in about the same way as the waffles just mentioned. In working the cooked rice into the dry ingredients, use should be made of a light motion that will not crush the grains, but will separate them from one another. Left-over cereals other than rice may also be used in this way.

RICE WAFFLES (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-3/4 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. salt 2/3 c. cooked rice 1-1/2 c. milk 1 egg 1 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work the rice into the dry ingredients. Add the milk and the well-beaten yolk of egg. Stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it into the batter. Bake as previously directed.


48. Muffins are examples of thick batters with variations. This form of hot bread, an illustration of which is shown in Fig. 9, may be baked in a pan like that shown at h, Fig. 1, or in individual tins. Just as other forms of hot breads assist the housewife in making changes or additions to meals, so do muffins, as they are usually relished by nearly every one.

49. PLAIN MUFFINS.—Perhaps the simplest form of muffin is the plain, or one-egg, muffin, which is illustrated in Fig. 9 and made according to the accompanying recipe. To a plain-muffin recipe, however, may be added any kind of fruit, nuts, or other ingredients to give variety of flavour. Likewise, it may be made richer and sweeter and then steamed or baked to be served with a sauce for dessert. If it is made still richer and sweeter, the result is a simple cake mixture. Any given muffin recipe in which sweet milk is used may be made with sour milk by using soda instead of baking powder.

PLAIN MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 1 c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder, and to these add the milk and beaten egg. Then stir in the melted fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds full of the mixture and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

50. BLUEBERRY MUFFINS.—Muffins containing blueberries can be made successfully only in blueberry season, but other fruit, as, for example, dates, may be used in place of the blueberries. Cranberries are often used in muffins, but to many persons they are not agreeable because of the excessive amount of acid they contain.

BLUEBERRY MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. fat 1/3 c. sugar 1 egg 1 c. milk 2-1/4 c. flour 1/2 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 1 c. fresh blueberries

Cream the fat, and add the sugar gradually. Then stir in the beaten egg and milk. Reserve 1/4 cupful of flour, and mix the remainder with the salt and the baking powder. Stir the dry ingredients into the first mixture. Next, mix the 1/4 cupful of flour with the berries and fold them into the batter. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

51. DATE MUFFINS.—The recipe given for blueberry muffins may be used for date muffins by substituting dates for blueberries. To prepare the dates, wash them in warm water, rinse them in cold water, and then dry them between towels. Cut them lengthwise along the seed with a sharp knife, remove the seed, and then cut each date into three or four pieces.

52. CORN-MEAL MUFFINS.—To many persons, corn-meal muffins, an illustration of which is shown in Fig. 10, are more agreeable than plain white-flour muffins. Corn meal gives to muffins an attractive flavour and appearance and increases their food value slightly; but perhaps its chief value lies in the variety that results from its use.

CORN-MEAL MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal 1 c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 3/4 c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Add to these the milk and the well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

53. GRAHAM MUFFINS.—A pleasing variety in the way of muffins is produced by using part graham flour, but whole-wheat flour may be substituted for the graham flour in case it is preferred. Sour milk is used in the recipe here given, but if there is no sour milk in supply, sweet milk and baking powder may be used instead, with merely the correct proportion of soda for the molasses. If the taste of molasses is undesirable, liquid, which may be either sweet or sour milk, may be substituted for it. It is an excellent plan to be able to substitute one thing for another in recipes of this kind, and this may be done if the materials are used in correct proportion.

GRAHAM MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. graham flour 1 c. white flour 3/4 tsp. soda 1 tsp. salt 1 c. sour milk 1/3 c. molasses 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the graham and the white flour, the soda, and the salt. Put the bran that sifts out back into the mixture. Add the milk, molasses, and well-beaten egg to the dry ingredients, and then stir in the melted fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes.

54. RICE MUFFINS.—Rice may be combined with white flour in the making of muffins if variety is desired. As rice used for this purpose is added hot, it may be cooked either purposely for the muffins or for something else and only part used for the muffins. Cereals other than rice may be used in exactly the same quantity and in the same way in making muffins.

RICE MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/4 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 1-1/4 c. milk 1 egg 3/4 c. hot, cooked rice 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt, and to these add half of the milk and the egg, well beaten. Mix the remaining half of the milk with the rice and add it to the mixture. Stir in the melted fat last. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

55. BRAN MUFFINS.—The particular value of bran muffins lies in the laxative quality that they introduce into the diet. In addition, they will be found to be very tasty and superior to many other kinds of muffins. Bran for such purposes as this may be bought in packages, in the same way as many cereals.

BRAN MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. white flour 1/2 tsp. soda 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 2 c. bran 1-1/4 c. milk 1/2 c. molasses 1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, and salt. Then add the bran, the milk, the molasses, and the well-beaten egg. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds full, and bake in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes.


56. CORN CAKE.—Corn cakes were among the first breads made of cereal foods in America, being at first often made of only corn meal, water, and salt. These cakes of corn meal were prepared and carried on long journeys made by people when there were no means of rapid transportation. The cakes did not spoil, were not bulky, and contained a great deal of nutriment, so they made a convenient kind of food for such purposes and were called journey cakes. From this term came the name Johnny cake, which is often applied to cake of this kind. The combining of flour, eggs, shortening, and sugar makes a cake that does not resemble the original very much, but in many localities such cake is still called Johnny cake. The proportion of corn meal to flour that is used determines to a large extent the consistency of the cake; the greater the quantity of corn meal, the more the cake will crumble and break into pieces. The addition of white flour makes the particles of corn meal adhere, so that most persons consider that white flour improves the consistency.

CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

3/4 c. yellow corn meal 1-1/4 c. flour 1/4 c. sugar 3/4 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 1 c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder. Add the milk and well-beaten egg, and then stir in the melted fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan and bake in a hot oven for about 30 minutes.

57. SOUTHERN CORN CAKE.—In the preceding recipe for corn cake, more flour than corn meal is used, but many persons prefer cake of this kind made with more corn meal than flour. Southern corn cake, which contains more corn meal and less white flour, proves very satisfactory to such persons. Therefore, which of these recipes should be used depends on the taste of those who are to eat the cake.

SOUTHERN CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal 1/2 c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder 3/4 tsp. salt 1/4 c. sugar 3/4 c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift together the corn meal, flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Add to them the milk and well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 30 minutes.

58. Molasses Corn Cake.—Molasses corn cake, just as its name indicates, is corn cake containing molasses. To those who find the taste of molasses agreeable, this recipe will appeal. Others not so fond of molasses will, without doubt, prefer the plain corn cake. Besides adding flavour, the molasses in this recipe adds food value to the product.

MOLASSES CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal 3/4 c. flour 3-1/2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 3/4 c. milk 1/4 c. molasses 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Add the milk, molasses, and well-beaten egg and stir in the melted fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 30 minutes.


59. Baking-Powder Biscuits.—The ability of the housewife as a cook is very often judged by the biscuits she makes; but they are really very simple to make, and if recipes are followed carefully and measurements are made accurately, only a little experience is required to produce excellent ones. The principal requirement in making baking-powder biscuits, which are illustrated in Fig. 11, is that all the ingredients be kept as cold as possible during the mixing. Tiny, thin biscuits may be split, buttered, and served with tea, while larger ones may be served with breakfast or luncheon. In order to utilise left-over biscuits of this kind, they may be split and toasted or dipped quickly into boiling water and heated in a quick oven until the surface is dry.

BAKING-POWDER BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. fat 3/4 c. milk

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop the fat into the dry ingredients until it is in pieces about the size of small peas. Pour the milk into the dry ingredients, and mix them just enough to take up the liquid. Make the mixture as moist as possible, and still have it in good condition to handle. Then sprinkle flour on a molding board, and lift the dough from the mixing bowl to the board.


Sprinkle flour thinly over the top and pat out the dough until it is about 1 inch thick. Cut the dough with a biscuit cutter, and place the biscuits thus cut out on baking sheets or in shallow pans. If a crusty surface is desired, place the biscuits in the pan so that they are about an inch apart; but if thick, soft biscuits are preferred, place them so that the edges touch. Bake 18 to 20 minutes in a hot oven.

60. EMERGENCY BISCUITS.—As shown in Fig. 12, emergency biscuits resemble very closely baking-powder biscuits, and so they should, because the recipe given for baking-powder biscuits may be used for emergency biscuits by merely adding more milk—just enough to make the dough a trifle too moist to handle with the hands. When the dough is of this consistency, drop it by spoonfuls in shallow pans, as in Fig. 13, or on baking sheets. Then bake the biscuits in a hot oven for 18 to 20 minutes.

61. PINWHEEL BISCUITS.—To create variety, a baking-powder biscuit mixture may be made into pinwheel biscuits, a kind of hot bread that is always pleasing to children. Such biscuits, which are illustrated in Fig. 14, differ from cinnamon rolls only in the leavening agent used, cinnamon rolls being made with yeast and pinwheel biscuits with baking powder.

PINWHEEL BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. fat f 3/4 c. milk 2 Tb. butter 1/3 c. sugar 1 Tb. cinnamon 3/4 c. chopped raisins

To make the dough, combine the ingredients in the same way as for baking-powder biscuits. Roll it on a well-floured board until it is about 1/4 inch thick and twice as long as it is wide. Spread the surface with the 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Mix the sugar and cinnamon and sprinkle them evenly over the buttered surface, and on top of this sprinkle the chopped raisins. Start with one of the long edges and roll the dough carefully toward the opposite long edge, as shown in Fig. 15. Then cut the roll into slices 1 inch thick. Place these slices in a shallow pan with the cut edges down and the sides touching. Bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

62. BEATEN BISCUITS.—In Fig. 16 is illustrated a form of hot bread known as beaten biscuits. Such biscuits are used very extensively in the South; in fact, they are usually considered typical of the South. Formerly, all the lightness of beaten biscuits was produced by beating, but as the mixture is made today it may be run through a food chopper a few times before it is beaten. If this is done, the labor of beating is lessened considerably, beating for 15 to 20 minutes being sufficient. When the beating is finished, the texture of the dough should be fine and close and the surface should be smooth and flat.

BEATEN BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

1 qt. pastry flour 1 tsp. salt 1/3 c. fat 1 c. milk or water

Sift the flour and salt and chop in the fat. Moisten with the milk or water and form into a mass. Toss this on a floured board, and beat it with a rolling pin for 30 minutes, folding the dough over every few seconds. Roll the dough 1/3 inch in thickness, form the biscuits by cutting them out with a small round cutter, and prick each one several times with a fork. Place the biscuits on baking sheets or in shallow pans, and bake them in a moderate oven for 20 to 30 minutes.


63. SOFT GINGERBREAD.—As a hot bread for breakfast, soft gingerbread like that illustrated in Fig. 17 is very satisfactory, and with or without icing it may be served as cake with fruit for luncheon. Sweet milk and baking powder are generally used in gingerbread, but sour milk may be substituted for sweet milk and soda in the proper proportion may be used in place of baking powder. If not too much spice is used in a bread of this kind, it is better for children than rich cake, and, as a rule, they are very fond of it.

SOFT GINGERBREAD (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour 2 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. soda 1/4 c. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 2 tsp. ginger 1 tsp. cinnamon 1 egg 1/2 c. milk 1/2 c. molasses 1/4 c. butter or other fat

Mix the flour, baking powder, soda, sugar, salt, and spices. Beat the egg, add the milk and molasses to it, and stir these into the first mixture. Melt the fat and stir it into the batter. Pour the batter into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 35 minutes. If preferred, the mixture may be poured into individual muffin pans and baked in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes.

64. BOSTON BROWN BREAD.—A hot bread that finds favor with most persons is Boston brown bread, which is illustrated in Fig. 18.


Such bread, instead of being baked in the oven, is steamed for 3-1/2 hours. It may be made plain, according to the accompanying recipe, or, to give it variety, raisins or currants may be added to it. Boston brown bread may be steamed in an ordinary coffee can, such as is shown in Fig. 18, in a large baking-powder can, or in a can that is made especially for this purpose. A regular steaming can for Boston brown bread is, of course, very convenient, but the other cans mentioned are very satisfactory. A point to remember in the making of brown bread is that the time for steaming should never be decreased. Oversteaming will do no harm, but understeaming is liable to leave an unbaked place through the centre of the loaf.

BOSTON BROWN BREAD (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. white flour 1 c. graham flour 1 c. corn meal 3/4 tsp. soda 2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 3/4 c. molasses 1-3/4 c. sweet milk

Mix and sift the flour, corn meal, soda, baking powder, and salt. Add the molasses and milk and mix all thoroughly. Grease a can and a cover that fits the can tightly. Fill the can two-thirds full of the mixture and cover it. Place it in a steamer and steam for 3-1/2 hours. Dry in a moderate oven for a few minutes before serving.

65. NUT LOAF.—The use of nuts in a hot bread increases the food value and imparts a very delicious flavour. It is therefore very attractive to most persons, but it is not a cheap food on account of the usual high price of nuts. Thin slices of nut bread spread with butter make very fine sandwiches, which are especially delicious when served with tea.

NUT LOAF (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour 1/2 c. sugar 4 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 4 Tb. fat 1 egg 1 c. milk 1/2 c. English walnuts

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work in the fat. Add the egg, well beaten, and the milk, and then stir in the nut meats, which should be chopped. Turn into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes.


66. As a general rule, not much consideration need be given to the utilising of left-over hot breads, for these are not often baked in large quantities and consequently are usually eaten at the meal for which they are intended. Still, if any should be left over, they should never be wasted, for there are various ways in which they may be used. The small varieties, such as muffins, biscuits, etc, may be freshened so that they will be almost as good as when first baked by putting them into a hot oven for a few minutes. If they are quite stale, they should be dipped quickly into hot water before being placed in the oven. The moisture on the surface is driven into the interior of the bread by the intense heat, with the result that the biscuits become moist and appear as fresh as they did formerly. If it is not desired to freshen them in this way, biscuits, muffins, and even pieces of corn bread that have become slightly stale may be made delicious by splitting them and then toasting them.


67. As in the preceding Sections, there is here submitted a menu that should be worked out and reported on at the same time that the answers to the Examination Questions are sent in. This menu is planned to serve six persons, but, as in the case of the other menus, it may be increased or decreased to meet requirements. The recipe for macaroni with cheese and tomatoes may be found in Cereals, and that for baking-powder biscuit, as well as that for popovers with apple sauce, in this Section. Recipes for the remainder of the items follow the menu.


Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes Baking-Powder Biscuit Jam Watercress-and-Celery Salad Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce Tea



Arrange on each salad plate a bed of watercress, or, if it is impossible to obtain this, shred lettuce by cutting it in narrow strips across the leaf and use it instead of the watercress. Dice one or two stems of celery, depending on the size, and place the diced pieces on top of the watercress or the lettuce. Pour over each serving about 2 teaspoonfuls of French dressing made as follows:

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