The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
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The hole Toun, yea, the Governour and Nobilitie commoved at the unwoorthynes of this bold attemptat, craved justice upoun the malefactouris, or ellis thei wold tack justice of the hole. The Quein, crafty yneweht, Monsieur de Essye, and Monsieur Dosel, laubored for pacificatioun, and did promeise, "That onless the French men, by thame selfis allone, should do such ane act, as mycht recompense the wrong that thei had done, that then thei should not refuise, but that justice should be executed to the rigour." These fayre woordis pleased our foollis, and so war the Frenche bandis the nixt nycht direct to Hadingtoun,[564] to the which thei approched a lytill after mydnycht, so secreatlye, that thei war never espyed, till that the formar war within the basse courte, and the haill cumpany in the church yard, nott two payre of boot lenthis distant frome the toune. The soldartis, Englishmen, war all a sleape, exceapt the watch, the which was sklender, and yitt the schowt arises, "Bowes and billes: Bowes and billes;" which is significatioun of extreame defence, to avoid the present danger, in all tounes of warr. The effrayed aryses: weapones that first come to hand serve for the nead. One[565] amongis many cumes to the East porte, whare lay two great pieces of ordinance, and whare the ennemies war knowin to be, and cryed to his fellowes that war at the yett macking defence, "Ware befoir;" and so fyres a great peace, and thareafter another, which God so conducted, that after thame was no farther persuyt maid; for the bullates redounded fra the wall of the Freir Kirk, to the wall of Sanct Katherine's Chapell, which stood direct foiranent it, and fra the wall of the said Chapell to the said Kirk wall agane, so oft, that thare fell mo then ane hundreth of the French, att those two schottis only. Thei schott oft, but the French reteired with diligence, and returned to Edinburgh, without harme done, except the destructioun of some drynkin bear, which lay in the saidis Chappell and Kirk. And this was satisfactioun more then yneuht,[566] for the slawchter of the said Capitane and Provest, and for the slawghter of such as war slane with him. This was the begynnyng of the French fruittis.


This wynter, in the tyme of Christen Masse, was the Castell of Home recovered from the Engliss, by the negligence of the Capitane named Dudley.[567]


This wynter also did the Lard of Rayth most innocentlie suffer, and after was forfalted, becaus that he wrait a bill to his sone, Johne Melvin,[568] who then was in England, which was alleged to have bein found in the house of Ormestoun; but many suspected the pauckis[569] and craft of Ringzen Cockburne, (now called Capitane Ringzeane,[570]) to whome the said letter was delivered. Butt howsoever it was, thei cruell beastis, the Bischope of Sanctandrois and Abbot of Dumfermling, ceassed nott, till that the head of the said noble man was strickin from him; especiallie becaus that he was knawin to be ane that unfeanedlie favored the treuth of Goddis word, and was a great freind to those that war in the Castell of Sanctandrois; of whose deliverance, and of Goddis wonderouse wyrking with thame during the tyme of thare bondage, we man now speak, least that in suppressing of so notable a wark of God, we mycht justlie be accused of ingratitude.


And, first, the principalles being putt in severall houssis, as befoir we have said, great laubouris was maid to mack thame have a good opinioun of the Messe. But cheaflie travail was takin upoun Normond Leslye,[571] the Lard of Grange, and the Lard of Petmyllie,[572] who war in the Castell of Scherisburgh,[573] that thei wold come to the Messe with the Capitane: Who answered, "That the Capitane had commandiment to keape thare bodyes, but he had no power to command thare conscience." The Capitane replyed, "That he had power to command and to compell thame to go whare he yead." Thei answered, "That to go to any lauchfull place with him, thei wold nott refuise; but to do any thing that was against thare conscience thei wold not, nether for him, nor yitt for the King." The Capitane said, "Will ye nott go to the Messe?" Thai answered, "No; and yf ye wald compell us, yitt will we displease yow farther; for we will so use our selfis thare, that all those that ar present shall knaw that we dispite it." These same answeris, (and somewhat scharpar,) Williame Kirkcaldye, Petir Carmichaell, and such as war with thame in Mont Sanct Michaell, gave to thare Capitane; for thei said, "Thei wold nott only hear Messe everie day, but that thei wold help to say it, provided that thei mycht stick the preastis, or ellis thei wold nott." Maister Henry Balnaves,[574] who was in the Castell of Rowane, was most sharplie assaulted of all; for becaus he was judged learned, (as he was, and is, in deid,) tharefoir learned men war appointed to trawall with him, with whome he had many conflictes; but God so ever assisted him, that thei departed confounded, and he, by the power of Goddis Spreit, remaned constant in the trewth and profession of the same, without any wavering or declynyng to idolatrie. In the preasone he wrait a most profitable Treatise of Justificatioun,[575] and of the workis and conversatioun of a justifeid man: but how it is suppressed, we know nott. These that war in the galayis war threatned with tormentis, yf thei wold not geve reverence to the Messe, (for at certane tymes the Messe was said in the galay, or ellis heard upoun the schoar, in[576] presence of the forsaris;) butt thei could never mack the poorest of that cumpanye to geve reverence to that idole. Yea, when upoun the Setterday at nycht, thei song thare Salve Regina, the hole Scottishmen putt on thare cappes, thare hoodis, or such thing as thei had to cover thare headis; and when that otheris war compelled to kyss a paynted brod, (which thei called "Nostre Dame,") thei war not preassed after ones; for this was the chance. [SN: MEARY FACT.] Sone after the arrivall at Nances,[577] thare great Salve was song, and a glorious painted Lady was brought in to be kissed, and, amongis otheris, was presented to one of the Scotishmen then cheyned. He gentillye said, "Truble me nott; such ane idole[578] is accurssed; and tharefoir I will not tuich it." The Patron and the Arguesyn, with two officeris, having the cheaf charge of all such materis, said, "Thow salt handill it;" and so thei violentlie thrust it to his face, and putt it betuix his handis; who seing the extremitie, tooke the idole, and advisitlie looking about, he caist it in the rivare, and said, "Lett our Lady now saif hir self: sche is lycht aneuch; lett hir learne to swyme." After that was no Scotish man urged with that idolatrie.

These ar thingis that appear to be of no great importance; and yit yf we do rychtlie considder, thei expresse the same obedience that God requyred of his people Israell, when that thei should be caryed to Babylon; for he gave charge unto thame, that when thei should see the Babylonians wirschipe thare goddis of gold, silver, mettall, and woid, that thei should say, [SN: JERE. 10.] "The goddis that have nott maid the heavin and the earth shall perish frome the heavin, and out of the earth." That confessioun gave that hole nomber, during the tyme of thare bondage: in the which, wald God thei had continewed in thare fredome; for then had nott Maister James Balfour bein Officiall,[579] neyther yitt borne a cope[580] for pleasur of the Bischope. But to proceid. The said Maister James and Johne Knox being intill one galay, and being wounderous familiare with him, wold often tymes ask his judgement, "Yf he thought that ever thei should be delivered?" Whose answer was ever, fra the day that thei entered in the galayis, "That God wald deliver thame from that bondage, to his glorie, evin in this lyef." [SN: QUAEVIS MULTA SINT JUSTORUM MALA.] And lyeing betuix Dundye and Sanctandrois, the secound tyme[581] that the galayis returned to Scotland, the said Johne being so extreamlye seak, that few hoped his lyeff, the said Maister James willed him to look to the land, and asked yf he knew it? Who answered, "Yes: I knaw it weall; for I see the stepill of that place, whare God first in publict opened my mouth to his glorie, and I am fullie persuaded, how weak that ever I now appear, that I shall nott departe this lyif, till that my toung shall glorifie his godlie name in the same place." This reported the said Maister James in presence of many famous witness, many zearis befoir that ever the said Johne sett his futt in Scotland, this last tyme, to preache.


Williame Kirkcaldy, then of Grange, youngar, Petir Carmichaell, Robert and Williame Leslyes, who war altogetther in Mont Sanct Michaell,[582] wrait to the said Johnne, asking his counsall, "Yf thei mycht with saif conscience break thare preasone?" Whose answer was, "That yf without the blood of any sched of spilt by thame for thare deliverance, thei mycht sett thame selfis at fredome, that thei mycht saiflye tak it: but to sched any manes bloode for thare fredome, thairto wold he never consent." Adding farther, "That he was assured that God wold deliver thame, and the rest of that cumpany, evin in the eis[583] of the world; but not by such meanes as we had looked for, that was by the force of freindis, or by thare other labouris." By such meanes he affirmed thei should nott be delivered, but that God wold so wirk in the deliverance of thame, that the praise thairof should redound to his glorie onlye. He willed, tharefoir, everie one to tack the occasioun that God offerred unto thame, providing that thei committed nothing against Goddis expresse commandiment, for deliverance of thame selves. He was the more earnest in geving his counsall, becaus that the old Larde of Grange,[584] and otheris, repugned to thare purpoise, fearing least that the eschaping of the otheris should be ane occasioun of thare warse entreatment. Whareunto the said Johnne answered, "That such fear proceided nott from Goddis Spreat, but only from ane blynd luif of the self; and tharefor, that no good purpoise was to be stayed for thingis that war in the handis and power of God." And added, "That in one instant God delivered all that cumpany in the handis of unfaythfull men, but so wald he nott releave thame. But some wald he deliver by one meanes, and at one tyme, and otheris must abyd for a season upon his good pleasur." This counsall in the end embrased, upoun the Kinges Evin,[585] when French men commonlie use to drynk liberallie, the foirsaid four personis, having the helpe and conducting of a boy of the house, band all those that war in the Castell, putt thame in syndrie houssis, locked the doores upon thame, took the keyis from the Capitane, and departed, without harme done to the persone of any, or without tueching of any thing that apparteaned to the King, the Capitane, or the house.


Great search was maid throweh the hole countrey for thame.[586] But it was Goddis gud pleasur so to conduct thame, that thei eschaped the handis of the faithless, albeit it was with long travaill, and grait pane and povertie susteaned; for the French boy left thame, and took with him the small poise that thei had; and so nether having money, nor knawledge of the countrey, and farther fearing that the boy should discrive thame, (as that in verray dead he did,) thei took purpose[587] to devid thame selfis, to change thare garmentis, and to go in sindrie partes. The two brethrein, Williame and Robert Leslyes,[588] (who now ar become, the said Robert especiall, ennemies to Christ Jesus and to all vertew,) came to Rowane. Williame Kirkcaldy and Petir Carmichael, in beggaris garment, came to Conqwet,[589] and by the space of twelf or threttein weakis, thei travalled as poore marinaris, frome porte to porte, till at lenth thei gat a French schipe, and landed in the Weast, and from thense came to England, whare thei mett befoir thame the said Johne Knox, who that same wynter was delivered, and Alexander Clerk[590] in his cumpany.

The said Johne[591] was first appointed preachar to Berwik, then to Newcastell; last he was called to London, and to the sowth partes of England, whare he remaned to the death of King Edwart the Sext.[592] When he left England, then he passed to Geneva, and thare remaned at his privat study, till that he was called by the Engliss[593] congregatioun, that then was assembled at Franctfoorde, to be preachear to thame: Which vocatioun he obeyed, (albeit unwillinglye,) at the commandiment of that notable servand of God, JOHNE CALVYNE. At Franctfoord he remaned, till that some of the learned, (whose names we suppress,) moir gevin to unprofitable ceremonies,[594] then to synceritie of religioun, began to qwerrall with the said Johnne; and becaus thei dispared to prevaill befoir the Magistrat thare, for the establissing of thare corruptionis, thei accused him of treasone committed against the Emperour, and against thare Soverane Quein Marie, that in his ADMONITIOUN TO ENGLAND,[595] he called the one lytill inferiour to Nero, and the other more cruell then Jezabell. The Magistrat perceaving thare malice, and fearing that the said Johnne should fall in the handis of his accusatouris, by one meane or by other, gave advertisment secreatlie to him to departe thare citie; for thei could not saif him yf he ware required by the Emperour, or by the Quein of England in the Emperouris name; and so the said Johne returned to Geneva, from thense to Deape, and thairafter to Scotland, as we shall after hear.

The tyme and that wynter that the galayes remaned in Scotland, war delivered Maister James Balfour, his twa brethrein, David and Gilbert, Johne Auchinlek, Johnne Sibbald, Johne Gray, William Gutthery, and Stevin Bell.[596] The gentilmen that remaned in preasonis war, by the procurement of the Quein Dowager, to the Cardinall of Lorane and to the King of France, sett at libertie in the moneth of Julij, Anno 1550; who schorte tharefter war called to Scotland,[597] thare peax proclamed, and thei thame selfis restored to thare landis, in dyspite of thare ennemies. And that was done in hatterent of the Duck, becaus that then France begane to thrist to have the regiment of Scotland in thare awin handis. How soever it was, God maid the heartis of thare ennemyes to sett thame at libertie and fredome. Thare rested a nomber of commoun servandis yitt in the galayes, who war all delivered upoun the contract of peace that was maid betuix France and England, after the tackin of Bullon; and so was the haill cumpany sett at libertie, none perishing,[598] (no nott befoir the world,) except James Melvin, who departed from the miserie of this lyif in the Castell of Byrst in Bartainzea.[599]


This we wryte to lett the posteriteis to come understand, how potentlye God wrought in preserving and delivering of these that had butt a small knowledge of his trewth, and for the luif of the same hasarded all; that yf that eyther we now in our dayis, having grettar lycht, or our posteriteis that shall follow us, shall see ane fearfull dispersioun of such as oppone thame selfis to impietie, or tack upoun thame to punishe the same, otherwiese then lawis of men will permite: yf, (we say,) we or thei[600] shall see such left of men, yea, as it war, dispyssed and punished of God; yit lett us nott dampne the personis that punish vice, (and that for just caussis;) nor yitt dispare, butt that the same God that dejectes, (for causes unknawin to us,) will raise up agane the personis dejected, to his glorye and thare conforte. And to lett the world understand in plane termes what we meane, that great abusar of this commoun wealth, that pultron and vyle knave Davie, was justlie punished, the nynt of Merch, in the year of God[601] J^m. V^c. threscore fyve, for abusing of the commoun wealth, and for his other villany,[602] which we list nott to express, by the counsall and handis of James Dowglas, Erle of Morton, Patrik Lord Lyndesay, and the Lord Ruthven, with otheris assistaris in thare cumpany, who all, for thare just act, and most worthy of all praise, ar now unworthely left of thare brethrein, and suffer the bitterness of banishement and exyle. But this is our hope in the mercyes of our God, that this same blynd generatioun, whither it will or nott, shalbe compelled to see that he will have respect to thame that ar injustlye persewed; that he will apardoun thare formar offenses; that he will restore thame to the libertie of thare countrey and common wealth agane; and that he will punish, (in dispyte of man,) the head and the taill, that now trubles the just, and manteanes impietie. [SN: THE REULARIS OF MARY, ANNO 1566, AND THAIRE PREDICTIOUN.] The head is knawin: the taill hes two branches; the temporall Lordis that manteane hir abhominationis, and hir flattering counsallouris, blasphemous Balfour, now called Clerk of Register,[603] Sinclar Deane of Restalrige and Bischope of Brechin, blynd of ane eie in the body, but of boithe in his saule,[604] upoun whome God schortlie after took vengeance; [John[605]] Leslye, preastis gett,[606] Abbot of Londorse and Bischope of Ross, Symon Preastoun of Craigmyllare,[607] a right epicureane, whose end wilbe, or it be long, according to thare warkis. Butt now to returne to our Historye.

* * * * *

Haddingtoun being keapt,[608] and much hearschipe done about in the countrey, (for what the Engliss men destroyed nott, that was consumed by the French,) God begynnis to feght for Schotland; for in the toun he send a peast so contagious, that with great difficultie could thei have thare dead buryed. Thei war oft refresched with new men, but all was in vane. Hunger and pest within, and the persuyt of the ennemy with a campe volant lay about thame, and intercepted all victuallis, (except when thei war brought by ane convoy from Berwik,) so constrayned thame that the Counsall of England was compelled in spring tyme to call thare forses from that place; and so spuilzeing and burnyng some parte of the toune, thei left it to be occupyed to such as first should tack possessioun,—and those war the Frenchmen, with a meane nomber of the ancient inhabitantis. And so did God performe the woordis and threatnyng of his servand, Maister George Wisharte, who said, "That for thare contempt of Goddis messinger, thei should be visited with sweard and fyre, with pestilence, strangearis, and famyne;" which all thei fand in such perfectioun, that to this day yitt, that toune hes neyther recovered the formar beautie, nor yit men of such wisdome and habilitie, as then did inhabite it.

Hearafter was Peace contracted betuix France and England and Scotland;[609] yea, a severall Peace was contracted betuix Scotland and Flanderis, togetther with all the Easterlingis; so that Scotland had peace with the world.[610] Butt yitt wold thare Bischopcs maik warr against God; for how sone that ever thei gat any qwyetness, thei apprehended Adame Wallace,[611] alias Fean, a sempill man, without great learnyng, but ane that was zelous in godlynes and of ane uprycht lyeff. He, with his wyif Beatrice Levingstoun, frequented the cumpany of the Lady Ormestoun,[612] for instructioun of hir childrein, during the truble of hir husband, who then was banissed. This bastard, called Bischope of Sanctandrois, took the said Adame furth of the place of Wyntoun,[613] (men supposed that thei thowght to have apprehended the Lard,) and caryed him to Edinburgh; whare, after certane dayis, he was presented to judgement in the Kirk of the Blak thevis alias Freiris,[614] befoir the Duik, the Erle of Huntley, and diverse otheris besydis, the Bischoppes and thare rable. Thei begyn to accuse him, (Maister Johnne Lauder[615] was Accusatour,) [SN: THE ACCUSATIOUN OF ADAME WALLACE AND HIS ANSWERIS.] "That he took upoun him to preach." He answered, "That he never judged himself worthy of sa excellent a vocatioun, and tharefoir he never took upoun him to preach; but he wold not deny, butt sometymes at the table, and sometymes in other prevey places, he wald reid, and had red the Scriptures, and had gevin such exhortatioun as God pleaseth to geve to him, to such as pleased to hear him." [SN: THE PAPISTICALL MANER OF ACCUSATIOUN.] "Knave, (quod ane,) what have ye to do to medle with the Scriptures?" "I think, (said he,) it is the dewitie of everie Christiane to seak the will of his God, and the assurance of his salvatioun, whare it is to be found, and that is within his Old and New Testament." "What then, (said ane other,) shall we leave to the Bischoppis and Kirkmen to do, yf everie man shalbe a babler upoun the Byble?" "It becumith[616] yow, (said he,) to speak more reverentlie of God, and of his blessed worde: Yf the judge war uncorrupt, he wald punish yow for your blasphemye. But to your questioun, I answer, That albeit ye and I, and other fyve thowsand within this realme, should read the Byble, and speak of it what God should geve us to speak, yitt left we more to the Bischoppes to do, nor eyther thei will or yit can weill do; for we leave to thame publictly to preach the Evangell of Jesus Christ, and to fead the flock, which he hath redeamed by his awin bloode, and hes commanded the same to the cayre of all trew pastouris. And when we leave this unto thame, me think we leave to thame a heavy burdein; and that we do unto thame na wrong, althowght we search our awin salvatioun whare it is to be found, considdering that thei ar but dum doggis, and unsavery salt, that hes altogither lost the seasson." The Bischoppes heirat offended, said, "What pratting is this? Lett his accusatioun be redd."

And than was begun, "False tratour, heretik, thow baptised thy awin barne: Thow said, thare is no Purgatorie: Thow said, that to pray to Sanctes and for the dead is idolatrie and a vane superstitioun, &c. What sayis thow of these thinges?" He answered, "Yf I should be bound to answer, I wold requyre an uprycht and indifferent judge." The Erle of Hunteley[617] disdanefullie said, "Foolishe man, wilt thow desyre ane uther judge nor my Lorde Dukis Grace, great Governour of Scotland, and my Lordis the Bischoppes, and the Clargy hear present?" Whairto he answered, "The Bischoppes can be no judges to me; for thei ar oppen ennemyes to me and to the doctrin that I professe. And as for my Lord Duck, I can not tell yf he hes the knowledge that should be in him that should judge and decerne betuix lyes and the trewth, the inventionis of men and the trew wirschipping of God. I desyre Goddis word (and with that he produced the Byble) to be judge betuix the Bischoppes and me, and I am content that ye all hear, and yf by this book, I salbe convict to have tawght, spokin, or done, in materis of religioun, any thing that repugnes to Goddis will, I refuise not to dye; but yf I can nott be convict, (as I am assured by Goddis woord I sall nott,) then I in Goddis name desyre your assistance, that malicious men execut not upoun me injust tyranny." The Erle of Hunteley said, "What a babling foole is this? Thow shalt gett none other judges then those that sitt heir." Wharunto the said Adam ansured, "The good will of God be done. But be ye assured, my Lord, with sic measur as ye mett to otheris, with the same measur it shalbe mett to yow agane. I know that I shall dye, but be ye assured, that my blood shalbe requyred of your handis."


Alexander Erle of Glencarne,[618] yitt alyve, said to the Bischope of Orknay,[619] and otheris that satt ney him, "Tack yow yon, my Lordis of the Clargye;[620] for hear I protest, for my parte, that I consent nott to his death." And so, without fear, prepared the said Adam to answer. And first, to the baptising of his awin child, he said, "It was and is als lauchfull to me, for lack of a trew minister, to baptise my awin child, as that it was to Abraham to circumcise his sone Ismael and his familie. And as for Purgatorie, praying to Sanctes, and for the dead, I have oft redd, (said he,) boith the New and Old Testamentis, but I nether could find mentioun nor assurance of thame; and tharefoir, I beleve, that thei ar but mear inventionis of men, devised for covetousnes saik." "Weall, (quod the Bischope,) ye hear this, my Lordis." "What sayis thow of the Messe?" spearis the Erle of Huntley. He ansuered, "I say, my Lord, as my master Jesus Christ sayis, 'That which is in greatast estimatioun befoir men, is abomination befoir God.'" [SN: LUCAE. [16.]] Then all cryed out, "Heresye! heresye!" And so was the sempill servand of God adjudged to the fyre; which he patientlie susteaned that same day, at after nune, upoun the Castell-hill.[621]

And so began thei agane to pollute the land, which God had laitlie plagued; for yitt thare iniquitie was nott come to so full rypnes, as that God wold that thei should be manifested to this hole realme, (as this day thei ar,) to be faggottis prepared for the everlesting fyre, and to be men whome nether plagues may correct, nor the light of Goddis woorde converte from thare darknes and impietie.

The Peace, as said is, contracted, the Quein Dowager past by sea to France, with galayes,[622] that for that purpose war prepared, and took with hir diverse of the nobilitie of Scotland, to witt, the Erles Huntley, Glencarne, Marschell, Cassilles, the Lordis Maxwell, Fleyming, Schir George Dowglass, togither with all the Kinges Sonnes, and diverse baronis and gentillmen of ecclesiasticall estait, the Bischope of Galloway, and many otheris, with promisses that thei should be richely rewarded for thare good service. What thei receaved we can nott tell; but few maid ruse at thare returnyng. The Dowager had to practise somewhat with hir brethrein, the Duck of Gueise, and the Cardinall of Lorane, the weght wharof the Governour after felt: for schortly after hir returnyng, was the Governour deposed of the governement, (justly by God, but most injustly by men,) and she maid Regent in the year of God J^m. V^c. fyfty four;[623] and a croune putt upone hir head, als seimlye a sight, (yf men had eis,) as to putt a sadill upoun the back of ane unrewly kow. And so began she to practise practise upoun practise, how France mycht be advanced, hir freindis maid riche, and sche brought to immortall glorie: for that was hir commoun talk, "So that I may procure the wealth and honour of my freindis, and a good fame unto my self, I regard nott what God do after with me." And in verray deid, in deap dissimulatioun, to bring hir awin purpose to effect, sche passed the commoun sorte of wemen, as we will after heare. Butt yit God, to whose Evangell she declared hir self ennemye, in the end frustrat hir of all hir devises.


Thus did light and darknes stryve within the realme of Scotland; the darknes ever befoir the world suppressing the light, from the death of that notable servand of God, Maister Patrik Hammyltoun, unto the death of Edwarde the Saxt, that most godly and most verteous King that hath bein knowin to have rounge in England, or elles whare, these many yearis bypast, who departed the miserie of this lyef the vj of Julij, Anno, &c., 1553. The death of this Prince was lamented of all the godly within Europe; for the graces gevin unto him of God, as weall of nature as of eruditioun and godlines, passed the measur that accustomablye useth to be gevin to other Princes in thare grettast perfectioun, and yitt exceaded he nott sextein yearis of aige. What gravitie abuf age, what wisdome passing all expectatioun of man,[624] and what dexteritie in answering in all thingis proponed, war into that excellent Prince, the Ambassadouris of all countreeis, (yea, some that war mortall ennemyes to him and to his realme, amonges whome the Quein Dowager of Scotland was not the least,) could and did testifie; for the said Quein Dowager, returnyng from France throwght England, commoned with him at lenth,[625] and gave record when sche came to this Realme, "That sche fand more wisdome and solidd judgement in young King Edward, then she wold have looked for in any three Princes that war then in Europe." His liberalitie towardis the godly and learned, that war in other realmes persecuted, was such as Germanes, Frenchmen, Italianes, Scottis, Spainzardis, Polonianes, Grecianis, and Hebrewis borne, can yitt geve sufficient document; for how honorablie war Martyn Buceir,[626] Petir Martyre, Joannes Alasco, ...[627] Emanuel Gualterus,[628] and many otheris, upoun his publict stipendis interteaned, thare patentis can witnesse, and thei thame selfis during thare lyffis wold never have denyed.

After the death of this most verteous Prince, of whome the godless people of England, (for the most parte,) was nott worthy, Sathan intended nothing less then the light of Jesus Christ utterly to have bein extinguissed, within the hole Ile of Britannye; for after him was rased up, in Goddis hote displeasur, that idolatress Jesabel, mischevous Marie, of the Spaynyardis bloode;[629] a cruell persecutrix of Goddis people, as the actes of hir unhappy regne can sufficiently witnesse.[630] And in to Scotland, that same tyme, (as we have hard,[631]) rang that crafty practisar, Marie of Lorane, then named Regent of Scotland; who, bound to the devotioun of hir two brethrein, the Duck of Gueise, and Cardinall of Lorane, did onlye abyd the oportunitie to cutt the throttis of all those in whome she suspected any knowledge of God to be, within the realme of Scotland. And so thought Sathan, that his kingdome of darkness was in qwietness and rest, asweall in the one realme, as in the other: but that provident eie of the Eternall our God, who continually watches for preservatioun of his Church, did so dispone all thingis, that Sathane schorte after fand him self far disapointed of his conclusioun tackin. For in that cruell persecutioun, used by that monstour, Marie of England, war godlie men dispersed in diverse nationis, of whom it pleaseth the goodnes of our God to send some unto us, for our conforte and instructioun.


And first cam a sempill man, WILLIAME HARLAW,[632] whose eruditioun, althowght it excell nott, yit for his zeill, and diligent plainess in doctrin, is he to this day worthy of praise, and remanes a fruitfull member within the Church of Scotland. After him cam that notable man, JOHNE WILLOK,[633] as one that had some commissioun to the Quein Regent, from the Duchess of Emden. Butt his principall purpose was to assay what God wald wirk by him in his native countrey. These two did sometymes, in severall cumpanyes, assemble the brethrein, who by thare exhortationis begane greatlie to be encoraged, and did schaw that thei had ane earnest thrist of godlines.


And last came JOHNE KNOX,[634] in the end of the harvest, in the year of God J^m. V^c. fyfty fyve; who first being loodged in the house of that notable man of God, James Syme, begane to exhorte secreatly in that same house; whareunto repared the Lard of Dun, David Forress, and some certane personages of the toune, amonges whome was Elizabeth Adamsoun, then spous to James Barroun,[635] burges of Edinburgh, who be reasson that she had a trubled conscience, delyted much in the cumpany of the said Johne, becaus that he, according to the grace gevin unto him, opened more fullie the fontane of Goddis mercyes, then did the commoun sorte of teachearis that sche had hard befoir, (for sche had heard none except Freiris,) and did with such gredynes drynk thairof, that at hir death she did expresse the frute of hir hearing, to the great conforte of all those that repared to hir; for albeit that she sufferred most grevous torment in hir body, yitt out of hir mouth was heard nothing but praising of God, except that somtymes she wold lament the trubles of those that war trubled by hir. Being somtymes demanded by hir Sisteris, "What she thought of that pane, which she than sufferred in body, in respect of that wharewith sometymes she was trubled in spreit?" She ansuered, "A thowsand year of this torment, and ten tymes more joyned unto it, is not to be compared to the qwarter of ane hour that I sufferred in my spreit. I thank my God, throught Jesus Christ, that hes delivered me from that most fearfull pane; and welcome be this, evin so long as it pleassed his godlie Majestie to exercise me thairwith." A litill befoir hir departuyre, she desyred hir Sisteris, and some otheris that war besyd hir, to sing a psalme, and amonges others, she appointed the 103. Psalme, begynnyng, "My saule praise thow the Lord alwyes;"[636] which ended, sche said, "At the teaching of this Psalme, begane my trubled soule first effectually to taist of the mercy of my God, which now to me is more sweat and precious, then[637] all the kingdomes of the earth war gevin to me to possesse thame a thowsand yearis." The Preastis urged hir with thare ceremonies and superstitionis; to whome she answered, "Depart from me, ye sergeantis[638] of Sathan; for I have refused, and in your awin presence do refuise, all your abominationis. That which ye call your Sacrament and Christes body, (as ye have deceaved us to beleve in tymes past,) is nothing but ane idole, and hes nothing to do with the rycht institutioun of Jesus Christ; and thairfor, in Goddis name, I command yow nott to truble me." Thei departed, allegeing, That she raved, and wist not what sche said. And she short thereafter sleapt in the Lord Jesus, to no small conforte of those that saw hir blessed departing. This we could nott omitt of this wourthy woman, who gave sa notable a confessioun, befoir that the great lycht of Goddis word did universallie schyne throwght this realme.

At the first cuming of the said Johne Knox, he perceaving diverse who had a zeall to godlynes maik small scrupill to go to the Messe, or to communicat with the abused Sacramentis in the Papisticall maner, begane alsweall in privy conferance as in doctrin, to schaw the impietie of the Messe, and how dangerous a thing it was to communicat in any sort with idolatrie. Wharewith the conscience of some being effrayed, the mater began to be agitat fra man to man, and so was the said Johne called to suppar by the Lard of Dun, for that same purpose, whare war conveaned David Forress, Maister Robert Lockart, Johne Willock, and Williame Maitland of Lethingtoun youngar, a man of good learnyng, and of scharpe witt and reassonyng. The questioun was proponed, and it was answered by the said Johne, "That no-wyise it was lauchfull to a Christiane to present him self to that idoll." Nothing was omitted that mycht maik for the temperisar,[639] and yitt was everie head so fullie ansuered, and especially one whairinto thei thought thare great defence stood, to wit, "That Paule at the commandiment of James, and of the eldaris of Jerusalem, passed to the tempill and fanzeid him self to pay his vow with otheris." This, we say, and otheris, war so fullye ansuered, that Williame Maitland concluded, saying, "I see perfytlye, that our schiftis will serve nothing befoir God, seing that thei stand us in so small stead befoir man." The answer of Johne Knox to the fact of Paule, and to the commandiment of James, was, "That Paule's fact had nothing to do with thare going to the Messe; for to pay vowes was sometymes Goddis commandiment, and was never idolatrie: but thare Messe, from the originall, was and remaned odiouse idolatrie; tharefor the factes war moist unlyik. Secundarly, (said he,) I greatly dowbt whitther eyther James's commandiment or Paule's obedience proceaded frome the Holy Ghost. We knaw thare counsall tended to this, That Paule should schaw him self one that observed the verray small pointes of the law, to the end that he mycht purchase to him the favouris of the Jewes, who war offended at him be reassone of the bruittis that war sparsed, that he tawght defectioun from Moses. Now, whill he obeyed thare counsall, he fell into the most disperat danger that ever he susteaned befor, whareof it was evident, that God approved nott that meane of reconciliatioun; but rather that he plainelie declaired, 'That evill should not be done that good mycht come of it.' Evill it was to Paule to confirme those obstinat Jewes in thare superstitioun by his exampill; worse it was to him to expone him self, and the doctrin which befoir he had tawght, to sklander and mockage; and tharefoir, (concluded the said Johne,) that the fact of Paule, and the seqwell that tharof followed, appeired rather to feght against thame that wold go to the Messe, than to geve unto thame any assurance to follow his example, onless that thei wold, that the lyik truble should instantlye apprehend thame that apprehended him, for obeying worldly wyise counsall." After these and lyik reassonynges, the Messe began to be abhorred of such as befoir used it for the fassioun, and avoiding of sclander, (as then thei termed it.)

Johne Knox, at the request of the Lard of Dun,[640] followed him to his place of Dun, whare he remaned a moneth, dalye exercised in doctrin, whairunto resorted the principall men of that countrey. After his returnyng, his residence was most in Calder,[641] whare repared unto him the Lord Erskin that now is,[642] the Erle of Argyle, then Lord of Lorne,[643] and Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois,[644] and now Erle of Murray; whare thei hard and so approved his doctrin, that thei wissed it to have bein publict. That same wynter[645] he tawght commonly in Edinburgh; and after the Youle, by the conduct of the Lard of Barr, and Robert Campbell of Kingyeancleucht, he came to Kyle,[646] and tawght in the Barr, in the house of the Carnell, in the Kingyeancleuch, in the toune of Air, and in the houssis of Uchiltrie, and Gathgyrth, and in some of thame ministrat the Lordis Table. Befoir the Pasche,[647] the Erle of Glencarne send for him to his place of Fynlastoun;[648] whare, after doctrin, he lyikwiese ministrat the Lordis Table, whairof besydis him self war parttakaris, his Lady, two of his sonnis, and certane of his freindis; and so returned he to Calder, whare diverse frome Edinburgh, and frome the countrey about, convened, asweall for the doctrin, as for the rycht use of the Lordis Table, which befoir thei had never practised. From thense he departed the secound tyme to the Lard of Dun; and teiching then in grettar libertie, the gentilmen required that he should ministrat lyikwiese unto thame the Table of the Lord Jesus, whairof war partakaris the moist parte of the gentilmen of the Mernse; who, God be praised, to this day constantlie do remane in the same doctrin which then thei professed, to witt, that thei refuissed all societie with idolatrie, and band thame selfis,[649] to the uttermost of thare poweris, to manteane the trew preaching of the Evangell of Jesus Christ, as God should offer unto thame preachearis and oportunitie.

The bruyt heirof sparsed, (for the Freiris from all qwarteris flokked to the Bischoppes,) the said Johne Knox was summond to compeir in the Kirk of the Black Freiris in Edinburgh, the xv day of Maij [1556,] which day the said Johne decread to keape; and for that purpose Johne Erskin of Dun, with diverse otheris gentilmen, convened to the toune of Edinburgh. Butt that dyet held nott; for whitther that the Bischoppis perceaved informalitie in thare awin proceidyngis, or yf thei feared danger to ensew upoun thare extremitie, it was unknown unto us. But the Setterday befoir the day appointed, thei caist thare awin summondis; and the said Johne, the same day of the summondis, tawght in Edinburgh in a greattar audience then ever befoir he had done in that toune: The place was the Bischope of Dunkellis his great loodgeing, whare he continewed in doctrin ten dayis, boyth befoir and after nune. The Erle of Glencarne allured the Erle Merschall,[650] who with Harye Drummound,[651] (his counsallour for that tyme,) heard ane exhortation, (but it was upone the nycht,) who war so weall contented with it, that thei boyth willed the said Johne to wrait unto the Quein Regent somwhat that mycht move hir to heir the word of God. He obeyed thare desyre, and wrait that which after was imprinted, and is called "THE LETTER TO THE QUEIN DOWAGER;"[652] which was delivered into hir awin handis by the said Alexander Erle of Glencarne. Which letter, when sche had redd, within a day or two, she delivered it to that proud Prelate, Betoun,[653] Bischope of Glasgw, and said in mockage, "Please yow, my Lord, to reid a pasqwill." Which woordis cuming to the earis of the said Johne, war the occasioun that to his Letter he maid his additionis,[654] as yitt may be sein. [SN: NOTA.] As concernyng the threatnyngis pronunccd against hir awin persone, and the most principale of hir freindis, lett thare verray flatteraris see what hath failled of all that he hes writtin. And tharefor it war expedient that hir Dochtter, now mischevouslye rynging, should look to that which hath passed befoir, least that in following the counsallis of the wicked, she end more miserablie then hir crafty Mother did.

Whill Johne Knox was thus occupyed in Scotland, letteris came unto him from the Engliss Kirk that was assembled in Geneva, (which was separated from that superstitious and contentious cumpany that war at Franckfoord,) commanding him in Goddis name, as he that was thare chosin pastor, to repayre unto thame, for thare conforte. Upone the which, the said Johne took his leave from us, almost in everie congregatioun whare befor he had preached, and exhorted us to prayaris, to reading of the Scriptures, and mutuall conference, unto such tyme as God should geve unto us grettar libertie. And hearupon he send befoir him to Deape, his mother in law Elizabeth Bowes,[655] and his wyef Marjory, with no small dolour to thare hartes, and unto many of us. He him self, by procurement and laubouris of Robert Campbell of Kingzeanclewch,[656] remaned behynd in Scotland, and passed to the old Erle of Ergyle,[657] who then was in the Castell of Campbell,[658] whare he tawght certane dayis. The Lard of Glenurquhare,[659] (which yit liveth,) being one of his auditouris, willed the said Erle of Ergyle to reateane him still; but he, purposed upoun his jorney, wold not att that tyme stay for no requeast, adding, "That yf God so blessed thei small begynnynes, that thei continewed in godlyness, whensoever thei pleased to command him, thei should fynd him obedient;" but said, "That ones he must neadis visit that lytill flock which the wickedness of men had compelled him to leave." And so in the moneth of Julij he left this realme, and past to France, and so to Geneva. Immediatly after, the Bischoppis summoned him, and for none compeirance, brunt him in effigie at the Croce of Edinburgh, in the year of God 1555.[660] Fra the which injust sentence the said Johnne maid his APPELLATIOUN, and caused to print the same, and direct it to the Nobilitie and Commounes of Scotland,[661] as yitt may be redd.


In[662] the wynter that the said Johne aboad in Scotland, appeired a comet, the course whairof was from the south and south-west, to the north and north-east. It was sein the monethis of November, December, and Januare. It was called "The fyrie boosome."[663] Sune after dyed Christierne, King of Denmark: And warr raise betuix Scotland and England; for the Commissionaris of boyth realmes, who almost the space of sex monethis entraitted upoun the conditionis of peace, and war upoun a neyr point of conclusioun [war disappointed.] The Quein Regent with hir Counsall of the French factioun decreatted war at Newbattil,[664] without geving any advertisment to the Commissionaris for the parte of Scotland. Such is the fidelitie of Princes, guyded by Preastis, when soever thei seik thare awin affectionis to be served.


In the end of that nixt harvest, was sein upoun the Bordouris of England and Scotland a strange fyre, which discended from the heavin, and brunt diverse cornes in boyth the realmes, but most in England. Thare was presented to the Quein Regent, by Robert Ormestoun, a calf having two headdis, whareat sche scripped, and said, "It was but a commoun thing." The warr begane in the end of the harvest, as said is, and conclusioun was tackin that Wark[665] should be asseged. The army and ordinance past fordwarte to Maxwell Heucht.[666] The Quein Regent remaned in the Castell of Home,[667] and thinking that all thingis war in assurance, Monsieur Dosell, then Lieutenant for France, gave charge that the cannonis should be transported ower the watter of Twead, which was done with expeditioun, (for the French in such factes ar experte;) [SN: THE FACT OF THE NOBILITIE OF SCOTLAND AT MAXWELL HEWCHT.] but the nobilitie of Scotland nothing content of such proceadingis, after consultatioun amongis thame selfis, past to the palzeon[668] of Monsieur Dosell, and in his awin face declared, "That in no wiese wald thei invade England," and tharefoir command the ordinance to be reteired; and that it was, without farther delay.[669]

This putt ane effray in Monsieur Dosell his breathe,[670] and kendilled such a fyre in the Quein Regentis stomak, as was nott weall slockened till hir braith failled. And thus was that enterprise frustrate. Butt yitt warre continewed, during the which the Evangell of Jesus Christ begane wonderouslye to floriss; for in Edinburgh begane publictlie to exhorte, Williame Harlaw; Johnne Dowglass,[671] who had (being with the Erle of Ergyle) preached in Leyth, and sometymes exhorted in Edinburgh; Paule Meaffen begane publictly to preach in Dondye; and so did diverse otheris in Anguss and the Mernse.


And last, at Goddis good pleasur, arryved Johnne Wyllok the secound tyme from Emden;[672] whose returne was so joyfull to the brethrein, that thare zeall and godly courage daly encreassed. And albeit he contracted a dangerous seaknes, yitt he ceassed nott from laubouris, but tawght and exhorted from his bed: some of the nobilitie, [SN: LORD SETOUN ANE APOSTAT.] (of whome some ar fallen back, amongis whome the Lord Setoun[673] is cheaf,) with many baronis and gentilmen, war his auditouris, and by him war godly instructed, and wonderouslie conforted. Thei keapt thare conventionis, and held counsallis with such gravitie and closnes, that the ennemyes trembled. [SN: THE ABOLISHING OF IMAGES AND TRUDLE THAREFOIR.] The images war stollen away in all partes of the countrie; and in Edinburgh was that great idole called Sanct Geyle,[674] first drouned in the North Loch,[675] after brunt, which rased no small truble in the toun. For the Freiris rowping lyik reavins upoun the Bischoppes, the Bischoppes ran upoun the Quein, who to thame was favorable yneweh, but that she thowght it could not stand with hir advantage to offend such a multitud as then took upon thame the defence of the Evangell, and the name of Protestantes. [SN: THE PREACHARIS SUMMONED.] And yitt consented sche to summond the Preachearis; whareat the Protestantis neyther offended, neyther yitt thairof effrayed, determined to keape the day of summondis,[676] as that thei did. [SN: THE PRACTISE OF PRELATTIS, AND WHAT THAIROF ENSEWED.] Which perceaved by the Prelattis and Preastis, thei procured a proclamatioun to be publictlie maid, "That all men that war come to the toune without commandiment of the authoritie, should with all diligence repayre to the Bordouris, and thare remane xv dayis:" for the Bischope of Galloway,[677] in this maner of ryme, said to the Quein, "MADAME,

Becaus thei ar come without ordour, I red ye, send thame to the Bordour."


Now so had God provided, that the qwarter of the West-land, (in to the which war many faythfull men,) was that same day returned from the Bordour; who understanding the mater to procead from the malice of the Preastis, assembled thame selfis together, and maid passage to thame selfis, till thei came to the verray prevey chalmer, whare the Quein Regent and the Bischoppes war. The Gentilmen begane to complane upoun thare strange intertenement, considdering that hir Grace had found into thame so faithfull obedience in all thingis lauchfull. Whill that the Quein begane to craft, a zelous and a bold man, James Chalmeris of Gaitgyrth,[678] said, "Madame, we know that this is the malice and devise of thei Jefwellis, and of that Bastard, (meanyng the Bischope of Sanctandrois,) that standis by yow: We avow to God we shall maik ane day of it. Thei oppresse us and our tennantis for feading of thare idill bellyes: thei truble our preacheris, and wold murther thame and us: Shall we suffer this any longare? Na, Madame: It shall nott be." And tharewith everie man putt on his steill bonet. Thare was hard nothing of the Quenis parte but "My joyes, my hartes, what ailes yow? Me[679] meanes no evill to yow nor to your preachearis. The Bischoppes shall do yow no wrong. Ye ar all my loving subjectes. Me knew nathing of this proclamatioun. The day of your preachearis shalbe discharged, and me will hear the controversie that is betuix the Bischoppes and yow. Thei shall do yow no wrong. My Lordis," said she to the Bischoppes, "I forbid yow eyther to truble thame or thare preachearis." [SN: O CRAFTY FLATTERAR!] And unto the gentilmen who war wonderouslye commoved, she turned agane, and said, "O my heartis, should ye nott love the Lord your God with all your harte, with all your mynd? and should ye nott luif your nychtbouris as your selfis?" With these and the lyik fair wordis, she keapt the Bischoppes from buffattis at that tyme.


And so the day of summondis being discharged, begane the brethrein universallie to be farther encoraged. But yit could the Bischoppes in no sorte be qwyet; for Sanct Geillis day approcheing, thei gave charge to the Provest, Baillies, and Counsall of Edinburgh, eyther to gett agane the ald Sanct Geile, or ellis upoun thaire expenssis to maik ane new image. [SN: THE ANSWER OF EDINBURGH.] The Counsall answered, "That to thame the charge appeired verray injust; for thei understood that God in some plaices had commanded idolles and images to be distroyed; but whare he had commanded ymages to be sett up, thei had nott redd; and desyred the Bischope to fynd a warrant for his commandiment." [SN: EDINBURGH APPELLED FROM THE SENTENCE OF THE BISCHOPE OF SANCTANDROSE.] Whareat the Bischope offended, admonissed under pane of curssing; which thei prevented by a formall Appellatioun;[680] appelling from him, as from a parciall and corrupt judge, unto the Pape's holynes; and so grettar thingis schortly following, that passed in oblivioun. Yit wold nott the Preastis and Freiris cease to have that great solempnitie and manifest abhominatioun which thei accustomablie had upoun Sanct Geillis day,[681] to witt, thei wold have that idole borne; and tharefor was all preparatioun necessar deuly maid. A marmouset idole was borrowed fra the Gray Freiris, (a silver peise of James Carmichaell[682] was laid in pledge:) It was fast fixed with irne nailles upon a barrow, called thare fertour. [SN: TRIUMPH FOR BEARING OF STOCK GEILL.] Thare assembled Preastis, Frearis, Channonis, and rottin Papistes, with tabornes and trumpettis, banerris and bage-pypes, and who was thare to led the ring, but the Quein Regent hir self, with all hir schaivelingis, for honour of that feast. West about goes it, and cumis doun the Hie Streat, and doun to the Canno Croce.[683] The Quein Regent dyned that day in Sandie Carpetyne's housse, betuix the Bowes,[684] and so when the idole returned back agane, sche left it, and past in to hir dennar. The heartes of the brethrein war wonderouslie inflammed, and seing such abominatioun so manifestlie manteaned, war decreed to be revenged. Thei war devided in severall cumpanyes, wharof not one knew of ane other. Thare war some temperisaris that day, (amonges whome David Forress, called the Generall,[685] was one,) who, fearing the chance to be dune as it fell, laubored to stay the brethrein. Butt that could not be; for immediatlie after that the Quein was entered in the loodgeing, some of those that war of the interprise drew ney to the idole, as willing to helpe to bear him, and getting the fertour upon thare schulderis, begane to schudder, thinking that thairby the idole should have fallin. [SN: THE DOUNCASTING OF STOCK GEILL, AND DISCONFITUR OF BAALIS PREASTIS.] But that was provided and prevented by the irne nailles, as we have said; and so, begane one to cry "Doun with the idole; doun with it;" and so without delay it was pulled doun. Some brag maid the Preastis patrons at the first; but when thei saw the febilness of thare god, (for one took him by the heillis, and dadding his head to the calsay, left Dagon without head or handis, and said, "Fye upon thee, thow young Sanct Geile, thy father wold haif taryed four such:") this considdered, (we say,) the Preastis and Freiris fled faster then thei did at Pynckey Clewcht.[686] Thare mycht have bein sein so suddane a fray as seildome hes bein sein amonges that sorte of men within this realme; for doun goes the croses, of goes the surpleise, round cappes cornar with the crounes. The Gray Freiris gapped, the Blak Frearis blew, the Preastis panted, and fled, and happy was he that first gate the house; for such ane suddan fray came never amonges the generatioun of Antichrist within this realme befoir. [SN: A MEARY ENGLISMAN.] By chance thare lay upoun a stare a meary Englissman, and seing the discomfiture to be without blood, thought he wold add some mearynes to the mater, and so cryed he ower a stayr, and said, "Fy upoun yow, hoorsones, why have ye brockin ordour! Doun the streat ye passed in array and with great myrth. Why flie ye, vilanes, now, without ordour? Turne and stryk everie one a strok for the honour of his god. Fy, cowardis, fy, ye shall never be judged worthy of your wages agane!" But exhortationis war then unprofitable; for after that Bell had brokin his neck, thare was no conforte to his confused army.

The Quein Regent lade up this amonges hir other mementoes, till that sche mycht have sein the tyme proper to have revenged it. Search was maid for the doaris, but none could be deprehended; for the brethrein assembled thame selfis in such sorte, in companyes, synging psalmes, and prasing God, that the proudast of the ennemies war astonied.


This tragedy of Sanct Geill was so terrible to some Papistes, that Dury, sometymes called for his filthines Abbot Stottikin, and then intitulat Bischope of Galloway,[687] left his rymyng wharewith he was accustumed, and departed this lyef, evin as that he leved: For the articles of his beleve war; "I Referr: Decarte yow: Ha, ha, the four Kinges and all maid: The Devill go with it: It is but a varlett:

Fra France we thought to have gottin a Rooby;[688] And yit is he nothing but a cowhuby."


With such faith and such prayeris, departed out of this lyeff that ennemy of God, who had vowed and plainelie said, "That in dispyte of God, so long as thei that then war Prelattis lyved, should that word (called the Evangell) never be preached within this realme." [SN: THE DEATH OF DAVID PANTER.] After him followed that belly-god, Maister David Panter,[689] called Bischope of Ross, evin with the lyik documentis, exceapt that he departed eatting and drynking, which, togitther with the rest that tharupoun dependis, was the pastyme of his lyef.


The most parte of the Lordis that war in France at the Quenis mariage, althought that thei gat thare congie fra the Courte, yit thei forget to returne to Scotland.[690] For whitther it was by ane Italiane posset, or by French fegges, or by the potage of thare potingar, (he was a French man,) thare departed fra this lyef the Erle of Cassilles,[691] the Erle of Rothose,[692] Lord Flemyng,[693] and the Bischope of Orknay, whose end was evin according to his lyfe:[694] For after that he was dryvin back by a contrarious wynd, and forced to land agane at Deape, perceaving his seiknes to encrease, he caused maik his bed betuix his two cofferis, (some said upoun thame:) such was his god, the gold that tharein was inclosed, that he could not departe tharefra, so long as memorie wold serve him. The Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois, had (by all appearance) lyked of the same bust[695] that dispatched the rest, for thareof to this day his stomack doeth testifie: but God preserved him for a bettir purpose. This same Lord James, now Erle of Murray, and the said Bischope, war commonlye at debate for materis of religioun; and tharefoir the said Lord, hearing of the Bischoppis disease, came to visitt him, and fynding him not sa weall at a point as he thowght he should have bein, and as the honour of the country requyred, said unto him, "Fy, my Lord, how ly ye so? Will ye not go to your chalmer, and not ly hear into this commoun house?" [SN: ORKNAYIS ANSWER, AND HIS FREINDIS WHOME.] His answer was, "I am weall whare I am, my Lord, so long as I can tary; for I am neir unto my freindis, (meanyng his cofferis and the gold tharein.) But, my Lord, (said he,) long have ye and I bein in pley for Purgatory: I think that I shall know or it be long whetther thare be such a place or not." Whill the other did exhorte him to call to mynd the promisses of God, and the vertew of Christis death; he answered, "Nay, my Lord, lett me allon; for ye and I never aggreid in our lyiff, and I think we shall nott aggree now at my death; and tharefor lett me allone." The said Lord James departed to his loodgeing, and the other schort after departed this lyef; whitther, the great day of the Lord will declare.


When the word of the departing of so many patrons of the Papistrye, and of the maner of thare departing, cam unto the Quein Regent, after astonisment and musing, she said, "What shall I say of such men? Thei lieved as beastis, and as beastis thei dye: God is not with thame, nether with that which thei interprise."


Whill these thingis war in doing in Scotland and France, that perfyt hipocryte Maister Johne Sinclare, then Dene of Restalrige,[697] and now Lord President and Bischope of Brechin, begane to preache in his Kirk of Restalrig; and at the begynnyng held himself so indifferent, that many had opinion of him, that he was nott far from the kingdom of God. But his hypochrisie could nott long be clocked; for when he understood that such as feared God began to have a good opinioun of him, and that the Freiris and otheris of that sect begane to whisper, "That yf he took not head in tyme to him self, and unto his doctrin, he wold be the destructioun of the hole estait of the Kirk." This by him understand, he appointed a sermon, in the which he promissed to geve his judgement upoun all such headis as then war in controversie in the materis of religioun. The bruyte heirof maid his audience great at the first; but that day he so handilled him self, that after that, no godly man did creditt him; for not only ganesaid he the doctrin of Justificatioun and of Prayer which befoir he had tawght, but also he sett up and manteaned the Papistrie to the uttermost prick; yea, Holy Watter, Pilgramage, Purgatory, and Pardonis war of such vertew in his conceit, that without thame he looked not, to be saved.


In this meantyme, the Clargye maid a brag that thei wald disput. But Maister David Panter,[698] which then lived and lay at Restalrig, dissuaded thame tharefra, affirmyng, "That yf ever thei disputed, but whare thame selfis war bayth judge and party, and whare that fyre and swerd should obey thare decrie, that then thare caus was wracked for ever; for thare victorie stood neyther in God, nor in his word, but in thare awin willis, and in the thingis concluded by thare awin Counsallis, (togitther with sword and fyre,) whareto, (said he,) these new starte-up fellowis will give no place. But thei will call yow to your compt booke, and that is to the Bible; and by it ye will no more be found the men that ye ar called, then the Devill wilbe approvin to be God. And therefor, yf ye love your selfis, enter never in disputatioun; nether yitt call ye the mater in questioun; but defend your possessioun, or ellis all is lost." Cayaphas could not geve ane bettir counsall to his companizeons; but yitt God disapointed boith thame and him, as after we shall hear.

* * * * *


At this same tyme, some of the Nobilitie direct thare letteris to call JOHNE KNOX from Geneva, for thare conforte, and for the conforte of thare brethrein the preachearis, and otheris that then couragiouslye faught against the ennemyes of Goddis trewth. The tenour of thare lettre is this:

Grace, Mercy, and Peace, for Salutatioun, &c.

DEIRLIE BELOVED in the Lord, the Faithfull that ar of your acquentance in thir partes, (thankis be unto God,) ar stedfast in the beleve whareinto ye left thame, and hes ane godly thrist and desyre, day by day, of your presence agane; quhilk, gif the Spreat of God will sua move and permitt tyme unto yow, we will hartly desyre yow, in the name of the Lord, that ye will returne agane in thir partes, whare ye shall fynd all faithfull that ye left behynd yow, not only glaid to hear your doctrin, but wilbe reddy to jeopard lyffis and goodis in the forward setting of the glorie of God, as he will permitt tyme. And albeit the Magistraittis in this countrey be as yitt but in the staite ye left thame, yitt at the maiking heirof, we have na experience of any mair crueltie to be used nor was befoir; but rather we have beleve, that God will augment his flock, becaus we see daly the Freiris, ennemyes to Christis Evangell, in less estimatioun, baith with the Quenis Grace, and the rest of the Nobilitie of our realme. This in few wordis is the mynd of the faithfull, being present, and otheris absent. The rest of our myndis this faythfull berare will schaw you at lenth. This, fair ye weill in the Lord.

Off Striveling, the tent of Marche, Anno 1556.[699] (This is the trew copy of the bill, being subscrived by the names underwrittin,)


These letteris war delivered to the said Johne in Geneva, by the handis of James Sym, who now resteth with Christ, and of James Barroun, that yit liveth,[700] in the moneth of Maij immediatlie tharefter. Which receaved, and advised upoun, he took consultatioun alsweall with his awin church as with that notable servand of God, Johne Calvin, and with other godlie ministers, who all with one consent, said, "That he could nott refuise that Vocatioun, onless he wald declair him self rebellious unto his God, and unmercyfull to his contrie." And so he returned answer, with promessis to visite thame with ressonable expeditioun, and so sone as he mycht putt ordour to that dear flock that was committed to his charge. And so, in the end of the nixt September after, he departed from Geneva, and came to Deape, whare thare mett him contrare letteris; as by this his answer thareto we may understand.

The Spreit of wisdom, constancie, and strenth be multiplied with yow, by the favour of God our Father, and by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.

According to my promeis, Rycht Honorable, I came to Deape, the xxiiij of October, of full mynd, by the good will of God, with the first schippes to have visited yow. Bot becaus two letteris, not verray pleassing to the flesche, wer there presented unto me, I was compelled to stay for a tyme. The one was directed to myself from a faithfull brother, which maid mentioun, that new consultatioun was appointed for finall conclusioun of the mater befoir purposed, and willed me tharefoir to abyd in these partes, till the determinatioun of the same. The other letter was direct from a gentilman to a friend, with charge to advertise me, that he had communed with all those that seamed most frack and fervent in the mater, and that into none did he fynd such boldness and constancie, as was requisite for such ane interprise; bot that some did (as he writteth) reapent that ever any such thing was moved; some war partlie eschamed; and otheris war able to deny, that ever thei did consent to any such purpose, yf any triall or questioun should be tackin thareof, &c. Which letteris, when I had considdered, I partlie was confounded, and partlye was persed with anguise and sorrow. Confounded I was, that I had so far travelled in the mater, moving the same to the most godly and the most learned that this day we know to lyve in Europe, to the effect that I mycht have thare judgements and grave counsalles, for assurance alsweall of your consciences as of myne, in all interprises: And then that nothing should succead so long consultatioun, can not but redound eyther to your schame or myne; for eyther it shall appear; that I was mervelouse vane, being so solist whare no necessitie requyred, or ellis, that such as war my moveris thareto lacked the rypnes of judgement in thare first vocatioun. To some it may appear ane small and lycht mater, that I have cast of, and as it war abandoned, alsweall my particulare care, as my publict office and charge, leaving my house and poore familie destitut of all head, save God only, and committing that small (but to Christ deirlie belovit) flock, ower the which I was appointed one of the ministeris, to the charge of ane other. This, I say, to worldly men may appear a small mater, but to me it was, and yit is such, that more worldly sustance then I will expresse, could not have caused me willinglie behold the eies of so many grave men weape at ones for my caus, as that I did, in tackin of my last good nycht frome thame. To whome, yf it please God that I returne, and questioun be demanded, What was the impediment of my purposed jorney? judge yow what I shall answer. The caus of my dolour and sorrow (God is witnes) is for nothing pertenyng eyther to my corporall contentment or worldly displeasur; butt it is for the grevouse plagues and punishmentis of God, which assuredly shall apprehend nott only yow, but everie inhabitant of that miserable Realme and Ile, except that the power of God, by the libertie of his Evangell, deliver yow from bondage. [SN: THE MATRIMONIALL CROUN WAS GRANTED, AND FRENCHE BANDIS WAR ARRYVED.] I meane not only that perpetuall fyre and torment, prepared for the Devill, and for such as denying Christ Jesus and his knawin veritie, do follow the sones of wickednes to perditioun, (which most is to be feared;) butt also that thraldome and miserie shall apprehend your awin bodyes, your childrein, subjectis, and posteritie, whome ye have betrayed, (in conscience, I can except none that bear the name of Nobilitie,) and presentlie do feght to betray thame and your Realme to the slavrie of strangeris. The warr begune, (althocht I acknawledge it to be the wark of God,) shalbe your destructioun, unless that, be tyme, remedy be provided. God opin your eis, that ye may espy and considder your awin miserable estaite. My wordis shall appeir to some scharpe and undiscreitlie spokin; but as charitie awght to interpreit all thingis to the best, so awght wyse men to understand, that a trew friend can nott be a flatterar, especiallie when the questions of salvatioun, boith of body and saule, ar moved; and that nott of one nor of two, but as it war of a hole realme and natioun. What ar the sobbes, and what is the affectioun[701] of my trubled heart, God shall one day declare. But this will I add to my formar rigour and severitie, to wit, yf any perswad yow, for feir of dangeris that may follow, to faint in your formar purpose, be he never esteamed so wyse and freindly, lett him be judged of yow boith foolish and your mortall ennemy: foolishe, for becaus he understandeth nothing of Goddis approved wisedome; and ennemye unto yow, becaus he lauboureth to separat yow from Goddis favour; provoking his vengeance and grevouse plagues against yow, becaus he wald that ye should prefer your worldly rest to Goddis prase and glorie, and the freindschipe of the wicked to the salvatioun of your brethrein. [SN: LETT THE PAPISTIS THAME SELVIS JUDGE OF WHAT SPREIT THOSE SENTENSES COULD PROCEAD.] "I am nott ignorant, that feirfull trubles shall ensew your enterprise, (as in my formar letters I did signifie unto yow;) but O joyfull and confortable ar those trubles and adversities, which man susteaneth for accomplishment of Goddis will, reveilled by his woord! For how terrible that ever thei appear to the judgement of the naturall man, yit ar thei never able to devore nor utterlie to consume the sufferraris: For the invisible and invincible power of God susteaneth and preserveth, according to his promeis, all such as with simplicitie do obey him." The subtell craft of Pharao, many years joyned wyth his bloody cruelty, was not able to destroy the male childrein of Israell, nether war the watteris of the Redd Sea, much less the rage of Pharao, able to confound Moses and the cumpany which he conducted; and that because the one had Goddis promisse that thei should multiplie, and the other had his commandiment to enter into such dangeris. I wold your Wisedomes should considder, that our God remaneth one, and is immutable; and that the Church of Christ Jesus hath the same promeis of protectioun and defence that Israell had of multiplicatioun; and farther, that no less caus have ye to enter in your formar interprise, then Moses had to go to the presence of Pharao; for your subjectis, yea, your brethrein ar oppressed, thare bodyis and saules haldin in bondage: and God speaketh to your consciences, (onles ye be dead with the blynd warld,) [SN: THE DEUTIE OF THE NOBILITIE.] that yow awght to hasard your awin lyves, (be it against Kingis or Empriouris,) for thare deliverance; for only for that caus ar ye called Princes of the people, and ye receave of your brethrein honour, tribute, and homage at Goddis commandiment; not be reasson of your birth and progenye, (as the most parte of men falslie do suppose,) but by ressoun of your office and dewtie, which is to vindicat and deliver your subjectes and brethrein from all violence and oppressioun, to the uttermost of your power. [SN: THAT LETTER LOST BY NEGLIGENCE AND TRUBLES.] Advise diligentlie, I beseik yow, with the pointis of that Letter, which I directed to the hole Nobilitie, and lett everie man apply the mater and case to him self; for your conscience shall one day be compelled to acknowledge, that the Reformatioun of religioun, and of publict enormities, doith appertene to mo then to the Clargie, or cheaf reularis called Kingis. [SN: GOD GRANT THAT OUR NOBILITIE WOULD YITT UNDERSTAND.] The mychtie Spreit of the Lord Jesus rewle and guyde your counsellis, to his glorie, your eternall conforte, and to the consolatioun of your brethrene. Amen.

From Deape, the 27 of October 1557.

These letteris receaved and redd, togetther with otheris direct to the hole Nobilitie, and some particular gentilmen, as to the Lardis of Dun and Pettarrow, new consultatioun was had what was best to be done: and in the end it was concluded, that thei wold follow fordwart thare purpose anes intended, and wold committ thame selfis, and whatsoever God had gevin unto thame, in his handis, rather then thei wold suffer idolatrie so manifestlie to regne, and the subjectes of that Realme so to be defrauded, as long thei had bein, of the only food of thare saules, the trew preaching of Christes Evangell. And that everie ane should be the more assured of other, a commoun Band was maid, and by some subscrived, the tennour whareof followis:—

"We, perceaving how Sathan in his memberis, the Antichristis of our tyme, cruelly doeth rage, seaking to dounethring and to destroy the Evangell of Christ, and his Congregatioun, aught, according to our bonden deuitie, to stryve in our Maisteris caus, evin unto the death, being certane of the victorie in him. The quhilk our dewitie being weall considdered, We do promesse befoir the Majestie of God, and his congregatioun, that we (be his grace,) shall with all diligence continually apply our hole power, substance, and our verray lyves, to manteane, sett fordward, and establish the most blessed word of God and his Congregatioun; and shall laubour at our possibilitie to have faythfull Ministeris purely and trewlie to minister Christis Evangell and Sacramentes to his people. We shall manteane thame, nuriss thame, and defend thame, the haill congregatioun of Christ, and everie membour thairof, at our haill poweris and waring of our lyves, against Sathan, and all wicked power that does intend tyranny or truble against the foirsaid congregatioun. Onto the quhilk holy woord and congregatioun we do joyne us, and also dois forsaike and renunce the congregatioun of Sathan, with all the superstitious abominatioun and idolatrie thareof: And moreover, shall declare our selfis manifestlie ennemies thairto, be this oure faithfull promesse befoir God, testifeid to his Congregatioun, be our subscriptionis at thir presentis:—

"At Edinburgh, the thrid day of December, the year of God J^m. V^c. fyfty sevin yearis: God called to witnesse.[702]



Befoir a litill that this Band was subscryved, by the foirwrittin and many otheris, letteris war direct agane to Johne Knox fra the said Lordis, togitther with thare letteris to Maister CALVIN, craving of him, that by his authoritie he wold command the said Johne anes agane to visit thame. These letteris war delivered by the handis of Maister Johne Gray,[704] in the moneth of November, the yeir of God J^m. V^c. fyfty awght, who at that same tyme past to Rome for expeditioun of the bowes[705] of Ross to Maister Henry Sinclare.[706]

Immediatlie after the subscriptioun of this foirsaid Band, the Lordis and Barons professing Christ Jesus, conveined frequentlie in counsall; in the which these Headis war concluded:—

First, It is thought expedient, devised, and ordeaned, that in all parochines of this Realme the Commoun Prayeris[707] be redd owklie on Sounday, and other festuall dayis, publictlie in the Paroche Kirkis, with the Lessonis of the New and Old Testament, conforme to the ordour of the Book of Common Prayeris: And yf the curattis of the parochynes be qualified, to cause thame to reid the samyn; and yf thei be nott, or yf thei refuise, that the maist qualifeid in the parish use and read the same.

Secoundly, It is thought necessare, that doctrin, preacheing, and interpretatioun of Scriptures be had and used privatlie in qwyet houssis, without great conventionis of the people tharto, whill afterward that God move the Prince to grant publict preacheing be faithfull and trew ministeris.

* * * * *

These two Headis concernyng the religioun, and some otheris concernyng the Polecy, being concluded, the old Erle of Ergile took the mantenance of Johne Dowglass, caused him preache publictlie in his hous, and reformed many thingis according to his consall. The same boldness took diverse otheris, alsweall within townes as to landwarte; which did not a litle truble the Bischoppis and Quein Regent, as by this lettre and credite, committed to Sir David Hammyltoun [708] fra the Bischope of Sanctandrois to the said Erle of Ergile, may be clearlic understand.


MY LORD, After maist hartlie commendatioun. This is to advertise your Lordship, we have direct this berar, our Cousing, towart your Lordschipis, in sick besynes and effaris as concernes your Lordschipis honour, proffeitt, and great weall; lyk as the said berar will declare your Lordsehipe at mare lenth. Praying your Lordschipe effectuously to adverte thairto, and geve attendance to us, your Lordschipis freindis, that ay hes willed the honour, proffeit, and uter wealth of your Lordschipis house, as of our awin; and credite to the berar. And Jesu haif your Lordschipe in everlesting keaping.

Of Edinburgh, the XXV day of Merche, Anno 1558.

(Sic subscribitur,) Your Lordschippes att all power, J. SANCTANDROIS.

FOLLOWIS THE CREDITE.—Memorandum to SCHIR DAVID HAMMYLTOUN, to my Lord Erle of Ergile, in my behalf, and lett him see and heare everie Articule.

In primis, To repeit the ancient blood of his House, how long it hes stand, how notable it hes bein, and so many noble men hes bein Erles, Lordis, and Knychtis thairof; how long thei have rong in thei partes, ever trew and obedient bayth to God and the Prince, without any smote to thir dayis in any maner of sorte: and to remember how many notable men ar cuming of his house.

Secoundly, To schaw him the great affectioun I bear towardis him, his blood, house, and freindis, and of the ardent desyre I have of the perpetuall standing of it in honour and fame, with all thame that ar come of it: quhilk is my parte for many and diverse caussis, as ye shall schaw.

Thridly, To schaw my Lord, how havy and displeasing[709] it is to me now to hear, that he, wha is and hes bein sa noble a man, should be seduced and abused by the flattery of sick ane infamet person of the law[710] and mensworne apostate, that under the pretense that he geves him self furth as a preachcar of the Evangell and veritie, under that cullour settis furth schismes and divisionis in the Haly Kirk of God, with hereticall propositions, thinkand that under his mantenance and defence, to infect this countrey with heresy, perswading my said Lord and otheris his barnes and freindis, that all that he speakis is Scripture, and conforme thairto, albeit that many of his propositionis ar many yearis past condempned be Generall Counsallis and the haill estaite of Christiane people.

4. To schaw to my Lord, how perrelous this is to his Lordschip and his house, and decay thareof, in caise the Authoritie wold be scharpe, and wold use conforme bayth to civile and cannon, and als your awin municipall law of this Realme.

5. To schaw his Lordschipe, how wa[711] I wold be eyther to hear, see, or knaw any displeasur that mycht come to him, his Sone, or any of his house, or freindis, and especiallie in his awin tyme and dayis; and als how great displeasur I have ellis to hear great and evill bruyte of him, that should now in his aige, in a maner vary in[712] his fayth; and to be alterat tharein, when the tyme is that he should be maist suir and firme thairin.

6. To schaw his Lordschipe, that thare is dilatioun of that man, called Dowglass or Grant, of syndrie Articules of heresye, quhilk lyes to my charge and conscience to put remeady to, or ellis all the pestilentious doctrin he sawes, and siclyik all that ar corrupt be his doctrin, and all that he drawes fra our fayth and Christiane religioun, will ly to my charge afoir God, and I to be accused befoir God for ower seing of him, yf I putt nott remedy tharto, and correct him for sick thingis he is delaited of. And tharefor that my Lord considder, and weay it weall, how heychtlie it lyes bayth to my honour and conscience: for yf I thole him, I wilbe accused for all thame that he infectis and corruptis in heresye.

Heirfor, I pray My Lord, in my maist hartly manor, to tack this mater in the best parte, for his awin conscience, honour, and weall of him self, hous, freindis, and servandis; and sick lyik for my parte, and for my conscience and honour, that considdering that thare ar diverse Articules of heresey to be laid to him that he is delated of, and that he is presentlie in my Lordis cumpany, that my Lord wold, be some honest way, departe with this man, and putt him fra him and fra his Sonnes cumpanye; for I wold be richt sory that any being in any of thare cumpanyes should be called for sick causses, or that any of thame should be bruited to hold any sick men. And this I wold advertise my Lord, and have his Lordschippis answer and resolutioun, ere any summondis passed upoun him, togitther with my Lordis answer.

Item, Yf my Lord wald have a man to instruct him trewlie in the fayth, and preache to him, I wold provide a cunning man to him, wharefoir I shall answer for his trew doctrin, and shall putt my saule tharefoir, that he shall teach nathing but trewly according to our Catholik faith.

Off Edinburgh, this last of Merch, 1558.

(Sic subscribitur,) J. SANCTANDROIS.[713]


Item, Attour, your Lordschipe shall draw to good remembrance, and wey the great and havye murmur against me, bayth be the Quenis Grace, the Kirk men, Spirituall and Temporall Estaitis, and weall gevin people, meanyng, crying, and murmuring me greattumlie, that I do nott my office to thole sick infamouse persons with sick perversett doctrin, within my Diosey and this Realme, be ressoun of my Legasey and Primacey;[714] quhilkis I have rather susteaned and long sufferred, for the great luif that I had to your Lordschip and posteritie, and your freindis, and your house; als beleving suyrly your Lordschippis wisedom should not have manteaned and mulled with sick thingis that mycht do me dishonour or displeasur, considdering I being reddy to have putt good ordour thairto alwayes; but hes allanerlie absteaned, for the luif of your Lordschip and house foirsaid, that I bear trewly, knawing and seing the great skaith and dishonour and lack appeirandlye that mycht come tharthrowght, incaise your Lordschip remeid not the samyn haistelly, whareby we mycht bayth be qwyet of all danger, quhilkis dowbtless will come upoun us bayth, yf I use nott my office, or that he be called, the tyme that he is now with your Lordschip, and under your Lordschippis protectioun.

(Subserivit agane,) J. SANCTANDROIS.

By these formar Instructions, thow may perceave, Gentill Readar, what was the cayre that this pastor, with his complices, took to fead the flock committed to thare charge, (as thei alledge,) and to ganestand fals teachearis. Hear is oft mentioun of conscience, of heresy, and suche other termes, that may fray the ignorant, and deceave the sempill. But we hear no cryme in particulare laid to the charge of the accused;[715] and yit is he dampned as ane mensworne apostate. This was my Lordis conscience, which he learned of his fatheris, the Pharesies, old ennemyes to Christ Jesus, who damned him befoir thei hard him. But who rewlled my Lordis conscience, when he took his Eme's wyff, Lady Giltoun?[716] Considder thow the rest of his persuasioun, and thow shall clearlie see, that honour, estimatioun, luif to housse and freindis, is the best ground that my Lord Bischope hes, why he should persecut Jesus Christ in his members. We thowght good to insert the Answeris of the said Erle, which follow:—

The most remarkable notice of this lady occurs in the Records of the Town Council of Edinburgh, 26th November 1561, on which day the Provost and other members of Council ordained "actis to be set furth, charging Grizzell Simpill Lady Stanehous adulterar, to remuif her self furth of the town betuix and Mununday nixt, under the panys contenit in the proclamation set furth aganis adulteraris." As the Archbishop of St. Andrews had a residence in Edinburgh, it was no doubt her living openly with him, that occasioned this peremptory enactment. Without enlarging further, it may be added, that she acquired the lands of Blair, in the lordship of Culross, and was sometimes called "Lady Blair." She died in October 1575, and in the Confirmation of her Testament Dative, she is styled "ane honorabill Lady Gryssell Sympill, Lady Stanehous."

MEMORANDUM.—This present wryte is to mak Answer particularly to everilk Article, directed be my LORD OF SANCTANDROIS to me, with SCHIR DAVID HAMMYLTOUN; quhilkis Articles ar in nomber IX, and hear repeted and answered as I traist to his Lordschippis contentment.

1. The First Article puttis me in remembrance of the ancianitie of the blood of my Hous, how many Erles, Lordis, and Knychtes, hes bein thairof; how many Noble men discended of the same hous, how long it continewed trew to God and the Prince, without smot in thare dayis, in any maner of sorte.

[ANSWER.]—Trew it is, my Lord, that thare is weall long continewance of my Hous, be Goddis providence and benevolence of our Princes, whome we have served, and shall serve trewly nixt to God: And the lyik obedience towardis God and our Princes remanes with us yitt, or rather bettir, (praised be the Lordis name,) nother know we any spot towardis our Princess and hir dew obedience. And yf thare be offence towardis God, he is mercifull to remitt our offences; for "He will not the death of a synnar." Lyik as, it standis in his Omnipotent power to maik up housses, to continew the samyn, to alter thame, to maik thame small or great, or to extinguish thame, according to his awin inscrutable wisedome; for in exalting, depressing, and changeing of houssis, the laude and praise most be gevin to that ane eternall God, in whais hand the same standis.

2. The Secound Article bearis the great affectioun and love your Lordschip bearis towardis me and my House; and of the ardent desyre ye have of the perpetuall standing thairof in honour and fame, with all thame that is cuming of it.

[ANSWER.]—Forsuyth, it is your dewitie to wische good unto my Hous, and unto thame that ar cuming of the same, not allanerlie for the faythfulnes, amitie, and societie, that hes bein betuix our foirbearis, but also for the lait conjunction of blood[717] that is betuix oure saidis Houssis, gif it be Goddis pleasur that it have success; quhilk should give sufficient occasioun to your Lordschip to wische good to my Housse, and perpetuitie with Goddis gloir, without quhilk nothing is perpetuall, unto whome be praise and wirschipe for ever and ever. Amen.

3. Thridly, your Lordschip declares how displeasand it is to yow, that I should be seduced be ane infamed persone of the law,[718] and be the flatterie of ane mensworne apostate, that, under pretence of his furth geving, maikis us to understand, that he is ane preachear of the Evangell, and tharewith rases schismes and divisionis in the haill Kirk of God; and be our mantenance and defence, wald infect this countrey with heresye; alledgeand that to be Scripture, whilk thir many yearis bygane, hes bein condemned as heresye be the Generall Counsallis and haill estate of Christiane people.

ANSURE.—The God that creatted heavin and earth, and all that thairin is, preserve me fra seduceing; and I dread otheris many under the cullour of godlynes ar seduceid, and thinkis that thei do God a pleasur, when thei persecute ane of thame that professes his name. What that man is of the law we know nott: we hear nane of his flatterie: his mensworne aith of apostasie is ignorant to us. But yf he had maid ane unlefull aith, contrair Goddis command, it war bettir to violate it then to observe it. He preaches nathing to us but the Evangell. Giff he wald otherwiese do, we wold nott beleve him, nor yitt ane angell of heavin. We hear him sawe na schismes nor divisiones, but sic as may stand with Goddis word, whilk we shall caus him confesse in presence of your Lordschip and the Clargie, when ye requyre us thairto. And as to it that hes bein condempned be the Generall Counsallis, we traist ye knaw weall that all the Generall Counsalles hes bein at diversitie amanges thame selfis, and never twa of thame universallie aggreing in all pointis, in samekle as thei ar of men. But the Spreit of veritie that bearis testimony of our Lord Jesus hes nott, nether can not, err; "for heavin and earth shall perishe or ane jote of it perishe." By this, my Lord, nether teaches he, nether will we accept of him, but that whilk aggreis with Goddis synceir word, sett furth be Patriarkis, Prophetis, Apostles, and Evangelistis, left to our salvatioun in his expresse word. And swa, my Lord, to condempne the doctrin not examinat is not requyred; for when your Lordschip pleassis to hear the confessioun of that manis faith, the maner of his doctrin, which aggreis with the Evangell of Jesus Christ, I will caus him to assist to judgement, and shalbe present thairat with Goddis pleasur, that he may rander recknyng of his beleve and our doctrin, to the superiour-poweris, according to the prescriptioun of that blood of the eternall Testament, seilled be the immaculate Lambe, to whome, with the Father, and the Holy Spreit, be all honour and glorie, for ever and ever. Amen.

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