The Works of Lord Byron, Volume 2
by George Gordon Byron
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Son of the Morning, rise! approach you here! Come—but molest not yon defenceless Urn: Look on this spot—a Nation's sepulchre! Abode of Gods, whose shrines no longer burn.[dr] Even Gods must yield—Religions take their turn: 'Twas Jove's—'tis Mahomet's—and other Creeds Will rise with other years, till Man shall learn Vainly his incense soars, his victim bleeds; Poor child of Doubt and Death, whose hope is built on reeds.[ds]


Bound to the Earth, he lifts his eye to Heaven— Is't not enough, Unhappy Thing! to know Thou art? Is this a boon so kindly given, That being, thou would'st be again, and go, Thou know'st not, reck'st not to what region, so[115] On Earth no more, but mingled with the skies? Still wilt thou dream on future Joy and Woe?[dt] Regard and weigh yon dust before it flies: That little urn saith more than thousand Homilies.


Or burst the vanished Hero's lofty mound; Far on the solitary shore he sleeps:[3.B.] He fell, and falling nations mourned around; But now not one of saddening thousands weeps, Nor warlike worshipper his vigil keeps Where demi-gods appeared, as records tell.[du][116] Remove yon skull from out the scattered heaps: Is that a Temple where a God may dwell? Why ev'n the Worm at last disdains her shattered cell!


Look on its broken arch, its ruined wall, Its chambers desolate, and portals foul: Yes, this was once Ambition's airy hall, The Dome of Thought, the Palace of the Soul: Behold through each lack-lustre, eyeless hole, The gay recess of Wisdom and of Wit[117] And Passion's host, that never brooked control: Can all Saint, Sage, or Sophist ever writ, People this lonely tower, this tenement refit?


Well didst thou speak, Athena's wisest son![118] "All that we know is, nothing can be known." Why should we shrink from what we cannot shun? Each hath its pang, but feeble sufferers groan With brain-born dreams of Evil all their own. Pursue what Chance or Fate proclaimeth best; Peace waits us on the shores of Acheron: There no forced banquet claims the sated guest, But Silence spreads the couch of ever welcome Rest.


Yet if, as holiest men have deemed, there be[dv] A land of Souls beyond that sable shore, To shame the Doctrine of the Sadducee And Sophists, madly vain of dubious lore; How sweet it were in concert to adore With those who made our mortal labours light! To hear each voice we feared to hear no more! Behold each mighty shade revealed to sight, The Bactrian, Samian sage, and all who taught the Right!


There, Thou!—whose Love and Life together fled, Have left me here to love and live in vain— Twined with my heart, and can I deem thee dead When busy Memory flashes on my brain? Well—I will dream that we may meet again, And woo the vision to my vacant breast: If aught of young Remembrance then remain, Be as it may Futurity's behest,[dw] For me 'twere bliss enough to know thy spirit blest!


Here let me sit upon this massy stone, The marble column's yet unshaken base; Here, son of Saturn! was thy favourite throne:[4.B.] Mightiest of many such! Hence let me trace The latent grandeur of thy dwelling-place. It may not be: nor ev'n can Fancy's eye Restore what Time hath laboured to deface. Yet these proud Pillars claim no passing sigh; Unmoved the Moslem sits, the light Greek carols by.


But who, of all the plunderers of yon Fane[121] On high—where Pallas linger'd, loth to flee The latest relic of her ancient reign— The last, the worst, dull spoiler, who was he?[dx] Blush, Caledonia! such thy son could be! England! I joy no child he was of thine: Thy free-born men should spare what once was free; Yet they could violate each saddening shrine, And hear these altars o'er the long-reluctant brine.[5.B.]


But most the modern Pict's ignoble boast,[dy][122] To rive what Goth, and Turk, and Time hath spared:[6.B.] Cold as the crags upon his native coast, His mind as barren and his heart as hard, Is he whose head conceived, whose hand prepared. Aught to displace Athenae's poor remains: Her Sons too weak the sacred shrine to guard, Yet felt some portion of their Mother's pains,[7.B.] And never knew, till then, the weight of Despot's chains.


What! shall it e'er be said by British tongue,[dz] Albion was happy in Athena's tears? Though in thy name the slaves her bosom wrung, Tell not the deed to blushing Europe's ears; The Ocean Queen, the free Britannia, bears The last poor plunder from a bleeding land: Yes, she, whose generous aid her name endears, Tore down those remnants with a Harpy's hand, Which envious Eld forbore, and tyrants left to stand.[ea]


Where was thine AEgis, Pallas! that appalled[eb] Stern Alaric and Havoc on their way?[8.B.] Where Peleus' son? whom Hell in vain enthralled. His shade from Hades upon that dread day Bursting to light in terrible array! What! could not Pluto spare the Chief once more, To scare a second robber from his prey? Idly he wandered on the Stygian shore, Nor now preserved the walls he loved to shield before.


Cold is the heart, fair Greece! that looks on Thee, Nor feels as Lovers o'er the dust they loved; Dull is the eye that will not weep to see Thy walls defaced, thy mouldering shrines removed By British hands, which it had best behoved[ec] To guard those relics ne'er to be restored:— Curst be the hour when from their isle they roved, And once again thy hapless bosom gored, And snatched thy shrinking Gods to Northern climes abhorred![123]


But where is Harold? shall I then forget To urge the gloomy Wanderer o'er the wave? Little recked he of all that Men regret; No loved-one now in feigned lament could rave;[124] No friend the parting hand extended gave, Ere the cold Stranger passed to other climes: Hard is his heart whom charms may not enslave; But Harold felt not as in other times, And left without a sigh the land of War and Crimes.


He that has sailed upon the dark blue sea Has viewed at times, I ween, a full fair sight, When the fresh breeze is fair as breeze may be, The white sail set, the gallant Frigate tight— Masts, spires, and strand retiring to the right, The glorious Main expanding o'er the bow, The Convoy spread like wild swans in their flight, The dullest sailer wearing bravely now— So gaily curl the waves before each dashing prow.


And oh, the little warlike world within! The well-reeved guns, the netted canopy,[9.B.] The hoarse command, the busy humming din, When, at a word, the tops are manned on high: Hark, to the Boatswain's call, the cheering cry! While through the seaman's hand the tackle glides; Or schoolboy Midshipman that, standing by, Strains his shrill pipe as good or ill betides, And well the docile crew that skilful Urchin guides.[ed]


White is the glassy deck, without a stain, Where on the watch the staid Lieutenant walks: Look on that part which sacred doth remain[ee] For the lone Chieftain, who majestic stalks, Silent and feared by all—not oft he talks With aught beneath him, if he would preserve That strict restraint, which broken, ever balks Conquest and Fame: but Britons rarely swerve From law, however stern, which tends their strength to nerve[ef].


Blow! swiftly blow, thou keel-compelling gale! Till the broad Sun withdraws his lessening ray: Then must the Pennant-bearer slacken sail, That lagging barks may make their lazy way.[125] Ah! grievance sore, and listless dull delay, To waste on sluggish hulks the sweetest breeze! What leagues are lost, before the dawn of day, Thus loitering pensive on the willing seas, The flapping sail hauled down to halt for logs like these!


The Moon is up; by Heaven, a lovely eve! Long streams of light o'er dancing waves expand; Now lads on shore may sigh, and maids believe[eg]: Such be our fate when we return to land! Meantime some rude Arion's restless hand[eh] Wakes the brisk harmony that sailors love; A circle there of merry listeners stand Or to some well-known measure featly move, Thoughtless, as if on shore they still were free to rove.


Through Calpe's straits survey the steepy shore;[ei] Europe and Afric on each other gaze![126] Lands of the dark-eyed Maid and dusky Moor Alike beheld beneath pale Hecate's blaze: How softly on the Spanish shore she plays![127] Disclosing rock, and slope, and forest brown,[128] Distinct, though darkening with her waning phase; But Mauritania's giant-shadows frown, From mountain-cliff to coast descending sombre down.


'Tis night, when Meditation bids us feel We once have loved, though Love is at an end: The Heart, lone mourner of its baffled zeal,[ej] Though friendless now, will dream it had a friend. Who with the weight of years would wish to bend, When Youth itself survives young Love and Joy? Alas! when mingling souls forget to blend, Death hath but little left him to destroy! Ah! happy years! once more who would not be a boy?[ek]


Thus bending o'er the vessel's laving side, To gaze on Dian's wave-reflected sphere,[el] The Soul forgets her schemes of Hope and Pride,[em] And flies unconscious o'er each backward year; None are so desolate but something dear,[en] Dearer than self, possesses or possessed A thought, and claims the homage of a tear; A flashing pang! of which the weary breast Would still, albeit in vain, the heavy heart divest.


To sit on rocks—to muse o'er flood and fell— To slowly trace the forest's shady scene, Where things that own not Man's dominion dwell, And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been; To climb the trackless mountain all unseen, With the wild flock that never needs a fold; Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean;[ep] This is not Solitude—'tis but to hold Converse with Nature's charms, and view her stores unrolled.


But midst the crowd, the hum, the shock of men, To hear, to see, to feel, and to possess, And roam along, the World's tired denizen, With none who bless us, none whom we can bless; Minions of Splendour shrinking from distress![130] None that, with kindred consciousness endued, If we were not, would seem to smile the less, Of all that flattered—followed—sought, and sued: This is to be alone—This, This is Solitude![eq]


More blest the life of godly Eremite, Such as on lonely Athos may be seen, Watching at eve upon the Giant Height, Which looks o'er waves so blue, skies so serene, That he who there at such an hour hath been Will wistful linger on that hallowed spot; Then slowly tear him from the 'witching scene, Sigh forth one wish that such had been his lot, Then turn to hate a world he had almost forgot.


Pass we the long unvarying course, the track Oft trod, that never leaves a trace behind; Pass we the calm—the gale—the change—the tack, And each well known caprice of wave and wind; Pass we the joys and sorrows sailors find, Cooped in their winged sea-girt citadel; The foul—the fair—the contrary—the kind— As breezes rise and fall and billows swell, Till on some jocund morn—lo, Land! and All is well!


But not in silence pass Calypso's isles,[10.B.] The sister tenants of the middle deep; There for the weary still a Haven smiles, Though the fair Goddess long hath ceased to weep, And o'er her cliffs a fruitless watch to keep For him who dared prefer a mortal bride: Here, too, his boy essayed the dreadful leap Stern Mentor urged from high to yonder tide; While thus of both bereft, the Nymph-Queen doubly sighed.[132]


Her reign is past, her gentle glories gone: But trust not this; too easy Youth, beware! A mortal Sovereign holds her dangerous throne, And thou may'st find a new Calypso there. Sweet Florence[133] could another ever share This wayward, loveless heart, it would be thine: But checked by every tie, I may not dare To cast a worthless offering at thy shrine, Nor ask so dear a breast to feel one pang for mine.


Thus Harold deemed, as on that Lady's eye He looked, and met its beam without a thought, Save Admiration glancing harmless by: Love kept aloof, albeit not far remote, Who knew his Votary often lost and caught, But knew him as his Worshipper no more, And ne'er again the Boy his bosom sought: Since now he vainly urged him to adore, Well deemed the little God his ancient sway was o'er.


Fair Florence found, in sooth with some amaze, One who, 'twas said, still sighed to all he saw, Withstand, unmoved, the lustre of her gaze, Which others hailed with real or mimic awe, Their hope, their doom, their punishment, their law; All that gay Beauty from her bondsmen claims: And much she marvelled that a youth so raw Nor felt, nor feigned at least, the oft-told flames, Which though sometimes they frown, yet rarely anger dames.


Little knew she that seeming marble heart, Now masked in silence or withheld by Pride, Was not unskilful in the spoiler's art, And spread its snares licentious far and wide;[134] Nor from the base pursuit had turned aside, As long as aught was worthy to pursue: But Harold on such arts no more relied; And had he doted on those eyes so blue, Yet never would he join the lover's whining crew.


Not much he kens, I ween, of Woman's breast, Who thinks that wanton thing is won by sighs; What careth she for hearts when once possessed? Do proper homage to thine Idol's eyes; But not too humbly, or she will despise Thee and thy suit, though told in moving tropes: Disguise ev'n tenderness, if thou art wise; Brisk Confidence still best with woman copes:[er] Pique her and soothe in turn—soon Passion crowns thy hopes.


'Tis an old lesson—Time approves it true, And those who know it best, deplore it most; When all is won that all desire to woo, The paltry prize is hardly worth the cost: Youth wasted—Minds degraded—Honour lost—[es] These are thy fruits, successful Passion! these![135] If, kindly cruel, early Hope is crost, Still to the last it rankles, a disease, Not to be cured when Love itself forgets to please.


Away! nor let me loiter in my song, For we have many a mountain-path to tread, And many a varied shore to sail along, By pensive Sadness, not by Fiction, led— Climes, fair withal as ever mortal head[et] Imagined in its little schemes of thought;[eu] Or e'er in new Utopias were ared,[136] To teach Man what he might be, or he ought— If that corrupted thing could ever such be taught.


Dear Nature is the kindest mother still! Though always changing, in her aspect mild; From her bare bosom let me take my fill, Her never-weaned, though not her favoured child.[ev] Oh! she is fairest in her features wild, Where nothing polished dares pollute her path: To me by day or night she ever smiled, Though I have marked her when none other hath, And sought her more and more, and loved her best in wrath.[137]


Land of Albania! where Iskander rose,[138] Theme of the young, and beacon of the wise,[139] And he his namesake, whose oft-baffled foes Shrunk from his deeds of chivalrous emprize: Land of Albania! let me bend mine eyes[11.B.] On thee, thou rugged Nurse of savage men! The Cross descends, thy Minarets arise, And the pale Crescent sparkles in the glen, Through many a cypress-grove within each city's ken.


Childe Harold sailed, and passed the barren spot,[140] Where sad Penelope o'erlooked the wave;[12.B.] And onward viewed the mount, not yet forgot, The Lover's refuge, and the Lesbian's grave. Dark Sappho! could not Verse immortal save That breast imbued with such immortal fire? Could she not live who life eternal gave? If life eternal may await the lyre, That only Heaven to which Earth's children may aspire.[141]


'Twas on a Grecian autumn's gentle eve Childe Harold hailed Leucadia's cape afar; A spot he longed to see, nor cared to leave: Oft did he mark the scenes of vanished war, Actium—Lepanto—fatal Trafalgar;[13.B.] Mark them unmoved, for he would not delight (Born beneath some remote inglorious star)[142] In themes of bloody fray, or gallant fight, But loathed the bravo's trade, and laughed at martial wight.[ew]


But when he saw the Evening star above Leucadia's far-projecting rock of woe, And hailed the last resort of fruitless love,[14.B.] He felt, or deemed he felt, no common glow: And as the stately vessel glided slow[143] Beneath the shadow of that ancient mount, He watched the billows' melancholy flow, And, sunk albeit in thought as he was wont,[ex] More placid seemed his eye, and smooth his pallid front.


Morn dawns; and with it stern Albania's hills, Dark Suli's rocks, and Pindus' inland peak,[144] Robed half in mist, bedewed with snowy rills, Arrayed in many a dun and purple streak, Arise; and, as the clouds along them break, Disclose the dwelling of the mountaineer: Here roams the wolf—the eagle whets his beak— Birds—beasts of prey—and wilder men appear, And gathering storms around convulse the closing year.


Now Harold felt himself at length alone, And bade to Christian tongues a long adieu; Now he adventured on a shore unknown,[145] Which all admire, but many dread to view: His breast was armed 'gainst fate, his wants were few Peril he sought not, but ne'er shrank to meet: The scene was savage, but the scene was new; This made the ceaseless toil of travel sweet, Beat back keen Winter's blast, and welcomed Summer's heat.


Here the red Cross, for still the Cross is here, Though sadly scoffed at by the circumcised, Forgets that Pride to pampered priesthood dear; Churchman and Votary alike despised. Foul Superstition! howsoe'er disguised, Idol—Saint—Virgin—Prophet—Crescent—Cross— For whatsoever symbol thou art prized, Thou sacerdotal gain, but general loss! Who from true Worship's gold can separate thy dross?


Ambracia's gulf behold, where once was lost A world for Woman, lovely, harmless thing![ey][146] In yonder rippling bay, their naval host Did many a Roman chief and Asian King[15.B.] To doubtful conflict, certain slaughter bring: Look where the second Caesar's trophies rose![147][16.B.] Now, like the hands that reared them, withering: Imperial Anarchs, doubling human woes![ez] GOD! was thy globe ordained for such to win and lose?


From the dark barriers of that rugged clime, Ev'n to the centre of Illyria's vales, Childe Harold passed o'er many a mount sublime, Through lands scarce noticed in historic tales: Yet in famed Attica such lovely dales Are rarely seen; nor can fair Tempe boast A charm they know not; loved Parnassus fails, Though classic ground and consecrated most, To match some spots that lurk within this lowering coast.


He passed bleak Pindus, Acherusia's lake,[17.B.] And left the primal city of the land, And onwards did his further journey take[148] To greet Albania's Chief, whose dread command[18.B.] Is lawless law; for with a bloody hand He sways a nation,—turbulent and bold: Yet here and there some daring mountain-band Disdain his power, and from their rocky hold Hurl their defiance far, nor yield, unless to gold.[19.B.]


Monastic Zitza![149] from thy shady brow,[20.B.] Thou small, but favoured spot of holy ground! Where'er we gaze—around—above—below,— What rainbow tints, what magic charms are found! Rock, river, forest, mountain, all abound, And bluest skies that harmonise the whole: Beneath, the distant Torrent's rushing sound Tells where the volumed Cataract doth roll Between those hanging rocks, that shock yet please the soul.


Amidst the grove that crowns yon tufted hill, Which, were it not for many a mountain nigh Rising in lofty ranks, and loftier still, Might well itself be deemed of dignity, The Convent's white walls glisten fair on high: Here dwells the caloyer, nor rude is he,[21.B.] Nor niggard of his cheer;[150] the passer by Is welcome still; nor heedless will he flee From hence, if he delight kind Nature's sheen to see.


Here in the sultriest season let him rest, Fresh is the green beneath those aged trees; Here winds of gentlest wing will fan his breast,[fa] From Heaven itself he may inhale the breeze: The plain is far beneath—oh! let him seize Pure pleasure while he can; the scorching ray Here pierceth not, impregnate with disease: Then let his length the loitering pilgrim lay, And gaze, untired, the Morn—the Noon—the Eve away.


Dusky and huge, enlarging on the sight, Nature's volcanic Amphitheatre,[22.B.] Chimaera's Alps extend from left to right: Beneath, a living valley seems to stir; Flocks play, trees wave, streams flow, the mountain-fir Nodding above; behold black Acheron![23.B.] Once consecrated to the sepulchre. Pluto! if this be Hell I look upon, Close shamed Elysium's gates, my shade shall seek for none[fb].


Ne city's towers pollute the lovely view; Unseen is Yanina, though not remote, Veiled by the screen of hills: here men are few, Scanty the hamlet, rare the lonely cot: But, peering down each precipice, the goat[fc] Browseth; and, pensive o'er his scattered flock, The little shepherd in his white capote[24.B.] Doth lean his boyish form along the rock, Or in his cave awaits the Tempest's short-lived shock.[fd]


Oh! where, Dodona![151] is thine aged Grove, Prophetic Fount, and Oracle divine? What valley echoed the response of Jove? What trace remaineth of the Thunderer's shrine? All, all forgotten—and shall Man repine That his frail bonds to fleeting life are broke?[152] Cease, Fool! the fate of Gods may well be thine: Wouldst thou survive the marble or the oak? When nations, tongues, and worlds must sink beneath the stroke!


Epirus' bounds recede, and mountains fail;[153] Tired of up-gazing still, the wearied eye Reposes gladly on as smooth a vale As ever Spring yclad in grassy dye:[154] Ev'n on a plain no humble beauties lie, Where some bold river breaks the long expanse, And woods along the banks are waving high, Whose shadows in the glassy waters dance, Or with the moonbeam sleep in Midnight's solemn trance.


The Sun had sunk behind vast Tomerit,[25.B.] And Laos wide and fierce came roaring by;[26.B.] The shades of wonted night were gathering yet, When, down the steep banks winding warily, Childe Harold saw, like meteors in the sky,[155] The glittering minarets of Tepalen, Whose walls o'erlook the stream; and drawing nigh, He heard the busy hum of warrior-men Swelling the breeze that sighed along the lengthening glen.


He passed the sacred Haram's silent tower, And underneath the wide o'erarching gate Surveyed the dwelling of this Chief of power, Where all around proclaimed his high estate. Amidst no common pomp the Despot sate, While busy preparation shook the court, Slaves, eunuchs, soldiers, guests, and santons[156] wait;[fe] Within, a palace, and without, a fort: Here men of every clime appear to make resort.


Richly caparisoned, a ready row Of armed horse, and many a warlike store, Circled the wide-extending court below; Above, strange groups adorned the corridore; And oft-times through the area's echoing door Some high-capped Tartar spurred his steed away: The Turk—the Greek—the Albanian—and the Moor, Here mingled in their many-hued array, While the deep war-drum's sound announced the close of day.[ff]


The wild Albanian kirtled to his knee, With shawl-girt head and ornamented gun, And gold-embroidered garments, fair to see; The crimson-scarfed men of Macedon; The Delhi with his cap of terror on, And crooked glaive—the lively, supple Greek And swarthy Nubia's mutilated son; The bearded Turk that rarely deigns to speak, Master of all around, too potent to be meek,


Are mixed conspicuous: some recline in groups,[157] Scanning the motley scene that varies round; There some grave Moslem to devotion stoops, And some that smoke, and some that play, are found; Here the Albanian proudly treads the ground; Half-whispering there the Greek is heard to prate; Hark! from the Mosque the nightly solemn sound, The Muezzin's call doth shake the minaret, "There is no god but God!—to prayer—lo! God is great!"


Just at this season Ramazani's fast[158] Through the long day its penance did maintain: But when the lingering twilight hour was past, Revel and feast assumed the rule again: Now all was bustle, and the menial train Prepared and spread the plenteous board within; The vacant Gallery now seemed made in vain, But from the chambers came the mingling din, As page and slave anon were passing out and in.[159]


Here woman's voice is never heard: apart, And scarce permitted, guarded, veiled, to move,[fg] She yields to one her person and her heart, Tamed to her cage, nor feels a wish to rove: For, not unhappy in her Master's love,[fh] And joyful in a mother's gentlest cares, Blest cares! all other feelings far above! Herself more sweetly rears the babe she bears Who never quits the breast—no meaner passion shares.


In marble-paved pavilion, where a spring Of living water from the centre rose, Whose bubbling did a genial freshness fling, And soft voluptuous couches breathed repose, ALI reclined, a man of war and woes:[160] Yet in his lineaments ye cannot trace, While Gentleness her milder radiance throws[161] Along that aged venerable face, The deeds that lurk beneath, and stain him with disgrace.


It is not that yon hoary lengthening beard Ill suits the passions which belong to Youth;[fi] Love conquers Age—so Hafiz hath averr'd, So sings the Teian, and he sings in sooth[162]— But crimes that scorn the tender voice of ruth,[fj][163] Beseeming all men ill, but most the man In years, have marked him with a tiger's tooth; Blood follows blood, and, through their mortal span, In bloodier acts conclude those who with blood began.[fk][164]


'Mid many things most new to ear and eye[fl] The Pilgrim rested here his weary feet, And gazed around on Moslem luxury, Till quickly, wearied with that spacious seat Of Wealth and Wantonness, the choice retreat Of sated Grandeur from the city's noise: And were it humbler it in sooth were sweet; But Peace abhorreth artificial joys, And Pleasure, leagued with Pomp, the zest of both destroys.


Fierce are Albania's children, yet they lack Not virtues, were those virtues more mature. Where is the foe that ever saw their back? Who can so well the toil of War endure? Their native fastnesses not more secure Than they in doubtful time of troublous need: Their wrath how deadly! but their friendship sure, When Gratitude or Valour bids them bleed, Unshaken rushing on where'er their Chief may lead.


Childe Harold saw them in their Chieftain's tower Thronging to War in splendour and success; And after viewed them, when, within their power, Himself awhile the victim of distress; That saddening hour when bad men hotlier press: But these did shelter him beneath their roof, When less barbarians would have cheered him less, And fellow-countrymen have stood aloof—[27.B.] In aught that tries the heart, how few withstand the proof!


It chanced that adverse winds once drove his bark Full on the coast of Suli's shaggy shore,[165] When all around was desolate and dark; To land was perilous, to sojourn more; Yet for awhile the mariners forbore, Dubious to trust where Treachery might lurk: At length they ventured forth, though doubting sore That those who loathe alike the Frank and Turk Might once again renew their ancient butcher-work.


Vain fear! the Suliotes stretched the welcome hand, Led them o'er rocks and past the dangerous swamp, Kinder than polished slaves though not so bland, And piled the hearth, and wrung their garments damp, And filled the bowl, and trimmed the cheerful lamp, And spread their fare; though homely, all they had: Such conduct bears Philanthropy's rare stamp: To rest the weary and to soothe the sad, Doth lesson happier men, and shames at least the bad.


It came to pass, that when he did address Himself to quit at length this mountain-land, Combined marauders half-way barred egress, And wasted far and near with glaive and brand; And therefore did he take a trusty band To traverse Acarnania's forest wide, In war well-seasoned, and with labours tanned, Till he did greet white Achelous' tide, And from his further bank AEtolia's wolds espied.[166]


Where lone Utraikey forms its circling cove,[167] And weary waves retire to gleam at rest, How brown the foliage of the green hill's grove, Nodding at midnight o'er the calm bay's breast, As winds come lightly whispering from the West, Kissing, not ruffling, the blue deep's serene:— Here Harold was received a welcome guest; Nor did he pass unmoved the gentle scene, For many a joy could he from Night's soft presence glean.


On the smooth shore the night-fires brightly blazed, The feast was done, the red wine circling fast,[28.B.] And he that unawares had there ygazed With gaping wonderment had stared aghast; For ere night's midmost, stillest hour was past, The native revels of the troop began; Each Palikar his sabre from him cast,[29.B.] And bounding hand in hand, man linked to man, Yelling their uncouth dirge, long daunced the kirtled clan.[168]


Childe Harold at a little distance stood And viewed, but not displeased, the revelrie, Nor hated harmless mirth, however rude: In sooth, it was no vulgar sight to see Their barbarous, yet their not indecent, glee; And, as the flames along their faces gleamed, Their gestures nimble, dark eyes flashing free, The long wild locks that to their girdles streamed, While thus in concert they this lay half sang, half screamed:—[169][30.B.]


Tambourgi![170] Tambourgi! thy 'larum afar[fm][31.B.] Gives hope to the valiant, and promise of war; All the Sons of the mountains arise at the note, Chimariot, Illyrian, and dark Suliote!


Oh! who is more brave than a dark Suliote, In his snowy camese[171] and his shaggy capote? To the wolf and the vulture he leaves his wild flock, And descends to the plain like the stream from the rock.


Shall the sons of Chimari, who never forgive[fn] The fault of a friend, bid an enemy live? Let those guns so unerring such vengeance forego? What mark is so fair as the breast of a foe?[172]


Macedonia sends forth her invincible race; For a time they abandon the cave and the chase: But those scarfs of blood-red shall be redder, before The sabre is sheathed and the battle is o'er.


Then the Pirates of Parga that dwell by the waves, And teach the pale Franks what it is to be slaves, Shall leave on the beach the long galley and oar, And track to his covert the captive on shore.


I ask not the pleasures that riches supply, My sabre shall win what the feeble must buy; Shall win the young bride with her long flowing hair,[fo] And many a maid from her mother shall tear.


I love the fair face of the maid in her youth,[fp] Her caresses shall lull me, her music shall soothe;[fq] Let her bring from the chamber her many-toned lyre, And sing us a song on the fall of her Sire.


Remember the moment when Previsa fell,[173][32.B.] The shrieks of the conquered, the conquerors' yell; The roofs that we fired, and the plunder we shared, The wealthy we slaughtered, the lovely we spared.


I talk not of mercy, I talk not of fear; He neither must know who would serve the Vizier: Since the days of our Prophet the Crescent ne'er saw A chief ever glorious like Ali Pashaw.


Dark Muchtar his son to the Danube is sped,[174] Let the yellow-haired[175] Giaours[176] view his horse-tail[177] with dread; When his Delhis[178] come dashing in blood o'er the banks, How few shall escape from the Muscovite ranks!


Selictar![179] unsheathe then our chief's Scimitār; Tambourgi! thy 'larum gives promise of War.[fr] Ye Mountains, that see us descend to the shore, Shall view us as Victors, or view us no more!


Fair Greece! sad relic of departed Worth![33.B.] Immortal, though no more; though fallen, great! Who now shall lead thy scattered children forth, And long accustomed bondage uncreate? Not such thy sons who whilome did await, The helpless warriors of a willing doom, In bleak Thermopylae's sepulchral strait— Oh! who that gallant spirit shall resume, Leap from Eurotas' banks, and call thee from the tomb?[180]


Spirit of Freedom! when on Phyle's brow[34.B.] Thou sat'st with Thrasybulus and his train, Couldst thou forebode the dismal hour which now Dims the green beauties of thine Attic plain? Not thirty tyrants now enforce the chain, But every carle can lord it o'er thy land; Nor rise thy sons, but idly rail in vain, Trembling beneath the scourge of Turkish hand, From birth till death enslaved; in word, in deed, unmanned.[fs]


In all save form alone, how changed! and who That marks the fire still sparkling in each eye, Who but would deem their bosoms burned anew With thy unquenched beam, lost Liberty![ft] And many dream withal the hour is nigh That gives them back their fathers' heritage: For foreign arms and aid they fondly sigh, Nor solely dare encounter hostile rage, Or tear their name defiled from Slavery's mournful page.


Hereditary Bondsmen! know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the blow? By their right arms the conquest must be wrought?[181] Will Gaul or Muscovite redress ye? No! True—they may lay your proud despoilers low, But not for you will Freedom's Altars flame. Shades of the Helots! triumph o'er your foe! Greece! change thy lords, thy state is still the same; Thy glorious day is o'er, but not thine years of shame.


The city won for Allah from the Giaour The Giaour from Othman's race again may wrest; And the Serai's impenetrable tower Receive the fiery Frank, her former guest;[35.B.] Or Wahab's[182] rebel brood who dared divest The Prophet's tomb of all its pious spoil,[36.B.] May wind their path of blood along the West; But ne'er will Freedom seek this fated soil, But slave succeed to slave through years of endless toil.


Yet mark their mirth—ere Lenten days begin, That penance which their holy rites prepare To shrive from Man his weight of mortal sin, By daily abstinence and nightly prayer; But ere his sackcloth garb Repentance wear, Some days of joyaunce are decreed to all, To take of pleasaunce each his secret share, In motley robe to dance at masking ball, And join the mimic train of merry Carnival.


And whose more rife with merriment than thine, Oh Stamboul! once the Empress of their reign? Though turbans now pollute Sophia's shrine, And Greece her very altars eyes in vain: (Alas! her woes will still pervade my strain!) Gay were her minstrels once, for free her throng, All felt the common joy they now must feign, Nor oft I've seen such sight, nor heard such song, As wooed the eye, and thrilled the Bosphorus along.


Loud was the lightsome tumult on the shore,[184] Oft Music changed, but never ceased her tone, And timely echoed back the measured oar, And rippling waters made a pleasant moan: The Queen of tides on high consenting shone, And when a transient breeze swept o'er the wave, 'Twas, as if darting from her heavenly throne, A brighter glance her form reflected gave, Till sparkling billows seemed to light the banks they lave.


Glanced many a light Caique along the foam, Danced on the shore the daughters of the land, No thought had man or maid of rest or home, While many a languid eye and thrilling hand Exchanged the look few bosoms may withstand, Or gently prest, returned the pressure still: Oh Love! young Love! bound in thy rosy band, Let sage or cynic prattle as he will, These hours, and only these, redeem Life's years of ill![185]


But, midst the throng in merry masquerade, Lurk there no hearts that throb with secret pain, Even through the closest searment[186] half betrayed? To such the gentle murmurs of the main Seem to re-echo all they mourn in vain; To such the gladness of the gamesome crowd Is source of wayward thought and stern disdain: How do they loathe the laughter idly loud, And long to change the robe of revel for the shroud!


This must he feel, the true-born son of Greece, If Greece one true-born patriot still can boast: Not such as prate of War, but skulk in Peace, The bondsman's peace, who sighs for all he lost, Yet with smooth smile his Tyrant can accost, And wield the slavish sickle, not the sword: Ah! Greece! they love thee least who owe thee most— Their birth, their blood, and that sublime record[187] Of hero Sires, who shame thy now degenerate horde!


When riseth Lacedemon's Hardihood, When Thebes Epaminondas rears again, When Athens' children are with hearts endued,[fu] When Grecian mothers shall give birth to men, Then may'st thou be restored; but not till then. A thousand years scarce serve to form a state; An hour may lay it in the dust: and when Can Man its shattered splendour renovate, Recall its virtues back, and vanquish Time and Fate?


And yet how lovely in thine age of woe, Land of lost Gods and godlike men, art thou! Thy vales of evergreen, thy hills of snow,[37.B.] Proclaim thee Nature's varied favourite now: Thy fanes, thy temples to thy surface bow, Commingling slowly with heroic earth, Broke by the share of every rustic plough: So perish monuments of mortal birth, So perish all in turn, save well-recorded Worth:[188]


Save where some solitary column[189] mourns Above its prostrate brethren of the cave;[38.B.] Save where Tritonia's[190] airy shrine adorns Colonna's cliff,[191] and gleams along the wave; Save o'er some warrior's half-forgotten grave, Where the gray stones and unmolested grass Ages, but not Oblivion, feebly brave; While strangers, only, not regardless pass, Lingering like me, perchance, to gaze, and sigh "Alas!"


Yet are thy skies as blue, thy crags as wild; Sweet are thy groves, and verdant are thy fields, Thine olive ripe as when Minerva[192] smiled, And still his honied wealth Hymettus[193] yields; There the blithe Bee his fragrant fortress builds, The free-born wanderer of thy mountain-air; Apollo still thy long, long summer gilds, Still in his beam Mendeli's marbles glare:[fv] Art, Glory, Freedom fail, but Nature still is fair.


Where'er we tread 'tis haunted, holy ground; No earth of thine is lost in vulgar mould, But one vast realm of Wonder spreads around, And all the Muse's tales seem truly told, Till the sense aches with gazing to behold The scenes our earliest dreams have dwelt upon; Each hill and dale, each deepening glen and wold Defies the power which crushed thy temples gone: Age shakes Athenae's tower, but spares gray Marathon.[195]


The Sun, the soil—but not the slave, the same;— Unchanged in all except its foreign Lord, Preserves alike its bounds and boundless fame[fw] The Battle-field, where Persia's victim horde First bowed beneath the brunt of Hellas' sword, As on the morn to distant Glory dear, When Marathon became a magic word;[39.B.] Which uttered, to the hearer's eye appear[fx] The camp, the host, the fight, the Conqueror's career,[fy]


The flying Mede, his shaftless broken bow—[fz][196] The fiery Greek, his red pursuing spear; Mountains above—Earth's, Ocean's plain below— Death in the front, Destruction in the rear! Such was the scene—what now remaineth here? What sacred Trophy marks the hallowed ground, Recording Freedom's smile and Asia's tear?[ga] The rifled urn, the violated mound,[197] The dust thy courser's hoof, rude stranger! spurns around.


Yet to the remnants of thy Splendour past[gb] Shall pilgrims, pensive, but unwearied, throng; Long shall the voyager, with th' Ionian blast,[198] Hail the bright clime of Battle and of Song: Long shall thine annals and immortal tongue Fill with thy fame the youth of many a shore; Boast of the aged! lesson of the young! Which Sages venerate and Bards adore, As Pallas and the Muse unveil their awful lore.


The parted bosom clings to wonted home, If aught that's kindred cheer the welcome hearth; He that is lonely—hither let him roam, And gaze complacent on congenial earth. Greece is no lightsome land of social mirth: But he whom Sadness sootheth may abide, And scarce regret the region of his birth, When wandering slow by Delphi's sacred side, Or gazing o'er the plains where Greek and Persian died.[199]


Let such approach this consecrated Land, And pass in peace along the magic waste; But spare its relics—let no busy hand Deface the scenes, already how defaced! Not for such purpose were these altars placed: Revere the remnants Nations once revered: So may our Country's name be undisgraced, So may'st thou prosper where thy youth was reared, By every honest joy of Love and Life endeared!


For thee, who thus in too protracted song Hast soothed thine Idlesse with inglorious lays, Soon shall thy voice be lost amid the throng Of louder Minstrels in these later days: To such resign the strife for fading Bays— Ill may such contest now the spirit move Which heeds nor keen Reproach nor partial Praise,[gc] Since cold each kinder heart that might approve— And none are left to please when none are left to love.


Thou too art gone, thou loved and lovely one! Whom Youth and Youth's affections bound to me; Who did for me what none beside have done, Nor shrank from one albeit unworthy thee. What is my Being! thou hast ceased to be! Nor staid to welcome here thy wanderer home, Who mourns o'er hours which we no more shall see— Would they had never been, or were to come! Would he had ne'er returned to find fresh cause to roam![gd][200]


Oh! ever loving, lovely, and beloved! How selfish Sorrow ponders on the past, And clings to thoughts now better far removed! But Time shall tear thy shadow from me last.[ge] All thou couldst have of mine, stern Death! thou hast; The Parent, Friend, and now the more than Friend: Ne'er yet for one thine arrows flew so fast,[201] And grief with grief continuing still to blend, Hath snatched the little joy that Life had yet to lend.


Then must I plunge again into the crowd, And follow all that Peace disdains to seek? Where Revel calls, and Laughter, vainly loud, False to the heart, distorts the hollow cheek, To leave the flagging spirit doubly weak; Still o'er the features, which perforce they cheer, To feign the pleasure or conceal the pique: Smiles form the channel of a future tear, Or raise the writhing lip with ill-dissembled sneer.


What is the worst of woes that wait on Age? What stamps the wrinkle deeper on the brow? To view each loved one blotted from Life's page, And be alone on earth, as I am now. Before the Chastener humbly let me bow, O'er Hearts divided and o'er Hopes destroyed: Roll on, vain days! full reckless may ye flow, Since Time hath reft whate'er my soul enjoyed,[gf] And with the ills of Eld mine earlier years alloyed.

* * * * *

[Note.—The MS. closes with stanza xcii. Stanzas xciii.-xcviii. were added after Childe Harold was in the press. Byron sent them to Dallas, October 11, 1811, and, apparently, on the same day composed the Epistle to a Friend (F. Hodgson) in answer to some lines exhorting the Author to be cheerful, and to "Banish Care," and the first poem To Thyrza ("Without a stone to mark the Spot"). "I have sent," he writes, "two or three additional stanzas for both 'Fyttes.' I have been again shocked with a death, and have lost one very dear to me in happier times; but 'I have almost forgot the taste of grief,' and 'supped full of horrors' till I have become callous, nor have I a tear left for an event which, five years ago, would have bowed down my head to the earth. It seems as though I were to experience in my youth the greatest misery of age. My friends fall around me, and I shall be left a lonely tree before I am withered." In one respect he would no longer disclaim identity with Childe Harold. "Death had deprived him of his nearest connections." He had seen his friends "around him fall like leaves in wintry weather." He felt "like one deserted;" and in the "dusky shadow" of that early desolation he was destined to walk till his life's end. It is not without cause when "a man of great spirit grows melancholy."

In connection with this subject, it may be noted that lines 6 and 7 of stanza xcv. do not bear out Byron's contention to Dallas (Letters, October 14 and 31, 1811), that in these three in memoriam stanzas (ix., xcv., xcvi.) he is bewailing an event which took place after he returned to Newstead. The "more than friend" had "ceased to be" before the "wanderer" returned. It is evident that Byron did not take Dallas into his confidence.]


[113] {99} [Stanzas i.-xv. form a kind of dramatic prologue to the Second Canto of the Pilgrimage. The general meaning is clear enough, but the unities are disregarded. The scene shifts more than once, and there is a moral within a moral. The poet begins by invoking Athena (Byron wrote Athenae) to look down on the ruins of "her holy and beautiful house," and bewails her unreturning heroes of the sword and pen. He then summons an Oriental, a "Son of the Morning," Moslem or "light Greek," possibly a Canis venaticus, the discoverer or vendor of a sepulchral urn, and, with an adjuration to spare the sacred relic, points to the Acropolis, the cemetery of dead divinities, and then once more to the urn at his feet. "'Vanity of vanities—all is vanity!' Gods and men may come and go, but Death 'goes on for ever.'" The scene changes, and he feigns to be present at the rifling of a barrow, the "tomb of the Athenian heroes" on the plain of Marathon, or one of the lonely tumuli on Sigeum and Rhoeteum, "the great and goodly tombs" of Achilles and Patroclus ("they twain in one golden urn"); of Antilochus, and of Telamonian Ajax. Marathon he had already visited, and marked "the perpendicular cut" which at Fauvel's instigation had been recently driven into the large barrow; and he had, perhaps, read of the real or pretended excavation by Signor Ghormezano (1787) of a tumulus at the Sigean promontory. The "mind's eye," which had conjured up "the shattered heaps," images a skull of one who "kept the world in awe," and, after moralizing in Hamlet's vein on the humorous catastrophe of decay, the poet concludes with the Preacher "that there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave." After this profession of unfaith, before he returns to Harold and his pilgrimage, he takes up his parable and curses Elgin and all his works. The passage as a whole suggests the essential difference between painting and poetry. As a composition, it recalls the frontispiece of a seventeenth-century classic. The pictured scene, with its superfluity of accessories, is grotesque enough; but the poetic scenery, inconsequent and yet vivid as a dream, awakens, and fulfills the imagination. (Travels in Albania, by Lord Broughton, 1858, i. 380; ii. 128, 129, 138; The Odyssey, xxiv. 74, sq. See, too, Byron's letters to his mother, April 17, and to H. Drury, May 3, 1810: Letters, 1898, i. 262.)]

[do] {100} Ancient of days! august Athenae! where.—[MS. D.]

[dp] Gone—mingled with the waste——.—[MS. erased.]

[114] {101} ["Stole," apart from its restricted use as an ecclesiastical vestment, is used by Spenser and other poets as an equivalent for any long and loosely flowing robe, but is, perhaps inaccurately, applied to the short cloak (tribon), the "habit" of Socrates when he lived, and, after his death, the distinctive dress of the cynics.]

[dq] ——gray flits the Ghost of Power.—[MS. D. erased.]

[dr] ——whose altars cease to burn.—Ḍ

[ds] ——whose Faith is built on reeds.—[MS. D. erased.]

[115] {102} [Compare Shakespeare, Measure for Measure, act iii, sc. 1, lines 5-7—

"Reason thus with life: If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing That none but fools would keep."]

[dt] Still wilt thou harp——.—[MS. D. erased.]

[du] Though 'twas a God, as graver records tell.—[MS. erased.]

[116] [The demigods Erechtheus and Theseus "appeared" at Marathon, and fought side by side with Miltiades (Grote's History of Greece, iv. 284).]

[117] {103} [Compare Shakespeare, Hamlet, act v. sc. 1, passim.]

[118] [Socrates affirmed that true self-knowledge was to know that we know nothing, and in his own case he denied any other knowledge; but "this confession of ignorance was certainly not meant to be a sceptical denial of all knowledge." "The idea of knowledge was to him a boundless field, in the face of which he could not but be ignorant" (Socrates and the Socratic Schools, by Dr. E. Zeller, London, 1868, p. 102).]

[119] [Stanzas viii. and ix. are not in the MS.

The expunged lines (see var. i.) carried the Lucretian tenets of the preceding stanza to their logical conclusion. The end is silence, not a reunion with superior souls. But Dallas objected; and it may well be that, in the presence of death, Byron could not "guard his unbelief," or refrain from a renewed questioning of the "Grand Perhaps." Stanza for stanza, the new version is an improvement on the original. (See Recollections of the Life of Lord Byron, 1824, p. 169. See, too, letters to Hodgson, September 3 and September 13, 1811: Letters, 1898, ii. 18, 34.)]


_Frown not upon me, churlish Priest! that I_ _Look not for Life, where life may never be:_ _I am no sneerer at thy phantasy;_ _Thou pitiest me, alas! I envy thee,_ _Thou bold Discoverer in an unknown sea_ _Of happy Isles and happier Tenants there;_ _I ask thee not to prove a Sadducee;_[Sec.1] _Still dream of Paradise, thou know'st not where,_[Sec.2] _Which if it be thy sins will never let thee share_.[Sec.3] —[MS. D. erased.]_

[Sec.1] The Sadducees did not believe in the Resurrection.—[MS. D.]


But look upon a scene that once was fair.—[Erased.] Zion's holy hill which thou wouldst fancy fair.—[Erased.]


As those, which thou delight'st to rear in upper air.—[Erased.] Yet lovs't too well to bid thine erring brother share.—[D. erased.]

[120] {104} [Byron forwarded this stanza in a letter to Dallas, dated October 14, 1811, and was careful to add, "I think it proper to state to you, that this stanza alludes to an event which has taken place since my arrival here, and not to the death of any male friend" (Letters. 1898, ii. 57). The reference is not to Edleston, as Dallas might have guessed, and as Wright (see Poetical Works, 1891, p. 17) believed. Again, in a letter to Dallas, dated October 31, 1811 (ibid., ii. 65), he sends "a few stanzas," presumably the lines "To Thyrza," which are dated October 31, 1811, and says that "they refer to the death of one to whose name you are a stranger, and, consequently, cannot be interested (sic) ... They relate to the same person whom I have mentioned in Canto 2nd, and at the conclusion of the poem." It follows from this second statement that we have Byron's authority for connecting stanza ix. with stanzas xcv., xcvi., and, inferentially, his authority for connecting stanzas ix., xcv., xcvi. with the group of "Thyrza" poems. And there our knowledge ends. We must leave the mystery where Byron willed that it should be left. "All that we know is, nothing can be known."]

[dw] {105}

_Whate'er beside_} } _Futurity's behest_.[Sec.] _Howe'er may be_ } Or seeing thee no more to sink in sullen rest_.—[MS. D.]

[Sec.] [See letter to Dallas, October 14, 1811.]

[121] {106} [For note on the "Elgin Marbles," see Introduction to the Curse of Minerva: Poetical Works, 1898, i. 453-456.]

[dx] The last, the worst dull Robber, who was he? Blush Scotland such a slave thy son could beEngland! I joy no child he was of thine: Thy freeborn men revere what once was free, Nor tear the Sculpture from its saddening shrine, Nor bear the spoil away athwart the weeping Brine.—[MS. D. erased.]

[dy] This be the wittol Picts ignoble boast.—[MS. D.] To rive what Goth and Turk, and Time hath spared: Cold and accursed as his native coast.—[MS. D. erased]

[122] ["On the plaster wall of the Chapel of Pandrosos adjoining the Erechtheum, these words have been very deeply cut—

'Quod non fecerunt Goti, Hoc fecerunt Scoti'"

(Travels in Albania, 1858, i. 299). M. Darmesteter quotes the original: "mot sur les Barberini" ("Quod non fecere Barbari, Fecere Barberini"). It may be added that Scotchmen are named among the volunteers who joined the Hanoverian mercenaries in the Venetian invasion of Greece in 1686. (See The Curse of Minerva: Poetical Works, 1898, i. 463, note 1; Finlay's Hist. of Greece, v. 189.)]

[dz] {107}

What! shall it e'er be said by British tongue, Albion was happy while Athenae mourned? Though in thy name the slave her bosom wrung, Albion! I would not see thee thus adorned With gains thy generous spirit should have scorned, From Man distinguished by some monstrous sign, Like Attila the Hun was surely horned,[Sec.1] Who wrought the ravage amid works divine: Oh that Minerva's voice lent its keen aid to mine.—[MS. D. erased.]

What! shall it e'er be said by British tongue, Albion was happy in Athenae's tears? Though in thy name the slave her bosom wrung, Let it not vibrate in pale Europe's ears,[Sec.2] The Saviour Queen, the free Britannia, wears The last poor blunder of a bleeding land: That she, whose generous aid her name endears, Tore down those remnants with a Harpy's hand, Which Envious Eld forbore and Tyrants left to stand.—[MS. D.][Sec.3]

[Sec.1] Attila was horned, if we may trust contemporary legends, and the etchings of his visage in Lavater.—[M.S.]

[Sec.2] Lines 5-9 in the Dallas transcript are in Byron's handwriting.

[Sec.3] Which centuries forgot——.—[D. erased.]

[ea] {108} After stanza xiii. the MS. inserts the two following stanzas:—

Come then, ye classic Thieves of each degree, Dark Hamilton[Sec.1] and sullen Aberdeen, Come pilfer all the Pilgrim loves to see, All that yet consecrates the fading scene: Ah! better were it ye had never been, Nor ye, nor Elgin, nor that lesser wight. The victim sad of vase-collecting spleen. House-furnisher withal, one Thomas[Sec.2] hight, Than ye should bear one stone from wronged Athenae's site.

Or will the gentle Dilettanti crew Now delegate the task to digging Gell,[Sec.3] That mighty limner of a bird's eye view, How like to Nature let his volumes tell: Who can with him the folio's limit swell With all the Author saw, or said he saw? Who can topographize or delve so well? No boaster he, nor impudent and raw, His pencil, pen, and spade, alike without a flaw.—[D. erased.]

[Sec.1] [William Richard Hamilton (1777-1859) was the son of Anthony Hamilton, Archdeacon of Colchester, etc., and grandson of Richard Terrick, Bishop of London. In 1799, when Lord Elgin was appointed Ambassador to the Sublime Porte, Hamilton accompanied him as private secretary. After the battle of Ramassieh (Alexandria, March 20, 1801), and the subsequent evacuation of Egypt by the French (August 30, 1801), Hamilton, who had been sent on a diplomatic mission, was successful in recapturing the Rosetta Stone, which, in violation of a specified agreement, had been placed on board a French man-of-war. He was afterwards employed by Elgin as agent plenipotentiary in the purchase, removal, and deportation of marbles. He held office (1809-22) as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and as Minister at the Court of Naples (1822-25). From 1838 to 1858 he was a Trustee of the British Museum. He published, in 1809, AEgyptiaca, or Some Account of the Ancient and Modern State of Egypt; and, in 1811, his Memorandum on the Subject of the Earl of Elgin's Pursuits in Greece. (For Hamilton, see English Bards, etc., line 509; Poetical Works, 1898, i. 336, note 2.)]

[Sec.2] Thomas Hope, Esqr., if I mistake not, the man who publishes quartos on furniture and costume.

[Thomas Hope (1770-1831) (see Hints from Horace, line 7: Poetical Works, 1898, i. 390, note 1) published, in 1805, a folio volume entitled, Household Furniture and Internal Decoration. It was severely handled in the Edinburgh Review (No. xx.) for July, 1807.]

[Sec.3] It is rumoured Gell is coming out to dig in Olympia. I wish him more success than he had at Athens. According to Lusieri's account, he began digging most furiously without a firmann, but before the resurrection of a single sauce-pan, the Painter countermined and the Way-wode countermanded and sent him back to bookmaking.—[MS. D.]

[See English Bards, etc., lines 1033, 1034: Poetical Works, 1898, i. 379, note 1.]

[eb] Where was thine AEgis, Goddess——.—[MS. D. erased]

[ec] {110} ——which it had well behoved.—[MS. D.]

[123] [The Athenians believed, or feigned to believe, that the marbles themselves shrieked out in shame and agony at their removal from their ancient shrines.]

[124] [Byron is speaking of his departure from Spain, but he is thinking of his departure from Malta, and his half-hearted amour with Mrs. Spencer Smith.]

[ed] {111} ——that rosy urchin guides.—[MS.]

[ee] Save on that part——.—[MS. erased.]

[ef] {112} From Discipline's stern law——.—[MS.] ——keen law——.—[MS. D.]

[125] An additional "misery to human life!"—lying to at sunset for a large convoy, till the sternmost pass ahead. Mem.: fine frigate, fair wind likely to change before morning, but enough at present for ten knots!—[MS. D.]

[eg] ——their melting girls believe.—[MS.]

[eh] {113} Meantime some rude musician's restless hand Ply's the brisk instrument that sailors love.—[MS. D. erased.]

[ei] Through well-known straits behold the steepy shore.—[MS. erased.]

[126] [Compare Coleridge's reflections, in his diary for April 19, 1804, on entering the Straits of Gibraltar: "When I first sat down, with Europe on my left and Africa on my right, both distinctly visible, I felt a quickening of the movements in the blood, but still felt it as a pleasure of amusement rather than of thought and elevation; and at the same time, and gradually winning on the other, the nameless silent forms of nature were working in me, like a tender thought in a man who is hailed merrily by some acquaintance in his work, and answers it in the same tone" (Anima Poetae, 1895, pp. 70, 71).]

[127] ["The moon is in the southern sky as the vessel passes through the Straits; consequently, the coast of Spain is in light, that of Africa in shadow" (Childe Harold, edited by H. F. Tozer, 1885, p. 232).]

[128] [Campbell, in Gertrude of Wyoming, Canto I. stanza ii. line 6, speaks of "forests brown;" but, as Mr. Tozer points out, "'brown' is Byron's usual epithet for landscape seen in moonlight." (Compare Canto II. stanza lxx. line 3; Parisina, i. 10; and Siege of Corinth, ii. 1.)]

[ej] {114} Bleeds the lone heart, once boundless in its zeal.—Ḍ And friendless now, yet dreams it had a friend.—[MS.] or, Far from affection's chilled or changing zeal.—[MS.] Divided far by fortune, wave or steel Though friendless now we once have had a friend.— [MS. D. erased.]

[ek] Ah! happy years! I would I were once more a boy.—[MS.]

[el] To gaze on Dian's wan reflected sphere.—[MS. D]

[em] ——her dreams of hope and pride.—[MS. D. erased.]

[en] {115} None are so wretched[Sec.] but that——.—[MS.D.]

[Sec.] "Desolate."—[MS. pencil.]

[eo] T.t.b. [tres tres bien], but why insert here.—[MS. pencil.]

[129] [In this stanza M. Darmesteter detects "l'accent Wordsworthien" prior to any "doses" as prescribed by Shelley, and quotes as a possible model the following lines from Beattie's Minstrel:—

"And oft the craggy cliff he lov'd to climb, When all in mist the world below was lost, What dreadful pleasure! there to stand sublime, Like shipwreck'd mariner on desert coast, And view th' enormous waste of vapour, tost In billows, lengthening to th' horizon round, Now scoop'd in gulfs, with mountains now emboss'd! And hear the voice of mirth, and song rebound, Flocks, herds, and waterfalls, along the hoar profound."

In felicity of expression, the copy, if it be a copy, surpasses the original; but in the scope and originality of the image, it is vastly inferior. Nor are these lines, with the possible exception of line 3—"Where things that own not Man's dominion dwell," at all Wordsworthian. They fail in that imaginative precision which the Lake poets regarded as essential, and they lack the glamour and passion without which their canons of art would have profited nothing. Six years later, when Byron came within sound of Wordsworth's voice, he struck a new chord—a response, not an echo. Here the motive is rhetorical, not immediately poetical.]

[ep] {116} ——and foaming linns to lean.—[MS. D. erased.]

[130] [There are none to bless us, for when we are in distress the great, the rich, the gay, shrink from us; and when we are popular and prosperous those who court us care nothing for us apart from our success. Neither do they bless us, or we them.]

[eq] This is to live alone—This, This is solitude.—[MS. D.]

[131] [The MS. of stanza xxvii. is on the fly-leaf of a bound volume of proof-sheets entitled "Additions to Childe Harold," It was first published in the seventh edition, 1814. It may be taken for granted that Byron had seen what he describes. There is, however, no record of any visit to Mount Athos, either in his letters from the East or in Hobhouse's journals.

The actual mount, "the giant height [6350 feet], rears itself in solitary magnificence, an insulated cone of white limestone." "When it is seen from a distance, the peninsula [of which the southern portion rises to a height of 2000 feet] is below the horizon, and the peak rises quite solitary from the sea." Of this effect Byron may have had actual experience; but Hobhouse, in describing the prospect from Cape Janissary, is careful to record that "Athos itself is said to be sometimes visible in the utmost distance (circ. 90 miles), but it was not discernible during our stay on the spot." (Murray's Handbook for Greece, p. 843; Childe Harold, edited by H. F. Tozer, p. 233; Travels in Albania, 1858, ii. 103. Compare, too, the fragment entitled the Monk of Athos, first published in the Hon. Roden Noel's Life of Lord Byron, 1890.)]

[132] {118} ["Le sage Mentor, poussant Telemaque, qui etait assis sur le bord du rocher, le precipite dans le mer et s'y jette avec lui.... Calypso inconsolable, rentra dans sa grotte, qu'elle remplit de ses hurlements."—Fenelon's Telemaque, vi., Paris, 1837. iii. 43.]

[133] [For Mrs. Spencer Smith, see Letters, 1898, i. 244, 245, note. Moore (Life, pp. 94, 95) contrasts stanzas xxx.-xxxv., with their parade of secret indifference and plea of "a loveless heart," with the tenderness and warmth of his after-thoughts in Albania ("Lines composed during a Thunderstorm," etc.), and decides the coldness was real, the sentiment assumed. He forgets the flight of time. The lines were written in October, 1809, within a month of his departure from "Calypso's isles," and the Childe Harold stanzas belong to the early spring of 1810. "Ou sont les neiges d'antan?" Moreover, he speaks by the card. Writing at Athens, January 16, 1810, he tells us, "The spell is broke, the charm is flown."]

[134] {120} [More than one commentator gravely "sets against" this line—Byron's statement to Dallas (Corr. of Lord Byron, Paris, 1824, iii. 91), "I am not a Joseph or a Scipio; but I can safely affirm that never in my life I seduced any woman." Compare Memoirs of Count Carlo Gozzi, 1890, ii. 12, "Never have I employed the iniquitous art of seduction ... Languishing in soft and thrilling sentiments, I demanded from a woman a sympathy and inclination of like nature with my own. If she fell ... I should have remembered how she made for me the greatest of all sacrifices.... I should have worshipped her like a deity. I could have spent my life's blood in consoling her; and without swearing eternal constancy, I should have been most stable on my side in loving such a mistress."]

[er] {121} Brisk Impudence——.—[MS.]

[es] Youth wasted, wretches born——.—[MS. erased.]

[135] [Compare Lucretius, iv. 1121-4—

"Adde quod absumunt viris pereuntque labore,

* * * * *

Labitur interea res, et Babylonica fiunt: Languent officia, atque aegrotat fama vacillans."]

[et] {122} Climes strange withal as ever mortal head.—[MS.]

[eu] Suspected in its little pride of thought.—[MS. erased.]

[136] ["Were counselled or advised." The passive "were ared" seems to lack authority. (See N. Eng. Dict., art. "Aread.")]

[ev] Her not unconscious though her weakly child. or, ——her rudest child.—[MS. erased.]

[137] [Compare the description of the thunderstorm in the Alps (Canto III. stanzas xcii.-xcvi., pp. 273-275); and Manfred, act ii. sc. 2—

"My joy was in the wilderness; to breathe The difficult air of the iced mountain-top— * * * * * In them my early strength exulted; or To follow through the night the moving moon, The stars and their development; or catch The dazzling lightnings till my eyes grew dim."

Beattie, who describes the experiences of his own boyhood in the person of Edwin in The Minstrel, had already made a like protestation—

"In sooth he was a strange and wayward youth. Fond of each gentle and each dreadful scene. In darkness and in storm he found delight; Not less than when on ocean-wave serene The Southern sun diffus'd his dazzling sheen; Even sad vicissitude amus'd his soul."

Kirke White, too, who was almost Byron's contemporary, and whose verses he professed to admire—

"Would run a visionary boy When the hoarse tempest shook the vaulted sky."

This love of Nature in her wilder aspects, which was perfectly genuine, and, indeed, meritorious, was felt to be out of the common, a note of the poetic temperament, worth recording, but unlikely to pass without questioning and remonstrance.]

[138] {123} [Alexander's mother, Olympias, was an Epiriote. She had a place in the original draft of Tennyson's Palace of Art (Life of Lord Tennyson,. 119)—

"One was Olympias; the floating snake Roll'd round her ankles, round her waist Knotted," etc.

Plutarch (Vitae, Lipsiae:, 1814, vi. 170) is responsible for the legend: [Greek: O)phthe de/ pote kai dra/kon koimome/nes te~s O)lympia/dou parektetame/ns to~ so/mati], "Now, one day, when Olympias lay abed, beside her body a dragon was espied stretched out at full length." (Compare, too, Dryden's Alexander's Feast, stanza ii.)]

[139] [Mr. Tozer (Childe Harold, p. 236) takes this line to mean "whom the young love to talk of, and the wise to follow as an example," and points to Alexander's foresight as a conqueror, and the "extension of commerce and civilization" which followed his victories. But, surely, the antithesis lies between Alexander the ideal of the young, and Alexander the deterrent example of the old. The phrase, "beacon of the wise," if Hector in Troilus and Cressida (act ii. sc. 2, line 16) is an authority, is proverbial.

" ... The wound of peace is surety, Surety secure; but modest doubt is call'd The beacon of the wise, the tent that searches To the bottom of the worst."

The beauty, the brilliance, the glory of Alexander kindle the enthusiasm of the young; but the murder of Clytus and the early death which he brought upon himself are held up by the wise as beacon-lights to save others from shipwreck.]

[140] [Byron and Hobhouse sailed for Malta in the brig-of-war Spider on Tuesday, September 19, 1809 (Byron, in a letter to his mother, November 12, says September 21), and anchored off Patras on the night of Sunday, the 24th. On Tuesday, the 26th, they were under way at 12 noon, and on the evening of that day they saw the sun set over Mesalonghi. The next morning, September 27, they were in the channel between Ithaca and the mainland, with Ithaca, then in the hands of the French, to the left. "We were close to it," says Hobhouse, "and saw a few shrubs on a brown heathy land, two little towns in the hills scattered among trees." The travellers made "but little progress this day," and, apparently, having redoubled Cape St. Andreas, the southern extremity of Ithaca, they sailed (September 28) through the channel between Ithaca and Cephalonia, passed the hill of AEtos, on which stood the so-called "Castle of Ulysses," whence Penelope may have "overlooked the wave," and caught sight of "the Lover's refuge" in the distance. Towards the close of the same day they doubled Cape Ducato ("Leucadia's cape," the scene of Sappho's leap), and, sailing under "the ancient mount," the site of the Temple of Apollo, anchored off Prevesa at seven in the evening. Poetry and prose are not always in accord. If, as Byron says, it was "an autumn's eve" when they hailed "Leucadia's cape afar," if the evening star shone over the rock when they approached it, they must have sailed fast to reach Prevesa, some thirty miles to the north, by seven o'clock. But de minimis, the Muse is as disregardful as the Law. And, perhaps, after all, it was Hobhouse who misread his log-book. (Travels in Albania, i. 4, 5; Murray's Handbook for Greece, pp. 40, 46.)]

[141] {125} [The meaning of this passage is not quite so obvious as it seems. He has in his mind the words, "He saved others, Himself He cannot save," and, applying this to Sappho, asks, "Why did she who conferred immortality on herself by her verse prove herself mortal?" Without Fame, and without verse the cause and keeper of Fame, there is no heaven, no immortality, for the sons of men. But what security is there for the eternity of verse and Fame? "Quis custodiet custodes?"]

[142] {126} [For Byron's "star" similes, see Canto III. stanza xxxviii. line 9.]

[ew] ——and looked askance on Mars.—[MS. erased.]

[143] [Compare the line in Tennyson's song, Break, break, break, "And the stately ships go on."]

[ex] And roused him more from thought than he was wont While Pleasure almost seemed to smooth his pallid front.—[MS. D.] While Pleasure almost smiled along——.—[MS. erased.]

[144] [By "Suli's rocks" Byron means the mountainous district in the south of the Epirus. The district of Suli formed itself into a small republic at the close of the last century, and offered a formidable resistance to Ali Pacha. "Pindus' inland peak," Monte Metsovo, which forms part of the ridge which divides Epirus from Thessaly, is not visible from the sea-coast.]

[145] {127} ["Shore unknown." (See Byron's note to stanza xxxviii. line 5.)]

[ey] {128} ——lovely harmful thing.—[MS. pencil.]

[146] [Compare Byron's Stanzas written on passing the Ambracian Gulph.]

[147] [Nicopolis, "the city of victory," which Augustus, "the second Caesar," built to commemorate Actium, is some five miles to the north of Prevesa. Byron and Hobhouse visited the ruins on the 30th of September, and again on the 12th of November (see Byron's letter to Mrs. Byron. November 12, 1809: Letters, 1898, i. 251).]

[ez] Imperial wretches, doubling human woes! God!—was thy globe ere made——.—[MS. erased.]

[148] {129} [The travellers left Prevesa on October 1, and arrived at Janina on October 5. They left Janina on October 11, and reached Zitza at nightfall (Byron at 3 a.m., October 12). They left Zitza on October 13, and arrived at Tepeleni on October 19.]

[149] [On the evening of October 11, as the party was approaching Zitza, Hobhouse and the Albanian, Vasilly, rode on, leaving "Lord Byron and the baggage behind." It was getting dark, and just as the luckier Hobhouse contrived to make his way to the village, the rain began to fall in torrents. Before long, "the thunder roared as it seemed without any intermission; for the echoes of one peal had not ceased to roll in the mountains before another crash burst over our heads." Byron, dragoman, and baggage were not three miles from Zitza when the storm began, and they lost their way. After many wanderings and adventures they were finally conducted by ten men with pine torches to the hut; but by that time it was three o'clock in the morning. Hence the "Stanzas composed during a Thunderstorm."—Hobhouse's Travels in Albania, i. 69-71.]

[150] {130} ["The prior of the monastery, a humble, meek-mannered man, entertained us in a warm chamber with grapes and a pleasant white wine ...We were so well pleased with everything about us that we agreed to lodge with him."—Hobhouse's Travels in Albania, i. 73.]

[fa] Here winds, if winds there be, will fan his breast.—[MS. D. erased.]

[fb] Keep Heaven for better souls, my shade shall seek for none.—[MS. erased.]

[fc] {132} But frequent is the lamb, the kid, the goatAnd watching pensive with his browsing flock.—[MS. erased.]

[fd] Counting the hours beneath yon skies unerring shock.—[MS. erased.]

[151] [The site of Dodona, a spot "at the foot of Mount Tomaros" (Mount Olytsika) in the valley of Tcharacovista, was finally determined, in 1876, by excavations carried out, at his own expense, by M. Constantin Carapanos, a native of Arta. In his monograph, Dodone et ses Ruines (Paris, 1878, 4to), M. Carapanos gives a detailed description of the theatre, the twofold Temenos (I. L'Enceinte du Temple, II. Temenos, pp. 13-28), including the Temple of Zeus and a sanctuary of Aphrodite, and of the numerous ex voto offerings and inscriptions on lead which were brought to light during the excavations, and helped to identify the ruins. An accompanying folio volume of plates contains (Planches, i., ii.) a map of the valley of Tcharacovista, and a lithograph of Mount Tomaros, "d'un aspect majestueux et pittoresque ... un roc nu sillonne par le lit de nombreux torrents" (p. 8). Behind Dodona, on the summit of the many-named chain of hills which confronts Mount Tomaros, are "bouquets de chene," sprung it may be from the offspring of the [Greek: prose/goroi dry/es] (AEsch., Prom., 833), the "talking oaks," which declared the will of Zeus. For the "prophetic fount" (line 2), Servius, commenting on Virgil, AEneid, iii. 41-66, seems to be the authority: "Circa hoc templum quercus immanis fuisse dicitur ex cujus radicibus fons manebat, qui suo murmure instinctu Deorum diversis oracula reddebat" (Virgilii Opera, Leovardiae, 1717, i. 548).

Byron and Hobhouse, on one of their excursions from Janina, explored and admired the ruins of the "amphitheatre," but knew not that "here and nowhere else" was Dodona (Travels in Albania, i. 53-56).]

[152] {133} [The sentiment that man, "whose breath is in his nostrils," should consider the impermanence of all that is stable and durable before he cries out upon his own mortality, may have been drawn immediately from the famous letter of consolation sent by Sulpitius Severus to Cicero, which Byron quotes in a note to Canto IV. stanza xliv., or, in the first instance, from Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, xv. 20—

"Giace l'alta Cartago; appena i segni Dell' alte sue ruini il lido serba. Muojono le citta; muojono i regni: Copre i fasti, e le pompe, arena ed erba; E l'uom d'esser mortal par cue si sdegni!"

Compare, too, Addison's "Reflections in Westminster Abbey," Spectator, No. 26.]

[153] [The six days' journey from Zitza to Tepeleni is compressed into a single stanza. The vale (line 3) may be that of the Kalama, through which the travellers passed (October 13) soon after leaving Zitza, or, more probably, the plain of Deropoli ("well-cultivated, divided by rails and low hedges, and having a river flowing through it to the south"), which they crossed (October 15) on their way from Delvinaki, the frontier village of Illyria, to Libokhovo.]

[154] {134} ["Yclad," used as a preterite, not a participle (compare Coleridge's "I wis" [Christabel, part i. line 92]), is a Byronism—"archaisme incorrect," says M. Darmesteter.]

[155] ["During the fast of the Ramazan, ... the gallery of each minaret is decorated with a circlet of small lamps. When seen from a distance, each minaret presents a point of light, 'like meteors in the sky;' and in a large city, where they are numerous, they resemble a swarm of fireflies."—H.F. Tozer. (Compare The Giaour, i. 449-452—

"When Rhamazan's last sun was set, And flashing from each minaret. Millions of lamps proclaimed the feast Of Bairam through the boundless East.")]

[156] {135} ["A kind of dervish or recluse ... regarded as a saint."—Cent. Dict., art. "Santon."]

[fe] ——guests and vassals wait.—[MS. erased.]

[ff] While the deep Tocsin's sound——.—[MS. D. erased.]

[157] {136} ["We were disturbed during the night by the perpetual carousal which seemed to be kept up in the gallery, and by the drum, and the voice of the 'muezzinn,' or chanter, calling the Turks to prayers from the minaret of the mosck attached to the palace. This chanter was a boy, and he sang out his hymn is a sort of loud melancholy recitative. He was a long time repeating the Eraun. The first exclamation was repeated four times, the remaining words twice; and the long and piercing note in which he concluded his confession of faith, by twice crying out the word 'hou!' ['At solemn sound of "Alla Hu!"' Giaour, i. 734] still rings in my ears."—Hobhouse's Travels in Albania, i. 95. D'Ohsonn gives the Eraun at full length: "Most high God! [four times repeated]. I acknowledge that there is no other God except God! I acknowledge that there is no other God except God! I acknowledge that Mohammed is the prophet of God! Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to the temple of salvation! Come to the temple of salvation! Great God! great God! There is no God except God!"—Oriental Antiquities (Philadelphia, 1788), p. 341.]

[158] {137} ["The Ramazan, or Turkish Lent, which, as it occurs in each of the thirteen months in succession, fell this year in October ... Although during this month the strictest abstinence, even from tobacco and coffee, is observed in the daytime, yet with the setting of the sun the feasting commences."—Travels in Albania, i. 66. "The Ramadan or Rhamazan is the ninth month of the Mohammedan year. As the Mohammedans reckon by lunar time, it begins each year eleven days earlier than in the preceding year, so that in thirty-three years it occurs successively in all the seasons."—Imp. Dictionary.]

[159] [The feast was spread within the courtyard, "in the part farthest from the dwelling," and when the revelry began the "immense large gallery" or corridor, which ran along the front of the palace and was open on one side to the court, was deserted. "Opening into the gallery were the doors of several apartments," and as the servants passed in and out, the travellers standing in the courtyard could hear the sound of voices.—Travels in Albania, i. 93.]

[fg] {138} ——even for health to move.—[MS.] She saves for one——.—[MS. erased.]

[fh] For boyish minions of unhallowed love The shameless torch of wild desire is lit, Caressed, preferred even to woman's self above, Whose forms for Nature's gentler errors fit All frailties mote excuse save that which they commit. —[MS. D. erased.]

[160] [For an account of Ali Pasha (1741-1822), see Letters, 1898, i. 246, note.]

[161] [In a letter to his mother, November 12, 1809, Byron writes, "He [Ali] said he was certain I was a man of birth, because I had small ears, curling hair, and little white hands. ... He told me to consider him as a father whilst I was in Turkey, and said he looked on me as his son. Indeed, he treated me like a child, sending me almonds and sugared sherbet, fruit and sweetmeats, twenty times a day." Many years after, in the first letter On Bowles' Strictures, February 7, 1821, he introduces a reminiscence of Ali: "I never judge from manners, for I once had my pocket picked by the civillest gentleman I ever met with; and one of the mildest persons I ever saw was Ali Pasha" (Life, p. 689).]

[fi] {139} Delights to mingle with the lips of youth.—[MS. D. erased.]

[162] [Anacreon sometimes bewails, but more often defies old age. (Vide Carmina liv., xi., xxxiv.)

The paraphrase "Teian Muse" recurs in the song, "The Isles of Greece," Don Juan, Canto III.]

[fj] But 'tis those ne'er forgotten acts of ruth.—[MS. D.]

[163] [In the first edition the reading (see var. ii.) is, "But crimes, those ne'er forgotten crimes of ruth." The mistake was pointed out in the Quarterly Review (March, 1812, No. 13, vol. vii. p. 193).

But in Spenser "ruth" means sorrow as well as pity, and three weeks after Childe Harold was published, Ali committed a terrible crime, the outcome of an early grief. On March 27, 1812, in revenge for wrongs done to his mother and sister nearly thirty years before, he caused 670 Gardhikiots to be massacred in the khan of Valiare, and followed up the act of treachery by sacking, plundering, and burning the town of Gardiki, and, "in direct violation of the Mohammedan law," carrying off and reducing to slavery the women and children.—Finlay's Hist. of Greece (edited by Rev. H. F. Tozer, 1877), vi. 67, 68.]

[fk] {140} Those who in blood begin in blood conclude their span.—[MS. erased.]

[164] [This was prophetic. "On the 5th of February, 1822, a meeting took place between Ali and Mohammed Pasha.... When Mohammed rose to depart, the two viziers, being of equal rank, moved together towards the door.... As they parted Ali bowed low to his visitor, and Mohammed, seizing the moment when the watchful eye of the old man was turned away, drew his hanjar, and plunged it in Ali's heart. He walked on calmly to the gallery, and said to the attendants, 'Ali of Tepalen is dead.' ... The head of Ali was exposed at the gate of the serai."—Finlay's Hist. of Greece, 1877, vi. 94, 95.]

[fl] Childe Harold with that chief held colloquy Yet what they spake it boots not to repeat; Converse may little charm strange ear or eye; Albeit he rested on that spacious seat, Of Moslem luxury the choice retreat.—[MS. D. erased.] Four days he rested on that worthy seat.-[MS. erased.]

[165] {141} [The travellers left Janina on November 3, and reached Prevesa November 7. At midday November 9 they set sail for Patras in a galliot of Ali's, "a vessel of about fifty tons burden, with three short masts and a large lateen sail." Instead of doubling Cape Ducato, they were driven out to sea northward, and, finally, at one o'clock in the morning, anchored off the Port of Phanari on the Suliote coast. Towards the evening of the next day (November 10) they landed in "the marshy bay" (stanza lxviii. line 2) and rode to Volondorako, where they slept. "Here they were well received by the Albanian primate of the place and by the Vizier's soldiers quartered there." Instead of re-embarking in the galliot, they returned to Prevesa by land (November 11). As the country to the north of the Gulf of Arta was up in arms, and bodies of robbers were abroad, they procured an escort of thirty-seven Albanians, hired another galliot, and on Monday, the 13th, sailed across the entrance of the gulf as far as the fortress of Vonitsa, where they anchored for the night. By four o'clock in the afternoon of November 14 they reached Utraikey or Lutraki, "situated in a deep bay surrounded with rocks at the south-east corner of the Gulf of Arta." The courtyard of a barrack on the shore is the scene of the song and dance (stanzas lxx.-lxxii.). Here, in the original MS., the pilgrimage abruptly ends, and in the remaining stanzas the Childe moralizes on the fallen fortunes and vanished heroism of Greece.—Travels in Albania, i. 157-165.]

[166] {143} [The route from Utraikey to Gouria (November 15-18) lay through "thick woods of oak," with occasional peeps of the open cultivated district of AEtolia on the further side of the Aspropotamo, "white Achelous' tide." The Albanian guard was not dismissed until the travellers reached Mesolonghi (November 21).]

[167] [With this description Mr. Tozer compares Virgil, AEneid, i. 159-165, and Tasso's imitation in Gerus. Lib., canto xv. stanzas 42, 43. The following lines from Hoole's translation (Jerusalem Delivered, bk. xv. lines 310, 311, 317, 318) may be cited:—

"Amidst these isles a lone recess is found, Where circling shores the subject flood resound ... Within the waves repose in peace serene; Black forests nod above, a silvan scene!"]

[168] {144} ["In the evening the gates were secured, and preparations were made for feeding our Albanians. A goat was killed and roasted whole, and four fires were kindled in the yard, round which the soldiers seated themselves in parties. After eating and drinking, the greater part of them assembled round the largest of the fires, and, whilst ourselves and the elders of the party were seated on the ground, danced round the blaze to their own songs, in the manner before described, but with astonishing energy. All their songs were relations of some robbing exploits. One of them ... began thus: 'When we set out from Parga there were sixty of us!' then came the burden of the verse—

'Robbers all at Parga! Robbers all at Parga!' [Greek: Kle/phteis pote Pa/rga!] [Greek: Kle/phteis pote Pa/rga!]

And as they roared out this stave, they whirled round the fire, dropped, and rebounded from their knees, and again whirled round as the chorus was again repeated."—Travels in Albania, i. 166, 167.]

[169] {145} [This was not Byron's first experience of an Albanian war-song. At Salakhora, on the Gulf of Arta (nine miles north-east of Prevesa), which he reached on October 1, the Albanian guard at the custom-house entertained the travellers by "singing some songs." "The music is extremely monotonous and nasal; and the shrill scream of their voices was increased by each putting his hand behind his ear and cheek, to give more force to the sound."—Travels in Albania, i. 28.

Long afterwards, in 1816, one evening, on the Lake of Geneva, Byron entertained Shelley, Mary, and Claire with "an Albanian song." They seem to have felt that such melodies "unheard are sweeter." Hence, perhaps, his petit nom, "Albe," that is, the "Albaneser."—Life of Shelley, by Edward Dowden, 1896, p. 309.]

[170] {146} [Tambourgi, "drummer," a Turkish word, formed by affixing the termination -gi, which signifies "one who discharges any occupation," to the French tambour (H. F. Tozer, Childe Harold, p. 246).]

[fm] ——thy tocsin afar.—[MS. D. erased.]

[171] [The camese is the fustanella or white kilt of the Toska, a branch of the Albanian, or Shkipetar, race. Spenser has the forms "camis," "camus." The Arabic quamīc occurs in the Koran, but is thought to be an adaptation of the Latin camisia, camisa.—Finlay's Hist, of Greece, vi. 39; N. Eng. Dict., art. "Camis." (For "capote," vide post, p. 181.)]

[fn] Shall the sons of Chimaera——.—[MS. D.]

[172] [The Suliotes, after a protracted and often successful resistance, were finally reduced by Ali, in December, 1803. They are adjured to forget their natural desire for vengeance, and to unite with the Albanians against their common foe, the Russians.]

[fo] {147} Shall win the young minions——.—[MS. D.]

[fp] ——the maid and the youth.—[MS.]

[fq] Their caresses shall lull us, their voices shall soothe.—[MS. D. erased.]

[173] {148} [So, too, at Salakhora (October 1): "One of the songs was on the taking of Prevesa, an exploit of which the Albanians are vastly proud; and there was scarcely one of them in which the name of Ali Pasha was not roared out and dwelt upon with peculiar energy."—Travels in Albania, i. 29.

Prevesa, which, with other Venetian possessions, had fallen to the French in 1797, was taken in the Sultan's name by Ali, in October, 1798. The troops in the garrison (300 French, 460 Greeks) encountered and were overwhelmed by 5000 Albanians, on the plain of Nicopolis. The victors entered and sacked the town.]

[174] [Ali's eldest son, Mukhtar, the Pasha of Berat, had been sent against the Russians, who, in 1809, invaded the trans-Danubian provinces of the Ottoman Empire.]

[175] Yellow is the epithet given to the Russians.

[176] Infidel.

[177] The insignia of a Pacha.

[178] {149} [The literal meaning of Delhi or Deli, is, says M. Darmesteter, "fou" ["properly madmen" (D'Herbelot)], a title bestowed on Turkish warriors honoris causu. Byron suggests "forlorn hope" as an equivalent; but there is a wide difference between the blood-drunkenness of the Turk and the "foolishness" of British chivalry.]

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