The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
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4. The Ferd Article puttis me in remembrance, how dangerous it is, gif the authoritie wald putt at me and my House, according to civile and cannon lawes, and our awin municipale lawis of this Realme, and how it appeareth to the decay of our house.

ANSURE.—All lawis ar (or at the least should be) subject to Goddis law, whilk law should be first placed and planted in everie manes hearte; it should have na impediment: men should not abrogat it for the defence and upsetting of thare awin advantage. Gif it wald please Authorities to put at our housse, for confessing of Goddis word, or for mantenance of his law, God is mychtie yneuch in his awin caus: He should be rather obeyed nor man. I will serve my Princess with bodye, harte, goodis, strenth, and all that is in my power, except that whilk is Goddis dewitie, quhilk I will reserve to him self alone: That is, to wirschipe him in trewth and veritie, and als near as I can, conforme to his prescrived worde, to his awin honour and obedience of my Princess.

5. The Fyft Article puttis me in remembrance how wa your Lordschip wald be to hear, see, or know any displeasur that mycht come to me, my sone, or any of my house, and speciallie in my tyme and dayis, and als to hear the great and evill bruyte of me that should now in my aige in a maner begyn to warie fra[719] my faith, and to be altered thairin, when the tyme is, that I should be maist suir and firme thairin.

ANSURE.—Youre Lordschippis gud will is ever maid manifest to me in all your Articles, that wald not hear, see, or knaw my displeasur, for the quhilkis I am bound to rander your Lordschip thankis, and shall do the samyn assuredly. But as for wavering in my faith, God forbyd that I should sa do; for I beleve in God the Father, Almyghtie maikar of heavin and earth, and in Jesus Christ his onlie Sone our Salveour. My Lord, I vary not in my faith; bot I praise God that of his goodnes now in my latter dayis hes of his infinit mercy oppynned his bosome of grace to me, to acknawledge him the Eternall Wisedome, his Sone Jesus Christ, my omnisufficient satisfactioun to refuise all maner of idolatrie, superstitioun, and ignorance, whairwyth I haif bein blynded in tymes bygane, and now belevis that God wilbe mercyfull to me, for now he hes declared his blessed will clearlie to me, befoir my departing of this transitorie lyiff.

6. The Sext Article declaired that thare ar delationis of syndrie pointis of heresye upoun that man, called Dowglas or Grant, whilk lyes to your charge and conscience to putt remeady to, or ellis that all the pestilentiouse doctrin he sawis, and all whome he corruptes with his seid, wilbe requyred at your handis, and all whome he drawes fra your Christiane faith; and yf ye should thole him, that ye wilbe accused for all thame whome he infectes with heresey; and tharefoir to regard your Lordschippis honour and conscience heirintill.

ANSURE.—What is his surname I knaw nott, but he calles him self Dowglas;[720] for I know nother his father nor his mother. I have heard him teache na Articles of heresye; bot that quhilk aggreis with Goddis word; for I wold manteane na man in heresey or errour. Your Lordschip regardis your conscience in the punishement thairof. I pray God that ye sua do, and examyn weall your conscience. He preaches aganis idolatrie: I remit to your Lordschippis conscience yf it be heresye or not. He preaches aganis adulterie and fornicatioun: I referr that to your Lordschippis conscience. He preaches aganis hypocrisye: I referr that to your Lordschippis conscience. He preaches aganis all maner of abuses and corruptioun of Christes synceir religioun: I refer that to your Lordschippis conscience. My Lord, I exhorte yow, in Christis name, to wey all thir effaris in your conscience,[721] and considder yf it be your dewitie also, not only to thole this, but in lyk maner to do the same. This is all, my Lord, that I varye in my aige, and na uther thing, but that I knew nott befoir these offenses to be abhominable to God, and now knowing his will be manifestatioun of his word, abhorres thame.

7. The Sevint Article desyres me to way thir materis in maist hartlie maner, and to tack thame in best parte, for the weall of bayth our consciences, my Hous, freindis, and servandis, and to put sic ane man out of my cumpany, for feir of the cummer and bruyt that should follow thairupoun, be reasson he is dilated of sindry hereseyis: and that your Lordschip wald be sory to hear ony of our servandis delated or bruited for sic caussis, or for halding of any sic men; and that your Lordschip wald understand my ansuer hearintill, or ony summondis passed thairupoun.

ANSURE.—I thank your Lordschip greatlie that ye ar so solist for the weall of me and my House, and is sa humane as to maik me the advertisment befoir ye have summoned, of your awin good will and benevolence; and hes weyed thir materis, als heychtlie as my judgement can serve me, bayth for your Lordschippis honour and myn. And when I have reassoned all that I can do with my self in it, I think it ay best to serve God, and obey his manifest word, and nott be obstinat in his contrarie: syne to give thare dew obedience to our Princes, rewllaris, and magistratis, and to hear the voce of Goddis propheittis, declairing his good promisses to thame that reapentis, and threatnyng to obstinat wicked doaris, everlesting destructioun. Your Lordschip knawis weall the man: he hes spoking with your Lordschip: I thought yow content with him. I heard na occasioun of offence in him. I can nott weall want him, or some preachar. I can nott put away sic ane man, without I knew him ane offendar, as I know nott; for I hear nothing of him, but sic as your Lordschippis self heard of him, and sick as he yitt will professe in your presence, whenever your Lordschip requires. Sic ane man that is readdy to assist him self to judgement, should not be expelled without cognitioun of the cause; for lyik as I answered befoir in ane other Article, when your Lordschip pleassis that all the spirituall and temporall men of estaite in Scotland beis convened, I shall caus him render ane accompt of his beleve and doctrin in your presences: Then gif he deserves punishment and correctioun, lett him so suffer; give he be found faythfull, lett him leve in his faith.

8. The Aucht Article proponis to me, that your Lordschip wald tack the laubour to gett me a man to instruct me in your Catholick faith, and to be my preachear, for whais doctrine ye wald lay your saule, that he wald teach nathing but trewly conforme to your faith.

ANSURE.—God Almychtie send us many of that sorte, that will preache trewlie, and nathing but ane Catholik universall Christiane faith; and we Heland rud people hes mister of thame. And yf your Lordschip wald gett and provid me sic a man, I should provid him a corporall leving, as to my self, with great thankis to your Lordschip; for trewly, I and many ma hes great myster of sick men. And becaus I am able to susteane ma nor ane of thame, I will requeist your Lordschip earnestlie to provid me sic a man as yo wrait; "for the harvist is great, and thare ar few lauboraris."

9. The last and Nynt Article puttis me in remembrance, to considder what murmour your Lordschip thollis, and great bruyt, at many manis handis, bayth Spirituall and Temporall, and at the Quenis Grace hand, and utheris weall gevin people, for nott putting of ordour to thir effaris; and that your Lordschip hes absteaned fra executioun heirof, for luif of my house and posteritie, to the effect that my self should remaid it, for feir of the dishonour mycht come upoun us bayth for the same; whilk beand remeaded, mycht bring us out of all danger.

ANSURE.—My Lord, I knaw weall what murmur and indignatioun your Lordschip thoillis at ennemies handis of all estaitis, for non-persewing of pure sempill Christianes; and I know, that gif your Lordschip wald use thare counsall, that wald be blud-schedding and burnyng of pure men, to maik your Lordschip serve thare wicked appetites. Yit your Lordschip knawis your awin dewitie, and should not feare the danger of men, as of him whom ye professe. And verrely, my Lord, thare is nathing that may be to your Lordschippis releaf in this behalf, bot I will use your Lordschippis counsall thairintill, and further the samyn, Goddis honour being first provided, and the treuth of his eternall word having libertie. And to absteane for my luif fra persuyt, as your Lordschip hes signified, I am addetted to your Lordschip, as I have writtin diverse tymes befoir. But thare is ane above, for whais fear ye man absteane fra blude-schedding, or ellis, my Lord, knok on your conscience. Last of all, your Lordschip please to considder, how desyrous some ar to have sedition amongis freindis; how mychtie the Devill is to saw discord; how that mony wald desyre na better game but to hunt us at uther. I pray your Lordschip begyle thame: we will aggree upoun all purpose, with Goddis pleasur, standing to his honour. Thare ar diverse Houssis in Scotland by us, that professe the same God secreatly. Thei desyre but that ye begyn the bargane at us; and when it begynnis at us, God knawis the end thairof, and wha sall byd the nixt putt. My Lord, considder this: mak na preparative of us. Lett nott the vane exhortatioun of thame that regardis litill of the weall and strenth of bayth our Houssis, sture up your Lordschip, as thei wald to do aganis God, your awin conscience, and the weall of your posteritie for ever. And thairfoir now in the end, I pray your Lordschip, wey thir thingis wysely; and gif ye do utherwyise, God is God, wes, and shalbe God, when all is wrocht that man can wirk.

This ansuer receaved, the Bischope and his complices fand thame selfis somewhat disapointed; for the Bischoppes looked for nothing less then for such ansueris frome the ERLE OF ERGILE; and thairfoir thei maid thame for thare extreame defence; that is, to corrupt and by buddis to styre up the Quein Regent in our contrare; as in the Secound Booke we shall more plainly heare.

Schorte after this, God called to his mercy the said Erle of Ergyle from the miseries of this lyef;[722] whareof the Bischoppis war glaid; for thei thowght that thare great ennemye was takin out of the way: but God disapointed thame. For as the said Erle departed most constant in the trew faith of Jesus Christ, with a plane renunciatioun of all impietie, superstitioun, and idolatrie; so left he it to his Sone in his Testament, "That he should study to set fordwarte the publict and trew preaching of the Evangell of Jesus Christ, and to suppress all superstitioun and idolatrie, to the uttermost of his power." In which poynt small falt can be found with him[723] to this day. God be mercifull to his other offensses. Amen. [SN: 10 MAIJ, ANNO 1566.[724]]

————————————————— [725]

The Bischoppis continewed in thare Provinciall Counsall[726] evin unto that day that JOHNE KNOX arryved in Scotland.[727] And that thei mycht geve some schaw to the People that thei mynded Reformatioun, thei sparsed abrod a rumor thairof, and sett furth somewhat in print, which of the People was called "The Twa-penny Fayth."[728]

1. Amonges thare Actes, thare was much ado for cappes, schavin crounes, tippettis, long gounes, and such other trifilles.

2. Item, That nane should enjoy office or benefice ecclesiasticall, except a Preast.


3. Item, That na Kirk-man should nuriss his awin barnes in his awin cumpanye: but that everie one should hold the childrein of otheris.

4. That none should putt his awin sone in his awin benefice.

5. That yf any war found in open adultery, for the first falt, he should lose the thrid of his benefice; for the secound cryme, the half; and for the thrid, the hole benefice.

But hearfra appelled the Bischope of Murray,[729] and otheris Prelattis, saying, "That thei wold abyd at the Cannoun law." And so mycht thei weall yneuch do, so long as thei remaned interpretouris, dispensatouris, maikaris, and disannullaris of that law. But lett the same law have the trew interpretatioun and just executioun, and the Devill shall als schone be provin a trew and obedient servand unto God, as any of that sorte shalbe provin a Bischope, or yit to have any just authoritie within the Church of Christ Jesus. But we returne to oure Historye.


The persecutioun was decreid, asweall by the Quein Regent as by the Prelattis; but thare rested a point, which the Quein Regent and France had nott at that tyme obteaned; to witt, That the Croune Matrimoniall should be granted to Frances, husband to our Soverane, and so should France and Scotland be but one kingdome, the subjectes of boyth realmes to have equall libertie, Scotismen in France, and French men in Scotland. The glister of the proffeit that was judged heirof to have ensewed to Scotishmen at the first sight, blynded many menis eyis. But a small wynd caused that myst suddantlye to vaniss away; for the greatast offices and benefices within the Realme war appointed for French men. Monsieur Ruby[730] keapt the Great Seall. Vielmort was Comptrollar.[731] Melrose and Kelso[732] should have bein a Commend to the poore Cardinall of Lorane. The fredomes of Scotish merchantis war restreaned in Rowan, and thei compelled to pay toll and taxationis otheris then thare ancient liberties did bear. To bring this head to pass, to witt, to gett the Matrimoniall Croune, the Quein Regent left no point of the compas unsailled. With the Bischoppis and Preastis, sche practised on this maner: "Ye may clearlie see, that I can not do what I wald within this Realme; for these heretickis and confidderatis of England ar so band togitther, that thei stop all good ordour. Butt will ye be favorable unto me in this suyt of the Matrimoniall Croune to be granted to my Dowghtaris housband, then shall ye see how I shall handill these heretickis and tratouris or it be long." And in verray dead, in these hir promessis, sche ment no deceat in that behalf. Unto the Protestantis she said, "I am nott unmyndfull how oft ye have suyted me for Reformatioun in religioun, and glaidly wald I consent thairunto; but ye see the power and craft of the Bischop of Sanctandrois, togetther with the power of the Duck, and of the Kirkmen, ever to be bent against me in all my proceadingis: So that I may do nothing, onless the full authoritie of this Realme be devolved to the King of France, which can nott be butt by donatioun of the Croune Matrimoniall; which thing yf ye will bring to passe, then devise ye what ye please in materis of religioun, and thei shalbe granted."

Wyth this commission and credytt was Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois, direct to the Erle of Ergyle, with mo other promessis then we list to reherse. By such dissimulatioun to those that war sempill and trew of harte, inflambed sche thame to be more fervent in hir petitioun, then hir self appeared to be. And so at the Parliament, haldin at Edinburght in the moneth of October,[733] the yeir of God 1558, it was clearlie voted, no man reclamyng, (except the Duck[734] for his entress;[735]) and yitt for it thare was no better law produced, except that thare was ane solempned Messe appointed for that purpose in the Pontificall.

This head obteaned, whaireat France and sche principallie schote, what faith sche keapt unto the Protestantis, in this our Secound Book shalbe declared: In the begynnyng whairof, we man more amplie reherse some thingis, that in this our First ar summarly tweiched.




Oure purpose was to have maid the begynnyng of our Historie from the thingis that war done from the year of God J^m. V^c. fyfty aucht yearis, till the Reformatioun of Religioun, which of Goddis mercy we anes possessed;[736] and yitt, in doctrin and in the rycht use of administratioun of Sacramentis, do possesse. But becaus diverse of the godlie, (as befoir is said,) earnestlye requyred, that such Personis as God raised up in the myddis of darknes, to oppone thame selfis to the same, should nott be omitted; we obeyed thare requeast, and have maid a schorte rehersall of all such materis as concerne Religion, frome the death of that notable servand of God, Maister Patrik Hammyltoun, unto the foirsaid year, when that it pleased God to look upoun us more mercyfullie then we deserved, and to geve unto us greattar boldness and better (albeit not without hasard and truble) successe in all our interprises then we looked for, as the trew Narratioun of this Secound Book shall witness: The Preface whareof followis.


Least that Sathan by our long silence shall tak occasioun to blaspheym, and to sklander us THE PROTESTANTIS OF THE REALME OF SCOTLAND, as that our fact tendit rather to seditioun and rebellioun, then to reformatioun of maners and abuses in Religioun; we have thocht expedient, so trewlie and brievlie as we can, to committ to writting the causes moving us, (us, we say, are great parte of the Nobilitie and Baronis of the Realme,) to tak the sweard of just defence against those that most injustly seak our destructioun. And in this our Confessioun we shall faithfullie declair, what moved us to putt our handis to the Reformatioun of Religioun; how we have proceaded in the same; what we have asked, and what presentlie we requyre of the sacrat authoritie; to the end, that our caus being knawen, alsweall our ennemeis as our brethren in all Realmes may understand how falslie we ar accused of tumult and rebellioun, and how unjustlie we ar persecuted by France and by thare factioun: as also, that our brethren, naturall Scottismen, of what religioun so evir thei be, may have occasioun to examinat thame selfis, yf thei may with salf conscience oppone themselfes to us, who seak nothing bot Christ Jesus his glorious Evangell to be preached, his holy Sacramentis to be trewlie ministrat, superstitioun, tyrannye, and idolatrie to be suppressed in this Realme; and, finallie, the libertie of this our native countrie to remane free from the bondage and tyranny of strangeris.

* * * * *

Whill that the QUEIN REGENT practised with the Prelattis, how that Christ Jesus his blessed Evangell mycht utterlie be suppressed within Scotland, God so blessed the laubouris of his weak servandis, that na small parte of the Baronis of this Realme begane to abhorre the tyranny of the Bischoppes: God did so oppin thare eyis by the light of his woord, that thei could clearelie decerne betuix idolatrie and the trew honoring of God. [SN: THE FIRST DOUBTE.] Yea, men almost universallie begane to dowbt whetther that thei myght, (God nott offended,) give thare bodelye presence to the Messe, or yitt offer thare childrein to the Papisticall Baptisme. To the which dowbtes, when the most godlie and the most learned in Europe had answered, both by word and writt, affirmyng, [SN: THE SECOUND.] "That neather of both we mycht do, without the extreame perrell of our saulles," we began to be more trubled; for then also began men of estimatioun, and that bare rewill amanges us, to examinat thame selfis concernyng thare dewities, alsweall towardis Reformatioun of Religioun, as towardis the just defence of thare brethren most cruelly persecuted. And so begane diverse Questionis to be moved, to witt, "Yf that with salf conscience such as war Judgeis, Lordis, and rewlaris of the people, mycht serve the uppare powers in maynteanyng idolatrie, in persecuting thare brethrein, and in suppressing Christes trewth?" Or, "Whitther thei, to whome God in some caisses had committed the sweard of justice, mycht suffer the bloode of thare brethrein to be sched in thare presence, without any declaratioun that such tyrannye displeased thame?" [SN: SCRIPTURIS ANSWERING THE DOUBTIS.] By the plane Scriptures it was found, "That a lyvelie faith requyred a plane confessioun, when Christes trewth is oppugned; that not only ar thei gyltie that do evill, bot also thei that assent to evill." And plane it is, that thei assent to evill, who seing iniquitie openly committed, by thare silence seame to justifie and allow whatsoever is done.

These thingis being resolved, and sufficientlie provin by evident Scriptures of God, we began everie man to look more diligentlie to his salvatioun: for the idolatrie and tyranny of the clargie, (called the Churchmen,) was and is so manifest, that whosoever doth deny it, declair him self ignorant of God, and ennemy to Christ Jesus. We thairfore, with humbill confessioun of our formar offenses, with fasting and supplicatioun unto God, begane to seak some remeady in sa present a danger. And first, it was concluded, "That the Brethren in everie toune at certane tymes should assemble togidder, to Commoun Prayeris, to Exercise and Reading of the Scripturis, till it should please God to give the sermone of Exhortatioun to some, for conforte and instructioun of the rest."

And this our weak begynnyng God did so bless, that within few monethis the hartes of many war so strenthned, that we sought to have the face of a Church amanges us, and open crymes to be punished without respect of persone. And for that purpose, by commoun electioun, war eldaris appointed, to whome the hole brethren promissed obedience: for at that tyme we had na publict ministeris of the worde; onlie did certane zelous men, (amonges whome war the Lard of Dun, David Forress, Maister Robert Lokharte, Maister Robert Hammylton, Williame Harlay,[737] and otheris,[738]) exhorte thare brethrein, according to the giftes and graces granted unto thame. [SN: THIS WAS CALLED THE PREVYE KIRK.] Bot schort after did God stirre up his servand, Paule Methven,[739] (his latter fall[740] aught not to deface the work of God in him,) who in boldnes of spreit begane opinlie to preache Christ Jesus, in Dundie, in diverse partes of Anguss, and in Fyffe; and so did God work with him, that many began opinly to abrenunce thare ald idolatrie, and to submitt thame selfis to Christ Jesus, and unto his blessed ordinances; insomuch that the toune of Dundee began to erect the face of a publict churche Reformed, in the which the Worde was openlie preached, and Christis Sacramentcs trewlie ministrat.

In this meantyme did God send to us our deare brother, Johne Willock,[741] ane man godly, learned, and grave, who, after his schorte abode at Dundie, repared to Edinburgh, and thare (notwithstanding his long and dangerous seiknes) did so encorage the brethren by godly exhortationis, that we began to deliberat upoun some publict Reformatioun; for the corruptioun in religioun was such, that with salf conscience we could na langar susteane it. Yitt becaus we wold attempt nothing without the knowledge of the sacrate authoritie,[742] with one consent, after the deliberatioun of many dayes, it was concluded, that by our publict and commoun Supplicatioun, we should attempt the favouris, supporte, and assistance of the Quein then Regent, to a godly Reformatioun. [SN: THE LARD OF CALDAR ELDAR.] And for that purpoise, after we had drawin our oraisoun and petitionis, as followeth, we appointed from amanges us a man whose age and yearis deserved reverence, whose honestie and wirschip mycht have craved audience of ony magistrate on earth, and whose faithfull service to the authoritie at all tymes had bein suche, that in him culd fall no suspitioun of unlawfull disobedience. This Oratour was that auncient and honorable father, Schir James Sandelandes of Calder, knycht,[743] to whome we geve commissioun and power in all our names then present, befoir the Quein Regent thus to speak:—


Albeit we have of long tyme conteyned our selfis in that modestie, (Maist Noble Princess,) that neyther the exile of body, tynsall of goodis, nor perishing of this mortall lyif, wes able to convein us to ask at your Grace reformatioun and redress of those wrangis, and of that sore greaff, patientlie borne of us in bodyes and myndes of so long tyme; yitt ar we now, of verray conscience and by the fear of our God, compelled to crave at your Grace's feit, remeady against the most injust tyranny used against your Grace's most obedient subjectes, by those that be called the Estate Ecclesiasticall. [SN: CONTROVERSYE IN RELIGIOUN.] Your Grace can not be ignorant what controversie hath bein, and yit is, concernyng the trew religioun, and rycht wirschipping of God, and how the Cleargye (as thei wilbe termed) usurpe to thame selfes suche empyre above the consciences of men, that whatsoever thei command must be obeyed, and whatsoever thei forbid must be avoided, without farder respect had to Godis plesour, commandiment, or will, reveilled till us in his most holy worde; [SN: THE TYRANNYE OF THE CLEARGIE.] or ellis thare abydeth nothing for us but faggot, fyre, and sweard, by the which many of our brethrene, most cruellie and most injustlie, have bein strickin of laitt yearis within this realme: which now we fynd to truble and wound our consciences; for we acknowledge it to have bein our bound dewities befoir God, eyther to haif defended our brethren from those cruell murtheraris, (seing we ar a parte of that power which God hath establessed in this realme,) or ellis to haif gevin open testificatioun of our faith with thame, which now we offer our selfis to do, least that by our continewall silence we shall seame to justifie thare cruell tyranny; which doeth not onlie displease us, but your Grace's wisdome most prudentlie doeth foirsee, that for the quieting of this intestine dissentioun, a publict Reformatioun, alsweall in the religioun as in the temporall governement, war most necessarie; and to the performance thairof, most gravelie and most godlie, (as we ar informed,) ye have exhorted alsweall the Cleargy as the Nobilitie, to employ thare study, diligence, and care. We tharefoir of conscience dar na langar dissemble in so weighty a mater, which concerneth the glorie of God and our salvatioun: Neather now dar we withdraw our presence, nor conceill our petitionis, least that the adversaries hearefter shall object to us, that place was granted to Reformatioun, and yit no man suited for the same; and so shall our silence be prejudiciall unto us in tyme to come. And tharefoir we, knowing no other order placed in this realme, but your Grace, in your grave Counsall, sett to amend, alsweall the disordour Ecclesiasticall, as the defaultes in the Temporall regiment, most humblie prostrat our selfes befoir your featt, asking your justice, and your gratious help, against thame that falslie traduce and accuse us, as that we war heretickis and schismatikis, under that culour seiking our destructioun; [SN: THE PETITIOUN.] for that we seak the amendment of thare corrupted lyeffis, and Christes religioun to be restored to the originall puritie. Farther, we crave of your Grace, with opin and patent earis, to heare these our subsequent Requestis; and to the joy and satisfactioun of our trubled consciences, mercifullie to grant the same, onless by Goddis plane worde any be able to prove that justlie thei awght to be denyed.


First, Humblie we ask, that as we haif, of the Lawes of this realme, after long debaite, obteaned to reade the Holy bookes of the Old and New Testamentes in our commoun toung,[744] as spirituall foode to our soullis, so from hensfurth it may be lauchfull that we may convene, publictlie or privatlie, to our Commoun Prayeris, in our vulgar toung; to the end that we may encrease and grow in knowledge, and be induceid, in fervent and oft prayer,[745] to commend to God the holye Church universall, the Quoin our Soverane, hir honorable and gratiouse Husband, the habilitie[746] of thare succcssioun, your Grace Regent, the Nobilitie, and hole Estait of this Realme.

Secundly, Yf it shall happin in oure saidis conventionis any hard place of Scripture to be redd, of the which no proffeit arysith to the convenaris, that it shalbe lauchfull to any qualifiit personis in knowledge, being present, to interpreit and open up the saidis hard places, to Goddis glorie and to the proffeit of the auditour. And yf any think that this libertie should be occasioun of confusioun, debait, or heresie; we ar content that it be providit, that the said interpretatioun shall underly the judgement of the most godly and most learned within the realme at this tyme.

Thridly, That the holy Sacrament of Baptisme may be used in the vulgare toung; that the godfatheris and witnesses may nott onlie understand the poyntes of the league and contract maid betuix God and the infant, bot also that the Churche then assembled, more gravelie may be informed and instructed of thare dewiteis, whiche at all tymes thei owe to God, according to that promeise maid unto him, when thei war receaved in his houshold by the lavachre[747] of spirituall regeneratioun.

Ferdlie, We desyre, that the holy Sacrament of the Lordis Suppare, or of his most blessed body and bloode, may lykwyise be ministred unto us in the vulgare toung; and in boyth kyndis,[748] according to the plane institutioun of our Saviour Christ Jesus.

And last, We most humblie requyre, that the wicked, sklanderous, and detestable lyiff of Prelates, and of the State Ecclesiasticall, may be so reformed, that the people by thame have nott occasioun (as of many dayis thei have had) to contempne thare ministerie, and the preaching wharof thei shuld be messingeris.[749] And yf thei suspect, that we, rather invying thare honouris, or coveting thare riches and possessionis, then zelouslie desyring thare amendment and salvatioun, do travell and labour for this Reformatioun; [SN: THE OFFER.] we ar content not onlie that the rewllis and preceptis of the New Testament, bot also the writtinges of the ancient Fatheris, and the godly approved lawis of Justiniane the Emperour, decyd the contraversie betuix us and thame: And if it salbe found, that eyther malevolentlie or ignorantlie we ask more then these three foirnamed have requyred, and continewlie do requyre of able and trew ministeris in Christes Church, we refuise not correctioun, as your Grace, with right judgement, shall think meit. Bot and yf all the foirnamed shall dampne that whiche we dampne, and approve that whiche we requyre, then we most earnestlie beseik your Grace, that notwithstanding the long consuetude which thei have had to live as thei list, that thei be compelled eyther to desist from ecclesiastical administratioun, or to discharge thare dewities as becumeth trew ministeris; So that the grave and godlie face of the primitive Churche reduced, ignorance may be expelled, trew doctrine and good maneris may ones agane appeare in the Churche of this Realme. These thingis we, as most obedient subjectis, requyre of your Grace, in the name of the Eternall God, and of his Sone, Christ Jesus; in presence of whose throne judiciall, ye and all other that hear in earth bear authoritie, shall geve accomptes of your temporall regiment. The Spreit of the Lord Jesus move your Grace's harte to justice and equitie. Amen.

* * * * *


These oure Petitionis being proponed, the Estate Ecclesiasticall began to storme, and to devise all maner of leys to deface the equitie of our caus. Thei bragged as that thei wald have publict disputatioun, which also we most earnestlie requyred, two thingis being provided; the formare, that the plane and writtin Scriptures of God shuld decyde all contraversie; [SN: DISPUTATIOUN WITH CONDITIONIS.] Secoundlie, that our brethrene, of whom some war then exiled, and by them injustlie dampned, myght have free accesse to the said disputatioun, and salf conduct to returne to thair duelling places, nochtwithstanding any processe whiche befoir had bene led aganis thame in materis concernyng religioun. [SN: THE OFFER OF THE PAPISTIS.] But these being by thame utterlie denyed, (for no judge wold thei admitt bot thame selfis, thare Counsallis, and Cannon law,) thei and thare factioun began to draw certane Articles of reconciliation, promissing unto us, yf we wold admitt the Messe, to stand in hir formare reverence and estimatioun, grant Purgatorie after this lyiff, confesse Prayer to Sanctes and for the dead, and suffer thame to enjoye thare accustomed renttis, possession, and honour, that then thei wold grant unto us to pray and baptize in the vulgare toung, so that it war done secreatlie, and nott in the open assemblie. But the grosness of these Articles wes suche, that with ane voce we refused thame; and constantlie craved justice of the Quein Regent, and a reasonable answer of our formare Petitionis. [SN: THE GRANT OF THE QUEIN REGENT.] The Quein, then Regent, ane woman crafty, dissimulate, and fals, thinking to mak hir proffeit of both parteis, gave to us permissioun to use our selfis godlye according to our desyres, providit that we should not maik publict assembleis in Edinburgh nor Leyth; and did promeise hir assistance to our Preacheouris, untill some uniforme ordour myght be established by a Parliament. To thame, (we meane to the Cleargy,) she quietlie gave significatioun of hir mynd, promissing that how sone any oportunitie should serve, she should so putt ordour in thare materis, that after thei should not be trubled; for some say thei gave hir a large purse,[750] 40,000 lib., sayis the Chronicle,[751] gathered by the Lard of Erleshall.[752] We, nothing suspecting hir dowblenes nor falshode, departed, fullelie contented with hir answer; and did use our selfis so qwietlie, that for hir pleasour we putt silence to Johne Dowglass, who publictlie wold have preached in the toune of Leyth; for in all thingis we soght the contentment of hir mynd, so far furth as God should not be offended against us for obeying hir in thingis unlawfull.


Schortlie after these thingis, that cruell tyrant and unmercyfull hypocrite, falselie called Bischope of Sanctandrois, apprehended that blessed martyre of Christ Jesus WALTER MYLN;[753] a man of decrepite age, whome most cruellie and most unjustlie be put to death by fyre in Sanctandrois, the twenty awcht day of Aprile, the year of God J^m. V^c. fyfty aught yearis: Whiche thing did so heighlie offend the hartis of all godlye, that immediatlie after his death began a new fervencie amongis the hole people; yea, evin in the toune of Sanctandrois, begane the people plainelie to dampne suche injust crueltie; and in testificatioun that thei wold his death should abide in recent memorie, thare was castin together a great heape of stones in the place whare he was brynt. The Bischope and Preastis thairat offended, caused ones or twyse to remove the same, with denunciatioun of Cursing, yf any man should thare lay ony stone. Bott in vane was that wynd blowen; for still was the heape maid, till that Preastis and Papistis did steall away by nycht the stones to big thare walles, and to uther thare privat uses.[754]


We suspecting nothing that the Quein Regent wes consenting to the foirnamed murther, most humilie did complayne of suche injust crueltie, requiring that justice in suche cases should be ministrate with greattare indifference. Sche, as a woman borne to dissemble and deceave, began with us to lament the crueltie of the Bischope, excusing hir self as innocent in that caus; for that the sentence was gevin without hir knowledge, becaus the man sometymes had bene ane Preast; tharefoir the Bischop's Officiare[755] did proceid upon him without any commissioun of the civile authoritie Ex officio, as thei terme it.

We yit nothing suspectand hir falsheid, requyred some ordour to be tackin against such enormities, whiche sche promissed as oft befoir. Bot becaus schorte after thare wes a Parliament to be haldin, for certane effares pertenyng rather to the Quenis proffeit particulare, nor to the commoditie of the commoun wealth, we thocht good to expone our mater unto the hole Parliament, and by thame to seak some redress. We tharefoire, with one consent, did offer to the Quein and Parliament[756] a Lettir in this tennour:—


"Unto youre Grace, and unto yow, Rycht Honorable Lordis of this present Parliament, humlie meanes and schawes your Grace's faithfull and obedient Subjectis: That quhare we ar dalie molested, sklandered, and injured be wicked and ignorant personis, place-haldaris of the ministers of the Churche, who most untrewlie cease nott to infame us as Heretickis, and under that name thei most cruellie haif persecuted diverse of our brethrein; and farder intend to execute thare malice against us, onles be some godlie ordour thare fury and raige be brydilled and stayed; and yitt in us thei ar able to prove no cryme worthy of punishment, onless that to read the Holie Scriptures in our assembleis, to invocat the name of God in publict prayeris, with all sobrietie to interprete and open the places of Scripture that be redd, to the farther edificatioun of the brethrein assembled, and trewlie according to Christ Jesus his holy institutioun to minister the Sacramentes, be crymes worthy of punishment. Other crymes, (we say,) in us thei ar not abill to convict. And to the premisses ar we compelled; for that the saidis place-haldaris discharge no parte of thare deuiteis rychtlie till us, nether yitt to the people subject to us; and thairfoir, onless we should declair our selfis altogether unmyndfull of our awin salvatioun, we ar compelled, of verray conscience, to seak how that we and our brethrein may be delivered from the thraldome of Sathan. [SN: PROTESTATIOUN.] For now it hath pleased God to open our eyes, that manifestlie we see, that without extreame danger of our sowlles, we may in no wyise communicat with the damnable idolatrie, and intolerable abuses of the Papisticall Churche; and thairfoir most humblie requyre we of your Grace, and of yow Rycht Honorable Lordis, Baronis, and Burgesses assembled in this present Parliament, prudentlie to wey, and as it becum[757] just judges, to grant these our maist just and reasonable Petitionis.—

"First, Seing that the contraversie in religioun, which long hath continewed betuix the Protestants of Almany, Helvetia, and other provinces, and the Papisticall Churche, is not yitt decyded by a lauchfull and Generall Counsall; and seing that our consciences ar lyikwyes towcheit with the fear of God, as was thares in the begynnyng of thare contraversie, we most humlie desyre, that all suche Actes of Parliament, as in the tyme of darknes gave power to the Churche men to execute thare tyranny aganis us, be reasoun that we to thame wor delated as Heretiques, may be suspended and abrogated, till a Generall Counsall lawfullie assembled have decyded all contraverseis in religioun.

"And least that this mutatioun shuld seame to sett all men at libertie to lyve as thame list, We Secundarelie requyre, That it be enacted by this present Parliament, that the Prelattis and thare Officiaris[758] be removed from place of judgement; onlie granting unto thame, nocht the less, the place of accusatouris in the presence of a temporall judge, befoir whom the Churche men accusatouris salbe bundin to call any by thame accused of heresye, to whome also thei salbe bundin to deliver ane authentik copy of all depositionis, accusationis, and process led against the persone accused; the judge lykewyis delivering the same to the partie accused, assignyng unto him a competent terme to answer to the same, after he hath takin sufficient cautioun de judicio sisti.

"Thridly, We requyre, that all lawfull defences be granted to the personis accused; as yf he be able to prove, that the witnesses be personis unable by law to testifie aganis thame, that then thare accusationis and depositionis be null according to justice.

"Item, That place be granted to the partie accused, to explane and interprite his awin mynd and meanyng; which confessioun we requyre be inserted in publict Actes, and be preferred to the depositionis of any witnesses, seing that nane owght to suffer for religioun, that is not found obstinat in his damnable opinioun.

"Last, We requyre, that our brethrene be not dampned for Hereticques, onles, by the manifest word of God, thei be convicted to have erred from that faith whiche the Holy Spreit witnesseth to be necessarie to salvatioun; and yf so thei be, we refuise nott bot that thei be punished according to justice, onles by holsome admonitioun thei can be reduced to a better mynd.

"These thingis requyre we to be considered of yow, who occupy the place of the Eternall God, (who is God of ordour and trewth,) evin in suche sorte as ye will answer in the presence of his throne judiciall: Requyring farder, that favorablie ye will have respect to the tendernes of our consciences, and to the truble which appeareth to follow in this commoun wealth, yf the tyranny of the Prelattis, and of thare adherentis, be nott brydilled by God and just lawis. God move your hartes deeplie to considder your awin dewiteis and our present trubles."

These our Petitionis did we first present to the Quein Regent, becaus that we war determined to interprise nothing without hir knowledge, most humlie requyring hir favorable assistance in our just actioun. Sche spared nott amyable lookis, and good wordes in aboundance; bot alwayis sche keaped our Bill close in hir pocket. When we requyred secreatlie of hir Grace, that our Petitionis should be proponed to the hole Assemblie, sche ansured, "That sche thought nott that expedient; for then wold the hole Ecclesiasticall Estate be contrarie to hir proceadingis, which at that tyme war great;" for the Matrimoniall Croune was asked, and in that Parliament granted.[759] "Bot, (said sche,) how sone ordour can be tacken with these thingis, which now may be hyndered by the Kirk men, ye shall know my goode mynd; and, in the meantyme, whatsoevir I may grant unto yow, shall glaidlie be granted."

We yitt nothing suspecting hir falshode, was content to geve place for a tyme to hir pleasour, and pretended reasoun; and yitt thocht we expedient somewhat to protest befoir the dissolutioun of the Parliament; for our Petitionis war manifestlie knowen to the hole Assemblie, as also how, for the Quenis pleasour, we ceassed to persew the uttermost. Our Protestatioun was formed in manor following:—


"It is not unknawin to this honorable Parliament, what contraversie is now laitlie rissin betuix those that wilbe called the Prelattis and rewlarris of the Church, and a great number of us, the Nobilitie and commonaltie of this Realme, for the trew wirschipping of God, for the dewitie of Ministeris, for the rycht administratioun of Christ Jesus holie Sacramentis: how that we have complained by our publict supplicationis to the Quene Regent, that our consciences ar burdened with unprofitable ceremonies, and are compelled to adhear to idolatrie; that such as tack upoun thame the office Ecclesiasticall, discharge no parte thareof, as becumith trew ministeris to do; and finallie, that we and our brethrein ar most unjustlie oppressed by thare usurped authoritie. And also we suppose it is a thing sufficientlie knowin, that we wer of mynd at this present Parliament to seik redress of suche enormiteis; bot, considering that the trubles of the tyme do nott suffer suche Reformatioun as we, by Goddis plane word, do requyre, we ar enforced to delay that which most earnestlie we desyre; and yitt, least that our silence should geve occasioun to our adversaries to think, that we repent our formare interprise, we can not cease to protest for remedy against that most unjust tyranny, which we heirtofoir most patientlie have susteaned.

"And, First, We protest, that seing we can not obtene ane just Reformatioun, according to Goddis worde, that it be lauchfull to us to use oure selfis in materis of religioun and conscience, as we must ansuer unto God, unto suche tyme as our adversaries be able to prove thame selfis the trew ministers of Christes Churche, and to purge thame selfis of suche crymes as we have already layed to thare charge, offering our selfis to prove the same whensoever the Sacrat Authoritie please to geve us audience.

"Secundlie, We protest, that nether we, nor yit any other that godlie list to joyne with us in the trew faith, whiche is grounded upoun the invincible worde of God, shall incure any danger in lyiff or landis, or other politicall paines, for nott observing suche Actes as heirtofoir have passed in favouris of our adversaries, neyther yit for violating of suche rytes as man without God's commandiment or worde hath commanded.

"We, Thridly, protest, that yf any tumult or uproare shall aryise amanges the membres of this realme for the diversitie of religioun, and yf it shall chance that abuses be violentlie reformed, that the cryme thairof be not impute to us, who most humlie do now seak all thinges to be reformed by ane ordour: [SN: LETT THE PAPISTIS OBSERVE.] Bot rather whatsoever inconvenient shall happin to follow for lack of ordour tacken, that may be imputed to those that do refuise the same.

"And last, We protest, that these our requeastis, proceading from conscience, do tend to none other end, bot to the Reformatioun of abuses in Religioun onlie: Most humilie beseiking the Sacred Authoritie to tak us, faithfull and obedient subjectis, in protectioun against our adversaries; and to schaw unto us suche indifferencie in our most just Petitionis, as it becumeth God's Lievetenentis to do to those that in his name do call for defence against cruell oppressouris and bloode thrustie tyrantes."[760]


These our Protestationis publictlie redd, we desyred thame to have bene inserted in the commoun Register; bot that by laubouris of ennemies was denyed unto us. Nochttheles, the Quein Regent said, "Me will remember what is protested; and me shall putt good ordour after this to all thingis that now be in contraversie." And thus, after that sche be craft had obteaned hir purpoise, we departed in good esperance of hir favouris, praysing God in our hartes that sche was so weall enclyned towardes godlynes. The goode opinioun that we had of hir synceritie, caused us not onlie to spend our goodis and hasarde our bodyes at hir pleasour, bot also, by our publict letters writtin to that excellent servand of God JOHNE CALVINE, we did prayse and commend hir for excellent knowledge in Goddis worde and good will towarttis the advancement of his glorie; requyring of him, that by his grave counsall and godlie exhortatioun he wald animat hir Grace constantlie to follow that which godlie sche had begune. We did farther charplie rebuike, boith by word and writting, all suche as appeired to suspect in hir any vennoum of hypochrisie, or that war contrare to that opinioun which we had conceaved of hir godlie mynd. Bott how far we war deceaved in our opinioun, and abused by hir craft, did suddandlie appeare: for how sone that all thingis perteanyng to the commoditie of France war granted by us, and that peace was contracted betuix King Philip and France, and England and us,[761] sche began to spew furth, and disclose the latent vennome of hir dowble harte. Then began sche to frowne, and to look frowardlie to all suche as sche knew did favour the Evangell of Jesus Christ. Sche commanded her houshold to use all abhominationis at Pasche; and sche hir self, to geve exampill to utheris, did communicat with that idole in open audience: Sche comptrolled hir houshold, and wold know whare that everie ane receaved thare Sacrament. And it is supposed, that after that day the Devill took more violent and strong possessioun in hir[762] then he had befoir; for, from that day fordwarte, sche appeared altogether altered, insomuche that hir countenances and factes did declair the vennome of hir harte. For incontinent sche caused our preachearis to be summoned;[763] for whome, when we maid intercessioun, beseiching hir Grace not to molest thame in thare ministerie, onles any man war able to convict thame of fals doctrin, sche could not bryddill hir toung from open blasphemy, but proudlie sche said, [SN: SCHE HAD GOTTIN HIR LESSOUN FROM THE CARDINALL.] "In dispite of yow and of your ministeris boith, thei shalbe banisshed owt of Scotland, albeit thei preached als trewlie as evir did Sanct Paule." Which proud and blasphemous ansuer did greatlie astoniss us; and yit ceassed we not moist humilie to seak hir favouris, and by great diligence at last obteaned, that the summoundis at that tyme war delayed. For to hir wer send Alexander Erle of Glencarne, and Sir Hew Campbell of Loudoun knycht, Schiref of Air, to reassoun with hir, and to crave some performance of hir manifold promisses. [SN: QUENE REGENTIS ANSURE.] To whome sche ansured, "It became not subjectis to burden thare Princess with promisses, farther then it pleaseth thame to keape the same." Boith thei Noble men faythfullie and boldly discharged thare dewitie, and plainlie foirwarned hir of the inconvenientis that war to follow; wharewyth sche somewhat astonied said, "Sche wald advise."[764]


In this meantyme did the toune of Perth, called Sanct Johnestoun, embrase the trewth, which did provok hir to a new fury; in which sche willed the Lord Ruthven, Provest of that toune,[765] to suppress all suche religioun thare. [SN: LORD RUTHVEN HIS ANSURE.] To the which, when he ansured, "That he could maik thare bodyes to come to hir Grace, and to prostrate thame selfis befoir her, till that sche war fullie satiate of thare bloode, bot to caus thame do against thare conscience, he could not promeise:" Sche in fury did ansure, "That he was too malaperte to geve hir suche ansure," affirmyng, "that boyth he and thei should repent it." Sche solisted Maister James Halyburtoun, Provest of Dundie,[766] to apprehend Paule Methven,[767] who, fearing God, gave secreat advertisement to the man to avoid the toune for a tyme. Sche send furth suche as sche thought most able to perswade at Pasche, to caus Montrose, Dundie, Sanct Johnestoun, and otheris suche places as had receaved the Evangell, to communicat with the idole of the Messe; bot thei could profeit nothing: the heartis of many war bent to follow the trewth reveilled, and did abhore superstitioun and idolatrie. Whareat sche more heighlie commoved, did summound agane all the preachearis to compear at Striveling, the tent day of Maij, the year of God 1559. Which understand by us, we, wyth all humble obedience, sowght the meanes how sche myght be appeased, and our preachearis not molested: bot when we could nothing prevaill, it was concluded by the hole brethrein, that the Gentilmen of everie cuntrie should accumpany thare Preachouris to the day and place appointed. [SN: THE FIRST ASSEMBLIE AT SANCT JOHNESTOUN.] Whareto all men war most willing; and for that purpose the toune of Dundy, the gentilmen of Anguss and Mernis, passed fordwarte with thare preachearis to Sanct Johnestoun, without armour, as peciable men, mynding onlie to geve confessioun with thare preachearis. And least that suche a multitude should have gevin fear to the Quein Regent, the Lard of Dun, a zelous, prudent, and godly man, passed befoir to the Quein, then being in Striveling, to declare to hir, that the caus of thare convocatioun was onlie to geve confessioun with thare preachearis, and to assist thame in thare just defence. Sche understanding the fervencie of the people, began to craft with him, solisting him to stay the multitude, and the preachearis also, with promeise that sche wald tak some bettir ordour. [SN: THE LARD OF DUN STAYED THE CONGREGATIOUN AND THE PREACHEARIS.] He, a man most gentill of nature, and most addict to please hir in all thingis not repugnant to God, wret to those that then war assembled at Sanct Johnestoun, to stay, and nott to come fordwarte; schawand what promess and esperance he had of the Quenis Grace favouris. At the reading of his letteris, some did smell the craft and deceat, and persuaded to pas fordwarte, unto the tyme a discharge of the formare summondis should be had, alledgeing, that otherwyis thare process of horning or rebellioun, should be executed against the preachearis; and so should not onlie thei, bot also all suche as did accumpanye thame, be involved in a lyik cryme. Otheris did reassone, that the Quenes promeisses was not to be suspected, neyther yitt the Lard of Dun his requeast to be contempned; and so did the hole multitude with thare preacheris stay.

In this meanetyme that the Preacheouris ware summoned, to wit, the secound of Maij 1559, arryved JOHNE KNOX from France,[768] who ludgeing two nychtis onlie in Edinburgh, hearing the day appointed to his brethren, repared to Dundee, whare he earnestlie requyred thame, "That he myght be permitted to assist his brethrein, and to geve confessioun of his faith with thame:" which granted unto him, [he] departed unto Sanct Johnestoun with thame; whare he began to exhorte, according to the grace of God granted unto him. The Quein, perceaving that the preachearis did nott compeir, began to utter her malice; and notwythstanding any requeist maid in the contrarie, gave commandiment to putt thame to the horne, inhibiting all men under pane of thare rebellioun to assist, conforte, receave, or maynteane thame in any sorte. Whiche extremitie perceaved by the said Lard of Dune, he prudentlie withdrew himself, (for otherwyes by all appearance he had not eschaped empresonement;) for the Maister of Maxwell,[769] ane man zelous and stout in God's caus, (as then appeired,) under the cloak of ane uther small cryme, was that same day committed to warde, becaus he did boldlie affirme, "That to the uttermost of his power, he wold assist the preachearis and the congregatioun; notwythstanding any sentence whiche injustlie was, or should be, pronunced against thame. The Lard of Dun, cuming to Sanct Johnestoun, expounded the caise evin as it was, and did conceill nothing of the Quenis craft and falshode. Whiche understand, the multitud was so enflammed, that neyther could the exhortatioun of the preacheare, nor the commandiment of the magistrat, stay thame from distroying of the places of idolatrie.


The maner whairof was this:[770] The preacheouris befoir had declaired, how odiouse was idolatrie in God's presence; what commandiment he had gevin for the destructioun of the monumentis thairof; what idolatrie and what abhominatioun was in the Messe. It chanced, that the next day, whiche was the ellevint of Maij, after that the Preachearis wer exyled, that after the sermoun whiche was vehement against idolatrie, that a preast in contempt wold go to the Messe; and to declair his malapert presumptioun, he wold opin up ane glorious tabernacle which stoode upoun the Hie Altare. Thare stoode besyde, certane godly men, and amonges otheris a young boy, who cryed with a lowd voce, "This is intollerable, that when God by his Worde hath planelie damned idolatrie, we shall stand and see it used in dispyte." The preast heirat offended, gave the chyld a great blow; who in anger took up a stone, and casting at the prcast, did hytt the tabernacle and brack doune ane ymage; and immediatlie the hole multitude that war about cast stones, and putt handis to the said tabernacle, and to all utheris monumentis of idolatrie; whiche thei dispatched, befoir the tent man in the toune war advertist, (for the moist parte war gone to dennar:) Whiche noysed abroad, the hole multitude convened, not of the gentilmen, neyther of thame that war earnest professouris, bot of the raschall multitude, who fynding nothing to do in that Churche, did run without deliberatioun to the Gray and Blak Freris; and nochtwythstanding that thei had within thame verray strong gardis keapt for thare defence, yitt war thare gates incontinent brust upe. The first invasioun was upoun the idolatrie; and thareafter the commoun people began to seak some spoile; and in verray deid the Gray Freiris[771] was a place so weall provided, that oneles honest men had sein the same, we wold have feared to have reported what provisioun thei had. Thare scheittis, blancattis, beddis, and covertouris wer suche, as no Erle in Scotland hath the bettir: thair naiprie was fyne. [SN: THAIR PROVISIOUN.] Thei wer bot awght personis in convent, and yitt had viij punscheonis of salt beaff, (considder the tyme of the yeare, the ellevint day of Maij,) wyne, beare, and aill, besydis stoare of victuallis effeiring thareto. The lyik haboundance was nott in the Blak Frearis;[772] and yitt thare was more then becam men professing povertie. The spoile was permitted to the poore: for so had the preacheouris befoir threatned all men, that for covetousnes saik none shuld putt thare hand to suche a Reformatioun, that no honest man was enriched thairby the valew of a groate. Thare conscience so moved thame, that thei suffered those hypocreattis tak away what thei could, of that whiche was in thare places. The Priour of Charter-howse was permitted to tack away with him evin so muche gold and silver as he was weall able to cary.[773] So was menis consciences befoir beattin with the worde, that thei had no respect to thare awin particulare proffeit, bot onlie to abolishe idolatrie, the places and monumentis thareof: in which thei wer so busye, and so laborious, that within two dayis, these three great places, monumentis of idolatrie, to witt, the Gray and Blak theves,[774] and Charter-housse monkis, (a buylding of a wonderouse coast and greatness,[775]) was so destroyed, that the walles onlie did remane of all these great edificationis.


Whiche, reported to the Quein, sche was so enraged that sche did avow, "Utterlie to destroy Sanct Johnestoun, man, woman, and child, and to consume the same by fyre, and thairafter to salt it, in signe of a perpetuall desolatioun." We suspecting nothing suche creweltie, bot thinking that suche wordis myght eschape hir in choler, without purpose determinate, becaus sche was a woman sett a fyre by the complaintes of those hypocrytes who flocked unto hir, as ravennis to a carioun; We, (we say,) suspecting nothing suche beastlie crueltie, returned to our awin housses; leaving in Sanct Johnestoun Johne Knox to instruct, becaus thei war young and rude in Christ. Bott sche, sett a fyre, partlie be hir awin malice, partelie by commandiment of hir freindis in France, and not a litill by brybes, whiche sche and Monsieur Dosell receaved from the Bischoppes and the Preastis heir at home, did continew in hir rage. [SN: THE COMPLAINT OF THE QUEIN REGENT.] And first, sche send for all the Nobilitie, to whome sche complaned, "That we meaned nothing bot a rebellioun." Sche did grevouslie aggreage the destructioun of the Charter-howse,[776] becaus it was a Kingis fundatioun; and thare was the tumbe of King James the First; and by suche other perswasionis sche maid the most parte of thame grant to persew us. And then incontinent send sche for hir Frenchemen; for that was and hath ever bein hir joy to see Scottishmen dip one with anotheris bloode. No man was at that tyme more frack against us then was the Duke,[777] lead by the crewell beast, the Bischope of Sanctandrois, and by these that yitt abuse him, the Abbot of Kilwynnyng,[778] and Matthew Hammyltoun of Mylburne,[779] two cheaf ennemeis to Christ Jesus; yea, and ennemeis[780] to the Duke and to his hole house, bot in sa far as thairby thei may procure thair awin particulare proffeitt. These and suche other pestilent Papistes ceassed nott to cast faggotis on the fyre, continewalie cryeing, "Fordwarte upoun these Heretiques; we shall ones rydd this realme of thame."

The certantie heirof cuming to our knowledge, some of us repaired to the Toune agane, about the 22 day of Maij, and thare did abyde for the conforte of our brethrein. Whare, after invocatioun of the name of God, we began to putt the Toune and ourselfis in suche strenth, as we thought myght best for our just defence. And, becaus we war nott utterlie dispared of the Quenis favouris, we cawsed to forme a lettir to hir Grace, as followeth:—


"As heirtofoir, with jeopard of our lyves, and yitt with willing hartes, we haif served the Authoritie of Scotland, and your Grace, now Regent in this Realme, in service to our bodyes dangerous and painefull; so now, with most dolorous myndis we ar constraned, by injust tyrannye purposed against us, to declair unto your Grace, That except this crueltie be stayed by your wisdome, we wilbe compelled to tak the sweard of just defence aganis all that shall persew us for the mater of religioun, and for our conscience saik; whiche awght not, nor may nott be subject to mortale creatures, farder than be God's worde man be able to prove that he hath power to command us. We signifie moreover unto your Grace, That yf by rigour we be compelled to scale the extreme defence, that we will nott onlie notife our innocencie and petitionis to the King of France, to our Maistres and to her Housband, bot also to the Princes and Counsall of everie Christiane Realme, declairing unto thame, that this cruell, injust, and most tyrannicall murther, intended aganis townes and multitudis, wes, and is the onlie caus of our revolt from our accustomed obedience, whiche, in God's presence, we faythfullie promeise to our Soverane Maistres, to hir Husband, and unto your Grace Regent; provided, that our consciences may lyve in that peace and libertie whiche Christ Jesus hath purchassed till us by his bloode; and that we may have his worde trewlie preached, and holie Sacramentis ryghtlie ministrat unto us, without whiche we fermelie purpose never to be subject to mortall man: [SN: O WHAIR IS THIS FERVENCIE NOW!] For better, we think, to expone our bodyes to a thowsand deathis, then to hasarde our soules to perpetuall condemnatioun, by denying Christ Jesus and his manifest veritie, whiche thing not onlie do thei that committ open idolatrie, bot also all suche as seing thare brethrene injustlie persewed for the caus of religioun, and having sufficient meanes to conforte and assist thame, do nott the less withdraw frome thame thair detfull supporte. [SN: O WALD GOD THAT THE NOBILITIE SHULD YITT CONSIDERE.] We wald nott your Grace should be deceaved by the fals persuasionis of those cruell beastis, the Churche men, who affirme, That your Grace nedith nott greatlie to regarde the losse of us that professe Christ Jesus in this realme. Yf (as God forbid) ye gif care to thare pestilent counsall, and so use against us this extremitie pretended; it is to be feared, that neyther ye, neyther yitt your posteritie, shall at any tyme after this fynd that obedience and faithfull service within this realme, whiche at all tymes yow have found in us. We declair our judgementis frelie, as trew and faithfull subjectis. God move your Graces harte favorablie to interpreite our faythfull meanyng. Further advertissing your Grace, that the self same thing, together with all thingis that we have done, or yitt intend to do, we will notifie by our letteris to the King of France; asking of yow, in the name of the eternall God, and as your Grace tenderis the peace and qwyetness of this realme, that ye invaid us nott with violence, till we receave ansur from our Maistres, hir Husband, and from thare advised counsall thare. And this we committ your Grace to the protectioun of the Omnipotent.

"Frome Sanet Johnestoun the 22 of Maij 1559.

(Sic subscribitur,) Your Grace's obedient subjectis in all thingis not repugnant to God, "THE FAITHFULL CONGREGATIOUN OF CHRIST JESUS IN SCOTLAND."

In the same tennour we wrate to Monsieur Dosell in Frenche, requiring of him, that by his wisdome he wold mitigate the Quenis raige, and the raige of the Preastis; otherwyis that flambe, whiche then begane to burne, wold so kendle that quhen some men wold, it culd not be slokenned; adding farder, that he declairit him self[781] no faithfull servand to his maister the King of France, yf for the plesour of the Preistis he wald persecut us, and so compell us to taik the sweard of just defence. In lyke maner we wrait to Capitane Serra la Burse, and to all uther Capitanis and Frenche soldiouris in generall, admonischeing thame that thair vocatioun was nocht to fyght aganis us naturall Scottishmen; nather yit that thai had any suche commandiment of thair maister. We besowght thame thairfoir nocht to provok us to inemitie aganest thame, considdering, that thay had found us favorable in thair most extreme necessiteis. We declairit farther unto thame, that yf thay enterit in hostilitie and bloody warre aganest us, that the same sould remane langar than thair and oure lyves, to witt, evin in all posteriteis to come, so lang as naturall Scottishmen suld have power to revenge suche crewelty, and maist horribill ingratitude.

Thease letteris war causit be spred abroade in great habundance, to the end that sum myght cume to the knawlege of men. The Quene Regent hir letter was layed upoun hir cussing in the Chapell Royall at Striveling, quhair sche accustomit to sitt at Messe. Sche looked upoun it, and put it in the pocket of hir goune. Monsieur Dosell and the Capitanis receavit thairis deliverit evin be thair awin soldiouris, (for sum amongis thame war favoraris of the treuth,) quho efter the reading of thame, began to ryve thair awin beardis; for that was the modest behaveour of Monsieur Dosell, quhen treuth was told unto him, so that it repugne to his fantasie. These our letteris war suppressed to the uttermost of thair power, and yit thay come to the knowlege of mony. Bot the raige of the Quene and Preistis culd nocht be stayed; bot fordwart thay move against us, quho than war bot are verrie few and meane number of gentilmen in Sanct Johnestoun. We perceaving the extremitie to approche, did wrytt to all bretherin, to repair towardis us for our releve; to the quhiche we fand all men so readie bent, that the work of God was evidentlie to be espyed. And becaus that we wold omitt na diligence to declair our innocencie to all men, we formit ane letter to those of the Nobilitie who than persecuted us, as efter followeth:—


"Becaus we ar nocht ignorant, that the Nobilitie of this realme who now persecute us, employing thair hole study and force to manteyne the kingdome of Sathan, of superstitioun and idolatrie, ar yit nochttheles devidit in opinioun; We, the Congregatioun of Christ Jesus by yow injustlie persecuted, have thocht good, in one letter, to write unto yow severallie. Ye ar devidit, we say, in opinioun; for sum of yow think that we who have tackin upoun us this interpryise to remove idolatrie, and the monumentis of the same, to erect the trew preaching of Chryst Jesus in the boundis committit to our chargis, ar Heretickis, seditious men, and trubilleris of this commone wealth; and thairfoir that no punischment is sufficient for us: and so, blyndit with this rage, and under pretens to serve the Authoritie, ye proclame warre, and threattin distructioun without all ordour of law aganis us. To yow, we say, that nather your blynd zeale, nather yit the colour of authoritie, sall excuse yow in Godis presence, who commandeth "None to suffer death, till that he be opinlie convictit in jugement, to have offendit against God, and against his law writtin," whiche no mortall creature is able to prove against us: for quhatsoevir we have done, the same we have done at Godis commandiment, who planelie commandis idolatrie, and all monumentis of the same to be destroyed and abolisshed, Oure ernist and long requeist hath bein, and is, that in opin assemblie it may be disputit in presence of indifferent auditouris, [SN: THE PERPETUALL REQUEIST OF THE PROTESTANTIS OF SCOTLAND.] "Whether that theis abhominationis, namit by the pestilent Papistis, religioun, whiche thay by fyre and sweard defend, be the trew religioun of Christ Jesus or not?" Now, this our humbill requeast denyed unto us, our lyves ar sought in most crewell maner. And ye, the Nobilitie, (whose dewetie is to defend innocentis, and to brydle the fury and raige of wicked men, wer it of Princes or Emperouris,) do nochtwithstanding follow thare appetytis, and arme your selfis against us, your bretherin, and naturall cuntriemen; yea, against us that be innocent and just, as concerning all suche crymes as be layid to our chargis. Yf ye think that we be criminall becaus that we dissent from your opinioun, considder, we beseiche yow, that the Prophetis under the law, the Apostles of Christ Jesus efter his Assentioun, his primitive Churche, and holy Martyris, did disassent from the hole world in thare dayis; and will ye deny bot that thair actioun was just, and that all those that persecuted thame war murtheraris befoir God? May nocht the lyek be trew this day? What assurance have ye this day of your religioun, whiche the warld that day had nocht of thairis? Ye have a multitude that aggre with yow, and so had thay. Ye have antiquitie of tyme, and that thay lacked nocht. Ye have counsales, lawis, and men of reputatioun that have establisshed all thingis, as ye suppose: Bot none of all these can maik any religioun acceptable unto God, whiche onelie dependeth upon his awin will, revealled to man in his most sacred word. Is it nocht than a wonder that ye sleip in so deadlie a securitie, in the mater of your awin salvatioun, considdering that God gevith unto yow so manifest tockens, that ye and your leaderis ar boith declynit from God? [SN: PROBATIOUN AGAINST THE PAPISTIS.] For yf "the tree salbe judgit by the fruit," (as Christ Jesus affirmeth, that it must be,) than of necessitie it is that your Prelattis, and the hole rable of thair clergie, be evill treeis. For yf adultrie, pryde, ambitioun, dronknes, covetousnes, incest, unthankfulnes, oppressioun, murther, idolatrie, and blasphemye, be evill fructis, thare can none of that generatioun, whiche clame to thame selfis the title of Churche men,[782] be judged gud treeis; for all these pestilent and wicked fruittis do they bring furth in greittest habundance: And gif thai be evill treis, (as ye your selfis must be compelled to confes thay ar,) advise prudentlie with what consciences ye can manteyne thame, to occupy the roume and place in the Lordis vyne yarde. Do ye nocht considder, that in so doing ye labour to manteyne the servandis of syne in thair filthie corruptioun; and so consequentlie ye labour, that the Devill may regne, and still abuse this realme, by all iniquitie and tyrannye, and that Chryst Jesus and his blessed Evangell be suppressed and extinguesshed?


"The name and the cloke of the Authoritie, whiche ye pretend, will nothing excuse yow in Godis presence; but rather sall ye beir duble condempnatioun; for that ye burdeane God, as that his good ordinance wer the caus of your iniquitie. All authoritie quhilk God hath establisshed, is good and perfyte, and is to be obeyed of all men, yea under the pane of damnatioun. [SN: DIFFERENCE BETUIX THE PERSONE AND THE AUTHORITIE.] But do ye nocht understand, that thair is a great difference betuix the authoritie quhiche is Goddis ordinance, and the personis of those whiche ar placit in authoritie? The authoritie and Goddis ordinance can never do wrang; for it commandeth, That vice and wickit men be punischit, and vertew, with verteous men and just, be maynteaned. But the corrupt Persone placed in this authoritie may offend, and most commonelie doeth the contrare heirof; and is than the corruptioun of the persone to be followed, be ressone that he is cled with the name of the authoritie? Or, sall those that obey the wicked commandiment of those that ar placed in authoritie be excusable befoir God? Nocht so; nocht so. Bott the plagues and vengeances of God tackin upoun Kingis, thair servandis, and subjectis, do witnes to us the plane contrarie. Pharao was a King, and had his authoritie of God, who commandit his subjectis to murther and torment the Israelites, and at last most crewellie to persecut thair lyves. But was thare obedience, (blynd raige it should be called,) excusable befoir God? The universall plague doeth planelie declair, that the wicked commander, and those that obeyed, war alyke giltie befoir God. [SN: THE FACT OF KING SAULE.] And yf the example of Pharao shalbe rejected, becaus he was ane Ethnik, than lat us considder the factis of Saule: He was a King anoynted of God, appoynted to regne ower his people, he commanded to persecut David, becaus (as he alledged) David was a traytour and usurper of the Crowne; and lyekwyis commanded Abimelech the Hie Preast and his fellowis to be slane: But did God approve any parte of this obedience? Evident it is that he did nott. And think ye, that God will approve in yow that whiche he did dampne in otheris? Be nocht deceaved: with God thair is no suche partialitie.[783] Yf ye obey the injust commandimentis of wicked rewlaris, ye sall suffer Goddis vengeance and just punishment with thame. And thairfoir as ye tender your awin salvatioun, we most earnistlie requyre of yow moderatioun, and that ye stay your selfis, and the furye of utheris, from persecuting of us, till our cause be tryed in lauchfull and opin judgement.

"And now, to yow that ar perswaded of the justice of our cause, that sumtyme have professed Chryst Jesus with us, and that also have exhorted us to this interpryse, and yit have left us in our extreme necessitie, or at the least look throw your fingaris, in this our truble, as that the matter apperteaned nocht unto yow; we say, that onles (all fear and warldlie respectis sett asyde) ye joyne your selffis with us, that as of God ye ar reputed traytouris, so shall ye be excomunicated from our societie, and from all participatioun with us in the administratioun of Sacramentis. The glorie of this victorie, quhilk God shall geve to his Churche, yea evin in the eyis of men, shall nocht apperteane to yow; bot the fearfull judgement, whiche apprehended Ananias and his wyfe Sapphyra, sall apprehend yow and your posteritie. [SN: LETT BOTH THE ONE PART AND THE UTHER JUDGE YF GOD HAVE NOCHT JUSTIFIED THE CAUS OF THE INNOCENTIS.] Ye may perchance contempne, and dispyise the excomunicatioun of the Churche now by Godis myghtie power erected amongis us, as a thing of no force; bot yit doubt we nothing, but that our Churche, and the trew ministeris of the same, have the same power whiche our Maister, Christ Jesus, granted to his Apostles in these wordis, "Whose synnis ye sall forgeve, shalbe forgevin; and whose synnis ye shall reteane, shall be reteaned;" and that, becaus thay preiche, and we beleve the same doctryne whiche is conteyned in his most blessed wourd. And thairfoir except that ye will contempne Chryst Jesus, ye nether can despyise our threatnyng, nether yit refuise us calling for your just defence. [SN: FROM QUHENS THIS CORAGE DID PROCEID THE ISHEW DECLAIRED.] By your faynting, and by extracting of your support, the enimeis ar incoraged, thinking, that thay shall find no resistance: In whiche point, God willing, thay salbe deceaved. For gif thay war ten thowsand, and we bot are thowsand, thai sall nocht murther the least of our bretherin, but we (God assisting us) shall first committ our lyves in the handis of God for thair defence. But this shall aggravat your damnatioun; for ye declair your selfis boith traytouris to the treuth ones professed, and murtheraris of us, and of your bretherin, from whome ye draw your detfull and promisshed support, whome your onelie presence (to manis judgement) myght preserve from this danger. For our enimeis looke nocht to the power of God, bot to the force and strenth of man. When the nomber is mean to resist thame, than rage thay as bloody wolvis; bot a party equall or able to resist thame in apperance, doeth brydill thair fury. Examinat your awin consciencis, and wey that sentence of our Maister, Chryst Jesus, saying, "Whosoevir denyeth me, or is aschamed of me befoir men, I shall deny him befoir my Father." Now is the day of his battell in this realme: Yf ye deny us, your bretherin, suffering for his name's saik, ye do also deny him, as him self doeth witnes in these wordis, "Whatsoevir ye did to any of these litill ones, that ye did to me; and what ye did nocht to one of those litill ones, that ye did nocht to me." Gif these sentencis be trew, as concerning meat, drink, cloithing, and suche thingis as apperteane to the body, shall thai not be lykewyis trew in these thingis that apperteane to the preservatioun of the lyves of thowsandis, whose bloode is now sought, for professioun of Christ Jesus? And thus schortlie leave we yow, who sumtymes have professed Christ Jesus with us, to the examinatioun of your awin consciencis. And yit ones agane, of yow, who, blynded by superstitioun persecute us, we requyre moderatioun, till our cause may be tryed, whiche gif ye will nocht grant unto us for Godis cause, yit we desyre yow to have respect to the preservatioun of our commone cuntree, whiche we can not sonnar betray in the handis of strangeris, than that one of us distroy and murther ane uther. Considder our petitionis, and call for the spreit of richteous judgement."

These our Letteris being divulgat, some man began to reasoun whether of conscience thai myght invaid us or not, considdering that we offered dew obedience to the Authoritie; requiring nothing bot the libertie of conscience, and our religioun and fact to be tryed by the word of God. Oure Letteris came with convenient expeditioun to the handis of the bretherin in Cuninghame and Kyle, who convened at the Kirk of Craggie,[784] whare, efter some contrarious reassonis, Alexander Erle of Glencarne, in zeall, burst furth in these wordis, "Lat everie man serve his conscience. I will, by Goddis grace, see my bretherin in Sanct Johnestoun: yea, albeit never man should accumpany me, I will go, and gif it war bot with a pick upoun my shulder; for I had rather dye with that cumpany, nor leve efter thame." These wordis so encoraged the rest, that all decreed[785] to go fordward, as that thai did so stoutlie, that when Lyoun Herault, in his coat armour, commanded all man under the pane of treassone to returne to thair housses by publict sound of trumpett in Glasgw, never man obeyed that charge, but all went fordward, as we will efter hear. When it was clearlie understand that the Prelattis and thair adherantis, suppressing our petitionis so far as in thame lay, did kindill the furye of all men against us, it was thoght expedient to writt unto thame sum declaratioun of our myndis, whiche we did in this forme following:—


"To the end that ye shall not be abused, thinking to eschaipe just punishment, efter that ye in your blind fury have caused the bloode of many to be sched, this we notifie and declair unto yow, that yf ye proceid in this your malicious creweltie, ye shalbe entreated, wharesoevir ye shalbe apprehended, as murtheraris and oppin enimeis to God and unto mankind; and thairfoir, betymes cease from this blind raige. Remove first from your selfis your bandis of bloody men of warre, and reforme your selffis to a more quiet lyve; and thairefter mitigat ye the authoritie whiche, without cryme committed upoun our parte, ye have inflammit aganis us; or ellis be ye assured, that with the same measure that ye have measured against us, and yit intend to measure to utheris, it salbe measured unto yow: That is, as ye by tyranny intend nocht onelie to destroy our bodyis, bot also by the same to hold our sowllis in bondage of the Devill, subject to idolatrie, so shall we with all force and power, whiche God shall grant unto us, execut just vengeance and punishment upoun yow. Yea, we shall begyn that same warre whiche God commanded Israell to execut aganis the Cananites; that is, contract of peace shall never be maid, till ye desist from your oppin idolatrie and crewell persecutioun of Godis childrein. And this we signifie unto yow in the name of the eternall God, and of his Sone Christ Jesus, whose veritie we profess, and Evangell we will have preached, and holy Sacramentis ryghtlie minstrat, so long as God will assist us to ganestand your idolatrie. Tak this for Advertisment, and be nocht deceaved."


These our requeistis and advertismentis nochtwithstanding, Monsieur Dosell and his Frenchemen, with the Preastis and thair bandis, marched fordward against Sanct Johnestoun, and approched within ten myles to the town. Than repaired the bretherin from all quartaris for our releaff. The gentilmen of Fyffe, Anguss, and Mernis, with the town of Dundie, war thay that first hasarded to resist the enimie; and for that purpoise was chosin a platt of ground,[786] a myle and more distant from the town. In this meantyme the Lord Ruthven, Provest of the town of Sanct Johnestoun, and a man whome many judged godlie and stout in that actioun, (as in verray dead he was evin unto his last breath,[787]) left the town, and depairtit first to his awin place, and efter to the Quene: whose defectioun and revolt was a great discoragement to the hartis of many; and yit did God so confort,[788] that within the space of tuelf houris efter, the hartis of all men war erected agane; for those that war than assembillit did nocht so muche houp victorie by thair awin strenth, as by the power of Him whose veritie they professed; and began one to confort another, till the hole multitude was erected in a reasonable esperance. The day efter that the Lord Ruthven depairted, whiche was the 24 of Maij, cam the Erle of Argyle, Lord James, Priour of Sanctandrois, and the Lord Sempill, directed from the Quene Regent to inquire the caus of that convocatioun of liegis thare. To quhome, quhen it was ansuered, that it was onelie to resist that crewell tyranny devised against that poore town, and the inhabitants of the same, thay asked, "Gif we myndit nocht to hold that town against the authoritie, and against the Quene Regent?" To the whiche questioun ansuered the Lairdis of Dun and Pittarro, with the Congregatioun of Anguss and Mernis, the Maister of Lyndesay, the Lairdis of Lundy, Balvaird,[789] and otheris Barronis of Fyffe, "That gif the Quenis Grace wald suffer the religioun thare begun to proceid, and nocht truble thair bretherin and sisteris that had professed Christ Jesus with thame, that the town, thay thame selffis, and quhatsoevir to thame perteaned, should be at the Quenis commandiment." [SN: THE FALS SUGGESTIOUN OF THE QUENE REGENT.] Whiche ansuer understand,[790] the Erle of Ergyle and the Priour (quho boith war than Protestantis) began to muse, and said planelie, that thay war far utherwayis informed by the Quene, to witt, "That we mentt no religioun, but a plane rebellioun." To the whiche when we had answered simplie, and as the treuth was, to wit, "That we conveaned for none other purpose, bot onelie to assist our brethrein, who than war most injustlie persecuted; and thairfoir we desyred thame faithfullie to report our answer, and to be intercessouris to the Quene Regent, that suche creweltie suld nocht be usit against us, considering that we had offered in our former letteris, alsweill to the Quenis Grace, as to the Nobilitie, our mater to be tryed in lauchfull judgement." Thay promesed fidelitie in that behalff, whiche also thay keipt.

The day efter, whiche was the 25 day of Maij, befoir that the saidis Lordis depairted, in the morning Johne Knox desyred to speak with the same Lordis; whiche grantit unto him, he was conveyed to thair ludgeing by the Laird of Balvaird,[791] and thus he began:—


"The present trublis, Honorable Lordis, owght to move the hartis, nocht onlie of the trew servandis of God, bot also of all suche as beare any favour to thare cuntree, and naturall cuntreymen, to discend within thame selfis and deiplie to considder quhat shalbe the end of this pretended tyranny. The raige of Sathan seaketh the destructioun of all those that within this realme professe Christ Jesus; and thay that inflambe the Quenis Grace, and yow the Nobles aganis us, regard nocht who prevaill, provided that thay may abuse the warld, and leve at thair pleasour, as heirtofoir thay have done. Yea, I fear that some seak nothing more than the effusioun of Scottis bloode, to the end that thair possessionis may be more patent to utheris. Bot, becaus that this is nocht the principall whiche I have to speak, omitting the same to be considderit by the wisdome of those to quhome the cair of the commone wealth apperteaneth.

"1st. I most humbillie require of yow, my Lordis, in my name, to say to the Quenis Grace Regent, that we, who sche in hir blynd raige doeth persecute, ar Goddis servandis, faithfull and obedient subjectis to the authoritie of this realme; that that religioun, whiche sche pretendeth to maynteyne by fyre and sweard, is nott the trew religioun of Christ Jesus, bot is expres contrarie to the same; a superstitioun devised be the brane of man; whiche I offer my selff to prove aganis all that within Scotland will maynteane the contrarie, libertie of towng being granted unto me, and Godis writtin word being admitted for judge.


"2d. I farder require your Honouris, in my name, to say unto hir Grace, that as of befoir I have writtin, sa now I say, that this hir interpryise shall nocht prosperouslie succeid in the end; and albeit for a tyme sche truble the sanctis of God, for sche feghteth nocht aganis man onelie, bot against the eternall God and his invincible veritie; and thairfoir, the end shalbe hir confusioun, oneles betymes sche repent and desist.

"These thingis I require of yow, in the name of the eternall God, as from my mouth, to say unto hir Grace; adding, that I have bein, and am a more assured friend to hir Grace, than thay that either flattering hir ar servandis to hir corrupt appetytes,[792] or ellis inflambe hir against us, who seik nothing bot Goddis glorie to be advanceit, vice to be suppressed, and veritie to be maynteaned in this poore realme."


Thei all three did promese to report his wordis sa fer as thai culd, whiche efterwardis we understoode thai did. Yea, the Lord Semple[793] him self, a man sold under syne, enymye to God and to all godlynes, did yit maik suche report, that the Quene was sumquhat offended, that any man suld use suche libertie in hir presence. Sche still proceaded in hir malice; for immediatelie thairefter sche send hir Lyoun Herauld,[794] with letteris, straitlie chargeing all man to avoid the toun, under the pane of treasone. Whiche letteris, efter he had declaired thame to the cheife men of the Congregatioun, he publictlie proclamed the same, upoun Sounday, the 27 [28th] of Maij.[795] In this mean tyme, come sure knawlege to the Quene, to the Duke, and to Monsieur Dosell, that the Erle of Glencarne, the Lordis Uchiltrie and Boyd, the young Schiref of Air, the Lairdis of Cragy Wallace, Sesnock, Carnell, Barr, Gaitgirth,[796] and the hole Congregatioun of Kyle and Cuninghame, approched for our releve; and in verray dead thay came in suche diligence, and suche a nomber, that as the enymie had just caus to fear, so have all that professe Christ Jesus just matter to praise God for thair fidelitie and stout corage in that nead; for by thair presence was the tyranny of the enymie brydilled. Thare diligence was suche, that albeit the passage by Striveling, and sex myles above, was stoppit, (for thair lay the Quene with hir bandis, and gart cutt the brigis upoun the watter of Forth, Gwdy and Teath,[797] above Striveling,) yit maid thay suche expeditioun throw desert and montane, that thay prevented the enymie, and approched within sex myles to our campe, whiche than lay without the town, awaiting upoun the enymie, befoir that any assured knawlege come to us of thair cunning. Their number was judged to[798] to tuentie fyve hundreth men, whairof thair was 12 hundreth horsmen. The Quene understanding how the said Erle and Lordis, with thair cumpany approched, causit to besett all wayis, that na advertisment should come to us, to the end that we, dispared of support, myght condiscend to suche appointment as sche required; and send first to require, that some discreat men of our number wald cum and speik the Duke and Monsieur Dosell, (who than with thair armye did lye at Auchterardour,[799] ten myles fra Sanct Johnestoun,) to the end that some reasonable appointment myght be had. Sche had perswaded the Erle of Ergyle, and all utheris, that we ment nothing bot rebellioun; and thairfoir had he promisshed unto hir, that in case we should nocht stand content with ane reasonable appointment, he should declair him self plane enymie unto us, nochtwithstanding that he professed the same religioun with us. From us war send the Laird of Dun,[800] the Lard of Inverquharitie,[801] and Thomas Scot of Abbotishall,[802] to heir quhat appointment the Quene wald offer. The Duke and Monsieur Dosell required, "That the town should be maid patent, and that all thingis should be referred to the Quenis plesour." [SN: THE PETITIOUN OF THE PROTESTANTIS FOR RANDERING OF SANCT JOHNESTOUN.] To the whiche thai answered, "That nather had thay commissioun so to promese, nather durst thay of conscience so perswaid thair bretherin. Bot yf that the Quenis Grace wald promeise, that no inhabitant of the town should be trublit for any suche crymes as myght be alledged aganis thame for the lait mutatioun of religioun, and abolishment of idolatrie, and for douncasting the places of the same; yf sche wald suffer the religioun begun to go fordward, and leif the town at hir depairting free from the garysonis of Frenche soldiouris, that thay wald labour at the handis of thair bretherin that the Quene should be obeyed in all thingis." Monsieur Dosell perceaving the danger to be great, yf that are suddane appointment should nocht[803] be maid; and that thay war nocht able to execut thair tyranny against us, after that the Congregatioun of Kyle (of quhose cuming we had no advertisment) should be joyned with us; with gud wordis dismissed[804] the saidis Lairdis to perswaid the bretherin to quiet concord. To the whiche all men war so weill mynded, that with one voce thay cryed, "Curssed be thay that seak effusioun of bloode, war, or dissentioun. Lett us possess Christ Jesus, and the benefite of his Evangell, and none within Scotland shalbe more obedient subjectis than we shalbe." With all expeditioun war send from Striviling agane, (efter that the cuming of the Erle of Glencarne was knawin, for the enymie for fear quaiked,) the Erle of Ergyle and Lord James foirsaid, and in thair cumpany a crafty man, Maister Gavine Hammiltoun, Abbot of Kilwynning,[805] who war send by the Quene to finishe the appointment foirsaid. Bot befoir that thay came, was the Erle of Glencarne and his honorable cumpany arryved in the town; and then began all men to praise God, for that he had so mercifullie hard thame in thare maist extreme necessitie, and had send unto thame suche releafe as was able, without effusioun of bloode, to stay the raige of the ennemy. The Erle of Ergyle and Lord James did earnistlie perswaid the agreement,[806] to the whiche all men was willing. But sum did smell the craft of the adversarie, to wit, that thay war mynded to keip no point of the promeise longar than thay had obteanit thair intent.


With the Erle of Glencarne come our loving brother Johne Willok; Johne Knox was in the town befoir. These two went to the Erle of Ergyle and Priour, accusing thame of infidelitie, in sa fer as thay had defrauded thair brethering of thair debtfull support and confort in thair greatest necessitie. Thay ansuered boith, "That thair hart was constant with thair bretherin, and that thay wald defend that caus to the uttermost of thair power. Bot becaus thay had promesed to laubour for concord, and to assist the Quene, in case we refuised ressonable offerris, of conscience and honour, thay culd do na less than be faithfull in thair promeise maid: And thairfoir thay required that the bretherin myght be perswaided to consent to that reassonable appointment; promesing, in Goddis presence, that yf the Quene did break in ony joit thairof, that thay, with thair hole poweris, wald assist and concur with thair bretherin in all tymes to cum." [SN: THE PROMEISE OF THE FOIRSAIDIS.] This promeise maid, the Preacheouris appeased the multitude, and obteaned in the end that all men did consent to the appointment foirsaid, whiche thay obteaned nocht without great labouris. And no wonder, for many foirsaw the danger to follow; yea, the Preacheouris thame selfis, in oppin sermone, did affirme planelie, "That thay war assuredlie perswaided that the Quene mentt no treuth: Bot to stop the mouth of the adversarie, who injustlie did burthein us with rebellioun, thay moist earnistlie requyred all men to approve the appointment, and so to suffer hypocresie to discloise the selff."

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