The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
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"At Edinburgh, the tent day of August 1559."


The lyke letter sche wrait to everie Lord, Barroun, and Gentilman, of this tennour:—


"Efter hartlie commendatioun; We dowt nott bot ye have hard of the Appointment maid besyde Leith, betuix my Lord Duik, the Erle of Huntlie, and Monsieur Dosell, on the ane pairt, and the Lordis of the Congregatioun, on the uther syde; quhilk Appointment we have approvit in all poyntis, albeit it was taikin by our avise; and is myndit to observe and keip all the contentis thairof for our pairt. Nochtheless, we ar informeit, the saidis Lordis of the Congregatioun intendis schortlie to convene all sick personeis as will assist to thame, for interprysing of sum heycht purpoise aganis us, our authoratie, and tennour of the said Appointment, quhilk we can not beleif, seing thay nather haif, nor sall have, ony occasioun gevin thairto on our pairt, and yit thinkis not reassonabill, in caise thay meane ony sick thing: and thairfoir have thocht it guid to gif wairning to oure speciall freyndis of the adverteisment we have gottin, and amangis the rest, to yow, quham we esteme of that nomber. Praying yow to have your self, youre kin, and folkis in reddynes to cum to us."—And sua furth, as in the uthir letter above sent to the Duike, word efter word.


Efter that by thir letteris, and by the dissaitfull furnissing of hyr solistaris, sche had sumquhat steirit up the hairtis of the pepill against us, than sche began oppinlie to complayne, "That we war of mynd to invaid hir persone; that we wald keip na pairt of the Appointment; and thairfoir sche was compellit to crave the assistance of all men against our injust persute." And this practise sche usit, as befoir is said, to abuse the simplicitie of the pepill, that thay sould not suddanlie espy for quhat purpois sche brocht in hir new bandis of men of weir, quha did arryve about the middis of August to the nomber of ane thousand men. The rest war appointit to cum efter, with Monsieur de la Broche,[912] and with the Bischop of Amiance,[913] quha arryvit the nynetene day of September following, as gif thay had bene Ambassadouris: [SN: THE ARRYVELL OF THE FRENSCHE.[914]] bot quhat was thair negotiatioun, the effect did declair, and thay thame selffis could not long conceill; for baith be tung and pen thay utterit, "That thay war send for the utter exterminatioun of all thame that wald not professe the Papisticall religioun in all pointis." The Quenis practise nor craft could not blynd the eyeis of all men; nether yitt could hir subtiltie hyde hir awin schame, bot that many did espy hir desait: and sum spairit not to speik thair jugement liberallie; quha foirseing the dainger gaif adverteisment, requyring that provisioun mycht be fund, befoir that the evill sould exceid our wisdome and strenth to put remedy to the same; for prudent men foirsaw, that sche prctendit ane plane conqueist. Bot to the end, that the pepill sould not suddanlie stur, sche wald nocht bring in hir full force at aneis, (as befoir is said,) bot by continewall traffique purposit to augment hir army, so that in the end we sould not be abill to resist. Bot the greitest pairt of the Nobilitie, and many of the pepill, war so enchantit by hir treassonabill solistaris, that thay could not heir, nor creddeit the treuth planelie spokin. The Frensche than, efter the arryvell of thair new men, began to brag: [SN: THE DEVISIOUN OF THE LORDIS LANDIS BY THE FRENSCHE.] than began thay to devyde the landis and lordschippis according to thair awin fantaseis; for ane was styleit Monsieur de Ergyle; ane uther, Monsieur le Priour; the thrid, Monsieur de Ruthven; yea, thay war assureit, in thair awin opinioun, to possesse quhatsoever thay list, that sum askit the rentallis and revenewis of dyverse mennis landis, to the end that [thay] mycht chuse the best. And yitt in this menetyme, sche eschame nott to sett out ane Proclamatioun, in this forme:—


"Forsamekle as we understand that certane seditious personis hes inventit and blawin abrod dyvers rumouris and evill brutis, tending thairby to steir up the hartis of the pepill, and swa to stope all reconciliatiounis betuix us and our subjectis, being of the nomber of the Congregatioun, and consequentlie to kyndill and nureise continewall stryfe and devisioun in this realme, to the manifest subvertioun of the haill Estaitis thairof; and amangis uther purpoisses, hes maliciouslie devisit for that effect, and hes perswaidit too many, that we haif violatit the Appointment laitlie tane, in sa far as ony ma Frensche men sensyne ar cumit in: and that we ar myndit to draw in greit forceis of men of weir furth of France, to suppres the libertie of this realme, oppres the inhabitantis thairof, and mak up straingaris with thair landis and goodis: Quhilk reportis ar all (God knawis) maist vayne, fenzeit, and untrew. For it is of treuth, that nathing hes bene done on oure pairt sen the said Appointment, quhairby it may be allegeit, that ony point thairof hes bene contravenit: nor yitt was at that tyme any thing communit or concludit to stope the sending in of Frensche men; as may cleirlie appeir be inspectioun of the said Appointment, quhilk the beirar heirof hes presentlie to schaw. [SN: LETT THE BISCHOP OF AMIANCE AND MONSIEUR DE LA BROCHE LETTERIS WRITTIN TO FRANCE, WITNESS THAT.[916]] Quhat[evir] nomber of men of weir be arryveit, we [have] sick regaird to our honour, and quyetnes of this realme, that in caise in the rowme of everie ane Frensche man that is in Scotland thair war ane hundreth at our command, yitt sould not for that any joyt that is promesit be brokin, or any alteratioun be maid be oure provocatioun; bot the said Appointment[917] treulie and surelie observit in everie point, gif the said Congregatioun will in lyk maner faithfullie keip thair pairt thairof. Nor yitt meane we to truble any man in the peaceabill possessioun of thair guidis and rowmes, nor yitt to enreache[918] the Crowne, and far less any strangear, with your substance; for our derrest sone and dochter, the King and Quene, ar by Godis provisioun placeit in the rowme, quhair all men of jugement may weill considder thay have na neid of any manis guidis. And for our self, we seik na thing bot debtfull obedience unto thame, sick as guid subjectis aucht to gif to thair Soveraneis, without deminutioun of your liberteis and priveleigeis, or alteratioun of your lawis.[919] Thairfoir, we thocht guid to notifie unto yow our guid mynd foirsaid, and desyreis yow not to gif eir nor creddeitt to sic vayne imaginationis, quhairof, befoir God, no pairte ever enterit in our consait; nor suffer your selfis be thairby led frome youre dew obedience; assureing yow, ye sall ever fynd with us trewth in promeisses, and ane moderlie luif towartis all; yow behaifand your selffis our[920] obedient subjectis. [SN: FEW DAYIS EFTER DECLAIRIT THE TREUTH OF THIS] Bot of one thing we gif yow wairning, that quhairas sum Prechearis of the Congregatioun, in thair publict sermonis, speikis irreverentlie and sklanderouslie, alsweill of Princeis in generall, as of our self in particulare, and of the obedience to the hiear poweris; induceing the pepill, be that pairt of thair doctrine, to defectioun frome thair dewatie, quhilk pertenis na thing to religioun, bot rather to seditioun and tumult, thingis direct contrar to religioun: thairfoir we desyre yow to tak ordour in youre toun and boundis, that quhan the Prechearis repairis thair, thay use thame selfis mair modestlie in thay behalfis, and in thair precheing not to mell sa mekle with civill policie and publict governance, nor yit name us, or uther Princeis, bot with honour and reverence, utherwayis it will nocht be sufferrit. [SN: JESABELL WALD BE HONOURIT, BOT HELIAS WALD NOTT.] Attour,[921] sen ye haif presentlie the declaratioun of our intentioun, we desire to knaw lykwayis quhat sall be your pairt to us, that we may understand quhat to lippin for at your handis; quhairof we desire ane playne declaratioun in writt, with this beirar, without excuise or delay.

"At Edinburgh, the twentie aucht of August 1559."

This proclamatioun sche send be hir messingeris throwch all the cuntrey, and had hir solistaris in all pairtis, quha paynefullie travellit to bring men to hir opinioun; amangis quham thir war the principallis, Sir Johnne Bellenden, Justice Clerk; Maister James Balfour, Officiall of Lowthiane, Maister Thomas and Maister Williame Scottis, sonnis to the Laird of Balwerie,[922] Sir Robert Carnegy, and Maister Gawane Hammiltoun; quha for faynting of the bretheris hairtis, and drawing many to the Queneis factioun against thair natyve cuntrey, have declairit thame selfis ennemeis to God, and traytouris to thair commune wealth. Bot abuiff all utheris Maister James Balfour, Officiall for the tyme, aucht to be abhoirrit; for he, of ane auld professoure, is becum ane new denyare of Christ Jesus, and manifest blasphemar of his eternall veritie, aganis his knawlege and conscience; seiking to betray his brethren and natyve cuntrey in the handis of ane crewell and unfaithfull natioun.

The answer to this former proclamatioun was maid in forme as followis:—


"The love of oure natyve cuntrey craifis, the defence of oure honouris requyreis, and the synceritie of oure conscienceis compellis us, (derrest Brethren,) to answer sum pairt to the last writtingis and proclamatiounis sett furth be the Queneis Grace Regent, no less to mak us and oure caus odiouse, than to abuse your simplicitie to youre finall destructioun, conspyreit of auld, and now alreaddy put to wark. And first, quhair sche allegeis certane seditious personeis have of malice inventit and blawin abrod diverse rumouris, [tending] thairby (as sche allegeis) to steir up the hartis of the pepill to seditioun, be reassone that the Frensche men ar croppin in of lait in our cuntrey; trew it is, (deir Brethren,) that all sick as beir naturall lufe to thair cuntrey, to yow, thair brethren, inhabitantis thairof, to our housses, wyffis, bairneis, the esperance of your posteratie, and schortlie to your commun-wealth, and the ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, can not bot in hart lament, with mowth and teiris complayne, the maist craftie assaultis devisit and practisit, to the utter rewyne of all thir thyngis foirnameit; and that sua manifestlie is gane to wark, that evin in our eyeis oure derrest brethren, trew memberis of oure commun-welth, ar maist crewellie oppressit by strangearis; in sa far that sum ar baneissit thair awin housses, sum robbit and spuilzeit of thair substance, conqueist by thair just laubouris in the sweit of thair browis; sum crewellie murtherit at the pleasour of thir inhumane souldiouris; and altogidder have thair lyvis in sick feir and dreddour, as gif the ennemy war in the myddis of thame; so that nathing can seme plesand unto thame, quhilk thay possess in the bowellis of thair natyve cuntrey; sa neir jugeis everie man, (and not but just caus,) the practise usit upoun thair brethren to approche nixt unto thame thair selffis, wyffeis, bairneis, housses, and substanceis, quhilk altogidder ar cassin at the feit of straingearis, men of weir, to be by thame thus abusit att thair unbrydillit lustis desyre. Now, if it be seditioun, (deir Brethren,) to complane, lament, and pour furth befoir God the sorrowis [and] sobbis of oure dolorouse hartis, crying to him for redress of thir enormyteis, (quhilk ellis quhair is not to be found;) and thir altogidder dois [proceid] of the unlauchfull halding of strange suldiouris over the heidis of oure brethren; gif this to complayne be sedition, then indeid, (deir Brethren,) can nane of us be purgeit of that cryme; for as in verray hart we dampne sick inhumayne creweltie, with the wickit and craftie pretence thairof, sua can we, nor dar we nott, neather be mouthis speiking, nor yitt by keiping of silence, justifie the same. Neather do we heir aggrege the breking of the Appointmentt maid at Leith, (quhilk alwayis hes manifestlie bene done;) bot quhan we remember quhat aith we have maid to our commun-welth, and how the dewatie we aucht to the same compellis us to cry outt, that hir Grace, be wickit and ungodlie counsall, gais maist craftelie about utterlie to oppress the same, and ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, alsweill aganeis the King of Francis promeise, hir awin dewatie, in respect of the heich promotionis that sche resavit thairby, quhilk justlie sould have caussit hir to have bene indeid that quhilk sche wald be callit, (and is nathing less in veritie,) to wit, ane cairfull mother ovir this commun-wealth; bot quhat motherlie cair sche hes usit towardis yow, ye can not be ignorant. [SN: LETT THE NOBILITIE JUGE HEIROF.] Haif ye nocht bene, evin frome the first entres of hir regne, ever smytit and oppressit with unaccustomit and exhorbitant taxatiounis, [more] than ever war usit within this realme? Yea, and how far was it socht heir to have bene brocht in upoun yow and your posteritie, under cullour to have bene laid up in stoir for the weiris? The inquisitioun tane of all your guidis, movable and immovabill, be way of testament; the seiking of the haill coill and saltt of this realme, to have bene laid up in stoir and gernall, and sche allane to have bene merchant thairof, dois teache yow be experience sum of her motherlie cair.

"Agane, Quhat cair ower your commun-wealth dois hir Grace instantlie beir, quhan evin now presentlie, and of ane lang tyme bygane, be the ministerie of sum, (quha better deserve the gallowis, than ever did Cochrane,[923]) sche dois sua corrupt the layit[924] money, and lies brocht it in sick basenes, and sic quantatie of scruiff, that all men that hes thair eyis oppin may persaif ane extreme beggarie to be brocht thairthrow upoun the haill realme, swa that the haill exchange and traffique to be had with forane natiounis, (ane thing maist necessarie in all commun-wealthis,) sall thairby be utterlie extinguissitt; and all the ganeis resavit thairby is, that sche thairwith intertenis strangearis upoun oure heidis. For, Brethren, ye knaw that hir money hes servit for na uther purpoise in our commun-wealth this lang tyme bigane; and the impunitie of thir wickit ministeris, (quhame laitlie we spak of,) hes brocht the mater to sick ane licentious enormitie, and plane contempt of the commun-wealth, that now thay spair not planelie to brek doun and convert the guid and stark money, cunzeit in our Soveraneis less age, into this thair corruptit skruiff and baggage of Hard-heidis and Non Suntis,[925] maist lyik that sche and thay had conspyreit to destroy all the haill gud cunzey of this realme, and consequentlie that pairt of the commun-wealth. [SN: LETT SIR ROBERT RICHARTSOUN, AND UTHERIS,[926] ANSWER TO THIS.] Besydeis all this, thair clyppit and rowngeit soussis,[927] quhilk had no passage thir three yeiris past in the realme of France, ar commandit to have course in this realme, to gratifie thairby hir new cumit suldiouris. And all thir thingis togidder, ar done without the avise or consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme, and manifestlie thairthrow, against our ancient lawis and liberteis.

"Thridlie, Hir last and maist wechty proceiding, mair fullie declairis hir motherlie cair hir Grace beiris to our commun-wealth and us, quhan in tyme of peace, but any occatioun of forane weiris, thowsandis of strangearis ar layd heir and thair upoun the neckis of our pure memberis of this commun-wealth; thair idill bellyis fed upoun the pure substance of the communitie, conqueist by thair just laubouris in the panefull sueit of thair browis. Quhilk to be trew, Dumbar, North-Berwick, Tranent, Prestounpanis, Mussilburgh, Leith, Cannogait, Kingorne, Kirkcaldy, Dysert, with the depauperat saullis that this day dwell thairin, can testifie; quhais oppressioun, as doutless it is enterit in befoir the justice sait of God, sa aucht it justlie to move oure hartis to have reuth and compassioun upoun thir oure pure brethren, and at oure poweris to provide remedy for the same. And albeit hir strangearis had bene garneissit with money, (as ye knaw weill thay war nott,) yitt can thair heir lying be na wayis bot maist hurtfull to our commun-wealth, seing that the fertilitie of this realme hes never bene sa plenteouse, that it was abill of any continewance to sustene the self, and inhabitantis thairof, without support of forane cuntreis; far less abill, besydeis the same, to susteane thowsandis of strangeris quhairwith it is burdenit, to the derthing of all viweris,[928] as the murmour and complaint of Edinburgh this day dois testifie. Bot to quhat effect the commun-wealth is this way burdenit, the end dois declair; for schortlie war thair brocht to the feyldis against our Soveraneis trew liegeis, even us youre Brethren, quha, (God knawis,) socht not ellis bot peace of conscience, under protectioun of oure Soverane, and reformatioune of thir enormiteis, for na uther caus bot that we wald nott renunce the Evangell of Jesus Chryst, and subdew oure neckis under the tyranie of that man of syn, the Romane Antichrist, and his foirsworne schavillingis, quha at all tymeis moist tyrannicalie oppressit oure saullis with hunger of Goddis trew word, and reft oure guidis and substanceis, to waist the same upoun thair foull lustis and stynking harlottis.

"Bot, (O deir Brethren,) this was nocht the cheif pretence and finall scope of hir proceidingis, (as thir dayis do weill declair;) for had not God gevin in oure hartis to withstand that oppressioun with weaponis of maist just defence, thow, O Sanct Johnestoun and Dundie, had bene in na better estait nor youre sister of Leyth is this day. For thocht we in verray deid (God is witnes) menit then na thing bot, in the simplicitie of oure hartis, the mentenance of trew religioun, and saiftie of oure brethren professouris of the same, yit lay thair ane uther serpent lurking in the breist of our adversareis, as this day, (prayse to God,) is planelie oppinnit to all that list behald, to witt, to bring yow and us baith under the perpetuall servitude of strangearis; for we being appointit, as ye knaw, tuiching religioun to be reassonit in the Counsall at the day affixt, and na occatioun maid to brek the same on our syde, (as is weill knawin,) yitt come thair furth writtingis and complayntis, that this day and that day we war prepairit to invaid hir Graceis persone, (quhan in verray treuth thair was never sic thing thocht, as the verray deid hes declairit;) bot becaus sche was befoir deliberatt to bryng in Frensche men to bayth oure destructionis, that ye sould nott stur thairwith, sche maid yow to understand, that thay bandis came onlie for the saiftie of hir awin persone. O craft, Brethren! O subtiltie! Bot behald the end. [SN: THE CAUS OF THE FRENCHE MENIS CUMING WITH WYFFIS AND BAIRNEIS.] Thay ar cum, (yitt not sa mony, na, not the saxt pairt that sche desyreit and lukit for,) and how?[929] Not onlie with weaponis to defend hir Graceis persone, bot with wyffis and bairneis, to plant in youre natyve rowmeis,[930] as thay have alreddy begun in the toun of Leith, the principall port and stapill of all this realme, the gernall and furnitour of the Counsall and Sait of Justice: and heir will thay duell, quhill thay may rainforce thame with greitar nomber of thair fallow suldiouris, to subdew than the rest, gif God withstand not. And yitt hir Grace feirit nor eschamit not to write, 'Gif thay war ane hundreth Frensche men for everie ane of thame that is in Scotland, yitt thay sould harme na man.' Tell thow now, Leith! gif that be trew: gif this be not ane crafty entrie to ane manifest conqueist, foirthocht of auld, juge yow, deir Brethren! Thus to forte our tounis, and evin the principall port of our realme, and to lay sa strang garnisouns[931] of straingearis thairin, without any consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme, bot expres aganeis thair mynd, (as our writtingis send to hir Grace beiris record,) gif this be not to oppres the ancient lawis and libertieis of oure realme, lett all wise men say to it.[932] And farther, to tak the barne-yairdis new gatherrit, the gernallis replenischeit, the houssis garnissit, and to sitt doun thairin, and be force to putt the just possessouris and ancient inhabitantis thairfra, with thair wyffis, bairneis, and servandis, to schyft [for] thame selfis in begging, gif thair be na uthir meaneis, thay being trew Scottis men, memberis of our commun-wealth, and our deir brethren and sisteris, borne, fosterit, and brocht up in the bowellis of oure commune and natyve cuntrey: gif this be not the manifest declaratioun of thair auld pretence and mynd to the haill Scottis natioun, lett your awin conscience, (Brethren,) be juge heirin. Was all Leith of the Congregatioun? Na, I think nott; yitt war all alyk servit.

"Let this motherlie cair than be tryit be the fruttis thairof: First, Be the greit and exhorbitant taxatiounis usit upoun yow, and yitt ten tymeis greittar preissit at, as ye knaw. Secundlie, The utter depravatioun of our counzie, to conqueiss tharby money to interteyne strangearis, Frensche suldiouris, upoun yow, to mak thame strong haldis, leist ye sould sumtyme expell thame out of your natyve rowmeis.[933] Thridlie, Be the daylie rainforceing of the said Frensche souldiouris, in strenth and nomber, with wyffis and bairneis, planting in your brethrenis houssis and possessiouns. Indeid, hir Grace is, and lies bene at all tymes cairfull to procure be hir craft of fair wordis, fair promeissis, and sumtyme buddis, to allure your simplicitie to that poynt, to joyne your self to hir suldiouris, to dantoun and oppres us, that ye the remanent, (we being cut of,) may be ane easie pray to hir slychtis, quhilk God, of infinite gudnes, lies now discoveritt to the eyeis of all that list to behald. Bot credeit the warkis, (deir Brethren,) gif ye will not creddeit us; and lay the exampill of forane natiouns, yea, of your awin brethren, befoir your eyis and procure not your awin rewyne willinglie. Yff ye tender trew religioun, ye see how hir Grace beiris hir[self] plane ennemy thairto, and mentenis the tyrannie of thair idill bellies, the Bischopis, aganeis Godis Kirk. Giff religioun be nott perswaidit unto yow, yit cast ye not away the cair ye aucht to have ower your commun-welth, quhilk ye see manifestlie and violentlie rewyneit befoir your eyis. Gif this will nott move yow, remember your deir wyffis, children, and posteratie, your ancient heretageis and houssis; and think weill thir strangearis will regaird na mair your rycht thairunto, than thay have done your brethrenis of Leyth, quhan ever occatioun sall serve. Bot gif ye purpoise, as we dout not bot that all thay that ather haif wit or manheid will declair and prove indeid, to bruik your ancient rowmeis and heretageis, conquerit maist valiantlie, and defendit be your maist nobill progenitouris against all strangearis, invaidaris or the same, as the Frenscheis pretendis planelie this day; gif ye will not he slavis unto thame, and to have your liffis, your wiffis, your bairnes, your substance, and quhatsoever is deir unto yow, cassin at thair feitt, to be usit and abusit at the plesour of strange suldiouris, as ye see your brethrenis at this day befoir your eyeis; gif ye will not have experience sum day heirof in your awin personeis, (as we suppone the least of yow wald not glaidlie have, bot rather wald chuse with honour to die in defence of his awin natyve rowme, than leif and serve sa schamefull ane servitud;) than, Brethren, let us joyne our forceis, and baith with witt and manheid resist thir begynningis, or ellis our libertieis heirefter sall be deirar bocht. [SN: ANE PROVERB.] Lett us surelie[934] be perswaidit, 'Quhan our nychtbouris house be on fyre, that we duell nott without daingear.'[935] Lett na man withdraw himself heirfra: and gif any will be sa unhappy and myschevous, (as we suppone nane to be,) let us altogidder reput, hald, and use him, (as he is indeid,) for ane ennemy to us, and to him self, and to his commun-weill. The eternall and omnipotent God, the trew and onlie revengear of the oppressit, be oure confort and oure protectour against the fury and raige of the tyrantis of this warld; and especiallie frome the insaciabill covetousnes of the Guisianeis[936] generatioun. AMEN."

Besydis this, our publict letter, sum men answerit certane heidis of hir proclamatioun on this maner:—

"Gyff it be seditious to speik the treuth in all sobrietie, and to complayne quhan thay ar woundit, or to call for help against unjust tyrannie befoir that thair throttis be cutt, than can we not deny, bot we ar criminall and giltie of tumult and seditioun. For we have said that our commun-wealth is oppressit, that we and our brethren ar hurt be the tyrrannie of strangearis, and that we feir bondage and slaverie, seing that multitudeis of cruell murtheraris ar daylie brocht in our cuntrey, without our counsall, or knawlege and consent. We dispuit not sa mekill quhidder the bringing in of ma Frensche men be violating of the Appointment, (quhilk the Quene nor hir factioun can not deny to be manifestlie brokin be thame, in ma caisses than ane,) as that we wald knaw, gif the heipping of strangearis upoun strangearis above us, without our counsall or consent, be ane thing that may stand with the libertie of our realme, and with the proffitt of our commun wealth. It is not unknawin to all men of jugement, that the fruitis of our cuntrey, in the maist commun yeiris, be na mair than sufficient reassonabill to nureis the borne inhabitantis of the same. Bot now, seing that we have bene vexit with weiris, taikin upoun us at the plesour of France, by the quhilk the maist fruttfull portioun of our cuntrey in corneis hes bene waistit; quhatt man is sa blynd bot that he may see, that sic bandis of ungodlie and idill suldiouris can be na thing ellis bot ane occatioun to fameis our pure brethren? and in this poynt we refuise nott, (quhilk is the cheif,) the jugement of all naturall Scottis men."

The Quene Regent allegeit, "That althocht thair war ane hundreith Frensche men for ane in Scotland, yitt sche is not myndit to trubill any in his just possessioun." Quhairto we answer, "That we disput not quhat sche intendis, (quhilk nochttheless, be probabill conjectouris, is to be suspectit;) bot alwayis we affirme, that sick ane multitude of Frensche men is ane burding, not onlie unproffitabill, bot alssua intollerabill to this pure realme, especiallie being intreatit as thay ar be hir and Monsieur Dosell; for gif thair waigeis be payit out of France, than ar thay baith (the Quene, we say, and Monsieur Dosell,) traytouris to the Kyng and Counsall; for the pure communis of this realme have sustenit thame with the sweit of thair browis, sence the contracting of the peace, and sumquhat befoir.

"Quhat motherlie effectioun sche hes declairit to this realme, and to the inhabitantis of the same, hir warkis have evidentlie declairit, evin sence the first houre that sche hes borne authoritie; and albeit men will not this day see quhat daingear hyngis over thair heidis, yitt feir we, that or it be long, experience sall teich sum that we feir not without cause. The crewell murthar and oppressioun usit be thame quham now sche fosteris, is till us ane sufficient argument, quhatt is to be luikit for, quhan hir nomber is sa multipleit, that oure force sall not be abill to gainestand thair tyranie.


"Quhair sche complenis of our Prechearis, affirmyng that irreverentlie thay speik of Princeis in generall, and of hir in particular, induceing the pepill thairby to defectioun frome thair dewatie, &c., and thairfor that sick thing can nott be sufferit: Becaus this occatioun is had aganis[938] Godis trew Ministeris, we can not bot witnes quhat tred and ordour of doctrine thay have keipitt and yitt keip in that poynt. In publict prayeris thay commend to God all Princeis in generall, and the Magistrattis of this our natyve realme in particular. In oppin audience thay declair the auctoratie of Princeis and Magistratis to be of God; and thairfoir thay affirme, that thay aucht to be honourit, feirit, obeyit, evin for conscience saik; providit that thay command nor requyre nathing expreslie repugning to Godis commandiment and plane will, reveillit in his holy worde. Mairover, thay affirme, that gif wickit personeis, abusing the auctoratie estableischet be God, command thingis manifestlie wickit, that sick as may and do brydill thair inordinatt appetyteis of Princeis, can not be accusit as resistaris of the aucthoratie, quhilk is Godis gud ordinance. To brydill the fury and raige of Princeis in free kingdomes and realmeis, thay affirme it appertenis to the Nobilitie, sworne and borne Counsallouris of the same, and allsua to the Barronis and Pepill, quhais voteis and consent ar to be requyreit in all greit and wechty materis of the commun-welth. Quhilk gif thay do not, thay declair thame selffis criminall with thair Princeis, and sa subject to the same vengeance of God, quhilk thay deserve, for that thay pollute the sait of justice, and do, as it war, mak God author of iniquytie. Thay proclame and thay cry, that the same God quha plaigit Pharoo, repulsit Senacherib, struik Herod with wormes, and maid the bellies of dogis the grave and sepulchrie of despytefull Jesabell, will nott spair the crewell Princeis, murtheraris of Chrystis memberis in this our tyme. On this maner thay speik of Princeis in generall, and of youre Grace in particular. [SN: LETT SICK AS THIS DAY LEIF WITNES QUHAT GOD HES WROCHT SINCE THE WRYTTING AND PUBLICATIOUN HEIROF.[939]] This onlie we have hard ane of oure Prechearis say, rebuiking the vane excuise of sick as flatter thame selffis, be reassone of the auctoratie; 'Many now a dayis, (said he,) will have na uther religioun nor faith than the Quene and the authoratie hes.'[940] Bot is it [not] posseble, that the Quene be sa far blyndit that sche will haif na religioun, nor na uther fayth, than may content to the Cardinall of Lorane? and may it nott lykwyise be abill, that the Cardinall be sua corrupt, that he will admitt na religioun quhilk dois nott establische the Paip in his kingdome: Bot plane it is, that the Paip is lievetenent to Sathan, and ennemy to Chryst Jesus, and to his perfyte religioun. Lett men thairfoir considder quhat daingear thay stand in, gif thair salvatioun sall depend upoun the Queneis faith and religioun. Farder we have never hard any of oure Prechearis speik of the Quene Regent, nether publictlie nor privatlie. Quhair hir Grace declairis, 'It will nocht be sufferit that oure prechearis mell with policie, nor speik of hir nor of uther Princeis bot with reverence,' we answer, 'That as we will justifie and defend nathing in oure prechearis, quhilk we fynd not God to have justifeit and allowit in his messingeris befoir thame; sua dar we not forbid thame oppinlie to reprehend that quhilk the Spreit of God, speiking in the Propheitis and [SN: THE PROPHETTIS HAIF MIDDILLIT WITH POLICEY, AND HIS REPROVIT THE CORRUPTIOUN THAIROF.] Apostillis, hes reprehendit befoir thame. Helias did personallie reprove Achab and Jesabell of idolatrie, of avarice, of murther; and sicklik Esaias the Propheit callitt the magistrattis of Jerusalem in his tymeis companzeounis to thevis, princeis of Sodome, brybe-takeris, and murtheraris: He complenit that thair silver was turnit in to dross, that thair wyne was myngleit with watter, and that justice was bocht and sauld. Jeremias said, 'That the baneis of King Jehoiakim sould widder with the sone.' Christ Jesus callit Herod a fox; and Paul callit the Hie Preist ane payntit wall, and prayit unto God that he sould strike him, because that against justice he commandit him to be smyttin. Now gif the lyk or greittar corruptiounis be in the warld this day, quha dar interprise to put silence to the Spreit of God, quhilk [will] not be subject[941] to the appetyteis of wickit Princeis?"


We have befoir said, that the tent day of September was appointit for ane Conventioun to be haldin at Striveling, to the quhilk repairit the maist pairt of the Lordis of the Congregatioun. At that same tyme arryvitt the Erle of Arrane, quha, efter that he had salutit his Father, came with the Erie of Ergyle and Lord James to Striviling to the said Conventioun. In quhilk diverse godlie men complenit upoun the tyrranie usit against thair brethren, and especiallie that ma Frensche men wer brocht in to oppress thair cuntrey. Efter the consultatioun of certane dayis, the principall Lordis, with my Lord of Arrane and Erie of Ergyle, past to Hammyltoun, for consultatioun to be taikin with my Lord Duikis Grace. And in this menetyme came assureit word that the Frensche men war begun to fortifie Leith; quhilk thing, as it did mair evidentlie discover[943] the Queneis craft, sua did deiplie greiff the hartis of the haill Nobilitie thair, quha, with ane consentt, aggreit to write unto the Quene, in forme as followis:—


"At Hammyltoun, the xix[944] day of September 1559.

"Pleise Your Grace,

"We ar credibillie informeit, that your army of Frensche men sould instantlie begin to plant in Leith, to fortifie the same, of mynd to expell the ancient inhabitants thairof, our brethren of the Congregatioun; quhairof we marvell not a littill, that your Grace sould sua manifestlie brek the Appointment maid at Leith, but ony provocatioun maid be us and our brethren. And seing the samyn is done without ony maner consent of the Nobilitie and Counsale of this realme, we esteme the same nocht onlie oppressioun of our pure brethren, indwellaris of the said town, bot allsua verray prejudiciall to the commun-wealth, and playne contrair to oure ancient lawis and libertieis: Heirfoir desyreis your Grace to caus the samyn warke interprysit, be stayit; and nott to attempt sua raschlie and manifestlie against your Graceis promeis, against the commun-wealth, the ancient lawis and libertieis thairof, (quhilk thingis, besyde the glorie of God, ar maist deir and tender unto us, and onlie our pretence;) utherwayis, assuring your Grace, we will complayne to the haill Nobilitie and Communitie of this realme, and maist eirnistlie seik for redress thairof. And thus, recommending oure humyll service unto youre Hienes, your Graceis answer maist eirnistlie we desire, quham we committ to the eternall protectioun of God.

"At Hammyltoun, day and yeir forsaid. Be youre Graceis humyll and obedient Servitouris."

(This letter was subscrivit with the handis of my Lord Duik, the Erie of Arrane, Argyle, Glencairne, and Menteith; be the Lordis Ruthwen, Uchiltre, Boyd, and by utheris diverse, Barronis and Gentilmen.)—To this requeist sche wald nott answer be writt, bot with ane letter of creddeit sche send Sir Robert Carnegy[945] and Maister David Boirthick,[946] tua, quham amangis many utheris, sche abusit, and by quham sche corruptit the hartis of the sempill. They travellit with the Duik, to bring him agane to the Queneis factioun. La Broche and the Bischop of Amiance were schort befoir arryvit; and, as it was brutit, war directit as ambassadouris; bot thay keipitt cloise thair haill commissioun: Thay onlie maid large promeisses to thame that wald be thairis, and leif the Congregatioun. The Quene did grevouslie complayne, that we haid intelligence with Ingland. [SN: THE PETITIOUN OF LABROCHE.] The conclusioun of thair commissioun was to solist my Lord Duike to put all in the Queneis will, and than wald sche be gratious aneuch. [SN: THE ANSWER.] It was answerit, "That na honest men durst committ thame selfis to the mercie of sick thrott-cuttaris[947] as sche had about hir; quham, gif sche wald remove, and joyne to hir ane Counsall of naturall Scottismen, permitting the religioun to have fre passage, than sould nane in Scotland be mair willing to serve hir Grace than sould the Lordis and Brethren of the Congregatioun be."


At the same tyme, the Duik his Grace and the Lordis wrait to my Lord Erskin, Capitane of Castell of Edinburgh, in forme as followis:


"Efter oure hartlie commendatioun, this present is to adverteise yow, that we ar credibillie informeit, the army of Frensche men instantlie in this realme, but ony avise of the Counsale of Nobilitie, ar fortifieand, of ellis schortlie intendis to fortifie the town of Leith, and expell the ancient inhabitantis thairof; quhairby thay proclame to all that will oppin thair eiris to heir, or ene to se, quhat is thair pretence. And seing the faithfulnes of youre antecessouris, and especiallie of your Father, of honorabill memorie, was sa recommendit and experimentit to the Estaitis and Counsallouris of this realme, throwch affectioun thay persawit in him towartis the commun-wealth thairof, that thay doubtit not to gif in his keiping the key, as it war, of the Counsall, the Justice, and Policey of this realme, the Castellis of Edinburgh and Striveling;[948] we can not bot beleif ye will rather augment the honorabill favoure of your housse, be steidfast favour and lawtie to your commun-wealth, than throuch the subtell persuatioun of sum, (quhilk cair not quhat efter sail cum of yow and your house,) at the present wald abuse yow, to the performance of thair wickit interprysis and pretensis against oure commun-wealth, utterlie to destroy the same. And heirfoir, seing that we haif writtin to the Queneis Grace, to desist fra that interpryse, utherwise that we will complane to the Nobilitie and Communitie of the realme, and seik redress thairof. We lykwise beseik yow, as our tender freynd, brother, and member of the same commun-wealth with us, that ye on na wayis mell or assent to that ungodlie interpryise aganeis the commun-wealth; and lykwyise, that ye wald saif your body, and the jewell of this countrey commitit to yow and your predicessouris lawtie and fidelitie toward youre natyve countrey and commun-wealth, gif ye think to be repute heirefter ane of the samyn, and wald rather be brother to us, nor to strangers; for we do gather by the effectis, the secreitis of menis hartis, utherwayis inserceabill unto us. This we write, nott that we ar in dout of yow, bot rather to wairne yow of the daingear, in caise ye thoill your self to be enchantit with fair promeissis and craftie counsalouris. For lett na man flatter him selff: We desyre all man [to] knaw, that thocht he war our father, (sen God hes oppinnit oure eyes to se his will,) be he ennemy to the commun-wealth, quhilk now is assailzeit, and we with it, and all trew memberis thairof, he sall be knawin (and as he is in deid) ennemy to us, to oure lyvis, housses, babis, heretageis, and quhat sumevir is contenit within the same. For as the schip perischeing, quhat can be saif that is within?[949] Sua the commun-wealth being betrayit, quhat particular member can leif in quyetnes? And thairfoir in sa far as the saidis Castellis ar commitit to your credeitt, we desyre yow to schaw youre faithfulnes and stoutnes, as ye tender us, and quhatsumevir appertenis to us. And seing we ar assureit ye will be assailzeit bayth with craft and force, as now be wairnyng we help yow against the first, sua against the last ye sall not myss in all possibill haist to have oure assistance. Onlie schaw your selff the man. Saiff your persone by wisdome, strenth your selff against force, and the Almychtie God assist yow in baith the ane and the uther, and oppin youre eyis[950] understanding, to see and persaif the craft of Sathan and his suppoistis.

"At Hammyltoun, the xix day[951] of September 1559. Be your Brethren, &c."


The Duike and Lordis understanding that the fortificatioun of Leith proceidit, appointit thair haill forceis to convene at Striviling the xv day of October, that frome thence thai mycht marche fordwart to Edinburgh, for the redress of the greit enormyteis quhilk the Frensche did to the haill cuntrey, quhilk be thame was sua oppressitt that the lyfe of all honest man[952] was bitter unto him.

In this meintyme, the Lordis directit thair letteris to diverse pairtis of the cuntrey, makand mentioun quhat dangear did hing ower all men, giff the Frensche sould be sufferit to plant in this cuntrey at thair plesoure. Thay maid mentioun farder, how humblie thay had socht the Queue Regent, that sche wald send away to France hir Frensche men, quha war ane burding unproffitable and grevous to thair commun-wealth; and how that sche nochtwithstanding did daylie augment hir nomber, brynging wyffis and bairneis; a declaratioun of ane plane conqueist, &c.

The Quene, than Regent, perseving that hir crafte began to be espiit, be all meaneis possebill travellit to blynd the pepill. And first, sche send furth hir pestilent postis foirnameit in all pairtis of the cuntrey, to perswaid all man that sche offerit all thingis reassonabill to the Congregatioun; and that thay refusing all reassoun, pretendit na religioun, bot ane plane revolt frome the Authoratie. Sche temptit every man in particular, alse weill thay that war of the Congregatioun, as thame that war neutrallis. Sche assaultit everie man, as sche thocht maist easelie he mycht have bene ovircum. To the Lord Ruthven sche send the Justice Clerk and his wiff, quhn, is dochter to the wife[953] of the said Lord. Quhat was thair commissioun and creddeit, is na farther knawin than the said Lord hes confessit, quhilk is, that large promeisses of proffitt was offerrit, gif he wald leiff the Congregatioun and be the Queneis. To Lord James, Priour of Sanctandrois, was send Maister Johnne Spense of Condy, with ane letter and creddeit, as followis:—


"1. Ye sall say, that hir[955] greit favour towartis yow movis hir to this.

"2. That sche now knawis, that the occatioun of your depairting frome hir was the favoure of the word and of religioun; with the quhilk albeit sche was offendit, yitt knawing your hart and the hartis of the uther Lordis firmelie fixit thairupoun, sche will beir with yow in that behalf, and at youre awin sychtis sche will sett fordwart that caus at hir power, as may stand with Goddis word, the commun policey of this realme, and the Princeis honour. (Note, Gud reiddar, quhat vennoum lurkis heir; for plane it is, that the policey quhilk sche pretendit, and the Princeis honour, will never suffer Christ Jesus to ring in this realme.)

"3. To say, that the occasioun of the assembling of thir men of weir, and fortifeing of Leith, is, that it was gevin hir to understand be sum about hir, that it is not the advancement of the word and religioun quhilk is socht at this tyme, bot rather ane pretense to owerthraw, or alter the authoratie of your Sister, of the quhilk sche belevis still that ye ar nott participant; and considdering the tendernes betuix yow and your Sister, sche trestis mair in yow in that behalf than in any leving. [SN: LETT THIS BE NOTIT, O CRAFTIE FLATTERIE![956] (Bot befoir the Erle of Arrane arryvit, and that the Duke depairtit frome hir factioun, sche ceassit not contynewallie to cry, that the Priour socht to mak him self King; and sua not onlie to depryve his sister to mak him selff King, bot alssua to defraude the Lordis Duikeis Grace and his housse: bot foirseing ane storme, sche began to seik ane new wynd.)

"Sche farther willit, to offer the way-sending of the men of weir, gif the former suspitioun could be removit. Sche lamentit the trubill that appeirit to follow gif the mater sould lang stand in debait. Sche promeist hir faithfull laubouris for reconciliatioun, and requyreit the samyn of him; requiring farther, faith, favour, and kyndnes, towartis his Sister; and to adverteise for his pairt quhat he desyreit, with promeise that he mycht obtene quhat he plesit to desyre, &c."

To this letter and creddeit, the said Lord James answerit as followis:—


"I resavit your Hienes writting, and have hard the creddeit of the beirar; and fynding the busynes of sick importance, that daingerouse it war to gif haistie answer, and alssua your petitionis ar sua, that with my honour I can nott answer thame privatlie be my selff: I have thocht guid to delay the same till that I may have the jugement of the haill Counsall. For this poynt I will not conceill frome youre Grace, that amangis us thair is ane solempnit aith, that nane of us sall trafique with youre Grace secreitlie; nether yitt that any of us sall mak ane [ad]dress for him selff particularlie; quhilk aith, for my pairt, I purpoise to keip inviolatit to the end. Bot quhan the rest of the Nobillmen sall convene, I sall leif nathing that lyis in my power undone that may mak for the quyetnes of this pure realme, providing that the glorie of Christ Jesus be nott hinderit by oure concord. And gif youre Grace sall be found sua tractabill as now ye offer, I doutt nott to obteyne of the rest of my brethren sick favouris towartis youre service, as youre Grace sall have just occatioun to stand content. For God I tak to record, that in this actioun I have nether socht, nether yitt seikis, any uther thing than Godis glorie to encrease, and the libertie of this pure[957] realm to be mentenit. Farther, I have schawin to youre messinger quhat thingis have myslykeit me in youre proceidingis, evin frome sick ane hart as I wald wysche to God ye and all men did knaw. And this with hartlie commendatioun of service to youre Grace, I hartlie commit your Hienes to the eternall protectioun of the Omnipotent.

"At Sanctandrois, the first of October. (Sic subscribitur,) "Your Graceis humyll and obedient servitour, J. ST."[958]

This answer resaivet, sche raigeit as hypocrasie usis, quhan it is prickit; and persaving that sche could nott wirk quhat sche wald at the handis of men particularie, sche sett furth ane Proclamatioun, universallie to be proclameit, in the tennour as followis:—

"Forsamekle as it is understand to the Queneis Grace, that the Duke of Chastellerault hes laitlie directit his missyveis in all pairtis of this realme, makand mentioun that the Frensche men lait arryvit, with thair wyffis and bairneis, ar [begunne][959] to plant in Leith, to the rewyne of the commun-welth, quhilk he and his pairttakeris will not pas ower with patient behalding, desyring to knaw quhat will be everie manis pairt; and that the fortificatioun of Leith is[960] ane purpoise devysit in France, and that thairfoir Monsieur de La Broche and the Bischop of Amiance ar cumit in this cuntrey; ane thing sa vaine and untrew, that the contrarie thairof is notour to all men of free jugement: Thairfoir hir Grace, willing that the occatiouns quhairby hir Grace was movit sa to do be maid patent, and quhat hes bene hir proceidingis sen the Appointment last maid on the Linkis besyde Leith, to the effect that the treuth of all thingis being maid manifest, everie man may understand how injustlie that will to suppres the libertie of this realme is laid to hir charge, hes thocht expedient to mak this discours following:—

"Fyrst, Althocht efter the said Appointment, dyverse of the said Congregatioun, and that not of the meaneast sort, had contravenit violentlie the pointis thairof, and maid sundrie occatiouns of new cummer, the samyn was in ane pairt wynkit att and ower-luikit, in hoip that thay with tyme wald remember thair dewatie, and abstene fra sick evill behaviouris, quhilk conversioun hir Grace ever sochtt, rather than any puneisment, with sick cair and solicitud be all meaneis, quhill, in the menetyme, na thing was providit for hir awin securitie. Bot at last, be thair frequent messageis to and fra Ingland, thair intelligence than was persavit: yit hir Grace trestis the Quene of Ingland (lett thame seik as thay pleise) will do the office of ane Christiane Princes in tyme of ane sworne peax; throw quhilk force was to hir Grace (seand sua greit defectioun of greit personageis,) to have recourse to the law of nature; and lyk as ane small bird, being persewit, will provide sum nest, sua hir Grace could do na less, in caise of persute, nor provide sum sure retrait for hir selff and hir cumpany; and to that effect, chusit the toun of Leith, as place convenient thairfoir; becaus, first, it was hir derrest dochteris propertie, and na uther persone could acclame tytle or enteress thairto, and als becaus in tyme afoir it had bene fortifeit. About the same tyme that the seiking support of Ingland was maid manifest, arryvit the Erle of Arrane, and adjoinit him selff to the Congregatioun, upoun farder promisses nor the[961] pretendit quarrell of religioun that was to be sett up be thame in authoratie, and sua to pervert the haill obedience. [SN: FALSE LEYING TOUNG, GOD HAS CONFOUNDIT THEE!] And as sum of the said Congregatioun at the samyn tyme had putt to thair handis, and takin the Castell of Brochty, put furth the keiparis thairof: immediatlie came fra the said Duike to hir Grace unluikit for, ane writing, beside many uther,[962] compleneand of the fortificatioun of the said toun of Leith, in hurt of the ancient inhabitantis thairof, brether of the said Congregatioun, quhairof he than professit him self ane member; and albeit that the beirar of the said writting was ane unmeitt messinger in ane mater of sick consequence, yitt hir Grace direc[ted] to him twa personeis of guid creddeit and reputatioun with answer, offerrand, gif he wald caus ane mendis be maid for that quhilk was commitit aganeis the lawis of the realme, to do further nor could be cravit of reassone, and to that effect to draw sum conference, quhilk for inlaik of him and his collegis, tuik no end. [SN: GOD HES PURGEIT HIS PEPILL OF THAT FALSE ACCUSATIOUN.] Nochttheles thay continewallie sensyne contynewis in thair doingis, usurping the Authoratie, commanding and chargeing free Borrowis to cheise Provestis and officiaris of thair nameing, and to assyst to thame in the purpoise thay wald be att; and thatt thay will nocht suffer provisioun to be brocht for sustentatioun of hir Graceis housseis; and greit pairt hes sa planelie sett asyde all reverence and humanitie, quhairby everie man may knaw that it is na mater of religioun, bot ane plane usurpatioun of authoratie, and na dout bot sempill men, of gude zeall in tymeis bigane, thairwith falslie hes bene desavit. Bot as to the Queneis Grace pairt, God, quha knawis the secreitis of all hartis, weill kennis, and the warld sall see be experience, that the fortificatioun of Leith was devisit for na uther purpoise bot for recourse to hir Hienes and hir cumpany, in caise thay war persewit. Quhairfoir, all gud subjectis that hes the feir of God in thair hartis, will not suffer thame selffis be sick vaine perswatiouns to be led away from thair dew obedience, bot will assist in defence of thair Soveraneis quarrel aganeis all sick as will persew the same wrangouslie. Thairfoir, hir Grace ordaneis the officiaris of armeis to pas to the Mercat-Croceis of all heid Borrowis of this realme, and thair be oppin proclamatioun command and charge all and sundrie the liegeis thairof, that nane of thame tak upoun hand to put thame selfis in armeis, nor tak pairt with the said Duke or his assistaris, under the pane of treassone."

Thir letteris being devulgatt, the hartis of many war steirit; for thay jugeit the narratioun of the Queue Regent to have bene trew: uthiris understanding the samin to be utterlie false. Bot becaus the Lordis desyreit all man [to] juge in thair cause, thay sett out this Declaratioun subsequent:—


"We ar compellit unwillinglie to answer the grevouse accusatiouns maist injustlie laid to our chargeis be the Quene Regent and hir perverst Counsall, quha cease not, by all craft and malice, to mak us odiouse to our darrest brethren, naturall Scotismen; as that we pretendit na uther thing bot the subversioun and owerthraw of all just authoritie, quhan, God knawis, that we thocht na thing bot that sick authoratie as God approvis by his word, be establischeit, honourit, and obeyit amangis us. Trew it is that we have complenit, (and continewallie must complene,) till God send redress, that our commun cuntrey is oppressit with strangearis; that this inbringing of suldiouris, with thair wiffis and children, and planting of men of weir in oure free tounis, appeiris to us ane reddy way to conqueist: And we maist eirnistlie requyre all indifferent personeis to juge betwix us and [the] Quene Regent in this cause,[963] to wit, quhidder that our complaynt be just or nott; for, for quhat uther purpoise sould sche this multiplie strangearis upoun us, bot onlie in respect of conqueist; quhilk is ane thing not of lait devisit be hir and hir avaritiouse House. [SN: THE AVARICE OF THAME OF LORANE AND GWEISE.] We ar not ignorant, that sax yeris past, the questioun was demandit, of ane man of honest reputatioun, quhat nomber of men was abill to dantoun Scotland, and to bring it to the full obedience of France. She allegeis, that to say the fortificatioun of Leith was ane purpoise devisit in France, and that for that purpoise war Monsieur de La Broche, and the Bischop Amiance send to this cuntrey, is ane thing sa vaine and untrew, that the contrarie thairof is notour to all men of fre jugement. Bot evident it is, quhatsoever sche allegeis, that sence thair arryvall, Leith was begun to be fortifeit. Sche allegeis, that sche, seing the defectioun of greit personageis, was compellitt to have recourse to the law of nature, and lyk ane small bird persewit,[964] to provide for sum sure retreitt to hir selff and hir cumpany. Bot quhy dois sche not answer, for quhatt purpoise did sche bring in hir new bandis of men of weir? Was thair any defectioun espyit befoir thair arryvall? Was not the Congregatioun under appointment with hir? quhilk, quhatsoever sche allegeis, sche is not abill to prove that we haid contravenit in any chief poynt, befoir that her new throt-cuttaris arryvit, yea, befoir that thay began to fortifie Leith; ane place, says sche, maist convenient for hir purpoise, as in verray deid it is for the resaving of strangearis at hir plesour: for gif sche haid fearit the persute of hir body, sche haid the Insche, Dumbar, Blaknes, fortis and strenthis alreddy maid. Yea, bot they could not sa weill serve hir turne as Leith, becaus it was hir Dochteris propertie, and na uther could haif tytill to it, and becaus it had bene fortifeit of befoir. That all men may knaw the just tytle hir Dochter and sche hes to the toun of Leith, we sall in few wordis declair the trewth.

"It is not unknawin to the maist pairt of this realme, that thair hes bene ane auld haitrent and contentioun betuix Edinburght and Leith;[965] Edinburgh seiking continewallie to possess that libertie, quhilk be donatioun of kyngis thay have lang injoyit; and Leith, be the contrary, aspyring to ane libertie and fredome in prejudice of Edinburgh. [SN: THE TITLE THAT THE QUENE [HAD] OR HES[966] TO LEITH.] The Quene Regent, ane woman that could mak hir proffitt of all handis, was nott ignorant how to compass hir awin mater; and thairfoir secreitlie sche gaif adverteisment to sum of Leith, that sche wald mak thair Toun fre, gif that sche mycht do it with any cullour of justice. [SN: THE LAIRD OF RESTALRIG SUPERIOUR TO LEITH.] Be quhilk promeise, the principall men of them did travell with the Laird of Restalrig,[967] ane man nether prudent nor fortunat, to quhome the superioratie of Leyth appertenit, that he sould sell his haill tytle and rycht to our Soverane, for certane sowmeis of money, quhilk the inhabitantis of Leith payit, with ane large taxatioun mair, to the Quene Regent, in hoip to have bene maid free in dispite and defraud of Edinburgh. Quhilk rycht and superioratie, quhan sche haid gottin, and quhan the money was payit, the first fruittis of thair libertie thay now eitt with bitternes, to wit, that strangearis sall possess thair town. This is hir just tytle quhilk hir Dochter and sche may clame to that Towne. And quhair sche allegeis that it was fortifeit befoir, we ask, gif that [was] done without consent of the Nobilatie and Estaitis of the realme, as sche now, and hir craftie Counsallouris do in dispyte and contempt of us the lauchfull heidis[968] and borne counsallouris of this realme.

"How far we have socht support of Ingland, or of ony uther Princes, and how just cause we haid, and haif sa to do, we sall schortlie mak manifest unto the warld, to the prayse of Godis haly name, and to the confusioun of all thame that sclander us for sa doing. For this we feir nott to confess, that as in this oure interpryse against the Devill, idolatrie, and the mentenance of the same, we cheiflie and onlie seik Godis glorie to be notifeit unto man, synne to be puncisit, and vertew to be mentenit; sua quhair power faillis of oure self, we will seik quhair soever God sall offer the same; and yitt in sa doing, we ar assureit, nether till offend God, nether yitt to do any thing repugnant to our dewiteis. We hartlie prayse God, quha movit the hart of the Erle of Arrane to joyne him selff with us, his persecuteit brethren; bot how maliciouse ane ley it is, that we have promesit to sett him up in authoratie, the ischew sall declair. God we tak to record, that na sick thing hes to this day enterit in oure hartis. Nether yitt hes he, the said Erie, nather any to him appertenyng, movit unto us ony sick mater; quhilk, gif thay sould do, yitt ar we not sa sklender in jugement, that inconsidderatlie we wald promeis that quhilk efter we mycht repent. We speik and write to Goddis glorie:[969] The leist of us knawis better quhat obedience is dew to ane lauchfull authoritie, than sche or hir Counsall dois practise the office of sick as worthelie may sitt upoun the sait of justice; for we offer, and we performe, all obedience quhilk God hes commandit; for we nether deny toll, tribute, honour, nor feir till hir, nor till hir officiaris: We onlie brydill hir blynd raige, in the quhilk sche wald erect and mentene idolatrie, and wald murther oure brethren quha refusses the same. Bott sche dois utterlie abuse the authoratie establischeitt by God: sche prophaneis the throne of his Majestie in erth, making the Saitt of justice, quhilk aucht to be the sanctuary and refuge of all godlie and vertuouse personeis, injustlie afflictit, to be ane den and receaptakle to thevis, murtheraris, idolateris, huremongaris, adulteraris, and blasphemaris of God and all godlynes. [SN: THE WICKITNESS OF THE BISCHOPIS.[970]] It is mair than evident, quhat men thay ar, and lang have bene, quham sche by hir power mentenis and defendis; and alssua quhat hes bene our conversatioun sence it hes plesit God to call us to his knawlege, quham now in hir fury sche crewellie persecuteis. We deny nocht the taking of the House of Brouchty;[971] and the cause being considderit, we think that na naturall Scottisman will be offendit at oure fact. Quhan the assureit knawlege came unto us that the fortificatioun of Leith was begun, everie man began to inquyre quhat daingear mycht ensew to the rest of the realme, giff the Frensche sould plant in dyverse placeis, and quhat war the placeis that mycht maist [annoy] us.[972] [SN: THE CAUS THAT BROWCHTY CRAIG WAS TAKIN.[973]] In conclusioun it was found, that the taking of the said housse be Frensche men sould be destructioun to Dundie, and hurtfull to Sanct Johnnstoun, and to the haill cuntrey; and thairfoir it was thocht expedient to prevent the daingear, as that we did for preservatioun of oure brethren and commun cuntrey. It is nocht unknawin quhat ennemyis thir twa Tounis have, and quhow glaidlie wald sum haif all guid ordour and pollecey owerthrawin in thame. The conjectureis that the Frensche war of mynd schortlie to have takin the same, war not obscure. Bot quhatsoever thay pretendit, we can nott repent that we (as said is) have preventit the daingear; and wald God that our power haid bene in the same maner to have foircloissit thair entres to Leith; for quhat trubill the pure realme sall endure befoir thatt thay murtheraris and injust possessouris be removit from the same, the ischew will declair. [SN: LETT ALL MAN JUGE.] Giff hir accusatioun against my Lord Duikis Grace, and that we refusit conference, be trewlie and sempillie spokin, we will nott refuise the jugement of thay verray men, quham sche allegeis to be of sa honest a reputatioun. [SN: THE DUIKEIS ANSWER.] Thay knaw that the Dukeis Grace did answer, that gif the realme mycht be sett at libertie frome the bondage of thay men of weir quhilk presentlie did oppress it, and was sa feirfull to him and his brethren, that thay war compellit to absent thame selfis from the placeis quhair sche and thay maid residence; thatt he and the haill Congregatioun sould cum and gif all debtfull[974] obedience to oure Soverane hir dochter, and unto hir Grace, as Regent for the tyme. Bot to enter in conference, sa lang as sche keipis above him and his brethren that feirfull scourge of crewell strangearis, he thocht na wyise man wald counsall him. And this his answer we approve, adding farther, That sche can mak us no promeis quhilk sche can keip nor we can creddeit, sa lang as sche is forceit with the strenth, and reuillit be the counsall of Frensche.[975] We ar not ignorant that princeis think it guid policey to betray thair subjectis be breking of promeissis, be thay never so solempnitlie maid. We have nott forgett quhat counsall sche and Monsieur Dosell gaif to the Duike against thame that slew the Cardinall, and keip the Castell of Sanctandrois: And it was this, "That quhat promeis thay list to requyre sould be maid unto thame: bot how sone that the Castell was randerit, and thyngis brocht to sick pass as was expedient, that he sould chope the heidis frome everie ane of thame." To the quhilk quhan the Duike answerit, "That he wald never consent to sa treassonabill ane act, bot gif he promesit fidelitie, he wald faithfullie keip it." Monsieur Dosell said, in mockage to the Quene, in Frensche, "That is ane guid sempill nature, bot I knaw na uther prince that wald swa do." Gif this was his jugement in sa small ane mater, quhat have we to suspect in this oure caus: [SN: NOTA.] For now the question is not of the slauchter of ane Cardinall, bot of the just abolisching of all that tyrannie quhilk that Romane Antechryst hes usurpit above us, of the suppressing of idolatrie, and of the reformatioun of the haill religioun, by that verming of schavelingis utterlie corruptit. [SN: THE QUARRELL BETUIX FRANCE AND THE CONGREGATIOUN OF SCOTLAND.] Now, gif the slauchter of ane Cardinall be ane syn irremissebill,[976] as thay thair selffis affirme, and gif faith aucht not to be keipit to heretykes, as thair awin law speikis, quhat promeise can sche that is reullit be the counsall and commandyment of ane Cardinall, mak to us, that can be sure?

"Quhair sche accusis us, that we usurp authoritie, to command and charge free Browchis to cheise Provestis and officiaris of our nameing, &c., we will that the haill Browchis of Scotland testifie in that caise, quhydder that we have usit ony kynd of violence, bot lovinglie exhortit sick as askit support, to cheise sick in office as had the feir of God befoir thair eyis, luffitt equitie and justice, and war nott notit with avarice and brybing. Bot wonder it is, with quhatt face sche can accuse us of thatt quhairof we ar innocent, and sche sua oppinlie criminall, that the haill realme knawis hir iniquities. In that caise, hes sche nott compellit the toun of Edinburgh to reteane ane man to be thair Provest,[977] [SN: THE LORD SEYTOUN UNWORTHY OF REGIMENT.[978]] maist unworthy of ony regiment in ane weill rewlit commun-wealth? Hes sche nott enforceitt thame to tak Baillies of hir appoyntment, and sum of thame sua meitt for thair office, in this trubilsum tyme, as ane sowtar is to saill[979] ane schip in ane stormy day? [SN: OPTIMA COLLATIO.] Sche compleneis thatt we will nott suffer provisioun to be maid for hir House. In verray deid we unfeinzeitlie repent, that befoir this we tuik nott better ordour that thir murtheraris and oppressouris, quham sche pretendis to nureise, for oure destructioun, had not bene disapointit of that greit provisioun of victuallis quhilk sche and thay have gadderit, to the greit hurt of the haill cuntrey. Bot as God sall assist us in tymeis cuming, we sall do diligence sum-quhatt to frustrat thair devillysche purpoise. [SN: LETT THE PAPISTIS JUGE GIF GOD HES NOT GEVIN JUGEMENT TO THE DISPLESOUR OF THAIR HARTIS.] Quhatt baith sche and we[980] pretend, we dout not bot God, quha can not suffer the abuse of his awin name lang to be unpunischeit, sall one day declair; and unto him we feir nott to committ oure cause. Nether yitt feir we in this presentt to say, that against us sche makis ane maist maliciouse ley. [SN: THE LEY TO THE QUENE REGENT.] Quhair that sche sayis, that it is na religioun that we ga about, bot ane plane usurpatioun of the Authoritie, God forbid that sick impietie sould enter into oure hartis, that we sould mak his holie religioun ane cloik and covertour of oure iniquitie. Frome the begynning of this contraversie, it is evidentlie knawin quhat have bene oure requeistis, quhilk gif the rest of the Nobilitie and communitie of Scotland will caus be peformeit unto us, giff than ony sygne of rebellioun appeir in us, lett us be reputit and punisit as traytouris. Bot quhill strangearis ar brocht in to suppres us, our commun-welth, and posteritie, quhill idolatrie is mentenit, and Christ Jesus his trew religioun dispysit, quhill idill bellies and bludy tyrantis, the Bischopis, ar mentenit, and Christis trew messingeris persecutit; quhill, fynallie, vertew is contemnit, and vice extollit, quhill that we, ane greit pairt of the Nobilitie and communaltie of this realme, ar maist injustlie persecuteit, quhat godlie man can be offendit that we sall seik reformatioun of thir enormiteis, (yea, evin be force of armes, seing that uthirwayis it is denyit unto us;) we ar assureit that nether God, neather nature, neather ony just law, forbiddis us. [SN: THE CAUS THAT MOVIT THE NOBILITIE OF THIS REALME TO OPPONE THAME TO THE QUENE REGENT.] God hes maid us counsallouris be birth of this realme; nature byndis us to luiff our awin cuntrey; and just lawis commandis us to support oure brethren injustlie persecutit. Yea, the aith that we have maid, to be trew to this commune-wealth, compellis us to hasard quhatsoever God hes gevin us, befoir that we see the miserabill rewyne of the same. Gif ony think this is not religioun quhilk now we seik, we answer, That it is nathing ellis, bot the zeall of the trew religioun quhilk movis us to this interpryse: [SN: THE SAME MYND REMANIS TO THIS DAY.] For as the ennemy dois craftelie foirsee that idolatrie can not be universalie mentenit, onless that we be utterlie suppressit, sua do we considder that the trew religioun (the puritie quhairof we onlie requyre) can not be universalie erectit, unless strangearis be removit, and this pure realme purgeit of thir pestilencis quhilk befoir have infectit it. And thairfoir, in the name of the eternall God, and of his Sone Chryst Jesus, quhais caus we sustene, we requyre all oure brethren, naturall Scottis men, prudentlie to considder oure requeistis, and with judgment to decerne betuix us and the Quene Regent and hir factioun, and not to suffer thame selfis to be abused by her craft and deceat, that eather thei shall lift thair weaponis against us thair brethren, who seik nothing butt Godis glorie, eyther yitt that thei extract frome us thare just and detfull[981] supporte, seing that we hasard our lyves for preservatioun of thame and us, and of our posteritie to come: Assuring suche as shall declair thame selves favoraris of her factioun, and ennemeis unto us, that we shall repute thame, whensoever God shall putt the sword of justice in our handis, worthie of such punishment, as is dew for such as studie to betray thair countree in the handis of strangearis." [SN: THIS PROMEISS WAS FORYETT,[982] AND THAIRFOIR HES GOD PLAGUED. WHAT SPREIT COULD HAUE HOPED FOR VICTORIE IN SO DISPERATE DANGEARIS.]

This our Answer was formed, and divulgat in some places, but not universallie, be reassone of our day appointit to meitt at Striveling, as befoir is declaired. In this meantyme, the Quene her postes ran with all possible expeditioun to draw men to her devotioun; and in verray deid, sche fand mo favoraris of her iniquitie then we suspected. For a man that of long tyme had bene of our nomber in professioun, offered (as himself did confesse) his service to the Quene Regent, to travaill betuix hir Grace and the Congregatioun for concord. Sche refused nott his offer; bott knowing his simplicitie, sche was glad to employ him for her advantage. The man is Maister Robert Lockart,[983] a man of whome many have had and still have good opinioun, as tweiching his religioun; bott to enter in the dresse of suche affaris, nott so convenient, as godlie and wyise men wold requyre. He travailled nocht the less earnestlie in the Quene Regentis affares, and could nott be perswaded bot that sche ment sincerlie, and that sche wold promote the religioun to the uttermost of her power. He promissed in hir name, that sche wald putt away hir Frensche men, and wald be reulled by the counsall of naturall Scottismen. When it was reassoned in his contrary, "That yf sche war so mynded to do, sche could have found mediatouris a great deall more convenient for that purpose." He feared nott to affirme, "That he knew more of her mynd then all the Frenche or Scottis that war in Scotland, yea more then her awin brethren that war in France." He travailled with the Erle of Glencarne, the Lordis Uchiltrie and Boid, with the Larde of Dun, and with the Preacheouris, to whome he had certane secreat letteris, which he wald not deliver, onless that thei wald maik a faithfull promeise, that thei should never reveill the thing conteaned in the same. To the whiche it was answered, "That in no wyise thei could maik suche a promeise, be reassone that thei war sworne one to another, and altogetther in one body, that thei should have no secreat intelligence nor dress with the Quene Regent, bot that thei should communicat with the Great Counsall whatsoever sche proponed unto thame, or thei did answer unto her." As by this Answer, written by Johne Knox to the Quene Regent, may be understand,[984] the tennour whairof followis:—


"My dewitie moist humilie premissed: Your Grace's servand, Maister Robert Lockard, maist instantlie hes requyred me and otheris, to whome your Graceis letteris, as he alledged, war directed, to receave the same in secreat maner, and to geve to him answer accordinglie. Bot becaus some of the nomber that he required war and ar upoun the Great Counsall of this realme, and thairfoir ar solempnedlie sworne to have nothing to do in secreate maner, neather with your Grace, neather yitt with any that cumis fra yow, or fra your Counsall; and swa thei could not receave your Grace letteris with sick conditionis as the said Maister Robert required; and thairfoir thocht he good to bring to your Grace agane the said letteris close. And yitt becaus, as he reportis, he hes maid to your Grace some promeise in my name; att his requeist, I am content to testifie by my letter and subscriptioun, the sume of that quhilk I did communicat with him. In Dondie, after many wourdis betuix him and me, I said, that albeit diverse sinister reportis had bene maid of me, yitt did I never declair any evident tockin of haiterent nor inmitie against your Grace. For yf it be the office of a verray freind to geve trew and faythfull counsall to thame whome he seis ryn to destructioun for lack of the same, I could nott be provin ennemye to your Grace, bot rather a freind unfeaned.[986] For what counsall I had gevin to your Grace, my writtingis, alsweall my Letteris and Additioun to the same, now prented,[987] as diverse otheris quhilkis I wrait fra Sanct Johnestoun, may testifie. I farther added, that sick ane ennemye was I unto yow, that my tung did bayth perswaid and obteane, that your authoritie and regiment should be obeyed of us in all thingis lawchfull, till ye declaired your self open ennemye to this commoun-wealth, as now, allace! ye have done. This I willed him moreover to say to your Grace, that yf ye, following the counsall of flatterand men, having no God bot this world and thair bellies, did proceid in your malice against Christ Jesus his religioun, and trew ministeris, that ye should do nothing ellis but accclerat and haste Godis plague and vengeance upoun your self and upoun your posteritie: and that ye, (yf ye did not change your purpose hastelie,) should bring your self in sick extreame danger, that when ye wold seak remeady, it should nott be sa easy to be found, as it had bene befoir. This is the effect and sume of all that I said at that tyme, and willed him, yf he pleased, to communicat the same to your Grace. And the same yitt agane I notifie unto your Grace, by this my letter, writtin and subscryved at Edinburgh, the 26 of October 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,) "Your Grace's to command in all godlynes. "JOHN KNOX.

"Postscriptum.—God move your harte[988] yitt in tyme to considder, that ye feght nott against man, bot against the eternall God, and against his Sone Jesus Christ, the onlie Prince of the kingis of the earth."

* * * * *

At whiche answer, the said Maister Robert was so offended, that he wald nott deliver his letteris, saying, "That we wer ungodlie and injuriouse to the Quene Regent yf we suspected any craft in hir." To the whiche it was answered, by one of the preacheouris, "That tyme should declair, whitther he or thei war deceaved. Yff sche should nott declair hir self ennemye to the trew religioun whiche thei professed, yf ever sche had the upper hand, then thei wald be content to confesse that thei had suspected her sinceritie without just cause. Bot and yf sche should declair her malice no less in tymes cuming than sche had done befoir, thei required that he should be more moderat then to dampne thame whose conscience he knew nott." And this was the end of the travaill for that tyme, after that he had trubled the conscience of many godlie and qwiet personis. For he and other who war her hyred postes, ceassed nott to blaw in the earis of all man, that the Quene wes hevelie done to; that sche required nothing bot obedience to her Doghtter; that sche was content that the trew religioun should go fordwarde, and that all abuses should be abolished; and be this meane thei broght a gruge and divisioun amang our selfis. For many (and our brethrene of Lowthiane especiallie) began to murmur, that we soght another thing than religioun, and so ceassed to assist us certane dayis, after that we wer cumed to Edinburgh, whiche we did according to the former diet, the 16 day of October. This grudge and truble amangis our selfis was not reased by the foirsaid Maister Robert[989] onlye, bot by those pestilentis whome befoir we have expressed, and Maister James Balfour especiallie, whose vennemouse tounges against God and his trew religioun, as thei deserve punishement of men, so shall thei not escheap Godis vengeance, onless that spedelie thei reapent.


After our cuming to Edinburgh the day foirnamed, we assembled in counsall, and determined to geve new advertisement to the Quenis Grace Regent, of our Conventioun, and in suche sorte; and so with commoun consent we send unto her our requeast, as followis:—


"It will pleise your Grace reduce to your remembrance, how at our last Conventioun at Hammyltoun, we required your Hienes, in our maist humbill maner, to desist from the fortifeing of this town of Leyth, then interprysed and begone, quhilk appeared to us (and yitt does) ane entree to ane conqueist, and overthrow to our liberties, and altogidder against the lawis and custumes of this realme,[991] seing it was begune, and yit continewis, without any advise and consent of the Nobilitie and Counsall of this realme. Quhaifoir now, as of befoir, according to our dewitie to our commoun-wealth, we most humelie requyre your Grace to caus your strangearis and soldiouris whatsumever to departe of the said town of Leyth, and maik the same patent, not onlye to the inhabitantis, bot also to all Scottishmen, our Soverane Ladyes liegis. Assureand your Hienes, that yf, refusand the samyn, ye declair thairby your evill mynd toward the commoun-weill and libertie of this realme, we will (as of befoir) mene and declair the caus unto the haill Nobilitie and communaltie of this realme; and according to the oath quhilk we have sworne for the mantenance of the commoun-weall, in all maner of thingis to us possible, we will provid reamedy: thairfoir requyring most humblie your Grace answer in haist with the berar, becaus in our eyis the act continewallie proceadis, declaring ane determinatioun of conquest, quhilk is presumed of all men, and not without caus. And thus, after our humill commendatioun of service, we pray Almychttie God to have your Grace in his eternall tuitioun."

* * * * *

These our letteris receaved, our messinger was threatned, and withholdin a whole day. Thairefter he was dismissed, without ony other answer bot that sche wald send ane answer when sche thocht expedient.

In this meantyme, becaus the rumour ceassed nott, that the Duke his Grace usurped the Authoritie, he was compelled, with the sound of trumpete, at the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, to maik his purgatioun, in forme as followis, the xix day of October:



"Forsamekle as my Lord Duik of Chastellerault, understanding the fals reporte maid be the Quene Regent against him, that he and his sone, my Lord of Arrane, should pretend usurpatioun of the Croune and Authoritie of this realme, when in verray deid he nor his said sone never anis mynded sic thingis, bott allanerlie in simplicitie of heart, movit partlie be the violent persute of the religioun and trew professouris thairof, partlie by compassioun of the commoun-wealth and poore communitie of this realme, oppressed with strangearis, he joyned him self with the rest of the Nobilitie, with all hasard, to supporte the commoun caus of that ane and of that uther; hes thoght expedient to purge him self and his said Sone, in presence of yow all, as he had done in presence of the Counsall, of that same cryme, of auld, evin be summondis, laid to his charge the secound year of the regne of our Soverane Lady. Quhilk malice hes continewed ever against him, maist innocent of that cryme, as your experience bearis witness; and planelie protestis, that neather he nor his said Sone suittis and seikis any pre-eminence,[993] eather to the Croune or Authoritie, bot als far as his puissance may extend, is readdy, and ever shalbe, to concur with the rest of the Nobilitie his brethren, and all otheris whais hartis ar tweichet to manteane the commoun caus of religioun and liberty of thair native cuntrey, planelie invaded be the said Regent and hir said soldiouris, wha onlye does forge sick vane reportis to withdraw the heartis of trew Scottisemen from the succour thai aught of bound dewitie to thair commoun-weall opprest. Quharefoir [he] exhortis all men that will manteane the trew religioun of God, or withstand this oppressioun or plane conquest, interprysed be strangearis upoun our native Scottisemen, nott to credyte sick fals and untrew reportis, bot rather concurr with us and the rest of the Nobilitie, to sett your countree at libertie, expelling strangearis thairfra; whiche doing, ye shall schaw your self obedient to the ordinance of God, whiche was establisshed for mantenance of the commoun-weall, and trew members of the same."

The xxi day of October, cam fra the Quene then Regent Maister Robert Forman,[994] Lyoun King of Armes, who broght unto us ane writting in this tennour and credit:—

"Eftir commendatioun: We have receavit your letter of Edinburgh the xix of this instant, whiche appeared to us rather to have cumit fra ane Prince to his subjectis, nor fra subjectis to thame that bearis authoritie: For answer whairof, we have presentlie directed unto yow this berar, Lyon Herald King of Armes, sufficientlie instructed with our mynd, to whome ye shall geve credence.

"At Leyth, the 21 of October 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,) "MARIE R."


His Credit is this:—

"That sche woundered how any durst presume to command her in that realme, whiche neaded not to be conquest by any force, considering that it was allready conqueissed by marriage; that Frenche men could nott be justlie called strangearis, seing that thei war naturalized; and thairfoir that sche wald neather maik that Toun patent, neather yitt send any man away, bot as sche thocht expedient. Sche accused the Duik of violating his promeise: Sche maid long protestatioun of her love towardis the commoun-wealth of Scotland; and in the end commanded, that under pane of treassone, all assistaris to the Duke and unto us, should departe from the toune of Edinburgh."[995]

This answer receaved, credite heard, preconceaved malice sufficientlie espyed, consultatioun was tacken what was expedient to be done. And for the first it was concluded, that the Herauld should be stayed till farder determinatioun should be tacken.


The haill Nobilitie, Baronis, and Broughes, then present, wer commanded to convene in the Tolbuyth of Edinburgh, the same xxj day of October, for deliberatioun of these materis. Whare the hole caus being exponed by the Lord Ruthven, the questioun was proponed, "Whetther sche that so contempteouslie refuissed the most humill requeist of the borne Counsallouris of the realm, being also bott a Regent, whose pretenses threatned the boundage of the hole commoun-wealth, awght to be sufferred so tyrannouslie to impyre above tham?" And because that this questioun had nott bene befoir disputed in open assemblie, it was thoght expedient that the judgement of the Preachearis should be required; who being called and instructed in the caise, Johne Willok, who befoir had susteaned the burthen of the Churche in Edinburgh, commanded[996] to speik, maid discourse, as followeth, affirmyng:—


"First, That albeit Magistratis be Goddes ordinance, having of him power and authoritie, yitt is not thair power so largelie extended, but that is bounded and limited by God in his word.

"And Secundarlie, That as subjectis ar commanded to obey thair magistratis, so ar magistratis commanded to geve some dewitie to the subjectis; so that God by his word, hes prescribed the office of the one and of the other.

"Thridlie, That albeit God hath appointed magistratis his lievtennentis on earth, and hes honored thame with his awin title, calling thame goddis, that yitt he did never so establess any, but that for just causses thei mycht have bene depryved.

"Fourtlie, That in deposing of Princes, and those that had bene in authoritie, God did nott alwyise use his immediate poware; but sometymes he used other meanis whiche his wisedome thocht good and justice approved, as by Asa he removed Maacha his awin mother from honour and authoritie, whiche befoir sche had brooked; by Jehu he destroyed Joram, and the haill posteritie of Achab; and by diverse otheris he had deposed from authoritie those whome befoir he had establesshed by his awin worde." [SN: The causes.] And heirupoun concluded he, "That since the Quene Regent denyed her cheaf dewitie to the subjectis of this realme, whiche was to minister justice unto thame indifferentlie, to preserve thair liberties from invasioun of strangearis, and to suffer thame have Godis word freelie and openlie preached amanges thame; seing, moreover, that the Quene Regent wes ane open and obstinat idolatress, a vehement manteanare of all superstitioun and idolatrie; and, finallie, that sche utterlie dispysed the counsall and requeistis of the Nobilitie, he could see no reassone why they, the borne Counsallouris, Nobilitie, and Baronis of the realme, mycht nott justlie deprive her from all regiment and authoritie amanges thame."

[SN: The judgement of Johne Knox, in the dispositioun of the Quein Regent.]

Heirefter was the judgement of Johne Knox required, who, approving the sentence of his Brother, added,—

"First, That the iniquitie of the Quene Regent, and mysordour owght in nowyis to withdraw neather our heartis, neather yitt the heartis of other subjectis, from the obedience dew unto our Soveranis.

"Secundarly, That and yf we deposed the said Quene Regent rather of malice and privat invy, than for the preservatioun of the commoun-wealth, and for that her synnes appeared incurable, that we should nott escheap Godis just punishment, howsoever that sche had deserved rejectioun from honouris.

"And Thridlie, He required that no suche sentence should be pronunced against her, bott that upoun her knawin and oppen reapentance, and upoun her conversioun to the commoun-wealth, and submissioun to the Nobilitie, place should be granted unto her of regresse to the same honouris from the whiche, for just causses, sche justlie might be deprived."

The votes of everie man particularlie by him self required, and everie man commanded to speik, as he wald ansure to God, what his conscience judged in that mater, thair was none found, amonges the hole number, who did nott, by his awin toung consent to her deprivatioun. Thairefter was her process[997] committed to writt, and registrat, as followeth:—


"At Edinburgh, the twenty one day of October 1559. The Nobilitie, Baronis, and Broughes convenit to advise upoun the affairis of the commoun-weall, and to ayde, supporte, and succour the samyn, perceaving and lamenting the interprysed destructioun of thair said commoun-weall, and overthrow of the libertie of thair native cuntree, be the meanes of the Quene Regent, and certane strangearis her Prevey Counsallouris, plane contrarie oure Soveranes Lord and Ladyis mynd, and direct against the counsall of the Nobilitie, to proceid by litill and litill evin unto the uttermost, sa that the urgent necessitie of the commoun-weall may suffer na langare delay, and earnestlie craves our supporte: Seing heirfoir that the said Quene Regent, (abusing and owir passing our Soveranes Lord and Ladyis commissioun, gevin and granted to her,) hes in all her proceidingis, persewit the Baronis and Broughes within this realme, with weapones and armour of strangearis, butt ony process or ordour of law, thei being oure Soverane Lord and Ladyis trew liegis, and never called nor convict in any cryme be ony judgement lauchfull; as first at Sanct Johnestoun, in the moneyth of Maij, sche assembled her army against the towne and inhabitantis thairof, never called nor convict in any cryme, for that thei professed trew wirschip of God, conforme to his moist sacrat worde; and lyikwyis in the moneyth of Junij last, without any lauchfull ordour or calling going befoir, invaded the persones of syndre Noble men and Baronis with force of armes convenit at Sanctandrois, onlie for caus of religioun, as is notoriouslie knawin, thei never being callit nor convict in ony cryme: Attour layed garnisonis the same moneth upoun the inhabitantis of the said toun of Sanct Johnestoun, oppressing the liberties of the Quenis trew lieges; for feir of whiche her garnisones, ane great parte of the inhabitantis thairof, fled of the towne, and durst nott resorte agane unto thair housses and heretages, whill thei war restored be armes, thei notwithstanding never being called nor convict in any cryme. And farder, that samyn tyme did thrust in upoun the headis of the inhabitantis of the said towne Provest and Baillies, against all ordour of electioun; as laitlie, in this last moneth of September, sche had done in the townes of Edinburgh and Jedburgh, and diverse utheris plaices, in manifest[998] oppressioun of our liberties. Last of all, declairing her evill mynd toward the Nobilitie, commountie,[999] and haill natioun, hes brocht in strangearis, and dalie pretendis to bring in grettar force of the samyn; pretending ane manifest conqueast of our native rowmes and countree, as the deid it self declaires: in sa far as sche heaving brocht in the saidis strangearis, but ony advise of the said Counsall and Nobilitie, and contrair thair expresse mynd send to her Grace in writt, hes plaicet and planted her saidis strangearis in ane of the principall townis and portis of the realme, sending continewallie for grettar forces, willing thairby to suppress the commoun-weall, and libertie of our native countree, to mak us and our posteritie slaves to strangearis for ever: Whiche, as it is intollerable in commoun-wealthis and free cuntreis, sa is it verray prejudiciall to our Soverane Ladye, and her airis quhatsumever, in caise our Soverane Lord deceise butt airis of hir Grace's persone; and to perfurneise hir wicked interpises,[1000] consavit (as appeiris) of inveterat malice against our cuntree and natioun, causes (but any consent or advise of the Counsall and Nobilitie) cunzie layit-money, sa base, and of sick quantitie, that the hole realme shalbe depauperat, and all traffique with forane nationis evertit thairby; And attour, her Grace places and manteanes, contrair the pleasour of the Counsall of this realme, are strangear in ane of the greattest offices of credite within this realme, that is, in keaping of the Great Seall[1001] thairof, quhairintill great parrellis may be ingenerat to the commoun-weall and libertie thairof: [SN: HIR DOUGHTER FOLLOWED THE SAME; FOR TO DAVY WAS DELIVERED THE GREATT SEALL.[1002]] And farder, laitlie send the said Great Seall furth of this realme be the said strangeare, contrair the advise of the said Counsall, to what effect God knawis; and hes ellis be his meanes alterat the auld law and consuetude of our realme, ever observit in the graces and pardonis granted be our Soveranes to all thair liegis being repentand of thair offenses committed against thair Hienes or the liegis of the realme; and hes introducit a new captiouse styill and forme of the saidis pardonis and remissionis, attending to the practise of France, tending thairby to draw the saidis liegis of this realme, be process of tyme, in a deceavable snair; and farder, sall creipe in the haill subversioun and alteratioun of the remanent lawis of this realme, in contrair the contentis of the Appointment of Marriage; and als peace being accordit amanges the Princes, reteanes the great armye of strangearis after command send be the King of France to reteyre the same, maiking excuise that thei war reteaned for suppressing of the attemptatis of the liegis of this realme, albeit the haill subjectis thairof, of all estaitis, is and ever hes bene reddy to give all debtfull obedience to thair Soveranis, and thair lawchfull ministeris, proceiding, be Godis ordinance: And the said armye of strangearis not being payed of waiges, was layed be her Grace upoun the neckis of the poore communitie of our native countree, who was compelled be force to defraude tham selfis, thair wyffis, and barnes, of that poore substance quhilk thei mycht conqueiss with the sweit of thair browis, to satisfie thair hungar and necessiteis, and quyte the samyn to susteane the idill bellies of thir strangearis. Throw the whiche in all partis raise sick havye lamentatioun, and complaint of the communitie, accusing the Nobilitie and Counsall of thair slewth, that as the same oppressioun we dowbt nott hes entered in befoir the justice-seat of God, sa hes it movit our heartis to rewth and compassioun. And for redressing of the samyn, with other great offenses committed against the publict weall of this realme, we have convened hear, as said is; and as oft tymes of befoir, hes maist humblie, and with all reverence, desyred and required the said Quene Regent, to redress the saidis enormities, and especiallie to remove her strangearis from the neckis of the poore communitie, and to desist fra interprysing or fortificatioun of strenthis within this realme, against the express will of the Nobilitie and Counsall of the same: Yitt we being convened the mair stark for feir of her strangearis, whome we saw presume na other thing bot with armes to persew our lyves and possessiounis, besoght hir Grace to remove the feare of the samyn, and mak the Towne patent to all our Soverane Lord and Ladyis liegis; the same on nawyise wald her Grace grant unto; but when some of our cumpany in peciable maner went to view the said towne, thair wes boyth great and small munitioun schot furth at thame. And seing thairfoir that neather access was granted to be used, nor yitt her Grace wald joyne her self to us, to consult upoun the effairis of our commoun-weall, as we that be borne Counsallouris to the same, be the ancient lawis of the realme; but fearing the judgement of the Counsall wald reforme, as necessitie requyred, the foirsaid enormities, sche refuisses all maner of assistance with us, and be force and violence intendis to suppresse the liberties of our commoun-weall, and of us the favoraris of the samyn: WE, thairfoir, sa mony of the Nobilitie, Barones, and Provest of Burrowes, as ar tweichet with the cair of the commoun-weall, (unto the whiche we acknowledge our self nott onlie borne, bot alswa sworne protectouris and defendaris, against all and whatsomever invaidaris of the same,) and moved be the foirsaidis proceidingis notorious, and with the lamentable complaynt of oppressioun of our communitie, our fallow memberis of the samyn: perceaving farder, that the present necessitie of our commoun-weill may suffer na delay, being convenit (as said is) presentlie in Edinburgh, for supporte of our commoun-weall, and ryplie consulted and advisit, taking the fear of God befoir our eyis, for the causses foirsaidis, whiche ar notorious, with one consent and commoun vote, ilk man in ordour his judgement being required, In name and authoritie of our Soverane Lord and Lady, Suspendis the said Commissioun granted be our saidis Soveranis to the said Quene Dowager; dischargeing her of all administratioun or authoritie sche hes or may have thairby, unto the nixt Parliament to be sett be our advise and consent; and that becaus the said Quene, be the foirsaidis faltis notorious, declairis hir self ennemye to our commoun-weall, abusing the power of the said authoritie, to the destructioun of the samyn. And lyikwyise, we discharge all members of her said authoritie fra thinfurth; and that na cunze be cunzeit fra thinfurth without expresse consent of the said Counsall and Nobilitie, conforme to the lawis of this realme, whiche we manteane: And ordanis this to be notifeid and proclamed be Officiaris of Armes, in all head Burghis within the realme of Scotland. In witnes of the whiche, our commoun consent and free vote, we have subscrivit this present Act of Suspensioun with our handis, day, yeare, and place foirsaidis."

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