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Voyage of H.M.S. Pandora - Despatched to Arrest the Mutineers of the 'Bounty' in the - South Seas, 1790-1791
by Edward Edwards
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There is a large sound formed here, to which we gave the name of Sandwich's Sound, and commodious anchorage for shipping in the bay, to which we gave the name of Wolf's Bay, in which there is from five to seven fathom water all round. This is extremely well situated for a rendezvous in surveying Endeavour Straits; and were a little colony settled here, a concatenation of Christian settlements would enchain the world, and be useful to any unfortunate ship of whatever nation, that might be wrecked in these seas; or, should a rupture take place in South America, a great vein of commerce might find its way through this channel.

Hammond's Island lies north west and by west, Parker's Island from north and by west to north and by east, and an island seen to the north entrance north west. We supposed it to be an island called by Captain Bligh Mountainous Island, laid down in latitude 10.16 South.

Sandwich's Sound is formed by Hammond's, Parker's, and a cluster of small islands on the starboard hand, at its eastern entrance. We also called a back land behind Hammond's Island, and the other islands to the southward of it, Cornwallis's Land. The uppermost part of the mountain was separated from the main by a large gap. Under the gap, low land was seen; but whether that was a continuation of the main or not, we could not determine. Near the centre of the sound is a small dark-coloured, rocky island.

This afternoon, at three o'clock, being the 2d of September, our little squadron sailed again, and in the evening saw a high peaked island lying north west, which we called Hawkesbury's Island. The passage through the north entrance is about two miles wide. After passing through it, saw a reef. As we approached it, we shallowed our water to three fathom; but on hauling up more to the south west, we deepened it again to six fathom. Saw several very large turtle, but could not catch any of them. After clearing the reef, stood to the westward. Mountainous Island bore N. half E.; Capt. Bligh's west island, which appears in Three Hummocks, N.N.W.; a rock N.W. at the S.W. extreme of the main land, S. and by E.; and the northernmost cape of New South Wales, S.S.E.; and to the extreme of the land in sight, the eastward E. half N. a small distance from the nearest of the Prince of Wales's Islands, we discovered another island, and which we called Christian's Island. Saw Two Hummock between Hawkesbury's Island and Mountainous Island; but could not be certain whether it was one or two islands.

We now entered the great Indian ocean, and had a voyage of a thousand miles to undertake in our open boats. As soon as we cleared the land, we found a very heavy swell running, which threatened destruction to our little fleet; for should we have separated, we must inevitably perish for want of water, as we had not utensils to divide our slender stock. For our mutual preservation, we took each other in tow again; but the sea was so rough, and the swell running so high, we towed very hard, and broke a new tow-line. This put us in the utmost confusion, being afraid of dashing to pieces upon each other, as it was a very dark night. We again made fast to each other; but the tow-line breaking a second time, we were obliged to trust ourselves to the mercy of the waves. At five in the morning, the pinnace lay to, as the other boats had passed her under a dark cloud; but on the signal being made for the boats to join, we again met at day-light. At meridian, we passed some remarkable black and yellow striped sea snakes. On the afternoon of the 4th of September, gave out the exact latitude of our rendezvous in writing; also the longitude by the time-keeper at this present time, in case of unavoidable separation.

On the night between the 5th and 6th, the sea running very cross and high, the tow-line broke several times; the boats strained, and made much water; and we were obliged to leave off towing the rest of the voyage, or it would have dragged the boats asunder. On the 7th, the Captain's boat caught a booby. They sucked his blood, and divided him into twenty-four shares.

The men who were employed steering the boats, were often subject to a coup de soleil, as every one else were continually wetting their shirts overboard, and putting it upon their head, which alleviated the scorching heat of the sun, to which we were entirely exposed, most of us having lost our hats while swimming at the time the ship was wrecked. It may be observed, that this method of wetting our bodies with salt water is not advisable, if the misery is protracted beyond three or four days, as, after that time, the great absorption from the skin that takes place from the increased heat and fever, makes the fluids become tainted with the bittern of the salt water; so much so, that the saliva became intolerable in the mouth. It may likewise be worthy of remark, that those who drank their own urine died in the sequel of the voyage.

We now neglected weighing our slender allowance of bread, our mouths becoming so parched, that few attempted to eat; and what was not claimed was thrown into the general stock. We found old people suffer much more than those that were young. A particular instance of that we observed in one young boy, a midshipman, who sold his allowance of water two days for one allowance of bread. As their sufferings continued, they became very cross and savage in their temper. In the Captain's boat, one of the prisoners took to praying, and they gathered round him with much attention and seeming devotion. But the Captain suspecting the purity of his doctrines, and unwilling he should make a monopoly of the business, gave prayers himself. On the 9th, we passed a great many of the Nautilus fish, the shell of which served us to put our glass of water into; by which means we had more time granted to dip our finger in it, and wet our mouths by slow degrees. There were several flocks of birds seen flying in a direction for the land.

On the 13th, in the morning, we saw the land, and the discoverer was immediately rewarded with a glass of water; but, as if our cup of misery was not completely full, it fell a dead calm. The boats now all separated, every one pushing to make the land. Next day we got pretty near it; but there was a prodigious surf running. Two of our men slung a bottle about their necks, jumped overboard, and swam through the surf. They traversed over a good many miles, till a creek intercepted them; when they came down to the beach, and made signs to us of their not having succeeded. We then brought the boat as near the surf as we durst venture, and picked them up. In running along the coast, about twelve o'clock, we had the pleasure to see the red yaul get into a creek. She had hoisted an English jack at her mast-head, that we might observe her in running down the coast. There was a prodigious surf, and many dangerous shoals, between us and the mouth of the creek; we, however, began to share the remains of our water, and about half a bottle came to each man's share, which we dispatched in an instant.

We now gained fresh spirits, and hazarded every thing in gaining our so much wished for haven. It is but justice here to acknowledge how much we were indebted to the intrepidity, courage, and seaman-like behaviour of Mr. Reynolds the master's mate, who fairly beat her over all the reefs, and brought us safe on shore. The crew of the blue yaul, who had been two or three hours landed, assisted in landing our party. A fine spring of water near to the creek afforded us immediate relief. As soon as we had filled our belly, a guard was placed over the prisoners, and we went to sleep for a few hours on the grass.

In the afternoon, a Chinese chief came down the creek in a canoe, attended by some of the natives, to wait upon us. He was a venerable looking old man; we endeavoured to walk down to the water-side, to receive him, and acquaint him with the nature of our distress.

We addressed him in French and in English, neither of which he understood; but misery was so strongly depicted in our countenances, that language was superfluous. The tears trickling down his venerable cheeks convinced us he saw and felt our misfortunes; and silence was eloquence on the subject.

He made us understand by signs, that without fee or reward we should be supplied with horses, and conducted to Coupang, a Dutch East-India settlement, about seventy miles distant, the place of our rendezvous. This we politely declined, as the nature of our duty in the charge of the prisoners would not admit of it. We took leave of him for the present, after receiving promises of refreshment.

Soon after, crowds of the natives came down with fowls, pigs, milk, and bread. Mr. Innes, the surgeon's mate, happened luckily to have some silver in his pocket, to which they applied the touchstone, but would not give us any thing for guineas. However, anchor-buttons answered the purpose, as they gave us provision for a few buttons, which they refused the same number of guineas for; till a hungry dog, one of the carpenter's crew, happening to pick up an officer's jacket, spoiled the market, by giving it, buttons and all, for a pair of fowls, which a few buttons might have purchased.

All hands were busied in roasting the fowls, and boiling the pork; in the evening we made a very hearty supper. While we were regaling ourselves round a large fire, some wild beast gave a roar in the bushes. Some who had been in India before, declared it was the jackall; we therefore, concluded the lion could not be far off. Some were jocularly observing what a glorious supper the lord of the forest would make of us; but others were rather troubled with the dismaloes. This gave a gloomy turn to the conversation; and our minds having been previously much engaged with savages and wild beasts, and our bodies worn out through famine and watching, I believe the contagious effects of fear became pretty general. From Bligh's narrative, and others, we had been warned of the danger of landing in any other part of the island of Timor but Coupang, the Dutch settlement, as they were represented hostile and savage.

It is customary with those people, as we afterwards learnt, to do their hard work, such as beating out their rice at night, to avoid the scorching heat of the sun; and the whole village, which was about two miles off, joined in the general song, which every where chears and accompanies labour. As they had made us great offers for some cartridges of powder, which our duty could not suffer us to part with, we immediately interpreted this song into the war-hoop, and concluded, that they were going to take by force what they could not gain by entreaty. Nature, however, at last worn out, inclined to rest. The First Lieutenant and Master went on board of the boats, which were at anchor in the middle of the river, for the better security of the prisoners; and, ranging ourselves round, with our feet to the fire, went to sleep.

At dawn of day, the master gave the huntsman's hollow, which some, from being suddenly awaked, thought they were attacked by the Indians. We were all panic struck, and could not get thoroughly awaked, being so exhausted, and overpowered with sleep. Most of us were scrambling upon all fours down to the river, and crying for Christ's sake to have mercy upon them, till those who were foremost in the scramble, in crawling into the creek, got recovered from their plight by their hands being immersed in water; yet those who were foremost in running away, were not last in upbraiding the rest with cowardice, notwithstanding there were pretty evident marks upon some of them, of the cold water having produced its usual effects of micturition.

Next day we went up the creek, in one of the boats, about four miles, to one of their towns, with an intention of purchasing provisions for our sea-store. As we entered the town, the king was riding out, attended by twenty carabineers or body-guards, well mounted, and respectably armed. He passed us with all the sang froid imaginable, scarce deigning to glance at us.

In purchasing a pig, the man finding a good price for it, offered to traffic with us for the charms of his daughter, a very pretty young girl. But none of us seemed inclined that way, as there were many good things we stood much more in need of.

At one o'clock, being high water, we embarked again in our boats for Coupang. We sailed along the coast all day till it was dark; and, fearful lest we should over-shoot our port in the night, put into a bay. After laying some time, we observed a light; and after hallooing and making a noise, the natives came down with torches in their hands, waded up alongside of us, and offered their assistance, which we accepted of, in lighting fires, and dressing the victuals we had brought with us, that no time might be lost in landing or cooking the next day.

At day break, we again proceeded on our voyage, and at five in the afternoon we landed at Coupang. The Governor, Mynheer Vanion, received us with the utmost politeness, kindness, and hospitality. The Lieutenant-Governor, Mynheer Fry, was likewise extremely kind and attentive, in rendering every assistance possible, and in giving the necessary orders for our support and relief in our present distressed state.

Next morning being Sunday, as we supposed, the 17th of September, we were preparing for Church, to return thanks to Almighty God, for his divine interposition in our miraculous preservation; but were disappointed in our pious intentions; for we found it was Monday, the 18th, having lost a day by performing a circuit of the globe to the westward.



CHAP. V.

OCCURRENCES AT COUPANG; VOYAGE TO BATAVIA, &c.; ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND.

THIS is the Montpelier of the East to the Dutch and Portuguese settlements in India; and, from the salubrity of its air, is the favourite resort of valetudinarians and invalids from Batavia and other places. This island is fertile, variegated with hill and dale, and equally beautiful as diversified with Rotti, and its appendant isles. It is as large as the island of Great Britain. Its principal trade is wax, honey, and sandlewood; but the whole of its revenues do not defray the expence of the settlement to the Company; but from the locality of its situation, it is convenient for their other islands. They had the monopoly of the sandlewood trade, which is used in all temples, mosques, and places of worship in the East, every Chinese having a sprig of it burning day and night near their household-gods.

The exclusive trade of sandlewood was valuable and convenient to the Dutch; but, from the vast extent of territory lately acquired in India, we have plenty of that commodity without going to the Dutch market. Close to the Dutch town is a Chinese town and temple. They have a governor of their own nation, but pay large tribute to the Dutch. Notwithstanding their trade is under very severe restrictions, they soon make rich; and, as soon as they become independent, return to their own country. For European and India goods the natives barter their produce, and sell their prisoners of war, who are carried to Batavia as slaves, and the natives of Java sent from Batavia to this place in return. As they hold their tenure more from policy than strength, it would be impolitic to irritate them, by exposing their countrymen, subjugated to the lash of slavery and oppression.

An instance of this soul-couping business fell under our inspection while here. One of the petty princes, in settling his account with a merchant of this place, was some dollars short of cash. He just stepped to the door, and casting his eye on an elderly man who was near him, he laid hold of him; and, with the assistance of some of his myrmidons, gave him up as a slave, and so settled his account. We felt more interested in the fate of this poor wretch, on account of his having been a prince himself, but never before saw the face of his oppressor. He went passenger in the ship with us to Batavia.

It was a pleasing and flattering sight to an Englishman, at this remotest corner of the globe, to see that Wedgewood's stoneware, and Birmingham goods, had found their way into the shops of Coupang.

During our five weeks stay here, the Governor, Mynheer Vanion, by every act of politeness and attention endeavoured to make us spend our time agreeably. We were sumptuously regaled at his table every day, and the evening was spent with cards and concerts. I could dwell with pleasure for an age in praise of this honest Dutchman; it is the tribute of a grateful heart, and his due. This is the third time he has had an opportunity of extending his hospitality to shipwrecked Englishmen.

About a fortnight before we arrived, a boat, with eight men, a woman, and two children, came on shore here, who told him they were the supercargo, part of the crew, and passengers of an English brig, wrecked in these seas. His house, which has ever been the asylum of the distressed, was open for their reception. They drew bills on the British government, and were supplied with every necessary they stood in need of.

The captain of a Dutch East Indiaman, who spoke English, hearing of the arrival of Capt. Edwards, and our unfortunate boat, run to them with the glad tidings of their Captain having arrived; but one of them, starting up in surprise, said, "What Captain! dam'me, we have no Captain;" for they had reported, that the Captain and remainder of the crew had separated from them at sea in another boat. This immediately led to a suspicion of their being impostors; and they were ordered to be apprehended, and put into the castle. One of the men, and the woman, fled into the woods; but were soon taken. They confessed they were English convicts, and that they had made their escape from Botany Bay. They had been supplied with a quadrant, a compass, a chart, and some small arms and ammunition, from a Dutch ship that lay there; and the expedition was conducted by the Governor's fisherman, whose time of transportation was expired. He was a good seaman, and a tolerable navigator. They dragged along the coast of New South Wales; and as often as the hostile nature of the savage natives would permit, hauled their boat up at night, and slept on shore. They met with several curious and interesting anecdotes in this voyage. In many places of the coast of South Wales, they found very good coal; a circumstance that was not before known. Our men were now beginning to regain their strength; and Captain Dadleberg of the Rembang Indiaman was making every possible dispatch with his ship to carry us to Batavia.

During this time, the interment of Balthazar, King of Coupang, was performed with much funeral pomp. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and all the Europeans were invited. Six months had been spent in preparations for this fete, at which an emperor and twenty-five kings assisted and attended in person with all their body-guards, standards, and standard-bearers, were present. When the corpse was deposited in the sepulchre, the Company's troops fired three vollies, and victuals and drink were immediately served to four thousand people.

The Dutch and English officers were invited to a very sumptuous dinner, at a table provided for the emperor and all the kings. The first toast after dinner was the dead king's health. Next they drank Mynheer Company's health, which was accompanied with a volley of small arms and paterreros. The singularity of Mynheer Company's health, led us to request an explanation; when we were informed, they found it necessary to make them believe that Mynheer Company was a great and powerful king, lest they should not be inclined to pay that submission to a company of merchants.

The inaugural ceremony at the installation of the young king, was performed by his drinking a bumper of brandy and gunpowder, stirred round with the point of a sword. After being invested with the regal dignity, he came down in state, to pay his respects to the governor. As he was preceded by music, and colours flying, every one turned out to see him. Amongst the rest was a captive king in chains, who was employed blowing the bellows to our armourer, whilst he was forging bolts and fetters for our prisoners and convicts. Here the sunshine of prosperity, and the mutability of human greatness, were excellently pourtrayed.

By a policy in the Dutch, in supplying the petty princes with ammunition and warlike stores, feuds and dissentions are kindled amongst them; and they are kept so completely engaged in civil war, that they have no time to observe the encroachments of strangers. That domestic strife serves likewise amply to supply the slave trade from the prisoners of both parties. They, however, some time since, made head against the common enemy, and forced the Dutch to retire within their trenches.

It is the custom, in this climate, to bathe morning and evening. A fine river, which runs in the centre of the town, is conveniently situated for that purpose; and we availed ourselves of it when our strength would permit. Nature has been profusely lavish, in producing, in the neighbourhood of this place, all the varied powers of landscape that the most luxuriant fancy can suggest. But, while enjoying the picturesque beauties of the scene, or sheltering in the translucent stream from the fervour of meridian heat, you are suddenly chilled with fear, from the terrific aspect of the alligator, or crested snake, and a number of venomous reptiles, with which this country abounds. There is one in particular called the cowk cowk; it is the most disgusting looking animal that creeps the ground, and its bite is mortal. It is about a foot and a half long, and seems a production between the toad and lizard. At stated periods it makes a noise exactly like a cuckoo clock. Even the natives fly from it with the utmost horror. The alligators are daring and numerous. There are instances of their devouring men and children when bathing in the shallow part of the river above the town.

The Governor, Mynheer Vanion, relates a circumstance that happened to him while hunting. In crossing a shallow part of the river, his black boy was snapped up by an alligator; but the Governor immediately dismounted, rescued the boy out of his mouth, and slew him.

The natives of Timor are subject to a cutaneous disease during their infancy, something similar to the small pox, but of longer duration. It seldom terminates fatally, and only seizes them once in their lives.[165-1]

On the 6th of October, we embarked on board the Rembang Dutch Indiaman, taking with us the prisoners and convicts. Our crew became very sickly in passing the Straits of Alice [Allas]. We had frequent calms and sultry weather until the 12th. In passing the island of Flores, a most tremendous storm arose. In a few minutes every sail of the ship was shivered to pieces; the pumps all choaked, and useless; the leak gaining fast upon us; and she was driving down, with all the impetuosity imaginable, on a savage shore, about seven miles under our lee. This storm was attended with the most dreadful thunder and lightning we had ever experienced. The Dutch seamen were struck with horror, and went below; and the ship was preserved from destruction by the manly exertion of our English tars, whose souls seemed to catch redoubled ardour from the tempest's rage. Indeed it is only in these trying moments of distress, when the abyss of destruction is yawning to receive them, that the transcendent worth of a British seaman is most conspicuous. Nor would I wish, from what I have observed above, to throw any stigma on the Dutch, who I believe would fight the devil, should he appear in any other shape to them but that of thunder and lightning.

It may be remarked, that the Straits of Alice are not so dangerous as those of Sapy [Sapi], and are for many reasons preferable; but it is so intricate a navigation that a Dutchman bound from Timor to Batavia, after beating about for twelve months, found himself exactly where he first started from.

On the 21st, we got through Alice, and saw three prow-vessels, who are a very daring set of pirates that infest those seas. On the 22nd, saw the islands of Kangajunk and Ulk, and run through the channel that is between them. Next day we saw the island of Madura.

On the 26th, saw the island of Java; and on the 30th, anchored at Samarang.

Immediately on our coming to anchor, we were agreeably surprised to find our tender here which we had so long given up for lost. Never was social affection more eminently pourtrayed than in the meeting of these poor fellows; and from excess of joy, and a recital of their mutual sufferings, from pestilence, famine, and shipwreck, a flood of tears filled every man's breast.

They informed us, the night they parted company with us, the savages attacked them in a regular and powerful body in their canoes; and their never having seen a European ship before, nor being able to conceive any idea of fire-arms, made the conflict last longer than it otherwise would; for, seeing no missive weapon made use of, when their companions were killed, they did not suspect any thing to be the matter with them, as they tumbled into the water. Our seven-barrelled pieces made great havoc amongst them. One fellow had agility enough to spring over their boarding-netting, and was levelling a blow with his war-club at Mr. Oliver, the commanding-officer, who had the good fortune to shoot him.

On not finding the ship next day, they gave up all further hopes of her, and steered for Anamooka, the rendezvous Captain Edwards had appointed. Their distress for want of water, if possible, surpassed that of our own, and had so strong an effect on one of the young gentlemen, that the day following he became delirious, and continued so for some months after it.

They at last made the island of Tofoa, near to Anamooka, which they mistook for it. After trading with the natives for provisions and water, they made an attempt to take the vessel from them, which they always will to a small vessel, when alone; but they were soon overpowered with the fire arms. They were, however, obliged to be much on their guard afterwards, at those islands which were inhabited.

After much diversity of distress, and similar encounters, they at last made the reef that runs between New Guinea and New Holland, where the Pandora met her unhappy fate; and after traversing from shore to shore, without finding an opening, this intrepid young seaman boldly gave it the stem, and beat over the reef. The alternative was dreadful, as famine presented them on the one hand, and shipwreck on the other. Soon after they had passed Endeavour Straits, they fell in with a small Dutch vessel, who shewed them every tenderness that the nature of their distress required.

They were soon landed at a small Dutch settlement; but the governor having a description of the Bounty's pirates from our court, and their vessel being built of foreign timber, served to confirm them in their suspicions; and as no officer in the British navy bears a commission or warrant under the rank of lieutenant, where, by seal of office, their person or quality may be identified, they had only their bare ipse dixit to depend on. They, however, behaved to them with great precaution and humanity. Although they kept a strict guard over them, nothing was withheld to render their situation agreeable; and they were sent, under a proper escort, to this place.

This settlement is reckoned next to Batavia, and is so lucrative, that the governor is changed every five years. The present governor's name is Overstraaten, a gentleman of splendid taste and unbounded hospitality, who lives in a princely style; and to the otium dignitate of Asiatic luxury, has the happiness to join an honest hearty Dutch welcome.

A regiment of the Duke of Wirtemburg is doing duty here, amongst whom were several men of rank and fashion, who shewed us much civility and politeness.

The town is regular and beautiful, and the houses are built in a style of architecture, which has given loose to the most sportive fancy. Each street is terminated with some public building, such as a great marine school, for the education of young officers and seamen; an hospital for decayed officers in the Company's service; churches; the Governor's palace, &c. &c. Here the utile dulce has not been neglected, and those objects of national importance are placed in a proper point of view, as the just pride and ornament of a great commercial people.

Such is the effect of early prejudices, that, under the muzle of the sun, a Dutchman cannot exist without snuffing the putrid exhalations from stagnant water, to which they have been accustomed from their infancy. They are intersecting it so fast with canals, that in a year or two this beautiful town will be completely dammed.

In a few days, we arrived at Batavia, the emporeum of the Dutch in the East; and our first care was employed in sending to the hospital the sickly remains of our unfortunate crew. Some dead bodies floating down the canal struck our boat, which had a very disagreeable effect on the minds of our brave fellows, whose nerves were reduced to a very weak state from sickness. This was a coup de grace to a sick man on his premier entree into this painted sepulchre, this golgotha of Europe, which buries the whole settlement every five years.

It is not the climate I am inveighing against; it is the Gothic, diabolical ideas of the people I indite.

Were they only Dutchmen who supplied the ravenous maw of death, it would be impertinence in me to make any comment on it; but when the whole globe lends its aid to supply this destructive settlement, and its baneful effects arising more from the letch a Dutchman has for stagnant mud than from climate, I hope the indulgent reader will pardon my spleen, when I tell them professionally that all the mortality of that place originates from marsh effluvia, arising from their stagnant canals and pleasure-grounds.

The Chinese are here the Jews of the East, and as soon as they make their fortune, they go home. Let the amateurs of the Republican system read and learn. Be not surprised when it is observed, that these little great men, those vile hawkers of spice and nutmegs, exact a submission that the most absolute and tyrannical monarch who ever swayed a sceptre would be ashamed of. The compass of my work will not allow me to be particular; but I must instance one among many others. When an edilleer, or one of the supreme council, meets a carriage, the gentleman who meets him must alight, and make him a perfect bow in spirit; not one of Bunburry's long bows, but that bow which carries humility and submission in it, that sort of bow which every vertebrae in an English back is anchylosed against.

In our passage from this to the Cape, before we left Java, one of the convicts had jumped over board in the night, and swam to the Dutch arsenal at Honroost. In passing Bantan, we viewed the relics of Lord Cathcart. We met nothing particular in passing the island of Sumatra, but experienced great death and sickness in going through the Straits of Sunda; and after a tedious passage, arrived at the Cape of Good Hope.

Here we met with many civilities from Colonel Gordon; a gentleman no less eminent for his private virtues than his extraordinary military and literary accomplishments. From his labours, all the host of voyagers and historians of that part of the globe have been purloining; but it is to be hoped the world will, at some future period, be favoured with his works unmutilated.

The town is gay, and from length of habit, the inhabitants partake much of the manners of Bath; and, for a short season, behave with the utmost attention and tenderness. Their dress and customs are more characteristic of the English than Dutch. An uncommon rage for building has lately prevailed; and although they cannot boast of that chastity of style in which Samarang is built it is gaudy, and calculated to please the generality of observers.

Allow me to mention the singular manner in which the monkeys make depredations on the gardens here. They place a proper piquet, or advanced guard, as sentinels, when a party is drawn up in a line, who hand the fruit from one to another; and when the alarm is given by the piquet-guard, they all take flight, making sure that by that time the booty is conveyed to a considerable distance. But should the piquet be negligent in their duty, and suffer the main body to be surprised, the delinquents are severely punished.

The same ill-fated rage for canalling-murder prevails here. They have even contrived to carry canals to the top of a mountain. The boors, or country-farmers, are a species of the human race, so gigantic and superior to the rest of mankind, in point of size and constitution, that they may be called nondescripts.

Their hospital, as to scite, surpasses any in the world. It may be observed, however, that the architect, by the smallness of the windows, which only serve to exclude the light and air, seems to have studied, with much ingenuity, to render it a cadaverous stinking prison.

After being refreshed at the Cape, we passed St. Helena, the island of Ascension, and arrived at Holland; and had the happiness, through the interposition of divine Providence, to be again landed on our native shore.

The Latitudes and Longitudes of the different places touched at or discovered by his Majesty's ship Pandora, taken with the greatest accuracy from the centre of the islands.

Names of Places. Latitudes. Longitudes.

Gomera, 28 5 N 17 8 W Canary, N.E. point, 28 13 N 15 38 W Teneriffe, Santa Cruz, 28 27 N 16 16 W Palma, 28 36 N 17 45 W St. Antonio, Cape de Verd Islands, crossing the Line, 17 0 N 25 2 W Rio Janeiro, 22 54 S Patagonia, Straits of Magellan, Cape Julian, Staten Island, 54 47 30 S 63 58 27 W Cape Horn, 55 59 S 67 21 W Diego Ramarez, Easter Island, 27 7 S 109 42 W Ducie's Island, 24 40 30 S 124 40 30 W Lord Hood's Island, 21 31 S 135 32 30 W Carysfort Island, 20 49 S 138 33 W Maitea, 17 52 S 148 6 W Otaheite, Matavy Bay, 17 29 S 149 35 W Huaheine, Owharre Bay, 16 44 S 151 3 W Ulitea and Otaha, 16 46 S 151 33 W Bolobola, 16 33 S 151 52 W Mauruah, 16 26 S 152 33 W Whytutakee, 18 52 S 159 41 W Palmerston's Isles, 18 0 S 162 57 W Duke of York's Island, 8 33 30 S 172 4 3 W Duke of Clarence's Island, 9 9 30 S 171 30 46 W Chatham's Island, 13 32 20 S 172 18 20 W Ohatooah, 13 50 S 171 30 6 W Anamooka, 20 16 S 174 30 W Toomanuah, 14 15 S 169 43 W Otutuelah, 14 30 S 170 41 W Howe's Island, 18 32 30 S 173 53 W Bickerton's Island, 18 47 40 S 174 48 W Gardner's Island, 17 57 S 175 16 54 W Pylestaart, 22 23 S 175 39 W Eoah or Middleburgh, 21 21 S 174 34 W Tongataboo, 21 9 S 174 41 W Proby's Island, 15 53 S 175 51 W Wallis's Island, 13 22 S 176 15 45 W Grenville Island, 12 29 S 183 3 W 176 57 / E Pandora's Reef, 12 11 S 188 8 W 171 52 / E Mitre Island, 11 49 S 190 4 30 W 169 55 30 / E Cherry Island, 11 37 30 S 190 19 30 W 169 55 30 / E Pitt's Island, 11 50 30 S 193 14 15 W 166 45 45 / E Wells's Shoal, 12 20 S 202 2 W 157 58 / E Cape Rodney, Point of 10 3 32 S 212 14 5 W M. Clarence in shore, 147 45 45 / E Cape Hood, / New Guinea 9 58 6 S 212 37 10 W 147 22 50 / E Murray's Isles, 9 57 S 216 43 W 143 17 / E Wreck Reef, 11 22 S 216 22 W 143 38 / E Batavia, 6 10 S 106 51 E Straits of Sunda, 6 36 15 S 105 17 30 E Cape of Good Hope, 34 29 S 18 23 E St. Helena, 15 55 S 5 49 W Ascension Island, 7 56 S 14 32 W

FINIS.

FOOTNOTES:

[165-1] This seems to be the earliest description of Yaws (Framboesia) in these islands. Originating in Africa this contagious disease is believed to have been disseminated by the slave trade. The Dutch or Portuguese traders carried it from Madagascar and East Africa to Ceylon, where it still bears the name of Parangi Lede, or Foreigners' Evil. Though Hamilton did not observe it in the South Sea Islands the disease was probably there, for Mariner, who was in Tonga in 1810, described it as a well-established disease under the name of Tona.



INDEX

A.

Aitutaki Island, visit to, 10, 40 note, 123; Bligh supposed to be there, 102 Ale brewed at Namuka, 73 Anti-scorbutics, 100 Apia, 50 note Astrolabe, Perouse's ship, 19; relics of, 68 note Australia, Northern, sighted, 76; landing on, 149

B.

Banks, Sir Joseph, 2, 112 Baring, carries letters to England, 84 Bark cloth, 115 Batavia, arrival at, 81 Beads found in Samoa, 56 Becke, Louis, The Mutineers, 1; First Fleet Family, 24 Bentham, Mr., Purser, 79, 118, 119 Blacks attack boats, 66, 149 Blenheim, wreck of, 3 Bligh, Captain, 1; his character, 2; boat voyage of, 2; public sympathy with, 3; supposed to be in Aitutaki, 102 Boat lost at Palmerston Island, 86, 126 Boat voyage of Bligh, 2; of Pereira, 3; of Edwards, 22, 75, 147, 154 Bolabola visited, 39, 122 Bougainville, warning, 20; discovery of Samoa, 51, 56 Bounty, fitting out, 2; mutiny of, 2; driver yard found, 9, 124; anchor found, 34 Boussole, Perouse's ship, 19; relics of, 68 note Bread fruit, plan to acclimatize, 1; its uses, 112 Brewing ale at Namuka, 143 Broad, Mary, 23 Brown, John, 31; his character, 105; identifies mutineers, 105 Bryant, William, 23, 82 Bull taken by Mutineers, 36 Burkitt, trial of, 25; arrest of, 34; executed, 37 Burn, Michael, acquitted, 37 Butcher, Convict, 24 Byron, The Island, 1 Byron, Captain, 40

C.

Canoes, war, 114; sailing, 53 Capetown, description of, 170 Carteret visits Vanikoro, 68 note Carysfort Island, discovered, 30, 102 Cattle, 118 Cherry's Island, sighted, 67 Christian, Fletcher, 2, 102, 127; his plan of forming settlement, 38 Churchill, murder of, 30, 70, 110 Cloudy Bay, 69 note Coal found in Australia, 162 Cockle, gigantic, 125, 146 Cocoa, as anti-scorbutic, 100 Coleman, Joseph, surrenders, 30, 102; works pump, 73 note; acquitted, 37 Consumption, 117 Convict jumps overboard, 169 Convicts, escaped, at Timor, 23, 80, 161; list of, 85; find coal in Australia, 162 Cook, portrait of, 118 Coral Islands, how formed, 126 Corner, Lieut., character of, 5; blames Edwards, 22; pursues mutineers, 31, 103; examines sand key, 72; voyage home, 83; ships plants, 99; eats food from native temple, 104; robbed by natives, 60, 134 Coupang, arrival at, 79, 159; funeral of king, 163 Court martial on mutineers, 24 Cox, Captain, 31 Cox, James, escaped convict, 82

D.

Dances at Tahiti, 108 d'Entrecasteaux, voyage, 19; sights Vanikoro, 68 note de Langle, massacre of, 51 note, 56 note Diet for long voyages, 6; in the Pandora, 7 Dillon, Peter, discovers relics of La Perouse, 68 note Dingoes seen, 77, 151 Distilling spirits, 111 Drums, 116 Ducie Island, 7, 29; identical with Encarnacion, 30 note, 101 Duke of Clarence Island, 40, 128 Duke of Portland, taken by natives, 13 Duke of York Island, 48, 128 D'Urville explores Vanikoro, 68 note

E.

East Bay, 70 note Easter Island, sighted, 30 note, 101 Edea, Queen of Tahiti, 118 Edwards, Captain, selected, 3; orders to, 4; character of, 4; charged with inhumanity, 21; touches at N. Australia, 22, 149; recklessness in sailing at night, 142; reproves mutineer for praying, 155 Eimeo, 121 Ellison, trial of, 25; arrest of, 33; execution, 37 Endeavour Straits, 20 Eua visited, 17, 138

F.

Fatafehi at Tofoa, 13, 135; at Namuka, 52 Fataka, or Mitre Island, 67 note Female infanticide, 114 Fiji, visited by Kau Moala, 65 note; discovery of, 81 Finau, Chief of Vavau, 49 note; 13, 57 note Fire-arms in Tahiti, 115; in Eimeo, 121 Flinders' Passage, 22, 77 Fruy, Mr., Lieut.-Governor of Timor, 79 Fulanga Inland, lack of water, 14 Futuna Island, visited by Kau Moala, 64, 65 note

G.

Geese, left in Tahiti, 118 Geographical position of islands, 88, 89 Gordon, Colonel, 170 Gorgon, H.M.S., 23, 24, 83 Governor of Timor, 79, 159, 161

H.

Haapai, visited, 51, 131 Haeva dance, 108 Hamilton, Dr., his character, 5; account of voyage, 6, 91; on health of seamen, 100 Hayward, Lieut., his character, 5; recognizes natives of Tofoa, 13, 54 note; pursues mutineers, 31; lands at Aitutaki, 41; ships plants, 99; recognized at Aitutaki, 123; at Tofoa, 135 Health of seamen, 99, 100 Hector, H.M.S., 24 Hervey Islands, 42 Heywood's account of "Pandora's Box," 9; trial of, 25; pardoned, 37 Hillbrandt, Henry, arrest of, 33; 74 note; gives information, 40, 123; drowned, 37 Hood, Cape, 19, 69 note Hood, Lord, Island, 29, 101 Hoornwey, voyage home, 83 Horn Island, visited, 22, 77 Horssen, voyage of, 83, 88 Houses, Tahitian, 116 Howe, Lord, 91 Huahaine visited, 39, 121 Human sacrifices, 114

I.

Indispensable Reef, 19, 69 note Infanticide, 114 Innes, Mr., Surgeon's mate, 92, 157 Islands, list of, 88, 171

J.

Java, arrival at, 166

K.

Kao Island, 53, 60 Kandavu Island, why not visited, 15 Kau Moala, his voyage, 17, 65 note Kava-drinking, 116 Kroutcheff, Captain, visited Mitre Island, 67 note

L.

Larkin, Lieut., 5; at Timor, 79 Lila sickness, 11, 117 Look-out Shoal, 70 note Louisiades, 20; named by Bougainville, 69 note

M.

Mackintosh, arrest of, 33; acquitted, 37; works pumps, 73 note Maikasa River, 70 note Malt, as anti-scorbutic, 100 Mangaia Island, 42 Manua visited, 16, 136 Mariner, William, narrative, 17; account of Norton's murder, 54 note; 57 note Mata-atua Harbour, 49 note Matavai Bay, 102 Matuku Island, visited by tender, 14, 16; native traditions, 15 Maurelle discovers Vavau, 16 Maurua Island, 39, 122 Megapodius at Niuafoou, 62 Mendana visits Vanikoro, 68 note Millward, trial of, 25; arrest of, 34; executed, 37 Milk, dislike of, 118 Mitre Island, visited, 66 Moemoe ceremony, 135 Morrison, character of, 9; trial of, 25; arrest of, 33; his journal, 33; pardoned, 37; plan of escape, 37 note Mourning in Tonga, 49; in Wallis Island, 64 Moulter, William, tries to save mutineers, 74 note Mountainous Island, 152 Murray Islands, 71, 141 Musical Instruments, 116 Muspratt, trial of, 25; arrest of, 34; executed, 37 Mutineers, fate of, 3; retire to mountains, 7; their diet, 8; build schooner, 9; adventures at Tubuai, 35, 36; take Tahitian women in Bounty, 38; neglected at Timor, 30; list of, 86, 89; capture of, 105; let out of irons, 144

N.

Namuka, a rendezvous for tender, 12; visited, 17, 52, 131, 138; native shot, 60; cannon fired, 61; thefts by natives, 62 Nanga Cult, 128 note Neiafu Harbour, Vavau, 57 New Year's Island, sighted, 99 Niuafoou visited, 17, 62, 138; large cocoanuts, 62; Megapodius, 62 Norman, arrest of, 33; acquitted, 37; works pumps, 73 note North-West Reef, 77 Norton, his murderers recognized, 13, 54 note Nukunono Island, visit to, 10, 46 note

O.

Oatafu Island, 40 note, 45 Odiddee (Titi) native of Bolabola, 31, 39 Oliver commands tender, 12, 120; discovers Fiji, 12, 166; his log lost, 15; encounters Dutch vessel, 16, 167 Omai, fate of, 39, 121 Ongea Island, lack of water, 14 Orangerie Bay, 69 note Orissia, Tahitian chief, 33 Otaka Island, 39 Otoo, king of Tahiti, 31, 102, 107, 119 Overstratin, Governor of Java, 81, 168

P.

Palmerston Island, list of crew lost at, 86; visited, 42, 123; Bounty's yard found at, 44 Pandora, fitted out, 3; her ill luck, 6; wrecked, 21, 142; state of crew, 87; disease on board, 91, 94; patent ventilator, 95 Pandora's Bank, 66 Pandora's box, excuse for, 7, 8; cruelty of, 9, 34; men drowned in, 74 note Pan-pipes, 116 Papara district, 31, 33 Parrots, 130, 137 Passmore, Lieut., 5; at Timor, 79; surveys harbour, 119; explores wreck, 145 Pearl shell ornaments, 123 "Peggy" Otoo, 110 Perouse, de la, of, 18, 68 Pitcairn Island, 1; arrival at, 3; why chosen by mutineers, 10 Plot to take Pandora, 7, 106 Point Venus, water bad, 34 Port-au-Prince, taken by natives, 13 Providential Channel, 20 Pylstaart Island sighted, 16, 138

R.

Rarotonga, discovery of, 41 note Reef Indispensable, 19 Religion of the Tahitians, 113 Rembang, voyage of, 24, 80, 165 Renouard, Midshipman, his suffering, 12; appointed to tender, 120 Rio di Janeiro, arrival at, 28, 95; life at, 96, 97; slaves, 97; probabilities of revolution, 97 Rodney Cape, 19, 69 note Rotte Island, 78 Rotuma Island discovered, 17, 56, 139; incidents at, 18, 65, 139; giants, 65 note; Tongan language spoken, 66 Round Head, 70 note

S.

Samarang Island, 80, 166; description of, 166 Samoa, appearance of, 66, 129; return to, 136 Samoans attack tender, 12; use turmeric, 129; thefts by, 130 Saroa district, New Guinea, 19, 70 note Saurkraut, as diet, 100 Savaii, sighted, 49, 129 Schouten, visits Futuna, 65 note; visits Niuafoou, 62 Scurvy, precautions against, 7 Sea-snakes, 155 Seringapatam, discovers Rarotonga, 41 Shark, H.M.S., encountered, 27 Sickness follows island discoveries, 11 Sival, Midshipman, at Palmerston Island, 124; lost, 126 Skinner, Richard, 30, 102; drowned, 37, 74 note Slave trade in Timor, 161 South Sea Islands, their value to England, 98 Spices in Samoa, 130 Staten Island sighted, 99 Stewart, Midshipman, 8; surrenders, 30; drowned, 37, 74 note Stewart, "Peggy," 8, 106 "Strangers' Cold," 11 Sugar, first issued to Navy, 94 Sumner, John, arrest of, 34; drowned, 37

T.

Tahiti, arrival at, 29 Tahitians, their religion, 113; weapons, 115; cloth, 115; women, 116; houses, 116 Tamarie, chief of Tahiti, 32, 105 Tattooing, 122 Tea and sugar, first used in Navy, 94 Temple, native, food taken from, 104 Teneriffe, arrival at, 27, 92; inhabitants of, 93 Tender built by mutineers, 37; commissioned, 9, 38, 120; attacked by Samoans, 12, 166; sale of, 16; joins company, 80; her adventures, 81, 166; parts company, 51, 131; her after-history, 33 note Theft, punishment for, 111 Thompson, Matthew, killed, 30, 37, 110 Timor Island, arrival at, 22, 78, 155; governor of, 79; description of, 160, 164; yaws observed at, 164, 165 note Tofoa, visit of tender to, 13; Pandora visits, 132, 135, 160 Tongans misnamed Friendly Islanders, 132; remember Tasman, 133; their women, 133; mercenary character of, 134 Tongatabu visited, 17; seeds left, 133 Torres Straits, 20 Tree Island, 77, 150 Tubai, 122 Tubuai, 34, 53 Tubou of Tonga, 135 Tucopia, discovery of La Perouse's relics, 68 note Tukuaho, temporal king of Tonga, 52 note Turmeric, used by Samoans, 50 129 Tutuila visited, 16, 51, 55, 129, 136

U.

Ulietea Island, 39 Ulukalala, Finau, letter left with, 52 Union Group, visit to, 11, 40 Upolu visited, 16, 50, 129

V.

Vanikoro sighted, 18, 68 note Vanion, Mynheer, Governor of Timor, 159, 161 Vatoa, discovered by Cook, 14 Vavau visited, 16, 55, 57, 136 Victoria, Mount, 20 Victualling of Navy, 94, 100 Volcanic disturbance in Vavau, 59 Vreedemberg, voyage of, 24, 81, 83, 88

W.

Wallis Island visited, 17, 63 note Wanjon, Governor of Timor, 79 War canoes, 114 Weapons of Tahitians, 115 Williams, Rev. John, 41 note Whales, sperm, 99 Wheat, as anti-scorbutic, 100 White's patent ventilator, 95 Women, status of, 116 Wreck of Pandora, 21, 72; casualties at, 73 note; 142

Y.

Yaws, 165 note

Z.

Zimers, Surgeon-General, of Timor, 79 Zwan, voyage home, 83

GLASGOW: PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD

Transcriber's Notes

1. This text contains inconsistencies in spelling, accented characters and hyphenated words. They have been left as printed unless otherwise marked.

2. On page 142, a word, 'wastward' appears as printed as either 'eastward' or 'westward' could be correct.

3. Obvious punctuation errors have been repaired.

4. Noted corrections: Page 13, "Tofua" changed to "Tofoa" Page 50, "one one" changed to "one" Page 51, "Annanooka" changed to "Annamooka" Page 63, "Boscawen's" changed to "Boscowen's" Page 72, "threequarters" changed to "three quarters" Page 79, "Surgeon General" changed to "Surgeon-General" Page 89, "Astrotabe" changed to "Astrolabe" Page 97, "Bouganvile" changed to "Bougainville" Page 102, "Otaheety" changed to "Otaheitee" Page 103, "Alredy" changed to "Aeredy" Page 107, "unweildy" changed to "unwieldy" Page 131, "Falafagee" changed to "Fallafagee" Page 153, "untensils" changed to "utensils" Page 159, "and and" changed to "and" Page 175, "Macintosh" changed to "Mackintosh",

THE END

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