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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1 - Volume 1: Essentials of Cookery; Cereals; Bread; Hot Breads
by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences
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73. The burners of kerosene stoves are lighted by applying a match, just as the burners of a gas stove are lighted. In some stoves, especially those of the wickless type, the burners are so constructed that the flame can rise to only a certain height. This is a good feature, as it prevents the flame from gradually creeping up and smoking, a common occurrence in an oil stove. The kerosene-stove flame that gives the most heat, consumes the least fuel, and produces the least soot and odor is blue in color. A yellow flame, which is given off in some stoves, produces more or less soot and consequently makes it harder to keep the stove clean. Glass containers are better than metal containers, because the water that is always present in small quantities in kerosene is apt to rust the metal container and cause it to leak. To prevent the accumulation of dirt, as well as the disagreeable odor usually present when an oil stove is used, the burners should be removed frequently and boiled in a solution of washing soda; also, if a wick is used, the charred portion should be rubbed from it, but not cut, as cutting is liable to make it give off an uneven flame.



ELECTRIC STOVES AND UTENSILS

74. ELECTRIC STOVES. Electric stoves for cooking have been perfected to such an extent that they are a great convenience, and in places where the cost of electricity does not greatly exceed that of gas they are used considerably. In appearance, electric stoves are very similar to gas stoves, as is shown in Fig. 9, which illustrates an electric stove of the usual type. The oven a is located at one side and contains a broiler pan b. On top of this stove are openings for cooking, into which fit lids c that have the appearance of ordinary stove lids, but are in reality electrical heating units, called hotplates. Heat for cooking is supplied by a current of electricity that passes through the hotplates, as well as through similar devices in the oven, the stove being connected to the supply of electricity at the connection-box d, which is here shown with the cover removed. The heat of the different hotplates and the oven is controlled by several switches e at the front of the stove. Each of these switches provides three degrees of heat—high, medium, and low—and just the amount of heat required for cooking can be supplied by turning the switch to the right point. Below the switches are several fuse plugs f that contain the fuses, which are devices used in electrical apparatus to avoid injury to it in case the current of electricity becomes too great.



It is not absolutely necessary to have flue connections for an electric stove, as such a stove does not require a draft and gives off no products of combustion to be carried away. In fact, one of the favorable points about an electric stove is that it produces no dirt and causes no inconvenience. When the cooking is done, the electricity can be turned off, after which the stove quickly cools. When electricity is used for cooking, cooking utensils, methods, and recipes can be applied in the same ways as when other means of producing heat are employed.



75. SMALL ELECTRIC UTENSILS.—In addition to electric stoves, there are a number of smaller electrical cooking utensils that can be attached to an electric-light socket or a wall socket. Among these are percolators, toasters, hotplates, or grills, chafing dishes, egg poachers, and similar devices. An idea of such utensils for cooking may be formed by referring to Fig. 10, which shows an electric toaster, and Fig. 11, which shows a hotplate, or grill. The toaster is arranged so that bread to be toasted may be placed on each side, as well as on top, of an upright part that gives off heat when the current of electricity is turned on. The grill is so constructed that a pan for cooking may be placed under and on top of the part that gives off heat.

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ESSENTIALS OF COOKERY (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) Give in its full sense the meaning of the term cookery.

(2) How may the housewife control the cost of her foods?

(3) (a) Explain the difference between waste and refuse. (b) To what is leakage in the household due?

(4) What three important matters enter into the problem of purchasing food?

(5) (a) Name the five substances that are found in food, (b) Of what value is a knowledge of these food substances?

(6) (a) What is the function of protein in the body? (b) Mention the principal sources of protein, (c) Explain the effect of heat on foods that contain protein.

(7) (a) With what do carbohydrates supply the body? (b) Mention the two forms of carbohydrates and also some of the foods in which each may be found.

(8) What is a calorie?

(9) Give five reasons for cooking food.

(10) Mention the twelve principal processes employed in the cooking of food.

(11) Describe one method of cooking with: (a) dry heat; (b) moist heat; (c) hot fat.

(12) (a) At what temperature does water boil? (b) How is hard water affected by boiling? (c) Explain the uses of water in cooking.

(13) (a) What generally controls the kind of stove to be used for cooking? (b) Explain how it is possible to keep down the cost of cooking in using fuel.

(14) Mention the best way in which to become familiar with the operation of a stove.

(15) (a) Of what value is gas as a fuel? (b) What kind of gas flame is best for cooking?

(16) Suppose that a gas meter registers 72,500 cubic feet on March 1, and that on April 1 the hand of the left dial is between 7 and 8, that of the middle dial is between 5 and 6, and that of the right dial is at 5. At 90 cents a 1,000 cubic feet, what is the cost of the gas consumed?

(17) (a) How is heat produced in a stove? (b) What is the purpose of the dampers of a stove?

(18) (a) How should the dampers of a coal range be adjusted so as to heat the oven for baking? (b) How should they be adjusted for cooking on top of the stove?

(19) (a) What is the purpose of a mixer on a gas stove? (b) How may a gas stove be kept in good condition?

(20) How may the burners of a kerosene stove be kept clean?

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ESSENTIALS OF COOKERY (PART 2)

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PREPARATION OF FOOD—(Continued)

UTENSILS FOR COOKING

IMPORTANCE OF UTENSILS

1. While success in cooking, as has been pointed out, depends to a considerable extent on the selection of materials and the proper cooking methods, as well as on an understanding of the stove and fuel employed, the importance of the utensils that are to be used must not be overlooked. As is well known, each cooking utensil is fitted to its particular use; in fact, the wrong kind of pan, dish, or other utensil will not bring about the same result as the right one. This does not mean, however, that the housewife must possess a large supply of every kind of utensil, for, really, the expert cook is known by the small number of utensils she uses. Of course, the proper handling of utensils, as well as the right selection of them, will come with experience, but before she starts to cook the beginner should endeavor to plan definitely what must be provided. She should likewise remember that the use of an unnecessary number of utensils not only will increase the labor involved in preparing a dish, but will affect considerably the amount of work required to clear them away and wash them after the cooking is done.

2. The materials of which cooking utensils are made, as well as their shape and size, have also a great bearing on the success with which cooking may be done. As no one material is suitable for all utensils, they are made of various materials, such as wood, tin, glass, enamel, aluminum, sheet iron, and earthenware. In the purchase of a utensil, therefore, it is well to have in mind the use to which the utensil will be put, and then to select one that is made of durable material, that can be easily cleaned, and that will not affect the food that is cooked in it. Likewise, the shape of the utensil should receive consideration, for much depends on it. To be satisfactory, a utensil should be without seams or curved edges, because it is difficult to remove particles of food that collect in such places. A vessel that is hard to wash should be avoided, and one that will tip easily is not desirable, either.

The size of utensils must be determined by the number of persons for whom food is to be cooked, for the amount of food to be prepared indicates whether a large or a small utensil should be selected. On the other hand, the length of time required for foods to cook depends to a large extent on the size and shape of the utensil. When food is to be cooked a long time, a deep vessel with a comparatively small surface exposed for evaporation should be chosen; but for quick cooking, use should be made of a shallow utensil that will allow a great deal of surface to be exposed, as the evaporation will be accomplished more rapidly.

In furnishing a kitchen, it is well to begin with a few essential utensils of the best quality that can be obtained, and then, as needed, to add other well-selected utensils to the equipment.

MATERIALS USED FOR UTENSILS

3. ALUMINUM.—Because of the properties of aluminum, this metal is used extensively for cooking utensils. It is more costly than most of the materials employed for this purpose, but while the first cost of aluminum pans and kettles may seem large, the extra expense is justified by the durability of the utensils. They last much longer than utensils made of many other materials, for when aluminum is hammered and rolled it becomes extremely hard. Some aluminum utensils are very thin, and since they melt and dent very easily they are suitable for only light, careful handling. Although heavier aluminum utensils are more expensive than the lighter ones on account of the metal required and the manufacturing process involved, they are harder and more durable. Cast aluminum is used for large vessels, such as those required in institutions where large quantities of food are cooked and where pots and kettles are subjected to extremely hard wear, but this is the most expensive kind, for in order to make the aluminum hard enough for casting some harder metal must be mixed with it. One of the disadvantages of aluminum is that it is not always easy to clean, but this is overbalanced by the fact that foods do not burn so readily in aluminum utensils as in other kinds, since the heat is evenly distributed by this metal.

4. ENAMEL.—Good enamel cooking utensils are desirable for some purposes and are only moderately expensive. Utensils made of enamel are not so durable as those made of metal, because excessive heat or a sharp blow will cause the enamel to chip. Enamel utensils come in various colors, and all can be kept clean easily, but the gray enamel is considered to be the best for wear.

5. IRON AND STEEL.—Utensils made of iron and steel are usually inexpensive, but some, especially those of iron, are heavy. These metals are used principally for such utensils as frying pans, or skillets, griddles, waffle irons, and kettles for deep-fat frying. Sheet iron makes excellent shallow pans for baking cookies and other cakes, very satisfactory bread pans, and the best kind of pans for omelet and other frying.

6. EARTHENWARE.—A certain number of fairly durable earthenware utensils are necessary in a kitchen equipment. Mixing bowls are usually made of earthenware, as are also casseroles, which are covered dishes used for the baking of foods that require long cooking, and other baking utensils. Meat, fowl, and some vegetables, such as dried beans, are delicious when prepared in a casserole, as very little flavor or food is lost in such a dish.

7. TIN.—The cheapest metal from which cooking utensils are made is tin, but it is not generally used for utensils in which food is to be cooked, because it melts at too low a temperature. Tin is used, however, for such small articles as measures, cutters, apple corers, sieves, strainers, and other things of this kind, and it is especially desirable for them.

8. COPPER.—Before iron was known copper was the principal material for cooking utensils. The chief point in favor of copper is its durability, but utensils made of it are not practical for use in the ordinary kitchen because they are expensive, heavy, and very difficult to keep clean.

9. GLASS.—Utensils made of heavy glassware are much used for cooking. Glass utensils are especially desirable for custards and other dishes that the cook likes to watch while cooking or that are to be served in the baking dish. Glass cooking utensils possess the advantage of retaining the heat well.

10. WOOD.—Certain utensils made of wood are required in a cooking outfit, a molding board of hardwood and a smaller wooden cutting board being particularly necessary in every kitchen. Bowls in which to chop foods, rolling pins, and mixing spoons are usually made of hardwood, and when such wood is used for them they are entirely satisfactory.

LABOR-SAVING DEVICES

11. A LABOR-SAVING DEVICE is any apparatus that will permit a certain piece of work to be accomplished with less exertion than would be necessary to do the same thing without it. A sink and a dustpan are labor-saving devices just as truly as are a bread mixer and a vacuum cleaner, but because a sink and a dustpan are necessities as well, they are not usually thought of as true labor-saving devices. The newer appliances for saving labor are often considered to be quite unnecessary, and indeed some of them are. It is only when such apparatus will, with less labor involved and less time consumed in the process, secure results as good as or better than will another device, and when the cleaning and care of it do not consume so much time and labor as is saved by using it, that it may be considered a true labor-saving device. Each housewife must decide for herself whether the expense of a so-called labor-saving device is greater than the value of the time and strength she would use without such a device.



12. COMMON LABOR-SAVING DEVICES. Every housewife does not have occasion to use all the devices that have been invented to save labor, but a number of these are in such common use, produce such good results, and save so much time and effort that they should be found in every kitchen. Among them is the rotary egg beater shown in Fig. 1 (a). This is so made that one revolution of the wheel to which the crank is attached does about five times as much work as can be done with a fork or with an egg whip, which is shown in (b). Another inexpensive device that is a real help is the potato ricer. This device, one style of which is shown in Fig. 2, is really a press through which any fruit or vegetable can be put to make a puree. It is used considerably for mashing potatoes, as it makes them perfectly smooth and saves considerable time and labor. Still another useful device is the meat chopper, or grinder, which is shown in Fig. 3. Such a device clamped to the edge of a table takes the place of a chopping bowl and knife, and in addition to being more sanitary it permits the work to be done in a shorter time and with less effort. Besides the devices mentioned, there are many small labor-saving devices, such as the apple corer, the berry huller, the mayonnaise mixer, etc., the merits of which every busy housewife will do well to consider.



13. BREAD AND CAKE MIXERS. Where baking is done for only a small number of persons, bread and cake mixers are not indispensable, but they save much labor where baking is done on a large scale. It is comparatively easy, for instance, to knead dough for three or four loaves of bread, but the process becomes rather difficult when enough dough for eight to sixteen loaves must be handled. For large quantities of bread and cake, mixers, when properly used, are labor-saving. In addition, such devices are sanitary, and for this reason they are used in many homes where the bakings are comparatively small.

14. The type of bread mixer in common use is shown in Fig. 4. It consists of a covered tin pail a that may be fastened to the edge of a table by the clamp b. Inside of the pail is a kneading prong c, in the shape of a gooseneck, that is revolved by turning the handle d. The flour and other materials for the dough are put into the pail, and they are mixed and kneaded mechanically by turning the handle.

15. A cake mixer, the usual type of which is shown in Fig. 5, is similar in construction to a bread mixer. Instead of a pail, however, for the dough ingredients, it has a deep pan a, and instead of one kneading prong it has several prongs, which are attached to two arms b, as shown. These arms are revolved by gear-wheels c that fit in a large gearwheel d attached to a shaft e, which is turned by means of a handle f. The large number of mixing prongs in a cake mixer are necessary, because cake dough must be thoroughly stirred and beaten, whereas in bread making the dough must be made to form a compact mass.



16. DISH-WASHING MACHINES.—Although machines for washing dishes are to be had, they are most helpful where large numbers of people are served and, consequently, where great quantities of dishes are to be washed. Such machines are usually large and therefore take up more space than the ordinary kitchen can afford. Likewise the care and cleaning of them require more labor than the washing of dishes for a small family entails. Large quantities of hot water are needed to operate mechanical dish washers, and even where they are installed, the glassware, silver, and cooking utensils must, as a rule, be washed by hand.

17. FIRELESS COOKER.—A device that has proved to be really labor-saving is the fireless cooker, one type of which is shown in Fig. 6. It consists of an insulated box a lined with metal and divided into compartments b, with pans c that fit into them. Hotplates, or stones, as they are sometimes called, are frequently used if the article to be cooked requires them. These stones, which are shown at d, are supported in the compartments by metal racks e, and they are lifted in and out by means of wire handles f.



To use a fireless cooker properly, the food must be cooked for a short time on the stove; then it must be tightly covered and placed in one of the insulated compartments. If hotplates are to be used they must be heated in the same manner. The food loses its heat so gradually in the fireless cooker that the cooking proceeds slowly but effectually. When the previous heating has been sufficient, the food will be cooked and still warm when the cooker is opened hours later. Some articles of food occasionally need reheating during the process. By this method of cooking there is no loss of flavor or food value, and the food usually requires no further attention after being placed in the cooker. It also permits of economy in both fuel and time.

UTENSILS FOR FURNISHING A KITCHEN

18. As a guide in purchasing equipment for a kitchen, a list of utensils is here presented. This list is divided into utensils that are necessary and those that are convenient and only at times necessary. In any case, however, the number of utensils and the size must be determined by the quantity of food that is to be prepared.

NECESSARY EQUIPMENT

Baking dish with cover Bread box Bread knife Bread pans Can opener Cake knife Chopping bowl and knife or food chopper Coffee mill Coffee pot Colander Cookie cutter Corer, Apple Cutting board Dishpan Double boiler Egg beater Flour sifter Forks Frying pan, large Frying pan, small Garbage can Grater Kettle covers Kettles, two or more Knife sharpener Knives Lemon squeezer Long-handled fork Measuring cup Meat board Meat knife Mixing bowls Mixing spoons Molding board Muffin pan Paring knife Pepper shaker Pie pans Potato masher Rinsing, or draining, pan Roasting pan Rolling pin Salt box Saucepans Spatula Tablespoons Teakettle Teapot Teaspoons Toaster Wire strainer Wooden spoon

CONVENIENT EQUIPMENT

Bread mixer Cake coolers Cake mixer Cake turner Casseroles Clock Coffee percolator Containers for spices and dry groceries Cookie sheets Cream whip Egg whip Fireless cooker Frying kettle and basket Funnel Glass jars for canning Griddle Ice-cream freezer Ice pick Jelly molds Nest of bowls Pan for baking fish Potato knife Potato ricer Ramekins Quart measure Scales Scissors Set of skewers Steamer Waffle iron Wheel cart

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GETTING FOODS READY FOR COOKING

PRELIMINARY PREPARATION

19. Before foods that require cooking are cooked or before foods that are to be eaten raw are served, they must be properly prepared, for their palatability and their value as food depend considerably on the way in which they are made ready for cooking or for eating. Of course, the way in which food should be prepared will depend on how it is to be served, but in any event all foods, for the sake of cleanliness, must first be washed with water or wiped with a clean, damp cloth.

20. The ways in which vegetables and fruits are made ready for cooking vary. Sometimes such foods are cooked with the skins on, and sometimes certain vegetables, such as new potatoes, young carrots and parsnips, vegetable oysters, etc., are made ready in an economical way by scraping off their skins with a knife. Vegetables are also peeled, and when this is done a very sharp knife with a thin blade should be used and as little of the food removed as possible. Still another way of removing the skins of such foods as tomatoes, nuts, and some fruits is by blanching. In this process, the skins are loosened so that they may be removed easily, either by immersing the foods in boiling water or by pouring boiling water over them and allowing them to stand in the water for a few minutes, but not long enough to soften them. Blanching used in this sense should not be confused with the same word when it means "to take color out" and has reference to a process of bleaching. Only when the word means "to remove the covering of" can it be applied to the peeling of tomatoes, fruits, and nuts. Vegetables and fruits may be cooked whole or they may be cut into chunks, or pieces, or into slices.

21. In order to get meats ready for cooking, it is necessary to wipe them clean and usually to trim off all unnecessary bone, fat, and skin. Meats may be cooked in large pieces or small pieces or they may be ground, depending on the cooking process to be used. Before cooking poultry and fish, they should be thoroughly cleaned and then trimmed and cut to suit the cooking process chosen. If desired, the bones may be removed from poultry or fish before cooking, and sometimes it is advantageous to do so. Cream and raw eggs may be whipped or beaten light before they are served or cooked, and after such foods as fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish have been cooked, they may be sliced, chopped, ground, mashed, or cut into dice, or small pieces.

MIXING OF FOOD INGREDIENTS

22. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MIXING.—In cookery, the mixing of ingredients is done for several purposes—to produce a certain texture, to give a smoothness or creaminess to a mixture, or to impart lightness. Various processes are involved in the mixing of ingredients, and the results that are accomplished depend entirely on the method that is selected. The most important of these processes with brief explanations of what they mean follow.

BEATING is a rapid motion that picks up material from the bottom and mixes it with that nearer the surface. It is done with a spoon, a fork, an egg whip, or, if the mixture is thin, with a rotary egg beater. Sometimes beating is done for the purpose of incorporating air and thus making the mixture light.

STIRRING is usually done with a spoon, and is accomplished by moving the spoon in circles, around and around, through ingredients contained in a pan or a bowl. This is the method that is generally applied to the simple mixing of ingredients.

FOLDING is a careful process whereby beaten egg or whipped cream is added to a mixture without destroying its lightness. It is accomplished by placing the egg or cream on top of a mixture in a bowl or a pan, and then passing a spoon down through both and bringing up a spoonful of the mixture and placing it on top. This motion is repeated until the two are well blended, but this result should be accomplished with as few strokes as possible.

RUBBING is done by pressing materials against the side of a bowl with the back of a spoon. This is the process that is applied when butter and other fats are to be mixed with such dry ingredients as sugar and flour.

CREAMING consists in continuing the rubbing process until the texture becomes soft and smooth and is of a creamy consistency.

CUTTING-IN is a method used to combine butter with flour when it is desired to have the butter remain hard or in small pieces. It is done by chopping the butter into the flour with a knife.

SIFTING is shaking or stirring material through a sifter having a fine wire mesh. It is done to remove foreign or coarse material, to impart lightness, or to mix dry ingredients together.

RICING is a process whereby certain cooked foods, such as fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish, may be reduced to the form of a puree. This result is accomplished by forcing the cooked material through a ricer.

23. APPLICATION OF MIXING PROCESSES.—In applying the various mixing processes, it is well to bear in mind that good results depend considerably on the order of mixing, as well as on the deftness and thoroughness with which each process is performed. This fact is clearly demonstrated in a cake in which the butter and sugar have not been actually creamed, for such a cake will not have the same texture as one in which the creaming has been done properly. It is also shown in angel food or sunshine cake, for the success of such a cake depends largely on the skill employed in folding in the whites of eggs or in beating the yolks. On the other hand, the lightness of pastry and the tenderness of cookies depend on how each is rolled out, and the kneading of bread is a process that demonstrates that many things can be learned by actually doing them.

As progress is made with these cookery lessons, therefore, the application of the mixing processes should not be overlooked. Beginners in cookery, owing possibly to the fact that at first they cannot handle soft material skilfully, are liable to make the mistake of getting the ingredients too stiff. Yet no beginner need feel the least bit discouraged, for ability in this direction comes with experience; indeed, just as skill in sewing, embroidering, and other processes comes about by practice and persistent effort, so will come skill in cooking.

MEASURING

24. Uniform results in cookery depend on accurate measurement. Of course, there are some cooks—and good ones, too—who claim that they do not measure, but as a matter of fact they have, through long experience, developed a judgment, or "sense," of measurement, which amounts to the same thing as if they actually did measure. Still, even these cooks cannot be absolutely sure of securing as satisfactory results time after time as are likely to follow the employment of a more accurate method. Therefore, to secure the best results, every kitchen should be supplied with the proper measuring utensils, which are scales, a measuring cup, and a set of measuring spoons, or a standard tablespoon and a standard teaspoon.



25. SCALES.—In Fig. 7 is shown the type of scales generally included in the kitchen equipment. The material to be weighed is placed on the platform at the top, and the weight of it is indicated on the dial by a pointer, or hand. Sometimes these scales are provided with a scoop in which loose materials may be placed in weighing. Such scales furnish a correct means not only of measuring materials, but of verifying the weights of foods from the market, the butcher shop, or the grocery. To use them properly, the housewife should learn to balance them exactly, and when she is weighing articles she should always allow for the weight of the container or receptacle, even if it is only the paper that holds the food.



26. MEASURING CUPS.—Weighing the articles called for in a recipe is often a less convenient method than measuring; therefore, in the preparation of foods, measuring is more often resorted to than weighing. As accuracy in measurement is productive of the best results, it is necessary that all measures be as accurate and definite as possible. For measuring the ingredients called for in recipes, use is generally made of a measuring cup like that shown in Fig. 8. Such a cup is designed to hold 2 gills, or 1/2 pint, and it is marked to indicate thirds and quarters, so that it may be used for recipes of all kinds. If a liquid is to be measured with such a cup, it should be filled to the brim, but if dry material is to be measured with it, the material should be heaped up in the cup with a spoon and then scraped level with a knife, in the manner shown in Fig. 9. In case fractions or parts of a cup are to be measured, the cup should be placed level and stationary and then filled evenly to the mark indicated on the cup itself.

27. Many times it will be found more convenient to measure dry materials with a spoon. This can be done with accuracy if it is remembered that 16 tablespoonfuls make 1 cup, or 1/2 pint; 12 tablespoonfuls, 3/4 cup; 8 tablespoonfuls, 1/2 cup; and 4 tablespoonfuls, 1/4 cup. If no measuring cup like the one just described is at hand, one that will hold 16 level tablespoonfuls of dry material may be selected from the kitchen supply of dishes. Such a cup, however, cannot be used successfully in measuring a half, thirds, or fourths; for such measurements it will be better to use a spoon.



As a rule, it will be found very convenient to have two measuring cups of standard size, one for measuring dry ingredients and the other for measuring moist or wet ones. If it is impossible to have more than one, the dry materials should be measured first in working out a recipe, and the fats and liquids afterwards. Whatever plan of measuring is followed, however, it should always be remembered that recipes are written for the definite quantities indicated and mean standard, not approximate, cupfuls, tablespoonfuls, and teaspoonfuls.

28. MEASURING SPOONS.—In addition to a measuring cup or two, a set of measuring spoons will be found extremely convenient in a kitchen. However, if it is impossible to obtain such a set, a teaspoon and a tablespoon of standard size will answer for measuring purposes. Three level teaspoonfuls are equal to 1 tablespoonful. When a spoon is used, it is heaped with the dry material and then leveled with a knife, in the manner shown in Fig. 10 (a). If 1/2 spoonful is desired, it is leveled first, as indicated in (a), and then marked through the center with a knife and half of its contents pushed off, as shown in (b). Fourths and eighths are measured in the same way, as is indicated in Fig. 11 (a), but thirds are measured across the bowl of the spoon, as in (b).



29. Precautions to Observe in Measuring.—In measuring some of the materials used in the preparation of foods, certain points concerning them should receive attention. For instance, all powdered materials, such as flour, must first be sifted, as the amount increases upon sifting, it being definitely known that a cupful of unsifted flour will measure about 1-1/4 cupfuls after it is sifted. Lumps, such as those which form in salt and sugar, should be thoroughly crushed before measuring; if this is not done, accurate measurements cannot be secured, because lumps of such ingredients are more compact than the loose material. Butter and other fats should be tightly packed into the measure, and if the fat is to be melted in order to carry out a recipe, it should be melted before it is measured. Anything measured in a cup should be poured into the cup; that is, the cup should not be filled by dipping it into the material nor by drawing it through the material.



30. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.—As foods are sold by weight and by measure, and as recipes always call for certain weights and measures, it is absolutely necessary that every person engaged in the purchase and preparation of foods should be familiar with the tables of weights and measures in common use for such purposes in the United States and practically all other English-speaking countries. In addition, it will be well to have a knowledge of relative weights and measures, so as to be in a position to use these tables to the best advantage.

31. The table used ordinarily for weighing foods is the table of AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Another table of weights, called the table of Troy weight, is used by goldsmiths and jewelers for weighing precious metals. It should not be confused with avoirdupois weight, however, because its pound contains only 12 ounces, whereas the avoirdupois pound contains 16 ounces. The table of avoirdupois weight, together with the abbreviations of the terms used in it, is as follows:

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT 437-1/2 grains (gr.)..... = 1 ounce............. oz. 16 ounces................ = 1 pound............. lb. 100 pounds............... = 1 hundredweight..... cwt. 20 hundredweight }....... = 1 ton............... T. 2,000 pounds /

Although 2,000 pounds make 1 ton, it is well to note that 2,240 pounds make 1 long ton (L.T.). The long ton is used by coal dealers in some localities, but the ton, sometimes called the short ton, is in more general use and is the one meant unless long ton is specified.

32. The table of LIQUID MEASURE is used for measuring all liquids, and is extremely useful to the housewife. This table, together with the abbreviations of its terms, is as follows:

LIQUID MEASURE 4 gills (gi.)........... = 1 pint................. pt. 2 pints................. = 1 quart................ qt. 4 quarts................ = 1 gallon............... gal. 31-1/2 gallons.......... = 1 barrel............... bbl. 2 barrels }............ = 1 hogshead............. hhd. 63 gallons/

33. The table of DRY MEASURE is used for measuring dry foods, such as potatoes, dried peas and beans, etc. The table of dry measure, with its abbreviations, follows:

DRY MEASURE 2 pints (pt.)........... = 1 quart................ qt. 8 quarts................ = 1 peck................. pk. 4 pecks................. = 1 bushel............... bu.

34. Tables of RELATIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are of value to the housewife in that they will assist her greatly in coming to an understanding of the relation that some of the different weights and measures bear to one another. For example, as dry foods are sold by the pound in some localities, it will be well for her to know the approximate equivalent in pounds of a definite quantity of another measure, say a quart or a bushel of a certain food. Likewise, she ought to know that when a recipe calls for a cupful it means 1/2 pint, as has been explained. Every one is familiar with the old saying, "A pint's a pound the world around," which, like many old sayings, is not strictly true, for while 1 pint is equal to 1 pound of some things, it is not of others. The following tables give approximately the relative weights and measures of most of the common foods:

APPROXIMATE MEASURE OF 1 POUND OF FOOD

Beans, dried.................. 2 CUPFULS Butter........................ 2 Coffee, whole................. 4 Corn meal..................... 3 Flour......................... 4 Milk.......................... 2 Molasses...................... 1-1/2 Meat, chopped, finely packed.. 2 Nuts, shelled................. 3 Oats, rolled.................. 4 Olive oil..................... 2-1/2 Peas, split................... 2 Raisins....................... 3 Rice.......................... 2 Sugar, brown.................. 2-2/3 Sugar, granulated............. 2 Sugar, powdered............... 2-3/4

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 1 TABLESPOONFUL OF FOOD

Butter........................ 1/2 OUNCE Corn starch................... 3/8 Flour......................... 1/4 Milk.......................... 1/2 Sugar......................... 1/2

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 1 CUPFUL OF FOOD

Butter........................ 8 OUNCES Corn meal..................... 5 Corn starch................... 6 Flour......................... 4 Milk.......................... 8 Molasses..................... 10 Nuts, shelled................. 4 Raisins....................... 5 Sugar......................... 8

In measuring, you will find the following relative proportions of great assistance:

3 tsp. = 1 Tb. 16 Tb. = 1 c.

35. ABBREVIATIONS OF MEASURES.—In order to simplify directions and recipes in books relating to cookery, it is customary to use the abbreviations of some weights and measures. Those which occur most frequently in cook books are the following:

tsp. for teaspoonful pt. for pint Tb. for tablespoonful qt. for quart c. for cupful oz. for ounce lb. for pound

ORDER OF WORK

36. For successful results in cookery, the work to be done should be planned beforehand and then carried on with systematic care. By following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be prevented and good results will be secured, for there will be little chance for mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will serve to make clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried out satisfactorily.

First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe, and study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive and whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in size for the number of persons to be served. If they are too large, carefully divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too small, multiply them to make them enough.

The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking, should receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is coal or wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough before it is needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily.

Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be baked, regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used, light it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring and mixing of the ingredients.

Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space for the utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the various operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared space, place the necessary measuring utensils, such as a measuring cup, a knife, a teaspoon, and a tablespoon. Select a bowl or a pan for mixing, a spoon for stirring, and, when needed, an egg whip or beater for eggs and separate bowls in which to beat them. Choose the utensil in which the mixture is to be cooked, and, if necessary, grease it. During the process of preparing the dish, measure accurately all the ingredients to be used, and check them up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none are missing and that each one is in its proper amount.

If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all the ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last step, the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the utmost care, or an otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.

TABLE FOR COOKING FOODS

37. So that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of the length of time required to cook certain foods, there is presented here what is commonly known as a cookery time table. It should be remembered that the time required to cook food is influenced by many factors. For instance, the age of vegetables and fruits very largely determines how long they should be cooked; tough meats and fowl require longer cooking than tender ones; and the heat of the oven has much to do with the length of time required for cooking, especially the process of baking or roasting Therefore, while this time table will prove of great help to beginners, it can serve only as a guide. To determine whether or not foods have been cooked long enough, it is advisable to apply the proper tests, which are given later in discussing the various foods rather than to depend solely on the time table. In this table, the length of time for cooking is given in minutes (abbreviated min.) and hours (abbreviated hr.)

COOKERY TIME TABLE

MEATS AND FISH

Broiled Bacon....................... 3 to 5 min. Chicken.................... 20 to 25 min. Fish....................... 15 to 20 min. Fish, slices............... 10 to 15 min. Fish, very small............ 5 to 10 min. Lamb chops.................. 6 to 8 min. Quail or squabs............. 8 to 10 min. Steak, thick............... 10 to 15 min. Steak, thin................. 5 to 7 min. Veal chops.................. 6 to 10 min.

Boiled Beef, corned................ 3 to 4 hr. Chicken, 3 lb............... 1 to 1-1/4 hr. Fish, bluefish, cod, or bass, 4 to 5 lb.......... 20 to 30 min. Fish, slices, 2 to 3 lb.... 20 to 25 min. Fish, small................ 10 to 15 min. Fowl, 4 to 5 lb............. 2 to 3 hr. Ham, 12 to 14 lb............ 4 to 5 hr. Mutton, leg of.............. 2 to 3 hr. Tongue...................... 3 to 4 hr.

Roasted Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb., rare....................... 1 hr. 5 min. Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb., well done.................. 1 hr. 20 min. Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb., rare....................... 1 hr. 30 min. Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb., well done.................. 2 hr. Beef, rump, 10 lb., rare... 1 hr. 30 min. Beef, rump, 10 lb., well done.. 2 hr. Chicken, 4 or 5 lb........ 1-1/2 to 2 hr. Duck, 5 to 6 lb........... 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr. Fish, 3 to 5 lb........... 45 to 60 min. Fish, small............... 20 to 30 min. Goose, 10 lb.............. 2 to 2-1/2 hr. Lamb, leg of.............. 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hr. Mutton, saddle............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr. Pork, rib, 5 lb........... 2 to 2-1/2 hr. Turkey, 10 lb............. 2-1/2 to 3 hr.

VEGETABLES

Boiled Asparagus.............. 20 to 30 min. Beans, lima or shell.... 40 to 60 min. Beans, string.......... 30 to 45 min. Beets, old............... 4 to 6 hr. Beets, young........... 45 to 60 min. Brussels sprouts....... 15 to 25 min. Cabbage................ 35 to 60 min. Carrots............... 3/4 to 2 hr. Cauliflower............. 20 to 30 min. Green corn............... 8 to 12 min. Macaroni................ 30 to 40 min. Onions.................. 45 to 60 min. Peas.................... 25 to 60 min. Potatoes................ 30 to 45 min. Rice.................... 20 to 30 min. Spinach................. 20 to 30 min. Turnips................ 1/2 to 1-1/2 hr. Vegetable oysters...... 3/4 to 1-1/2 hr.

BAKED FOODS Beans..................... 6 to 8 hr. Biscuits, baking powder ... 15 to 25 min. Biscuits, yeast........... 10 to 25 min. Bread, ginger............. 20 to 30 min. Bread, loaf............... 40 to 60 min. Cake, corn................ 20 to 30 min. Cake, fruit............ 1-1/4 to 2 hr. Cake, layer............... 15 to 20 min. Cake, loaf................ 40 to 60 min. Cake, pound............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr. Cake, sponge.............. 45 to 60 min. Cookies.................... 6 to 10 min. Custard................... 20 to 45 min. Muffins, baking powder.... 15 to 25 min. Pastry.................... 30 to 45 min. Potatoes.................. 45 to 60 min. Pudding, Indian............ 2 to 3 hr. Pudding, rice (poor man's). 2 to 3 hr.

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CARE OF FOOD

REASONS FOR CARE

38. Although, as has been explained, the selection and preparation of foods require much consideration from the housewife who desires to get good results in cookery, there is still one thing to which she must give attention if she would keep down the cost of living, and that is the care of food. Unless food is properly taken care of before it is cooked, as well as after it is cooked—that is, the left-overs—considerable loss is liable to result through its spoiling or decaying. Both uncooked and cooked food may be kept wholesome in several ways, but before these are discussed it may be well to look into the causes of spoiling. With these causes understood, the methods of caring for foods will be better appreciated, and the results in buying, storing, and handling foods will be more satisfactory.

39. To come to a knowledge of why foods spoil, it will be well to note that nature abounds in micro-organisms, or living things so minute as to be invisible to the naked eye. These micro-organisms are known to science as microbes and germs, and they are comprised of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, a knowledge of which is of the utmost importance to the physician and the farmer, as well as the housewife. Just in what ways these are beneficial to the farmer and the physician is beyond the scope of the subject of cookery, but in the household their influence is felt in three ways: They are the cause of the decay and spoiling of foods; they are of value in the preparation of certain foods; and they are the cause of contagious diseases. It will thus be seen that while some microbes are undesirable, others exert a beneficial action.

40. It is only within comparatively recent years that the action of micro-organisms has been understood. It is now definitely known that these minute living things seize every possible chance to attack articles of food and produce the changes known as fermentation, putrefaction, souring, and decay. Micro-organisms that cause fermentation are necessary in bread making and vinegar making, but they are destructive to other foods, as, for example, those which are canned or preserved. Organisms that cause putrefaction are needed in the making of sauer kraut, salt rising bread, and cheese. Molds also help to make cheese, but neither these nor putrefactive organisms are desirable for foods other than those mentioned. It should be remembered, however, that even those foods which require micro-organisms in their making are constantly in danger of the attacks of these small living things, for unless something is done to retard their growth they will cause food to sour or decay and thus become unfit for consumption.

Some foods, of course, withstand the attacks of micro-organisms for longer periods of time than others. For example, most fruits that are protected by an unbroken skin will, under the right conditions, keep for long periods of time, but berries, on account of having less protective covering, spoil much more quickly. Likewise, vegetables without skins decay faster than those with skins, because they have no protective covering and contain more water, in which, as is definitely known, most micro-organisms thrive.

41. If food is to be kept from decaying, the housewife must endeavor to prevent the growth of micro-organisms, and she can best accomplish this if she is familiar with the ways in which they work. It is for this reason that, whether she possesses a scientific knowledge of bacteria or not, an understanding of some practical facts concerning why food spoils and how to keep it from decaying is imperative. In this part of cookery, as in every other phase, it is the reason why things should be done that makes all that relates to the cooking of food so interesting. In all parts of the work there are scientific facts underlying the processes, and the more the housewife learns about these, the more she can exercise the art of cookery, which, like all other arts, depends on scientific principles.

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METHODS OF CARE

CLASSIFICATION

42. As has been pointed out, it is not the mere presence of micro-organisms that causes the spoiling of food, but their constant growth. Therefore, to keep milk from souring, meat from spoiling, bread from molding, canned fruit from fermenting, and so on, it is necessary to know what will prevent the growth of these minute organisms. Different foods require different treatment. Some foods must be kept very cold, some must be heated or cooked, others must be dried, and to others must be added preservatives. An unwarrantable prejudice has been raised in the minds of many persons against the use of preservatives, but this is due to the fact that the term is not properly understood. In this use, it means anything that helps to preserve or keep safe the food to which it is added. Sugar, salt, spices, and vinegar are all preservatives, and are added to food as much for the purpose of preserving it as for seasoning it.

CANNING AND DRYING OF FOODS

43. Among the common methods of caring for foods that are to be used at a future time are canning and drying. CANNING, which is discussed fully in another Section, consists in preserving sterile foods in sealed cans or jars. The aim in canning is to prevent the growth of micro-organisms, and to do this the process known as sterilizing—that is, the destroying of bacteria and other micro-organisms by means of heat—is resorted to. Canning theories are different now from what they were in former times. For example, housewives formerly made heavy, rich preserves of available fruits because it was thought that sugar must be used in large quantities in order to keep or prevent them from spoiling. While it is true that the sugar assisted, science has since proved that sterilizing is what must be done, so that now only the sugar desired for sweetening need be used.

44. The other method of keeping food, namely, DRYING, depends for its success on the fact that such micro-organisms as bacteria cannot grow unless they have a considerable quantity of moisture or water. Molds grow on cheese, bread, damp cloth or paper, or articles that contain only a small amount of moisture, but bacteria need from 20 to 30 per cent. of water in food in order to grow and multiply. This explains why in high altitudes and dry climates foods keep for a long time without artificial means of preservation. It also explains why the old-fashioned housekeeper dried fruits and why the preservation of certain meats is accomplished by the combined methods of smoking and drying, the creosote of the smoke given off from the wood used in this process acting as a preservative. All the grains, which are very dry, keep for long periods of time, even centuries, if they are protected from the moisture of the air. Peas, beans, and lentils, as well as dried biscuits and crackers, are all examples of how well food will keep when little or no moisture is present.

KEEPING FOODS WITH ICE

45. Although, as has just been pointed out, moisture is required for the growth of some micro-organisms, both moisture and warmth are necessary for the growth of most of the organisms that cause molding, putrefaction, and fermentation. It is definitely known, also, that in winter or in cold climates food can be kept for long periods of time without any apparent change; in fact, the lower the temperature the less likely are foods to spoil, although freezing renders many of them unfit for use. These facts are what led up to the scientific truth that keeping foods dry and at a low temperature is an effective and convenient method of preventing them from spoiling and to the invention of the refrigerator and other devices and methods for the cold storage of foods.

46. THE REFRIGERATOR.—For home use, the refrigerator offers the most convenient means of keeping foods in good condition. As is well known, it is a device that, by means of air cooled by the melting of ice or in some other manner, keeps food at a temperature near the freezing point. All refrigerators are constructed in a similar manner, having two or more layers of wood between which is placed an insulating material, such as cork, asbestos, or mineral wool. The food compartments are lined with tile, zinc, or other rust-proof material, and the ice compartment is usually lined with rust-proof metal, so as to be water-tight and unbreakable. Any refrigerator may be made to serve the purpose of preserving food effectively if it is well constructed, the ice chamber kept as full of ice as possible, and the housewife knows how to arrange the foods in the food chambers to the best advantage.

The construction and use of refrigerators are based on the well-known scientific fact that air expands and rises when it becomes warm. This can be proved by testing the air near the ceiling of a room, for no matter how warm it is near the floor it will always be warmer above. The same thing occurs in a refrigerator. As air comes in contact with the ice, it is cooled and falls, and the warm air is forced up. Thus the air is kept in constant motion, or circulation.



47. Many refrigerators are built with the ice compartment on one side, as in the refrigerator illustrated in Fig. 12. In such refrigerators, there is usually a small food compartment directly under the ice chamber, and this is the coldest place in the refrigerator. Here should be stored the foods that need special care or that absorb odors and flavors readily, such as milk, butter, cream, meat, etc., because at this place the air, which circulates in the manner indicated by the arrow, is the purest. The foods that give off odors strong enough to taint others should be kept on the upper shelves of the refrigerator, through which the current of air passes last before being freed from odors by passing over the ice.

48. In Fig. 13 is shown a type of refrigerator in which the ice chamber, or compartment, extends across the entire top. This type is so built as to produce on each side a current of air that passes down from the ice at the center and back up to the ice near the outside walls, as shown by the arrows. A different arrangement is required for the food in this kind of refrigerator, those which give off odors and flavors being placed in the bottom compartment, or farthest from the ice, and those which take up odors and flavors, on the top shelf, or nearest the ice. A careful study of both Figs. 12 and 13 is advised, for they show the best arrangement of food in each type of refrigerator.



49. CARE OF FOOD IN REFRIGERATOR.—The proper placing of foods in a refrigerator is extremely important, but certain precautions should be taken with regard to the food itself. Cooked foods should never be placed in the refrigerator without first allowing them to cool, for the steam given off when a dish of hot food comes in contact with the cold air makes the refrigerator damp and causes an undue waste of ice by warming the air. All dishes containing food should be wiped dry and carefully covered before they are placed in the refrigerator, so as to keep unnecessary moisture out of it. As butter and milk are likely to become contaminated with odors given off by other foods, they should be properly protected if there is not a separate compartment in which to keep them. The milk bottles should always be closed and the butter carefully wrapped or put in a covered receptacle. Onions, cabbage, and other foods with strong odors, when placed in the refrigerator, should be kept in tightly closed jars or dishes, so that the odors will not escape. Before fresh fruits and perishable vegetables—that is, vegetables that decay easily—are put into the refrigerator, they should be carefully looked over and all decayed portions removed from them. No food should be placed in the ice chamber, because this will cause the ice to melt unnecessarily.

50. CARE OF THE REFRIGERATOR.—It is essential that all parts of the refrigerator be kept scrupulously clean and as dry as possible. To accomplish this, nothing should be allowed to spoil in it, and anything spilled in the refrigerator should be cleaned out immediately. The foods that are left over should be carefully inspected every day, and anything not likely to be used within a day or so should be disposed of. At least once a week the food should be removed from all compartments, the racks taken out, the drain pipe disconnected, and each part thoroughly washed, rinsed with boiling water, and dried. The inside of the refrigerator should likewise be washed, rinsed, and wiped dry, after which the drain pipe should be connected, the shelves put back in place, and the food replaced.

The ice chamber of the refrigerator should also be cleaned frequently, the best time to do this being when the ice has melted enough to be lifted out conveniently. To prevent the ice from melting rapidly when it is out of the refrigerator, it may be wrapped in paper or a piece of old blanket, but this covering must be removed when the ice is replaced in the chamber, in order to allow the ice to melt in the refrigerator. Otherwise, it would be impossible to chill the refrigerator properly, the temperature remaining the same as that outside, for it is as the ice gradually melts that the air in the refrigerator becomes cool. Of course, every effort should be made to keep the ice from wasting. Therefore, while the refrigerator should be kept in a convenient place, it should not be exposed to too great heat; also, the doors should be kept tightly closed, and, as has already been explained, hot foods should not be put in until they are sufficiently cooled. Attention must be given to the care of the refrigerator, for only when it is clean and dry can the growth of bacteria that attack foods be prevented.

KEEPING FOODS WITHOUT ICE

51. While a refrigerator simplifies the preserving of cooked foods and those subject to quick decay, there are many communities in which it is not possible to procure ice conveniently, thus making it necessary to adopt some other means of keeping food. Then, too, there are generally quantities of foods, such as winter vegetables, apples, etc., that cannot be stored in a refrigerator, but must be taken care of properly. In such cases, the method of storing depends to a certain extent on conditions. On many farms there are spring houses in which foods may be stored in order to keep them cool during very warm weather; but in the majority of homes, the cellar, on account of its being cool, is utilized for the storage of large quantities of food and even for keeping the more perishable foods when ice cannot be obtained.



52. STORING FOODS IN CELLARS.—In order that a cellar may furnish a safe place for keeping food, it must be well built and properly cared for. If it is dug in wet ground and is not well drained, it will become musty and damp, and fruits and vegetables stored in it will be attacked by mold. A small part of the cellar should be without a floor, as many winter vegetables seem to keep better when placed on dry ground, but the remainder should have a flooring of either well-matched boards or cement that can be kept clean and dry. Ventilation must also be supplied; otherwise, odors will be retained that will taint the food kept in the cellar. To allow the passage of air and light from the outside and thus secure proper ventilation, the cellar should be provided with windows. These will also assist very much in the cleaning and airing of the cellar, processes that should never be overlooked if good results are desired. In addition to the cleaning of the cellar, constant attention should be given to the foods kept there. Foods that have spoiled or are beginning to spoil should be disposed of quickly, for decayed food that is not removed from the cellar will affect the conditions for keeping other foods and may be injurious to the health of the family.



53. All foods likely to be contaminated by dust and flies in the cellar must be carefully covered. A screened frame fastened to the wall with brackets, like the one shown in Fig. 14, is excellent for this purpose, because it prevents the attack of vermin and permits of ventilation. If canned goods are to be stored, a cellar cupboard like that shown in Fig. 15 is a very good place in which to keep them. Separate bins should, if possible, be provided for fruits, potatoes, and other winter vegetables, and, as shown in Fig. 16, such bins should be so built as to allow air to pass through them.



54. WINDOW BOXES.—The woman who lives in an apartment where there is no cellar and who does not wish to keep ice in the refrigerator through the winter will find a window box a very good device in which to keep food. Such a box is also a convenience for the woman who has a cellar, but wishes to save steps. A box of this kind is built to fit a kitchen or a pantry window, and is placed outside of the window, so that the opening comes toward the room. Such an arrangement, which is illustrated in Fig. 17, will make the contents of the box easily accessible when the window is raised. A box for this purpose may be made of wood or galvanized iron, and it is usually supported by suitable brackets. Its capacity may be increased by building a shelf in it half way to the top, and provided it is made of wood, it can be more easily cleaned if it is lined with table oilcloth.



STORING OF NON-PERISHABLE FOODS

55. It may seem unnecessary to give much attention to the storing of foods that do not spoil easily, but there are good reasons why such foods require careful storage. They should be properly cared for to prevent the loss of flavor by exposure to the air, to prevent the absorption of moisture, which produces a favorable opportunity for the growth of molds, and to prevent the attacks of insects and vermin. The best way in which to care for such foods is to store them in tightly closed vessels. Earthenware and glass jars, lard pails, coffee and cocoa cans, all carefully cleaned and having lids to fit, prove to be very satisfactory receptacles for such purposes.

56. Unless coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and prepared cereals are bought in cans or moisture-proof containers, they should be emptied from the original packages and placed in jars that can be tightly closed, so that they will not deteriorate by being exposed to the air or moisture. For convenience and economy, these jars or cans should be labeled. Sugar and salt absorb moisture and form lumps when exposed to the air, and they, too, should be properly kept. A tin receptacle is the best kind for sugar, but for salt an earthenware or glass vessel should be used. It is not advisable to put these foods or any others into cupboards in paper bags, because foods kept in this way make disorderly looking shelves and are easily accessible to vermin, which are always attracted to food whenever it is not well protected.

Canned goods bought in tin cans do not need very careful storage. It is sufficient to keep them in a place dry enough to prevent the cans from rusting. Foods canned in glass, however, should be kept where they are not exposed to the light, as they will become more or less discolored unless they are stored in dark places.

Flour, meals, and cereals stored in quantities develop mold unless they are kept very dry. For the storing of these foods, therefore, wooden bins or metal-lined boxes kept in a dry place are the most satisfactory.

STORING OF SEMIPERISHABLE FOODS

57. Practically all vegetables and fruits with skins may be regarded as semiperishable foods, and while they do not spoil so easily as some foods, they require a certain amount of care. Potatoes are easily kept from spoiling if they are placed in a cool, dry, dark place, such as a cellar, a bin like that shown in Fig. 16 furnishing a very good means for such storage. It is, of course, economical to buy potatoes in large quantities, but if they must be kept under conditions that will permit them to sprout, shrivel, rot, or freeze, it is better to buy only a small quantity at a time. Sweet potatoes may be bought in considerable quantity and kept for some time if they are wrapped separately in pieces of paper and packed so that they do not touch one another.

Carrots, turnips, beets, and parsnips can be kept through the winter in very much the same manner as potatoes. They deteriorate less, however, if they are covered with earth or sand. Sometimes, especially in country districts, such winter vegetables are buried in the ground out of doors, being placed at a depth that renders them safe from the attacks of frost. Cabbage will keep very well if placed in barrels or boxes, but for long keeping, the roots should not be removed. Pumpkin and squash thoroughly matured do not spoil readily if they are stored in a dry place.

Apples and pears may be stored in boxes or barrels, but very fine varieties of these fruits should be wrapped separately in paper. All fruit should be looked over occasionally, and those which show signs of spoiling should be removed.

MENUS AND RECIPES

58. As practically every woman knows, a MENU, or bill of fare, consists of a certain number of dishes given in the order in which they are to be served; likewise, she knows that the dishes called for in a menu must be prepared according to a RECIPE, or receipt, which is the list of ingredients of a mixture giving the exact proportions to be used, together with proper directions for compounding. In all good recipes the items are tabulated in the order in which they are needed, so as to save time and produce good results. Items tabulated in this manner also serve to minimize the danger of omitting some of the ingredients of a recipe, for they can be easily checked up when they are given in the proper order.

59. In preparing recipes, the beginner in cookery usually has difficulty in judging the size of a recipe. The experienced housewife will not follow a recipe exactly when she thinks it will produce more food than she needs to meet the requirements of her family; instead, she will reduce the quantities to suit her wants. Likewise, if a recipe will not provide enough, she will increase the quantities accordingly. Just how to judge whether or not a recipe will make what is wanted comes only with experience, but the beginner may be guided by the fact that it is never wise to prepare more than enough of one kind of dish, unless, of course, it can be used to good advantage as a left-over. On the other hand, if a recipe is for food that can be kept and used for another meal later, it often pays to make up more, so as to save time, fuel, and labor. In any event, it is always advisable to follow explicitly the directions that are given, for if the recipe is of the right kind they will be given so that success will result from carrying them out in detail.

60. In order that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of the manner in which the dishes of a menu, or bill of fare, may be prepared so that they will be ready to serve in their proper order at meal time, there is here given a simple dinner menu, together with the recipes for preparing the dishes called for and the order in which they should be prepared. While these recipes are not intended to teach methods of cookery, which are taken up later, the student is advised to prepare the menu for her own satisfaction and so that she will be able to report on the success she has had with each dish.

MENU

Pan-Broiled Chops Mashed Potatoes Creamed Peas Cabbage Salad Orange Fluff with Sauce

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RECIPES

PAN-BROILED CHOPS

Buy the necessary number of pork, veal, or lamb chops, and proceed to cook them according to the directions previously given for pan broiling. Season with salt and pepper just before removing the chops from the pan.

MASHED POTATOES

Peel the desired number of potatoes, put to cook in a sufficient amount of boiling salted water to cover well, and cook until the potatoes are tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the fire and drain off the water. Mash the potatoes with a wooden or a wire potato masher, being careful to reduce all the particles to a pulpy mass in order to prevent lumps, or put them through a ricer. When sufficiently mashed, season with additional salt, a dash of pepper, and a small piece of butter, and add hot milk until they are thinned to a mushy consistency, but not too soft to stand up well when dropped from a spoon. Then beat the potatoes vigorously with a large spoon until they are light and fluffy.

CREAMED PEAS

Boil until they are soft, two cupfuls of fresh peas in 1 quart of water to which have been added 1 tablespoonful of salt and 2 of sugar, and then drain; or, use 1 can of peas, heat them to the boiling point in their liquid, and then drain. A part of the water in which the fresh peas were cooked or the liquid on the canned peas may be used with an equal amount of milk to make a sauce for the peas, or all milk may be used.

SAUCE FOR PEAS

1 c. of milk, or 1/2 c. liquid from peas and 1/2 c. milk 1 Tb. butter 1/2 tsp. salt 1 Tb. flour

Melt the butter in a saucepan or a double boiler, work in the flour and salt until a smooth paste is formed, and add the liquid that has been heated. Stir until thick and smooth. Add to the peas, reheat, and serve.

CABBAGE SALAD

1/2 medium-sized head of cabbage 1/2 tsp. salt 1 small red or green sweet pepper Dash of pepper 1 small onion Salad dressing

Shred the cabbage finely by cutting across the leaves with a sharp knife or a cabbage shredder. Chop the pepper and onion into very small pieces and add to the cabbage. Mix well and add the salt and pepper.

CABBAGE-SALAD DRESSING

3/4 c. vinegar 1/2 tsp. mustard, if desired 1/4 c. water 1/2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 3 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. flour

Heat the water and the vinegar; melt the butter in a saucepan, add to it the flour, mustard, salt, and sugar, stir until well blended, and then pour in the hot liquid. Cook for a few minutes, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of lumps. Pour over the cabbage while hot; allow it to cool and then serve on plates garnished with lettuce.

ORANGE FLUFF

1/2 c. sugar 1/4 c. orange juice 5 Tb. corn starch 1 Tb. lemon juice Pinch of salt 2 egg whites 1 pt. boiling water

Mix the corn starch and sugar and salt, stir into the boiling water, and cook directly over the fire until the mixture thickens. Continue to cook, stirring constantly for 10 minutes, or place in a double boiler and cook 1/2 hour. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff.

When the corn starch is cooked, remove from the fire and mix thoroughly with the fruit juices. Pour over the beaten egg whites and stir slightly until the eggs and corn starch are mixed. Pour into sherbet glasses or molds wet with cold water and set aside until ready to serve.

SAUCE FOR ORANGE FLUFF

1 Tb. corn starch 3/4 c. boiling water 2 Tb. butter 3/4 c. sugar 2 egg yolks 1/4 c. orange juice 1 Tb. lemon juice

Moisten the corn starch with a little cold water and stir in 1/2 cupful of the boiling water. Cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Cream the butter, add the sugar and egg yolks, beat the mixture with a fork, and add the remaining 1/4 cupful of boiling water. Stir this into the corn starch and cook until the eggs thicken slightly. Remove from the fire and add the orange and lemon juices. Serve cold over the orange fluff.

61. In the preparation of a meal, it is impossible to follow the order of service given in a menu, because of the different lengths of time required to prepare the different dishes. The order in which the menu here given should be prepared will therefore serve to show the way in which other meals may be planned or other menus carried out. Each recipe for this menu is planned to serve six persons, but it can be easily changed in case a different number are to be served. For instance, if there are only four in the family, two-thirds of each ingredient should be used; and if only three, just one-half of each. If eight are to be served, one-third will have to be added to each of the amounts. As has been pointed out, just a little thought will show how other numbers may be provided for.

62. In preparing the foods called for in this menu, the dessert, which is the last thing given, should be prepared first, because time must be allowed for it to cool before serving. In fact, it may be prepared a half day before it is to be served. So as to allow sufficient time to mash the potatoes after they have boiled, they should be made ready to put on the stove about 3/4 hour before the meal is to be served. After the potatoes have been put on to boil, the peas, provided fresh ones are to be used, should be put on to cook, and then the sauce for them should be made. If canned peas are to be used, the sauce should be made after the potatoes have been put on the stove and the peas should be heated and combined with the sauce just before broiling the chops. The cabbage salad may then be prepared, and put in a cool place until it is to be served. The chops should be broiled last, because it is necessary that they be served immediately upon being taken from the fire.

TERMS USED IN COOKERY

63. It is important that every person who is engaged in the preparation of food be thoroughly familiar with the various terms that are used in cookery. Many of these are not understood by the average person, because they are foreign terms or words that are seldom employed in other occupations. However, as they occur frequently in recipes, cook books, menus, etc., familiarity with them will enable one to follow recipes and to make up menus in a more intelligent manner.

In view of these facts, a table of terms that are made use of in cookery is here given, together with definitions of the words and, wherever it has been deemed necessary, with as accurate pronunciations as can be obtained. The terms are given in bold-faced type, and for easy reference are arranged alphabetically. It is recommended that constant use be made of this table, for much of the success achieved in cookery depends on a clear understanding of the words and expressions that are peculiar to this science.

A la; au; aux (ah lah; o; o).—With; dressed in a certain style; as, smelts a la tartare, which means smelts with tartare sauce.

Au gratin (o gra-tang).—Literally, dressed with brown crumbs. In actual practice, also flavored with grated cheese.

Au naturel (o nat-ue-rayl).—A term applied to uncooked vegetables, to indicate that they are served in their natural state without sauce or dressing applied. Potatoes au naturel are served cooked; but unpeeled.

Bechamel (bay-sham-ayl).—A sauce made with white stock and cream or milk-named from a celebrated cook.

Biscuit Glace (bis-kue-ee glah-say).—Ice cream served in glaced shells, sometimes in paper cases.

Bisque.—A thick soup usually made from shellfish or game; also, an ice cream to which finely chopped macaroons have been added.

Bouchees (boosh-ay).—Small patties; literally, a mouthful.

Boudin (boo-dang).—A delicate side dish prepared with forcemeat.

Bouquet of Herbs.—A bouquet consisting of a sprig of parsley, thyme, and sweet marjoram, a bay leaf, and perhaps a stalk of celery, tied firmly together and used as flavoring in a soup or stew. Arranged in this way, the herbs are more easily removed when cooked.

Cafe au Lait (ka-fay o lay).—Coffee with milk.

Cafe Noir (ka-fay nooar).—Black coffee.

Canapes (kan-ap-ay).—Small slices of bread toasted or sauted in butter and spread with a savory paste of meats, fish, or vegetables. They are served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course for lunch or dinner.

Canard (kan-ar).—Duck.

Capers.—Small pickled buds of a European shrub, used in sauces and in seasoning.

Capon.—A male fowl castrated for the purpose of improving the quality of the flesh.

Caramel.—A sirup of browned sugar.

Casserole.—A covered earthenware dish in which foods are cooked.

Champignons (shang-pe-nyong).—The French name for mushrooms.

Chartreuse (shar-truhz).—A preparation of game, meat, fish, etc., molded in jelly and surrounded by vegetables. The name was given to the dish by the monks of the monastery of Chartreuse.

Chiffonade (shif-fong-ad).—Salad herbs finely shredded and then sauted or used in salads.

Chillies.—Small red peppers used in seasoning.

Chives.—An herb allied to the onion family.

Chutney.—An East Indian sweet pickle.

Citron.—The rind of a fruit of the lemon species preserved in sugar.

Collops.—Meat cut in small pieces.

Compote.—Fruit stewed in sirup.

Coquilles (ko-ke-yuh).—Scallop shells in which fish or oysters are sometimes served.

Creole, a la (kray-ol, ah lah).—With tomatoes.

Croustade (kroos-tad).—A thick piece of bread that has been hollowed out and then toasted or fried crisp. The depression is filled with food.

Croutons (kroo-tong).—Bread diced and fried or toasted to serve with or in soup.

Curry.—An East Indian preparation made of hot seeds, spices, and dried herbs.

Demi-Tasse (duh-mee tass).—Literally, a half cup. As commonly used, it refers to a small cup in which after-dinner coffee is served.

Deviled.—Highly seasoned.

Dill.—A plant used for flavoring pickles.

En coquille (ang ko-ke-yuh).—Served in shells.

Entrees (ang-tray).—Small made dishes served with lunch or dinner. They are sometimes served as a course between the main courses of a meal.

Escarole (ays-kar-ol).—A broad-leaved kind of endive.

Farce or Forcemeat.—A mixture of meat, bread, etc., used as stuffing.

Fillets (fe-lay).—Long, thin pieces of meat or fish generally rolled and tied.

Fillet Mignons (fe-lay me-nyong).—Small slices from fillet of beef, served with steak.

Fondant.—Sugar boiled with water and stirred to a heavy paste. It is used for the icing of cake or the making of French candies.

Fondue.—A dish made usually with melted or grated cheese. There are several varieties of this preparation.

Frappe (frap-pay).—Semifrozen.

Fromage (fro-magh).—Cheese.

Glace (glah-say).-Covered with icing; literally, a shining surface.

Glaze.—The juices of meat cooked down to a concentration and used as a foundation for soups and gravies.

Goulash (gool-ash).—A Hungarian beef stew, highly seasoned.

Gumbo.—A dish of food made of young capsules of okra, seasoned with salt and pepper, stewed and then served with melted butter.

Haricot (har-e-ko).—A small bean; a bit; also, a stew in which the meat and vegetables are finely divided.

Homard (ho-mar).—Lobster.

Hors d'oeuvres (or-d'uhvr').—Relishes.

Italiene, a la (e-tal-yang, ah lah).—In Italian style.

Jardiniere (zhar-de-nyayr).—A mixed preparation of vegetables stewed in their own sauce; also, a garnish of various vegetables.

Julienne (zhue-lyayn).—A clear soup with shredded vegetables.

Junket.—Milk jellied by means of rennet.

Kippered.—Dried or smoked.

Larding.—The insertion of strips of fat pork into lean meat. The fat is inserted before cooking.

Lardon.—A piece of salt pork or bacon used in larding.

Legumes.—The vegetables belonging to the bean family; namely, beans, peas, and lentils.

Lentils.—A variety of the class of vegetables called legumes.

Macedoine (mah-say-dooan).—A mixture of green vegetables.

Marinade (mar-e-nad).—A pickle used for seasoning meat or fish before cooking.

Marinate.—To pickle in vinegar or French dressing, as meat or fish is seasoned.

Marrons (ma-rong).—Chestnuts.

Menu.—A bill of fare.

Meringue (muh-rang).—A kind of icing made of white of egg and sugar well beaten.

Mousse (moos).—Ice cream made with whipped cream and beaten egg and frozen without turning.

Nougat (noo-gah).—A mixture of almonds and sugar.

Paprika.—Hungarian sweet pepper ground fine and used as a seasoning. It is less stinging than red or Cayenne pepper.

Pate (pa-tay).—A little pie; a pastry or patty.

Pimiento.—Sweet red peppers used as a vegetable, a salad, or a relish.

Pistachio (pis-ta-shioh).—A pale greenish nut resembling an almond.

Potage (pot-azh).—Soup.

Puree (pue-ray).-A thick soup containing cooked vegetables that have been rubbed through a sieve.

Ragout (ra-goo).—A stew made of meat or meat and vegetables and served with a sauce.

Ramekin.—A preparation of cheese and puff paste or toast, which is baked or browned. This word is sometimes used to designate the dish in which such a mixture is cooked.

Rechauffe (ray-sho-fay).—A warmed-over dish.

Rissoles.—Small shapes of puff paste filled with some mixture and fried or baked. It also refers to balls of minced meat, egged, crumbed, and fried until crisp.

Roux (roo).—Thickening made with butter and flour.

Salmi (sal-mee).—A stew or hash of game.

Salpicon (sal-pee-kong).—Minced poultry, ham, or other meats mixed with a thick sauce.

Sauce Piquante (sos-pe-kangt).—An acid sauce.

Shallot.—A variety of onion.

Sorbet (sor-bay).—A sherbet, frozen punch, or water ice; the same as sherbet.

Souffle (soo-flay).—Literally, puffed up. As generally understood, it is a spongy mixture made light with eggs and baked, the foundation of which may be meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, or fruit.

Soy.—A Japanese sauce prepared from the seed of the soy bean. It has an agreeable flavor and a clear brown color and is used to color soups and sauces.

Stock.—The foundation for soup made by cooking meat, bones, and vegetables.

Sultanas.—White or yellow seedless grapes, grown in Corinth.

Tarragon (tar-ra-gonk).—An herb used in seasoning certain dressing and sauces; it is also employed in flavoring tarragon vinegar.

Tartare Sauce (tar-tar sos).—A mayonnaise dressing to which have been added chopped pickle, capers, and parsley in order to make a tart sauce for fish.

Timbale.—A pie raised in a mold; also, a shell filled with forcemeat or ragout.

Truffles.—A species of fungi growing in clusters some inches below the soil, and having an agreeable perfume, which is easily scented by pigs, who are fond of them, and by dogs trained to find them. They are found abundantly in France, but are not subject to cultivation. They are used chiefly for seasoning and garnishing.

Vanilla.—The bean of the tropical orchid or the extract obtained from this fruit. Used in flavoring desserts, etc.

Vinaigrette Sauce (ve-nay-grayt sos).—A sauce made with oil and vinegar, to which are added finely minced chives, peppers, or other highly flavored green vegetables and spices.

Vol au Vent (vol o vang).—A crust of light puff paste. Also, a large pate or form of pastry filled with a savory preparation of oysters, fish, or meat and a cream sauce.

Zwieback (tsouee-bak).—Bread toasted twice.

* * * * *

ESSENTIALS OF COOKERY (PART 2)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) What points must be kept in mind in the selection of cooking utensils?

(2) Mention three materials used for cooking utensils and explain their advantages.

(3) (a) What is a labor-saving device? (b) Describe one of the labor-saving devices mentioned in the text and tell why it saves labor.

(4) What kind of utensil should be used for: (a) the rapid boiling of spaghetti; (b) the slow cooking of cereals?

(5) Tell how the following are prepared for cooking: (a) vegetables; (b) meats; (c) fish.

(6) Describe: (a) sifting; (b) stirring; (c) beating; (d) creaming; (e) folding.

(7) Why is it necessary to measure foods accurately in cooking?

(8) Describe the measuring of: (a) cupful of flour; (b) one-half teaspoonful of butter; (c) 1 teaspoonful of baking powder.

(9) (a) Why should a systematic plan be outlined before beginning to carry out a recipe? (b) Give briefly the order of work that should be followed.

(10) What factors influence the length of time required to cook foods?

(11) Tell why foods spoil.

(12) (a) Mention the usual methods by which food is kept from spoiling. (b) What is meant by the term preservative?

(13) (a) What is the aim in canning foods? (b) On what principle does success in drying foods depend?

(14) Explain the construction of a refrigerator and the principle on which it is based.

(15) Describe the placing of the following articles in the refrigerator and tell which should be covered and why: (a) milk; (b) butter; (c) cooked fish; (d) cooked tomatoes; (e) melons; (f) cheese.

(16) Explain how a refrigerator should be cared for.

(17) Name the ways in which foods may be kept from spoiling without ice.

(18) How should a cellar in which foods is to be stored be built and cared for?

(19) (a) Why is it necessary to store non-perishable foods? (b) Tell the best ways in which to preserve such foods.

(20) (a) What is a menu? (b) Explain the meaning of the term recipe. (c) In what order should the recipes of a menu be prepared?

* * * * *

REPORT ON MENU

After trying out the menu in the manner explained in the text, send with your answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified in the following list. Thus, if the chops were tender and well done, write, "Pan-broiled chops, tender, well done"; if the potatoes were sufficiently cooked and creamy, write "Mashed potatoes, sufficiently cooked, creamy"; and so on.

Pan-Broiled Chops: tough? tender? underdone? overdone?

Mashed Potatoes: sufficiently cooked? creamy? lumpy? too soft?

Creamed Peas: tender? tough? properly seasoned? improperly seasoned?

Sauce for Peas: smooth? lumpy? thin? of correct thickness? too thick?

Cabbage Salad: properly seasoned? improperly seasoned? crisp?

Orange Fluff: stiff enough? too soft? flavor agreeable? flavor disagreeable?

Sauce for Orange Fluff: smooth? lumpy?

* * * * *



CEREALS

* * * * *

PRODUCTION, COMPOSITION, AND SELECTION

PRODUCTION OF CEREALS

1. ORIGIN OF CEREALS.—Cereals, which is the term applied to the edible seeds of certain grains, originated with the civilization of man. When man lived in a savage state, he wandered about from place to place and depended for his food on hunting and fishing; but as he ceased his roaming and began to settle in regions that he found attractive, it was not long before he became aware of the possibilities of the ground about him and realized the advantage of tilling the soil as a means of procuring food. Indeed, the cultivation of the soil for the production of food may be considered as one of the first steps in his civilization. Among the foods he cultivated were grains, and from the earliest times to the present day they have been the main crop and have formed the chief food of people wherever it is possible to produce them.

The grains belong to the family of grasses, and through cultivation their seeds, which store the nourishment for the growth of new plants, have been made to store a sufficient amount of nourishment to permit man to collect and use it as food. The name cereals was derived from the goddess Ceres, whom the Romans believed to be the protector of their crops and harvests. Numerous grains are produced, but only eight of these cereals are used extensively as food, namely, wheat, corn, oats, rice, barley, rye, buckwheat, and millet.

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