The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
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[40] For "shut up;" in Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, A, &c., "set up."

[41] The erroneous date of 1500 occurs in the MS. and in all the subsequent copies; it is also repeated by Spotiswood. The actual time of his decease is thus recorded,—"Obitus Roberti Blacader primi Archiepiscopi Glasguensis, vigesimo octavo die Julij A.D. 1508."—(Regist. Episcop. Glasg., vol. ii. p. 616.) The place where Blackader died is not ascertained; but Bishop Lesley confirms Knox's statement, that he had set out on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. "Scotia discedit, paucis post diebus, Episcopus Glasgoensis, Robertus Blacaderus pio studio illa loca (quae Christi vestigiis trita, aliisque humilitatis, virtutisque monumentis illustrata erant) invisendi flagrans Hierosolymitana profectione suscepta; sed mortis impetu praeclusa, ad coelites in itinere migravit."—(De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 349, Romae, 1578, 4to.) In his English History, Lesley mentions this more briefly, "About this time, [5th of July 1508,] the Bishop of Glasgow, quha wes passit to Jerusalem, or he com to the end of his journay, deceissit the xxix [28th] day of July. He was ane noble, wyse, and godlie man."—(Hist. p. 78, Edinb. 1830, 4to.)

[42] The truth of this remark is very evident, as Beaton, along with his high civil and ecclesiastical appointments, held several great Church benefices. He was the youngest son of John Beaton of Balfour, and was educated at St. Andrew's. In 1487, the name "Ja. Betone" occurs among the Intrantes; in 1491, among the Determinantes; and in 1493, as a Licentiate, he took the degree of Master of Arts. In October 1497, Maister James Betoun was presented to the Chantry of Cathness, vacant by the decease of Mr. James Auchinleck.—(Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 162.) In 1503, he was Provost of the collegiate church of Bothwell, and Prior of Whithorn. In 1504, he was Abbot of Dunfermline, and a Lord of the Session. In the following year he succeeded his brother as Lord Treasurer. In 1508, he was raised to the See of Galloway; and within twelve months having been translated to Glasgow, as successor to Blackader, he resigned the office of Treasurer. In the Rolls of Parliament, 26th November 1513, the Archbishop of Glasgow appears as Chancellor of the kingdom; and he secured to himself the rich Abbacies of Arbroath and Kilwinning. On succeeding to the Primacy of S. Andrew's, in 1522, he resigned the commendatory of Arbroath in favour of his nephew David Beaton, with the reservation to himself of half its revenues during his life. In a letter to Cardinal Wolsey, Dr. Magnus the English Ambassador, on the 9th of January 1524-5, after referring to the Archbishop of St. Andrews, as "the gretteste man booth of landes and experience withyne this realme," speaks of Beaton as "nooted to be veraye subtill and dissymuling."—(State Papers, vol. iv. p. 286.) But with all his dignities and wealth, he experienced occasional reverses of fortune; and in 1526, upon a change in public affairs, he was deprived of the office of Lord Chancellor. He died in 1539.

[43] On the 9th of September 1513.

[44] In the preface to Lambert's "Exegeseos in sanctam diui Ioannis Apocalypsim, Libri vii." The passage will be given in the Appendix, No. III.

[45] This reference to the well known "Actes and Monumentes" of John Foxe, the English Martyrologist, has more than once been pointed out as an anachronism. Thus, Spottiswood asserts, that Foxe's work "came not to light [till] some ten or twelve years after Mr. Knox his death," (p. 267,) and concludes, that "the History given forth in his name was not of his inditing." But Knox's phrase, "laitlie sett furth," is quite applicable to the first publication of Foxe's Martyrology; as there is no reason to doubt that Knox wrote this portion of his History in 1566, and it is certain that Foxe's "Actes and Monumentes," &c., printed at London by John Daye, was completed in the beginning of 1564, in large folio. In this edition there is an account of Patrick Hamilton, which (with some other notices) will be given verbatim in the Appendix, No. III. Foxe's Martyrology was again printed by Daye, "newly recognized by the author," in 1570, 2 vols. folio; a third time in 1576; and a fourth (being probably the earliest edition of which Spottiswood had any knowledge) in 1583.

[46] Hamilton was merely titular Abbot of Ferne, and was not in holy orders. His predecessor, Andrew Stewart, was Bishop of Caithness, and Commendator of the two Abbeys of Kelso and Ferne. He died 17th June 1517; and the latter benefice was probably then conferred on Hamilton. Ferne is a parish in the eastern part of the shire of Ross. The Abbey was founded by Farquhard first Earl of Ross, in the reign of Alexander the Third. The Church, built or completed by William Earl of Ross, who died in 1371, was a handsome structure of about 120 feet in length, with chapels on the north and on the south sides. It continued to be used as the parish Church till Sunday the 10th of October 1742, when, during public service, the flagstone roof, and part of the side walls fell in, and killed 40 persons, besides others who died in consequence of the injuries they sustained.—(Scots Magazine, 1742, p. 485.) At a later period (1772), the centre part of the Church of Ferne, but reduced in its length, was repaired, with a new roof, and still serves as the parish Church. Unless for some ruined portions of the side chapels attached to the eastern end of the Church, which were suffered to remain, all marks of its venerable antiquity have now disappeared.

[47] It was at Marburg, the capital of Upper Hesse, and not at Wittemberg, where Lambert was professor.

[48] In the MS. "trawailled." The letters w and v are used indiscriminately by Knox's amanuensis.

[49] This statement, we presume, is incorrect, as there is no evidence to show that James the Fifth visited the Shrine of St. Duthac at this time. Lesley speaks of the King dealing with Hamilton, which implies at least a knowledge of his accusation, "adhortante Rege ipso."—(De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 427.) The chapel of St. Duthac, Bishop of Ross, now in ruins, is situated about half a mile to the north-east of the town of Tain. In the Appendix No. IV. will be given various extracts from the Treasurer's Accounts relating to the frequent pilgrimages which James the Fourth made to this Shrine, as illustrative of a superstitious custom of that period.

[50] In the MS. "lief."

[51] See page 19.

[52] Gilbert Kennedy third Earl of Cassilis. He was probably only at St. Andrews for one session; as his name does not occur in the Registers of the University. In 1532, he was at Paris, pursuing his studies under George Buchanan, who dedicated to him his first edition of Linacre's Latin Grammar. Lord Cassilis was one of the prisoners taken at Solway Moss in 1542. As Knox afterwards mentions, he died at Dieppe in 1558.

[53] The University of St. Andrews, founded by Bishop Wardlaw in the year 1410, was confirmed by Papal authority in 1413. Its endowments, however, continued to be very limited, until St. Salvator's College was erected and endowed in 1456 by James Kennedy, his successor in the See. At this time it received the name of the Old College, to distinguish it from that of St. Leonard's College, created in 1512, and St. Mary's, in 1537.

[54] In Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, A, &c., "scorched."

[55] Lindesay of Pitscottie, (circa 1575,) in his detailed account of Hamilton's condemnation, after narrating the Martyr's last speeches, and his solemn appeal to Campbell, proceeds,—"Then they laid to the fire to him; but it would no ways burn nor kindle a long while. Then a baxtar, called Myrtoun, ran and brought his arms full of straw, and cast it in to kindle the fire: but there came such a blast of wind from the East forth of the sea, and raised the fire so vehemently, that it blew upon the Frier that accused him, that it dang him to the earth, and brunt all the fore part of his coul; and put him in such a fray, that he never came to his right spirits again, but wandered about the space of forty days, and then departed."—(Edit. 1728, p. 134; edit. 1776, p. 209.) Pitscottie gives the false date of September 1525. This writer indeed is often very inaccurate in names and dates; but his details were evidently derived from some contemporary authority.

[56] Foxe, and other authorities, state that Campbell was Prior of the Dominican or Blackfriars Monastery, St. Andrews.

[57] According to modern computation, the year 1528.

[58] Foxe, in republishing his "Actes and Monumentes," among other additions, has the following paragraph:—"But to return to the matter of Master Hamelton; here is, moreover, to be observed, as a note worthy of memory, that in the year of our Lord 1564, in which year this present History was collected in Scotland, there were certain faithful men of credit then alive, who being present the same time when Master Patrick Hamelton was in the fire, heard him to cite and appeal the Black Friar called Campbell, that accused him, to appear before the high God, as general Judge of all men, to answer to the innocency of his death, and whether his accusation was just or not, between that and a certain day of the next month, which he then named. Moreover, by the same witness it is testified, that the said Friar had immediately before the said day come, without remorse of conscience, that he had persecuted the innocent; by the example whereof divers of the people, the same time much mused, and firmly believed the doctrine of the aforesaid Master Hamelton to be good and just."—(Third edit. p. 650, Lond. 1576, folio.)

[59] In Vautr. edit. "true fruites;" in MSS. G, &c., "trow fruittis."

[60] The above title, and Fryth's preface are not contained in Knox's MS., but are inserted from Foxe's Martyrology, p. 949, 3d edit., Lond. 1576.

[61] This evidently refers to Archbishop Beaton; but he had previously been deprived of the Chancellorship: see note, page 13.

[62] Hamilton's treatise was probably printed as an academical dissertation, whilst he was at Marburg, in 1526. It in uncertain whether Fryth's translation was published during his own life. There are at least three early editions, with this title, "Dyvers frutefull gatherynges of Scripture: And declaryng of fayth and workes." One was printed at London by Thomas Godfray, and two others by William Copland, each of them without a date, but probably before 1540.—(Dibdin's Typogr. Antiq., vol. iii. pp. 71, 161, 162.) In 1562-3, Michael Lobley, a printer in St. Paul's Churchyard, had license to print "The Sermonde in the Wall, thereunto annexed, The Common Place of Patryk Hamylton."—(ib., p. 540.) Foxe's copy of this Treatise differs from the present in a number of minute particulars, which would occupy too much space to point out.

[63] John Fryth, as the reward of his zeal in the cause of religion, was confined to the Tower, in 1532, and was brought to the stake, at Smithfield, on the 4th of July 1533.—(See the Rev. Chr. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. i. pp. 339-377.)

[64] This title, with the numbers of the Propositions, and the words included within brackets, are supplied from Foxe. Also a few trifling corrections in the orthography.

[65] These Propositions are put in a syllogistic form; but the terms Major, Minor, and Conclusion, marked on the margin of Foxe's copy, except in one or two instances at the beginning, are not contained in Knox's MS. Such as are marked, being incorrectly given by his transcriber, as well as in Vautr. edit., are here omitted.

[66] In Vautr. edit. and MSS. E, A, and I, is this marginal note—"This is to be understood of circumstance of worldlie men, and not of them of God; for the neirer that men draw to God, we ar bound the more to love them." Also a similar note to page 24, Prop. IV., "Christ is the ende and fulfillinge of the lawe to everie one that beleveth."

[67] Foxe has given this sentence more correctly:—"Now, seying he hath payed thy dette, thou needest, neither canst thou pay it, but shouldest bee damned, if hys bloud were not."

[68] In republishing his "Actes and Monumentes," Foxe, along with Fryth's translation of "Patrick Hamilton's Places," has subjoined "Certaine brief Notes or Declarations upon the foresayd Places of M. Patrike." He says, "This little treatise of M. Patrike's Places, albeit in quantitie it be but short, yet in effect it comprehendeth matter able to fill large volumes, declaryng to us the true doctrine of the Law, of the Gospell, of Fayth, and of Workes, with the nature and properties, and also the difference of the same." But Foxe's Notes are too long to be here inserted, and they have several times been reprinted.

[69] Gawin Logye, under whom so many of the early Reformers had prosecuted their studies, was educated at St. Andrews, and took his degree of Master of Arts in 1512. In 1518, "Gavinus Logye" was "Regens Coll. Sancti Leonardi de novo fundati." In the "Acta Fac. Art.," his name occurs as Principal of that College in 1523. Calderwood says, that in the year 1533, Logye "was forced to flee out of the countrie," (vol. i. p. 104.) This date is certainly erroneous. At the election of Martin Balfour, as Dean of Faculty, "Mag^r. Gavinus Logye," Principal of St. Leonard's College, was appointed one of his assessors, on the 3d of November 1534. He probably fled before the close of the year 1535; but of his subsequent history no particulars have been discovered. Logye's immediate successor was "Dominus Thomas Cunnynghame," whose name first occurs as Principal Regent, on the 3d of November 1537.

[70] In MS. G, "novittis;" in other MSS., and in Vautr. edit., "novices."

[71] Probably John Wynrame, see note 395.

[72] In Vautr. edit., "William Archbishop," and also in MSS. A, I, and W. In MS. E, "William Arth." In MS. G, "William Arithe."

[73] John Hepburn, Bishop of Brechin, was descended of the Hepburns of Bothwell. He held this See from 1517, for upwards of forty years, till his death in August 1558.—(Keith's Catal.)

[74] Best known by his Latin name Major. He was a native of Haddington, and spent many years on the Continent, where he acquired great reputation by his numerous works, and became a Doctor of the Sorbonne. After his return to Scotland, he was for a short time (1518-1522) Principal Regent in the College of Glasgow, where Knox himself was his pupil. He was at this time Vicar of Dunlop; and Treasurer of the Chapel Royal at Stirling. In 1533, he was incorporated in the University of St. Andrews; and became Provost of St. Salvator's College; an office which he held till his death in 1550. See M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 7, 339; and Irving's Life of Buchanan, pp. 8, 373.

[75] George Lockhart, Provost of the Collegiate Church of Crichton, in Mid-Lothian, was Rector of the University of St. Andrews, from 1521 to 1525. He was the author of more than one work, printed at Paris, on Dialectic Philosophy. He afterwards was Dean of Glasgow, where he died on the 22d of June 1547.—(Obituary in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, vol. ii. p. 614.)

[76] The Abbot of Cambuskenneth, Alexander Myln, was appointed first President of the College of Justice in 1532. In 1494, Alexander Myl, was a Determinant at St. Andrews. In 1515, he was Official of Dunkeld, and in that year he wrote a Latin work, Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, first printed in 1823, for the Bannatyne Club. In Brunton and Haig's Historical Account of the Senators, a very accurate notice is given of his several preferments in the Church. Myln, who died about the close of the year 1548, is acknowledged to have been a man of great accomplishments, and to have displayed a most commendable zeal for religion and learning.

[77] In the year 1522, on the death of his Uncle, John Hepburn, Prior of the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews, Patrick Hepburn succeeded; and held the Priorate till 1535, when advanced to the See of Moray. See note 82.

[78] The Scotish Parliament passed an Act on the subject, on the 12th of June 1535, in which the cause of this disregard of the censures of the Church is mainly attributed to "the dampnable persuasions of heretikis, and thair perversit doctrine," which, it is added, "gevis occasioun to lichtly (or despise) the process of cursing, and uther censures of Haly Kirk."—(Acta Parl. vol. ii. p. 342; Keith's Hist., vol. i. p. 28.) There is a singular production by one of the early Scotish Poets, a priest named Sir John Rowll, called his Cursing, which exemplifies the abuses to which this process was perverted. It was written between 1492 and 1502, and is directed chiefly against the stealers, among other articles,

Of fyve fat geiss of Sir Johne Rowllis, With caponis, hennis, and uther fowlis;

but it also contains a general invective against persons who defraud the clergy of their tythes or dues. The following entries in the Treasurer's Books, shew that ecclesiastical persons were not exempted from such censures:—

"Item, the thrid day of November [1533], to Sir Johne Smyth, notare, to pass to execut the Process upon the Abbot of Melross, and Prioress of Eccles, for non payment of thair taxt,. xl. s.

"Item, the first day of Junij [1534], to ane cheplane to pass to Curss the Prioress of North Berwick and Eccles, for non payment of thair taxtis,. xx. s."

[79] In MS. A, &c., "canon law."

[80] In MS. G, "Kirkmen."—The Church of Rome, however, always performed the ceremony of depriving a Priest of his holy orders, before being handed over to the secular authorities for punishment; "because (in the words of a modern writer) she was too watchful over the immunities of the privileged order of Priests, to deliver them up to temporal jurisdiction, till stripped of the sacerdotal character, and degraded to the situation of laymen." (Dowling's History of Romanism, p. 551, New York, 1845, 8vo.)

[81] The Abbot of Unreason in Scotland, was a similar character to the Lord of Misrule in England. "This pageant potentate," as Stowe calls him, "was annually elected, and his rule extended through the greater part of the holydays conected with the festival days of Christmas." But these "fine and subtle disguisings, masks, and mummeries," too often degenerated into abuse, as indeed was to be expected, when such pastimes had for their object to turn all lawful authority into ridicule, and more particularly to burlesque the services of the Church. On such occasions, "the rude vulgar occupied the Churches, profaned the holy places by a mock imitation of the sacred rites, and sung indecent parodies of the hymns of the Church;" and the lively representation of a scene of this kind is familiar to most readers, in a well known work of fiction, "The Abbot." Part of Sir Walter Scott's comment on his own description may be here quoted:—"The indifference of the clergy, even when their power was greatest, to the indecent exhibitions, which they always tolerated, and sometimes encouraged, forms a strong contrast to the sensitiveness with which they regarded any serious attempt, by preaching or writing, to impeach any of the doctrines of the Church."—(Waverley Novels.)

[82] Patrick Hepburn, son to Patrick first Earl of Bothwell, was educated at St. Andrews, under his uncle, John Hepburn, Prior of St. Andrews, whom he succeeded in 1522. He was Secretary from 1524 to 1527. In 1535, he was advanced to the See of Moray, and was likewise Commendator of Scone. He retained his bishopric after the Reformation; and died at his Palace and Castle of Spynic on the 20th of June 1573.

[83] Knox has been blamed for recording this "merry bourd" or jest; but Bishop Hepburn had rendered himself notorious by his profligacy. This indeed appears on the face of the public records. Under the Great Seal there passed the following letters of Legitimation;—(1.) "Johanni et Patricio Hepburn, bastardis filiis naturalibus Patricii Prioris Sancti Andreae." 18 Dec. 1533.—Also, (2.) "Legitimatio Adami, Patricii, Georgii, Johannis, et Patricii Hepburn, bastardorum filiorum naturalium Patricii Episcopi Moraviensis." 4 Oct. 1545. And, (3.) "Legitimatio Jonetae et Agnetis Hepburn, bastardarum filiorum naturalium Patricii Moraviensis Episcopi." 14 Maij 1550. Here are no less than nine illegitimate children, evidently by different mothers. (4.) Agnes Hepburn, another daughter of the late Patrick Bishop of Murray, was also legitimated on 8th Feb. 1587.

[84] In MS. G, "he was imprisonit."

[85] According to Spotiswood, (Hist. p. 65,) these words were spoken at the time when Henry Forrest was to be burnt for heresy. See note 113.

[86] In Vautr. edit., "Dungwaill." In MS. G, "Dungwell."—Sir John Dingwall was a priest, and evidently a person of some note. On the 18th of August 1516, his name occurs in the Treasurer's Accounts, when 3s. 8d. was paid to "ane child to bring the auld (Service?) bookis out of Edinburgh fra Sir Johne Dingwall to Dundie." John Dingwall, Archdeacon of Caithness, was one of the Auditors who signs the Treasurer's Accounts, in October 1516. In two charters under the Great Seal, 15th September, and 19th November 1524, he is designed Archdeacon of Caithness, and Rector of Strabrok, in Linlithgowshire. In another charter, 7th April 1529, he is styled "Dominus Johannes Dingwall Praepositus Ecclesim Collegiatae Sanctre Trinitatis prope Burgum de Edinburgh." Having been nominated one of the Spiritual Lords at the Institution of the College of Justice, on the 27th of May 1532, at the first meeting of the Court, he took his seat under the title of Provost of Trinity College. But he did not long enjoy his judicial office, as he died before the 9th of July 1533.—(Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, p. 11.) Buchanan wrote an epigram on Dingwall, founded upon some verses of Sir Adam Otterburn of Redhall, King's Advocate, ("argumento sumpto ex Adami Otterburni Equitis clarissimi hexametris,") from which it may be inferred that Dingwall's father had been a priest, and left him no patrimony; that he himself had acquired great wealth, accompanied with pride and luxury, whilst employed at the Court of Rome; and that a monument had been erected to his memory, containing his titles in high sounding terms.

[87] In MS. G, "Kirkmen." See some notes on the use of the title "Sir," as applied to priests, in Appendix, No. IV.

[88] In MS. G, "delaittit."

[89] Some notice of Oliphant will be given in a subsequent page.

[90] Gawin Dunbar was the son of Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, and Dame Elizabeth Sutherland; (see note to Poems of William Dunbar, vol. ii. p. 433, Edinb. 1832, 2 vols. 8vo.) and not son of Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock, as Keith states. He had been a student at St. Audrews, where he took his Master's degree in 1475. On the 7th of October 1488, his name occurs as Dean of his native diocese of Moray. He also held the office of Clerk-Register from 1500 to 1513. In 1503, Dunbar received a presentation to the Archdeaconry of St. Andrews. (Regist. Secr. Sigil.) On the death of Bishop Gordon, 30th June 1518, being promoted to the See of Aberdeen, he resigned his Archdeaconry. He died at a very advanced age on the 9th or 10th of March 1531-2.—(Preface by the Editor, Mr. Cosmo Innes, to the Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis, p. lv.)

[91] In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., "Andro Balsone." He was probably related to Martin Balfour, "Official Principal" of St. Andrews, Rector of Dunyno, and a Canon of St. Salvator's Church, St. Andrews. The name of Andrew Balfour occurs among the licentiates of St. Leonard's College in 1524; but we cannot say whether or not he was the person who is here mentioned.

[92] In MS. "hell."

[93] Richard Carmichael, yet living in Fife; that is, in the year 1566; but these words are literally copied by Dr. Patrick Anderson in his MS. History of Scotland, (vol. i. p. 187.) This seems sufficiently absurd in a work which was written as late as 1636, or nearly 100 years subsequent to Carmichael's accusation. "Ane letter maid to Richard Carmichaell, remittand to him his eschete gudis pertenying to our Soverane, throw being of the said Richard abjurit of heresy," &c., was passed under the Privy Seal, on the 25th of March 1539.

[94] Clapperton was only Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal of Stirling. The Deanery, which was first conjoined with the Provostry of Kirkheugh, St. Andrews, was afterwards annexed to the Bishopric of Galloway. Henry Weemys, Bishop of Galloway, was accordingly Dean of the Chapel Royal, during his incumbency, from 1526 to 1541.—In MS. G, Clapperton is erroneonsly called Sir John.—From the Treasurer's Accounts we learn, that Schir George Clappertoun was "Maister Elimosinar to the Kingis Grace," during the latter years of James the Fifth (1538 to 1542.) "Dominus Georgius Clappertoun," on the 28th of July 1540, obtained a presentation to the Provostship of Trinity College near Edinburgh.—(Reg. Mag. Sig., vol. xiv.) He sat in the Provincial Council at Edinburgh in 1549 under this title.—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46, where his name is erroneously given as George Cryghton.) He probably resigned this office on being appointed Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal. After the Reformation, he still retained the designation of Sub-Dean, and received his two-thirds of the benefice, although John Duncanson was Minister. Sir George Clapperton, Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal of Stirling, and Vicar of Kirkinner, granted a life-rent of the teinds of Kirkinner, 14th September 1562. (Analecta Scotica, vol. i. p. 2.) "Sir George Clappertoun, Sub Dene of the Kingis Majesties Chapell Royall of Striveling, deceissit in the moneth of Apryle 1574." In his testament, written at Striviling in his "awin dwelling house," on the 5th of that month, as he nominates Mr. Robert Pont, Provost of Trinity College, to act as oversman, and one of his assignees, we may infer, that Clapperton had embraced the reformed doctrines.—(Reg. of Confirmed Testaments, 21st Sept. 1574.)

[95] In MS. G, "Seytoun."

[96] In Vautr. edit. and MSS. G, A, &c., "a whole Lent."

[97] In MS. G, "Lent."

[98] In Vautr. edit. and MS. G, "condemned the holie doctrine."

[99] In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., "the whole Lent past." In MS. G, "whatsoever he had taught in all his sermons before, the hole Lent-tyde preceiding."

[100] James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews.

[101] In Vautr. edit. and MSS. G, A, &c., "ye may heir."

[102] In Vautr. edit. "skoffe."

[103] In MS. G, the words "and more easely beleved," are omitted. In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., the passage reads, "This accusation was easely beleeved of," &c.

[104] In the habit of the Dominican Order to which he belonged.

[105] The exact time of Seaton's flight from Scotland, and the date of his Letter to the King, have not been ascertained. The probable date is 1535 or 1536. Some particulars of his history will be given in the Appendix, No. VII.

[106] In MS. G, "thy Grace's."

[107] In MS. G, "thy Grace's."

[108] In MS. G, "bairdit mulls;" in Vautr. edit, and MS. L 2, "barbed mules;" MS. I, has "barbed mooles;" MSS. A, W, and E, "bardit" or "barded mules"—the meaning of the phrase is, mules with trappings, or richly caparisoned.

[109] In MS. G, "conceat."

[110] The custom of choosing the King of the Bean on the Vigil of the Epiphany (5th of January), was not peculiar to this country. The payments in the Treasurer's Accounts show, that a "Queen of the Bene" was frequently chosen. For the custom itself, see Strutt's Sports and Pastimes; Brand's Popular Antiquities, by Sir Henry Ellis; and Jamieson's Dictionary, v. Bane. Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, amongst other remarks, says, the Presbyterians made use of Kings "as we do of card-kings, in playing at the hundred," &c., "or, as the French on the Epiphany-day use their Roy de la febre, or King of the Bean; whom, after they have, honoured with drinking of his health, and shouting aloud Le Roy boit, le Roy boit, they make pay for all the reckoning; not leaving him sometimes one peny, rather then that the exorbitancie of their debosh should not be satisfied to the full."—(Most Exquisite Jewell, Lond. 1652, p. 238.)

[111] In MS. L 2, after the words, "of many read," there is added, "for every gentleman at Court was curious to gett the coppie of the same, as was thocht weill of by the most part; but what," &c. On the other hand, the transcriber of that MS., in the next paragraph, omits two or three passages, concerning "the bloodie beasts," and "bands," in referring to the persecutions at this time, by "Beaton and his Doctors."

[112] In MS. G, "greitlie."

[113] The time of Forresse, or Forrest's imprisonment and martyrdom has not been well ascertained; and Knox's subsequent remark, "after whose death, the flame of persecution ceased, till the death of Norman Gourlay, the space of ten years or neirby," is not intelligible, according to the dates usually assigned. Foxe gives no precise date, but says, that within few years after Hamilton's martyrdom, "ane Henry Forrest, a young man born in Linlithgow, who a little before had received the orders of Benet and Collet, &c., suffered death at the North Church stile of the Abbey Church of St. Andrews," (edit. 1576, p. 955.)—Caldorwood has copied from Foxe, and supposes it might have been in 1529, or the year following. (Hist, vol. i. p. 97.) Keith conjectures it was about 1533. (Hist, vol. i. p. 15;) and M'Crie, in 1530. (Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 354.)—As Knox speaks of Forresse's "long imprisonment," we may conjecture it was in 1532. From the Treasurer's Accounts, 17th of May 1532, we find that some persons were then under accusation of heresy, letters having been sent on that day "to the Bishop of St. Andrews, to advertize him of the changing of the dirt of the accusation of the Lutherans."—Forrest was a Benedictine Monk; and from mention of the town where he was born, we may conjecture he was the son of "Thomas Forrest of Linlithgow," to whom various sums were paid by the Treasurer "to the bigging of the dyke about the Paliss of Linlithgow," between April and July 1505.

[114] Vautr. edit, and all the later MSS. have erroneously "the said tower." The Castle of St. Andrews, originally built in the year 1200, by Bishop Roger, as an Episcopal residence, stands close to the sea-shore, and one of the towers projecting into the sea, no doubt obtained for it this name. "A nuik in the bottom of the Sea tower, a place where many of God's children had been imprisoned before," is again mentioned by Knox in 1547.

[115] See note 113 above: all the MSS. read "ten years."

[116] The events here mentioned were all connected with the sway of the Douglasses in the minority of James the Fifth. The first was the attempt by Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, at the head of 1000 horse, at Melrose, to rescue the King from the Earl of Angus, on the 25th of January 1526. The second was an equally unsuccessful attempt, for the same end, by the Earl of Lennox, at Kirkliston, on the 4th of September that year, where Lennox was cruelly slain by Sir James Hamilton of Finnart. But the King at length made his escape from Falkland in July 1528, (or, as Mr. Tytler conjectures, on the 22d or 23d of May.) On the 5th of September that year, an act of forfeiture was passed against Archibald Earl of Angus, his uncle, and his brother Sir George Douglas. They had retired to England, and continued in exile till the death of James in 1542.

[117] Wyncester, that is Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Winchester. He became Lord Chancellor of England in the reign of Mary, and died in November 1555. See Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vol. ii. pp. 40-71.

[118] Both Foxe and Calderwood have preserved a detailed account of Seaton's accusation in 1541, in which year his "Declaration made at Poules Crosse," was printed at London. A notice of this rare tract, and some further particulars of his history will be added in the Appendix, No. VII.

[119] "Duch land," Deutschland—means Germany, not Holland.

[120] See Appendix, No. VI.—Protestant Exiles from Scotland.

[121] In MS. G, "providence."

[122] Steidis, Stadts—probably one of the States in North Holland. Calderwood has strangely confounded Macdowall and Macchabeus, as one person. Macdowall's Christian name is not given by any of our writers; but there is, I think, little doubt that he was James Mackdowell, one of the Determinants in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in the year 1515.

[123] Alexander Alesius, or Alesse, was a native of Edinburgh, born in 1500, and educated at St. Andrews. Calderwood, Bayle, the Biographia Britannica, Dr. M'Crie, and, in particular, the Rev. Christopher Anderson, (Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 427-468,) have given detailed accounts of his subsequent life and writings. He was imprisoned, and narrowly escaped the persecuting violence of his Superior, Patrick Hepburn, Prior of St. Andrews, in the year 1529. Alesse has the merit of being among the first who contended for the translation of the Scriptures into the vernacular tongue. He died at Leipzig on the 17th of March 1565.

[124] John Fyfe prosecuted his studies in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, under Gawin Logye. His name occurs as a Determinant, in 1522, and a Licentiate in 1524. Dr. M'Crie says, that Fyfe having fled from St. Andrews, accompanied Alesse to Germany, and shared in his honours at Leipzig.—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 371.) He is said to have returned to Scotland, and died in St. Leonard's, about the beginning of the Reformation, or soon after.—(Calderwood's Hist. vol. i. p. 96.) He seems however to have been a Professor at Frankfort. See Appendix, No. VI.

[125] Dr. M'Crie has brought together a number of particulars respecting Dr. John Macchabeus.—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 372.) Some additional notices will be given in the Appendix, No. VI. But it may here be noticed, in connexion with the following footnote, that Macchabeus was brought from Wittemburg to Copenhagen, in the year 1542; that he was one of the translators of the Bible into Danish, first printed at Kiobenhaffn, in 1550, folio; and that he died on the 5th of December 1557.

[126] In Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, W, &c., "Cawpmanhowen;" in MS. G, "Capmanhoven." This name joined with the words "and famous men," might suggest that an individual was meant. It is however Copenhagen, (in Danish, Kiobenhaven, i.e. the Merchant's haven,) the city in which Macchabeus attained great distinction. Sir David Lyndesay of the Mount, in his official character as Lyon-King at Arms, visited Denmark in 1550; and his acquaintance with Macchabeus might have led to the first publication of his Dialog, or Four Books of the Monarchie, under a fictitious designation, although actually printed by John Scot, either at St. Andrews or Edinburgh in 1554: it bears on the title, "Imprintit at the command and expensis of DOCTOR MACHABEVS in Capmanhovin." There is a later edition, apparently in 1558 and 1559, with a similar imprint, but the name is rendered "Nachabeus."

[127] The 26th of August 1534, is the date assigned for the trial, "befoir the Bishop of Ross, be ane commission of the Bischope of Sanctandrois," of Kirk and others. (Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 18.) Of these persons, Calderwood informs us, that Sir William Kirk, as his name denotes, was a priest; but "whether he compeared and abjured, or fled, we can find no certaintie;" that Adam Dayes, or Dease, was "a ship-wright that dwelt on the north side of the bridge of Leith;" that Henry Cairnes, "skipper in Leith, fled out of the countrie to the Easter seas;" and that "John Stewart, indweller in Leith, died in exile." (Hist. vol. i. p. 108.)—"Henricus Cairnys, incola de Leith," was denounced as a fugitive, and condemned for heresy, in 1538-9; and on the 8th of April 1539, the names of seven sons and five daughters of Henry Carnis in Leith, are specified in a letter under the Privy Seal, granting them the escheat of the various goods and property which belonged to their father.—(M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 358-366.)

[128] In Vautr. edit., MS. A. &c., is added, "our advocate."—Johnstone studied at St. Andrews, and his name appears among the Determinants, in St. Leonard's College, in 1525. Mr. William Johnstone was the last of nine Advocates who were admitted at the insitution of the Court of Session, 27th May 1532. The time when he fled appears to have been two years later. But after the death of James V, he returned to Scotland, probably with the Governor, and apostatized from the Reformed faith. This we learn from a letter, written to the Pope, in the Queen's name, which states, "that the bearer, Mr. William Johnstone, a layman, had ten years previously imbibed the new doctrines; that after much distress of mind, he earnestly longed to be reunited to the mystical body of Christ, but no opportunity had hitherto presented itself. Wherefore James Earl of Arran, Governor of our kingdom, supplicates that his Holiness the Pope might receive the said William into the bosom of the Church." This letter is dated the 18th of April 1544.—(Epistolae Regum Scotorum, vol. ii. p. 200.)

[129] Henryson, or Henderson, appears in the list of Licentiates in St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, in 1524. He had previously been employed as an assistant to Mr. David Vocat, principal Master and Tutour of the Grammar School of the burgh of Edinburgh, who having chosen "his kind freend and discipill, Master Henry Henrison, to be con-master;" this nomination was approved of by George Bishop of Dunkeld and Abbot of Holyroodhouse; and (apparently on the death of Vocat,) it was further confirmed by a royal charter, dated 21st of March 1529, enjoyning that "the said Master Henry Henrysoun be at hie solempne festivale tymes with ws, the said Abbot and our successouris, at Hie Mass and Ewin sang, with his surples upoun him, to do ws service the time that we sall doe devyne service within our said Abbey, as efferis." (Reg. Mag. Sigilli, lib. xxiii. No. 157.—See M'Crie's Life of Melville, vol. ii. p. 479,) Calderwood, in mentioning that Henryson had fled, and been condemned as a heretic, adds, that he died in England.—(Hist. vol. i. p. 108.) The escheat of his goods was granted to James Bannatyne, according to an entry in the Treasurer's Accounts, 1539, 1540, "Compositio bonorum eschaetorum Magistri Henrici Henderson convict. de crimine heresieos, ab antiquo concess. Jacobo Bannatyne," &c. (M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 359.)

[130] To burn one's bill, was a sign of recantation. "The form of burning one's bill, (says Keith,) or recanting, was this—The person accused was to bring a faggot of dry sticks and burn it publicly, by which ceremony he signified that he destroyed that which should have been the instrument of his death." (Hist. vol. i. p. 15.)

[131] David Stratoun is described by Calderwood and other writers, as a brother of the Laird of Lauriston. (See note to next page.) On the 10th of March 1538-9, for the sum of L20, the composition of a tenement in Dundee, falling to the King, "per decessum Davidis Straitoun in Quhitstoun, justificati ad mortem pro certis criminibus heresieos," was granted to David Gardyne and Mariote Erskyn. Pitscottie erroneously places the execution of Stratoun and Gourlay under the year 1530. Their trial took place in Holyroodhouse, in the King's presence; James Hay, Bishop of Ross, (from 1525 to 1538,) acting as Commissioner for Archbishop Beaton.—(See Foxe's Martyrs; Cald. Hist. vol. i. p. 106; Keith's Hist. vol. i., p. 16.)

[132] Norman Gourlay was in priest's orders, and had been a student at St. Andrews. His name occurs in the list of Determinants, in 1513, and of Licentiates, in 1515.

[133] These words are added in the margin of the MS., probably in Knox's own hand.

[134] See note 77.—The Rev. C. Anderson shows, from Foxe, that it was the Vicar of Ecclesgreig, and not Prior Hepburn, with whom Stratoun had a dispute about tythes. (Annals, vol. ii. p. 470.)

[135] From the Register of the Great Seal, it is evident that the Stratouns of Stratoun and the Stratouns of Lauriston in Kincardineshire, were one and the same family. Thus we find that charters were granted to

(1.) Alexander Stratoun de eodem, and Agnes Ogilvy his spouse, in 1507; and to Alexander Stratoun de Lauranstoun, (of the barony of Stratoun,) in 1509.

(2.) Andrew Stratoun de eodem, and Isobel Lindsay his spouse, in 1541.

(3.) George Stratoun, son and heir of Andrew Stratoun de eodem, in 1539; and George Stratoun de Lauriston, in 1547. (The last will of George Stratoun of that ilk, is recorded 5th April 1576, in the Register of Confirmed Testaments.)

(4.) Alexander Stratoun, son and heir of George Stratoun de eodem, in 1553. This Alexander Stratoun de eodem was served heir of George Stratoun de eodem, his father, 3d June 1580.

David Stratoun, who suffered martyrdom, was probably a younger son of the first Alexander Stratoun above mentioned.

[136] In MS. G, "cast himself."

[137] The Rood or cross of Greenside. The actual site of the gibbet, where criminals were executed, is somewhat doubtful; (Maitland's Edinburgh, p. 215;) but it was near the road leading from the Calton towards Leith. James the Second, in 1456, had granted a piece, on the eastern side of this road, in the place which still retains the name of the Greenside, for holding public sports and tournaments.

[138] In MS. G, "Church."

[139] Among the persons who fled at this time to England, was James Hamilton, Sheriff of Linlithgow, and brother of Patrick Hamilton; also his sister Katherine. In August 1535, Cranmer introduces him to Crumwell as a gentleman who had left his country for no cause, but "that he favoured the truth of God's word;" and on the 24th of April 1536, he sent to Crumwell a copy of the sentence given against him by the Bishops at Holyrood, praying that Henry would write to his nephew on his behalf. See the Rev. Chr. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 471, 472. Hamilton obtained permission to return in 1540.

[140] The exact dates of the several persons accused of heresy, or who suffered martyrdom in Scotland during the reign of James the Fifth, in many instances cannot be ascertained; but it is evident that while many persons were accused between 1534 and 1537, the flames of persecution were rekindled with greater fury, at the time that David Beaton became Coadjutor of St. Andrews, and was raised to the dignity of a Cardinal, at the close of the year 1538.

[141] Knox has here mistaken the time when Sir John Borthwick, being accused, but having made his escape to England, was burned in effigy. The date was the 28th of May 1540, or two days after the baptism of Prince James. See Appendix, No. VIII.

[142] Mary of Lorraine, daughter of the Duke of Guyse, and widow of the Duke of Longueville, became James the Fifth's second Queen. On her arrival from France, she landed at Balcomie, near Crail, in Fife, on the 14th of June 1538. She was conveyed to St. Andrews with great pomp; and Pitscottie has furnished an interesting account of the pageants, &c., represented on that festive occasion. See also Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, vol. i. p. 273.

[143] In Vautr. edit., "Killor." Unfortunately his play, which probably was represented in 1535 or 1536, has not been preserved. Neither has any information respecting Friar Kyllour himself been discovered.

[144] The property of persons convicted of heresy and other penal crimes, became escheated to the Crown; and the escheat was usually bestowed by a special grant from the King under the Privy Seal, upon payment of a composition to the High Treasurer. On the 1st of March 1538-9, such a grant was made to James Menteith, "of all gudis quhilkis pertenit to uniquhile Sir Duncane Symsoun, Chaplane, and pertenyis to our Soverane Lord be reason of eschete, through justifying of the said Sir Duncane to the deid for certane crymes of heresy imput to him."—(M'Crie's Knox, vol. i. p. 363.)

[145] In Vautr. edit. and the later MSS. "Forrester." Robert Forrester was "brother to Thomas Forrestare of Arngibbonne." Along with "William Forrestare, son to John Forrestare, burgess of Stirling," and three other persons, he found surety to underly the law, on the ground of "haifing and using of sic bukis as ar suspect of heresy," &c. 10th January 1538-9.—(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 216.) It appears from Knox and other authorities, that he was condemned, and suffered on the 1st of March that year; and after their death, the goods of Robert Forrester, and of William Forrester, were confiscated 23d March 1538-9.

[146] Of Thomas Forret, Canon-regular in the Monastery of St. Colm's Inch, and Vicar of Dollar, who finished his education at Cologne, an interesting account is preserved in Foxe's Martyrs, and has been copied into "The Scots Worthies." His father is said to have been Master of the King's Stables, in the reign of James the Fourth. In the Treasurer's Accounts, in February 1501, we find the name of Thomas Forret, as one of the persons at Court to whom dresses were furnished at the King's expense. In like manner,—

"1507, July 9. Item, to Thome Foret, in bredil-silver of ane hors send furth of Sanct Johnstoun to the King, ix s.

"1512, July 10. Item, to Thome Foret, to pas to Fast Castle, to see the Inglis schippis, xiiij s."

[147] In MS. G, is added, "Upoun the Castell Hill."

[148] That is 1538-9, the year then being reckoned to commence on the 25th of March. But the actual date of their martyrdom, instead of the last day of February, seems to have been the 1st of March, according to an incidental notice in the Household Books of James the Fifth; as, in order to render the example more striking, the King himself was present:—

"1 Mar. 1539. Accusatio Haereticorum et eorum Combustio, apud Edinburgh, REGE PRESENTE."—(Archaeologia, vol. xxii. p. 7.) The next day the King returned to Linlithgow. A corresponding notice is furnished by the Treasurer's Accounts, 1st of March 1539.

"Item, deliverit to Archibald Heriot messinger, to pas and search their goods who were abjured and declared heretics in Edinburgh and Stirling, xij s."

[149] That is, the Cardinal Beaton; Gawin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow and Lord Chancellor; and George Crichton, Bishop of Dunkeld.

[150] In a letter from Sir Thomas Wharton, at Carlisle, 7th November 1538, to Lord Crumwell, it is said, "There was at Dumfreis laitlie one Frere Jerom, callid a well lernid man, taken by the Lorde Maxvell upon commandment from the Bishopis, and lyith in sore yerons, like to suffre for the Inglish menes opynyons, as thai saie, anenpst the lawis of Gode. Hit passeth abrode daylie, thankes be to God, there, all that same notwithstandinge."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 141.)

[151] Petrie the Church Historian, says, "The summer following (1539,) Jerome Russell, a Gray friar, and Thomas Kennedy, a young man of Aire, not above 18 years of age, were at Glascow, accused of heresy."—(Hist. p. 179.) Whether he had any authority for calling him Thomas, can only be conjectured. Calderwood names him N. Kennedy; hence he has been called Ninian; but see note 23.

[152] Of Mr. John Lauder mention will afterwards be made, in connexion with Knox's account of George Wishart's trial.

[153] Oliphant was educated at St. Andrews, his name occurring among the Determinants, in 1525. Having taken his Master's degree, he obtained preferment in the Church, as Vicar of Foulis and Innertig; and was employed by Cardinal Beaton as his confidential agent at Rome. In Sadler's State Papers is an intercepted letter from Beaton to him, dated 11th November 1539, (vol. i. p. 13.) In May 1540, in the proceedings against Sir John Borthwick, he is styled Notary Public, and Secretary to Cardinal Beaton. Oliphant, (misnamed Eliphant,) in the Provincial Council, held at Edinburgh in 1549, is styled "Secretarius et Notarius in Concilio."—(Wilkins, Conc. vol. i. p. 46.) In 1553 and 1554, he was again employed at Rome, in the affairs of the Governor and of Archbishop Hamilton; and in 1558, he appeared as the accuser of Walter Myll, when tried for heresy. See next note. The name of Mr. Andro Oliphant, Notary Public, also occurs in November 1559, in the Acts of Parliament, (vol. ii. p. 508.)

[154] In MS. G, "servantis." In Vautr. edit. "servantes;" and Vautr. edit., MSS. A, E, &c., read "Meitman." Of this Friar, who with Lauder and Oliphant, are emphatically styled "servants of Satan," not much is known. According to Pitscottie, whilst Schir Andrew Oliphant stood forth as the public accuser of Walter Myln, in April 1558, Friar Maltman preached a sermon on the same occasion, previously to his trial in the Abbey Kirk of St. Andrews.

[155] Petrie, in his notice of their trial, says, "because Bishop Gawin Dunbar was thought cold in the business, Messrs. John Lauder, and Andro Oliphant, and Frier Maltman, were sent from Edinburgh to assist him."—(Hist. Part ii, p. 179.) We may indeed conclude, that unless for the zeal of these Inquisitors, Russell and Kennedy might have escaped martyrdom.

[156] In MS. G, "trod:" in Vautr. edit. "taken."

[157] Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in a letter to Lord Crumwell from Berwick, 29th of March 1639, says, "Dayly commeth unto me, some gentlemen and some clerkes, wich do flee owte of Scotland, as they saie, for redyng of Scripture in Inglishe; saying that, if they were taken, they sholde be put to execution. I geve them gentle wordes; and to some, money." In the same letter, he adds, "Here is nowe in this toune, and hath be[ne] a good season, she that was wife to the late capitaigne of Donbar, and dare not retorne, for holding our waies, as she saithe. She was in Englande, and sawe Quene Jane. She was Sir Patricke Hamelton's doughter, and her brother was brent in Scotlande 3 or 4 yeres past."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 155.) This last reference as to date is an obvious mistake. See extract from Foxe's Martyrs, in Appendix, No. V., respecting Katherine Hamilton, and her brother, James Hamilton of Kincavel, who returned in 1540, and is mentioned in the following note.

[158] Sir James Hamilton of Finnart was a bastard son of James first Earl of Arran; but he obtained letters of legitimation, 20 Jan. 1512-13. His slaughter of the Earl of Lennox in 1526, (see note 116,) was rewarded by the Captaincy of Linlithgow Palace. In Buchanan's Admonition, written in 1570, after the Regent Earl of Murray's death, to expose "the practises of the Hamiltons," there is a detailed account of the several conspiracies against James the Fifth, in which Sir James was concerned. But Hamilton latterly became a favourite of the King, and acquired large possessions. In 1533, he was appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session; and, as Master of Works, he superintended the building or additions made to the Palace of Linlithgow, Blackness Castle, and other royal edifices.—(Treasurer's Accounts, Sept. 1538, and April 1539.) On the 9th of October 1539, is this entry,—

"Item, gevin to Schir James Hammiltoun, Master of Wark, to compleit the Kingis wark in Striveling, as the appointment and contract maid betuix the Compt and him thairupon beris, iiij^m. lib." (L4000.)

"Item, (in April 1540,) gevin to Schir James Hammyltoun, in parte payment of the rest of his comptis for the warkis of Lynlythqw and Blakness, at the Kingis command, be ane precept, iij^c. lib." (L300.)

But his fate was not less sudden than it must have been unexpected. In the same record, we find that on the 16th of August 1540, a messenger was employed "for summonyng of ane assiss to Schir James Hammiltoun, and for wyne brocht into the Lordis, being upoun his inqueist, xv s. x d."—His accuser was James Hamilton of Kincavel, Sheriff of Linlithgow, and being convicted of treason, which had been long concealed, his sentenco was carried into immediate execution.

[159] Pitscottie has given a more detailed narrative of Sir James Hamilton's condemnation and of the King's vision.

[160] The birth of a Prince, named James after his father, on 22d of May 1540, is mentioned at page 82, note 1. The younger son, named Arthur, Duke of Rothesay, &c., was born at Stirling, in April 1541, where he died, according to Lesley, eight days after his baptism.—(Hist. p. 188.) In the Treasurer's Accounts, about the end of April 1541, there was paid "to Andre Zare in Striviling, for ane cap of leid that my Lord Duke was buried in." Prince James died within six hours of Arthur. Mr. Tytler falls into a strange mistake in placing their death subsequently to that of Queen Margaret, widow of James the Fourth. In a letter to her brother Henry the Eighth, written from Stirling, on the 12th of May 1541, she mentions the great distress "for the death of the Prynce and hys brothar, both with the Kyng my derrest son, and the Quene hys wyffe."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 188.) The Queen Dowager died, however, within a few months; the "Diurnal of Occurrents" says on the 24th of November. This date is evidently incorrect, as on the 1st of that month, messengers were despatched with letters "to divers Lordis and gentilmen to cum to the Quenis tyrement." (Treasurer's Accounts.) A letter, describing her last illness, is preserved among the State Papers, vol. v. p. 193, written in December, by Ray the pursuevant, who had been sent by the Privy Council to Scotland specially to report on the subject.

[161] His death may be referred to the end of the year 1541, or early in 1542; as the Treasurer paid "to David Hardy, be ane tykket of George Steilis, for hinging of the tapescherie in Halyrudhouse, and doun taking of the samin, vij s." on the 16 Oct. 1541.—The name of George Steill is occasionally met with in the Treasurer's Accounts, during the reign of James the Fifth. We may conjecture that he was the son of John Steill, one of the servitors to James the Fourth, (apparently King's tailor,) from 1495 to 1502. George, who was a burgess of Edinburgh, had acquired the lands of Houston, and other property. He had a charter under the Great Seal, of the office of Coquet Clerk of the borough: "Officii Clericatus Coketae Burgi de Edinburgo," 3 Sept. 1523. The charters of the lands of Houston, in Linlithgowshire, were granted to himself and Christian Wilson his spouse, 31 July 1530, and 22 Sept. 1532. He had also a charter of "the Common-myre near Duddingston Loch," in the County of Edinburgh, 24 July 1540. In the year 1672, the Common-myre is described as extending to 52 acres, in the barony of Preistfield, now Prestonfield, (Retours, Edin. No. 1196.)

[162] Thomas Scott of Pitgorno, in Fife, was the second son of Sir William Scott of Balweary, (Douglas's Baronage, p. 304.) A person of the same name was a Licentiate at St. Andrews in 1501. He seems to have held some situation at Court, as, among other persons of the Royal Household, he received L40, at Christmas 1530, for their "fealis and pensionis." In 1533, the Treasurer also paid "Thomas Scot for his fee, be the Kingis precept," the sum of L133, 2s. 8d. On the 19th of October 1532, Scott was admitted an Ordinary Lord of Session, in the room of his father, who was then deceased—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 40.) As a further mark of Royal favour, he was appointed Justice Clerk in 1535. A letter, signed by him, "Thomas Scott of Pitgorno," on the 1st of December 1537, addressed to Crumwell, complains of the resetting of traitors who had escaped to England, (some of them, we may suppose, were persons accused of heresy;) and he concludes with suggesting that Henry the Eighth would make an acceptable "propyne" to his nephew, by sending James a young lion, brought from Flanders.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 125.)

[163] Scott's death must have taken place about the close of 1539, the office of Justice-Clerk having been conferred on Thomas Bellenden of Auchinoul, 26th December that year. In a letter written by Mr. Alexander Colvile, Justice-Depute, 20th December 1622, the above confession of Scott is thus mentioned in connection with the appointment of suitable persons to the office of Justice-Clerk, "If he, I say, be not a sound, conscientious man, and free of baise bribrie, he may prove a pernitious instrument, and to the cawse that iniquitie may be committed; as we have yit in memorie of one Thomas Scot of Abotishall, quho was Justice Clerk to James the Fift, of happie memorie, quho being strukin with a terror of conscience, at the hour of his death, for his evill cariage in that place, dyed in desperation, crying, 'I am damned! I am damned!'"—(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. iii. p. 596.) A proof of Scott's iniquitous proceedings is embodied in the Act of Parliament rescinding the forfeiture of John Lord Glammys, on the 15th of March 1542-3, upon a pretended Confession, being "fraudfullie indusit be umquhile Thomas Scot, Justice-Clerk, and utheris familiaris to our said umquhile Soverane Lord, to mak the said pretendit Confessioune, sayand to him, that his life, landis, gudis, movabill and ummovabill, suld be saif to him; and that na process nor sentence of forfaultor sould be led aganis him."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 422.)

[164] Mr. Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, was one of the ten Advocates admitted at the institution of the College of Justice, 7th of May 1532. He acquired the lands of Ratho in 1540; and in that year, he was Provost of Edinburgh, and sat in the Parliaments 1540 and 1546. He was admitted a Lord of Session, and Clerk-Register, on the 8th of February 1548-9, as successor to Sir James Foulis. "Maister Thomas Marjoribankis, now Clerk of oure Soverane Ladyes Register, for his feyes in the yeris of God 1549 and 1550," received "for ilk year 20 merkis, Summa L26, 13s. 4d." He was deprived of the office of Clerk-Register in 1554, and died before 1560.—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 98.)

[165] Mr. Hugh Rigg was admitted an Advocate, on the 16th of November 1537. He obtained a Charter of Confirmation to himself and Janet Hopper his spouse, of the lands of Carberry, in the shire of Edinbuigh, 21st July 1543. The old baronial mansion-house of Carberry stands in the eastern part of the parish of Inveresk.—(New Statistical Account.) Hugh Rigg is again mentioned by Knox, and also by Pitscottie, as one of the four persons to whom the Governor of Scotland communicated the overtures of the Duke of Somerset, immediately previous to the battle of Pinkie. He was succeeded by his son James Rig of Carberry, whose name occurs, in 1577 and 1580, in lists of Assize (Pitcairn's Crim. Trials); and "Mag^r. Quintigernus Rig," was served heir to his father, James Rig of Carbarry, 29 Jan. 1600.—(Retours, Edinb. No. 30.)

[166] Mr. Thomas Bellenden, or Bannatyne, of Auchinoul, was the son of Patrick Bellenden. He was admitted an Ordinary Judge on the 22d of June 1535. He was appointed Director of Chancery, 10th of September 1538; and on the 26th of December 1539, he succeeded Scott of Pitgorno, as Justice-Clerk. He was one of the Commissioners who met for redress, on the Border; and Sir William Eure informs Crumwell, on the 26th of January 1540, that he had "hade diverse commynyages with Mr. Thomas Bellendyn, one of the said Counsellours for Scotlande, a man by estymatioun apperaunte to be of th'age of fiftye zeres or above, and of gentle and sage conversatioun, specially touching the staye of the spiritualitie of Scotland."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 169.) He died in 1546, and was succeeded in his offices of Justice-Clerk and Director of Chancery, by his eldest son, Sir John Bellenden.

[167] Buchanan was born in the year 1506. Having taken his Bachelor's degree at St. Andrews, 3d Oct. 1525, he completed his academical course at Paris. It is usually stated that he returned to Scotland, along with Gilbert Earle of Cassilis, in 1537. The following notices from the Treasurer's Accounts, prove that date to be incorrect.

"Item, the xvj day of Februar [1535-6,] be the Kingis gracis precept and speciale command to Maister George Balquhannan and Andro Myln, servandis to Lord James, to be thame twa gounis," &c., and various other "leverays," viz., "hoiss, bonettis, hugtonis, and doublettis."

"Item, [the xxj day of August 1537,] to Master George Balquhannan, at the Kingis command, xx lib."

In July 1538, upon occasion of "the Quenis (Magdalene's) saull mess and dirige, quham God assolze," Maister George Balquhanan received a goun of Paryse blak, lyned with blak satyne, &c. Also L20, at the King's command.

[168] Lord James Stewart, to whom Buchanan acted as tutor, was the King's natural son, by Elizabeth Shaw, of the family of Sauchie.—(Dr. Irving's Life of Buchanan, p. 17.) He had the Abbacies of Kelso and Melrose conferred on him; but he died at an early age, in the year 1548.

[169] On the title of the first edition of Buchanan's Paraphrase of the Psalms, he is characterized as Poetarum nostri saeculi facile princeps. It was printed at Paris, by Henry Stephanus, in 8vo, without date; but apparently in 1564. A second edition has the date 1566. But the same printer had published a selection of 18 Psalms by Buchanan, with corresponding versions by other Poets, at Paris in 1556, 4to.

[170] The date of Buchanan's escape from Scotland is fixed by his own statement to the beginning of the year 1539, when he says five persons (Symson, Forrester, &c., see note 145) were condemned to the flames, whilst nine others made a formal recantation of their Lutheran errors, and many more were driven into exile; among whom was George Buchanan, who escaped by the window of his bed-chamber, while his keepers were asleep: "In his fuit Georgius Buchananus qui, sopitis custodibus, per cubiculi fenestram evaserat."—(Hist. lib. xiv.)

[171] These words seem to belong to the last paragraph; but all the copies place them as here printed.

[172] In MS. G, "espy and detest."

[173] Alexander Lord Kilmauris, third son of the fourth Earl of Glencairn. In 1543, he was in England as a hostage for his father's sincerity; and Sir Ralph Sadler says, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, "Furthermore, he hath written to your Majesty to have his son home, entring other pledges for him. He is called the Lord of Kilmaurs, and the Master of Glencairn; and in my poor opinion, they be few such Scots in Scotland, both for his wisdom and learning, and well dedicate to the truth of Christ's word and doctrine."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 83.) "The acute Sadler," as Sir Walter Scott remarks, "discerned the germ of those qualities which afterwards made this nobleman the great promoter of the Reformation, and in consequence a steady adherent of the English interest." (ib.) Both the Earl of Glencairn, and his son Lord Kilmaurs, received pensions from Henry the Eighth. Owing to the death of his brothers, he succeeded to the Earldom in 1547, and survived till 1574.

[174] Thomas Douchtie, Hermit of Alareit, or Loretto, near Musselburgh—see note 186.

[175] In MS. G, "Francis Ordour dos."

[176] In MS. G, "gud."

[177] In MS. L 2, "stayed."

[178] In Vautr. edit. "Such lasie scamleris."

[179] In MS. G, "Christis glorie."

[180] In MS. G, "to."

[181] In MS. G, "fra treuth."

[182] To turse, or carry. In MS. G, and all the other copies, it is "to curse," which has no sense.

[183] In MS. G, "on craftie."

[184] Friar Walter is apparently a mistake for Friar William Laing. (See the following note.) Foxe has stated it was through this Friar William Laing, "bewrayer of the confession to Archbishop James Beaton," that Henry Forrest, whose fate is mentioned at page 52, was condemned and given over to the secular judges to suffer death. See the extract from Foxe's Martyrs, in Appendix, No. V.

[185] Calderwood says, "Frier Laing had been confessor to the King," (Hist. vol. i. p. 142;) and the Treasurer's Accounts in 1540, show that "Schir William Layng, Chaplane," was then attached to the Court. On the 6th of February 1539-40, he received various articles of dress, viz., a gown of French black, a hugtoun of Parise black, a doublet of black sattin, and a black bonnet. On the 22d Dec. 1540, "abbis, towellis," &c., were furnished "to his chapell." In 1511, "Schir William Layng," is described as "Maister Elymosinar in the Princes house;" L13, 6s. 8d. having been previously paid "for his liveray clathis, be ane precept, above the ordinar, admittit to him in my Lord Prince house;" and in July that year, L20 was "gevin to Schir William Layng, Chaplane, enterit this zere (in the Household)."—"Willelmus Laynge, studens," was incorporated in the University of Glasgow, in 1493; and another "Willelmus Layng, clericus Parochialis Glasguensis," in 1501.

[186] According to a contemporary chronicler, the Chapel of our Lady of Loretto was founded so late as 1533, by Thomas Douchtie, here styled the Hermit of Alareit. "In this mene tyme (1533,) thair come ane heremeit callit Thomas Douchtie, in Scotland, quha had bein lang Capitane [captive?] befoir the Turk, as was allegit, and brocht ane ymage of our Lady with him, and foundit the Cheppil of Laureit besyid Musselburgh."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 17, Edinb. 1833, 4to.) In like manner Buchanan says, this impostor Douchtye, having returned from Italy, built a church to the Virgin Mary, and made great gain by his fictitious miracles.—(Hist. lib. xiv. p. 41.) The Chapel dedicated to our Lady of Loretto, (sometimes called Alareit,) stood beyond the eastern gate of Musselburgh, near the Links; and the name for the locality is still retained. It was connected with the Nunnery of the Sciennes, and became one of the most noted shrines in Scotland, during the reign of James the Fifth. Lesley says, that the King, previously to his marriage, having sailed for France, (24th July 1536,) the vessel in which he had embarked, after sailing by the north of Scotland, and the west, was driven by a storm, and that he landed at St. Ninians, in Galloway, "and sua returnit to Strivilinge, and thairfra passit on his feet in pilgrimage to the Chapell of Lorrett, besid Mussilburgh."—(Hist. p. 150.) Queen Margaret, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, printed in the State Papers, vol. v. p. 181, (where it is placed under the year 1540, instead of 1536,) thus mentions her son's voyage, saying that his nephew had been "in grete dangere of seyis, be contrare wyndis, quhilk agane his mynd, be extreme stormis, compellit to mak course furth of this Est sey northward, compassing the maist parte of this realme throuch the occeane seyis, and be the grace of God arryvit in the port of St. Ninianis callit Quhithorne." James, after his pilgrimage on foot from Stirling, sailed from Leith, with a squadron of seven vessels, and had a more fortunate voyage. On the 7th of September 1536, the Treasurer paid L13, 6s. 8d. to Sir Henry Balfour, in part of L40, "to be gevin to puir houshuldarris to pray for his Hienes prosperous returnyng."

[187] Proposals for such a meeting had been made in 1534, and again in 1536. The above meeting was to have taken place on the 15th of January 1541-2, according to Articles agreed upon the previous month.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 199; Tytler's Hist. vol. v. p. 242.)

[188] Henry the Eighth, says Sir Walter Scott, "insulted James by the threat, that he had still the name rod in in keeping which had chastized his father. By that rod, the Duke of Norfolk was intimated, who, while yet Earl of Surrey, commanded at Flodden, where James IV. fell."—(Hist. of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 31.) See note 193.

[189] Pitscottie says, that the Bishops, in apprehension that James might follow his uncle's example, in casting down the Abbeys, "budded (bribed) the King to bide at home, and gave him three thousand pounds by year to sustain his house, off their benefices." At a later date, the Clergy, we are told, offered to contribute and assign to him of yearly rent of their benefices, the sum of thirty thousand pounds; or to enlarge the sum to L100,000, provided the King gave them a secular judge to their mind, to execute justice on the wicked heretics whom they had delated to the King, in the list or scroll elsewhere referred to.—(Hist. pp. 230, 255, 256, edit. 1778.) It was but proper that the Clergy, to whom the King had sacrificed so much, should thus manifest their liberality; but indeed such contributions were not unusual, on the part of the beneficed clergy and dignitaries of the Church. In August 1513, previously to the calamitous expedition which had such a fatal catastrophe at Floddon, the Clergy contributed the sum of L10,275, 10s. 9d. (Treasurer's Accounts.)

[190] The 24th of August 1542.

[191] In MS. G, "Malberie." The name should be Mowbray.

[192] Halden Rig, or Hawden Rig, in Roxburghshire, a few miles to the east of Kelso. In the MS. it was originally written "Maxwell heucht," but this is corrected to Haldane Rig. In the later MSS. "Reade," is written more intelligibly "raid."

[193] Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, when Earl of Surrey, convoyed the Princess Margaret from England, to her marriage with James the Fourth, at Holyrood, in 1503; and he commanded the English army at Floddon, in 1513, when the rashness of that gallant but unfortunate Monarch proved fatal to himself, and so disastrous to his country. He died in 1524; and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas third Duke of Norfolk, who was Lieutenant-General in the North, and had also been at Floddon. He commanded the English troops which invaded the southern parts of Scotland, in August 1542 and died in 1554, upwards of eighty years of age.

[194] Now Smailholm.

[195] Fala Muir, a plain near the western termination of the Lammermuir hills.

[196] In Vautr. edit. "Hallow-evin." The Eve of Hallowmass; in Scotland, Halloween, the 31st of October; Hallowmass, or All Saints, of course, being the 1st of November.

[197] This alludes to the summary execution by the Scotish nobles of Cochrane and other favourites of James the Third, in hanging them over the bridge of Lauder, in the year 1479, as related by all our Historians.

[198] In Vautr. edit. "had he runne."

[199] See note 210, respecting this Scroll.

[200] In the later copies, "once."

[201] The date of the King's voyage round the Isles has been mistaken by most of the older writers, such as Buchanan, Lesley, and others. This may have partly arisen from confounding it with his previous voyage in 1536. (See note 186.) James purposed to have sailed on the 14th of May 1540, but he deferred setting out till after the birth of his son, who was born at St. Andrews on the 22d of May. This happy event James communicated in a letter to his uncle, the King of England, on the same day: "It hes liket God of his great gudnes to have send unto us, this 22 day of May instant, ane sone and Prince, fair and lillik to succeid to ws and this our Realme. We think it accordis ws weill to mak you participant with ws of sic joyus gud novellis," &c.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 177.) The baptism of the Prince took place on the 28th of May, and the King is said to have sailed on the day following. The Treasurer's Accounts for 1540 and 1541, which furnish a number of interesting notices connected with the expense of this voyage, show that the arrangements for sailing were not compleated before the 11th or 12th of June, which may be held as the actual date of the expedition. In the collection of State Papers referred to, are two letters, conveying reports of the preparations for the voyage, furnished by some of "the espiallis," or English spies; and also another letter from James himself to Henry the Eighth, on his return, dated at Edinburgh the 29th of July 1540, in which he says, that "all thingis standyng at gude poynt and ordour, we addressit us, as we thought expedient, to visie our Ilis, North and Southt, for ordouring of thame in justice and good policy," &c. (ib. p. 182.)

[202] James Kirkcaldy of Grange held the office of High Treasurer from the 20th March 1537, till the death of James in 1542; but his Accounts during the latter months of the King's reign are not preserved. Having accompanied James to France, the Laird of Grange had also acted as Treasurer Extraordinary from 11th September 1536, until the King's return in May 1537.

[203] In the MS. "propheit."

[204] In MS. G, "josrellis;" MS. A, "jesuits;" MS. L2, "jeffells."

[205] In Vautr. edit., MS. L 2, &c., "I shall reprove you by sharpe punishmentes."—From an interesting letter of Sir William Eure to Crumwell, dated from Berwick, 26th January 1539-40, it seems, that this answer or reprimand was uttered at Linlithgow, rather than Holyrood; and was occasioned by his witnessing the representation of Sir David Lyndesay's play, called, "Ane Satire on the Three Estates," which evidently produced a strong, but unfortunately no lasting impression on the King's mind. After describing "the Enterlude," Eure proceeds, "My Lorde, the same Maister Bellenden shewed me, that after the said Enterluyd fynished, the King of Scottes did call upon the Bischope of Glasgow [Gawin Dunbar], being Chauncelour, and diverse other Buschopes, exorting thaym to reforme thair facions and maners of lyving, saying, that oneles thay soe did, He wolde send sex of the proudeste of thayme unto his Uncle of England, and, as those were ordoured, soe He wold ordour all the reste that wolde not amende: And therunto the Chauncelour should [did] aunsuer, and say unto the King, that one worde of his Graces mouthe should suffice thayme to be at commaundement: And the King haistely and angrely answered, that he wold gladely bestowe any wordes of his mouthe that could amend thaym."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 170.)

[206] John Ross of Craigie, near Perth, was one of the prisoners taken at Solway Moss, in 1542.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 233.)

[207] In the later copies, "once."

[208] Oliver Sinclair, see note 224.

[209] In Vautr. edit. "minion."

[210] Knox has previously alluded to this scroll or list of names. See pages 81 and 82. Sir Ralph Sadler, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, dated 27th of March 1543, details a conversation he had with the Governor, who told him, "That a number of noblemen and gentlemen the late King had gotten written in a Roll, which were all accused of Heresy; of the which, (he said,) he was the first, and the Earl of Cassilis, the Earl of Glencairn and his son, the Earl Marishal, and a great many gentlemen, to the number of eighteen score, because they were all well minded to God's Word, which then they durst not avow; but now, (quoth he,) I shall do mine endeavour to set forth the glory of God with the assistance of the King's Majesty."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 94.)

[211] Herbert Lord Maxwell, Warden of the West Marches, was taken prisoner at the battle of Solway. Sir Ralph Sadler, in a letter dated 4th April 1543, reports a detailed conversation he had with him on the state of Scotland.—(State Papers, vol. i. p. 117.) He died in 1546.

[212] Lochmaben—see note 225.

[213] That is, the foray. In Vautr. edit. this sentence, reads, "The forward goeth forth, feare ryses, daunger might have bin scene on every side." The later MSS. are equally unintelligible.

[214] The words, "cornes and houses," connecting the foot of p. 71, and the top of p. 72, in Vautr. edit, have been omitted; and this omission occurs also in MSS. I, and L 2.

[215] In Vautr. edit. "fentes."

[216] In Vautr. edit. "slaked."

[217] In Vautr. edit., and MS. G, &c., "the regiment of things."

[218] In MS. G, "gritter."

[219] In Vautr. edit. "were mired, and lost their horses."

[220] In MS. G, "proik;" MS. A, "pricke."

[221] In MS. G, "of futemen soldeors."

[222] In Vautr. edit. "his own sluggard;" in MSS. G, I, and L 2, "slughorne."

[223] In MS. A, "Solloway Mosse;" in Vautr. edit. "the slimy mosse." Solway Moss derives its name from the Solway Frith, a well known arm of the sea, which forms the boundary between England and Scotland for upwards of fifty miles. The Moss lies on the Cumberland side of the small river Sark, in the tract of land formerly known as the Debateable Ground.

[224] Oliver Sinclair of Pitcairns was the third son of Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin. He was a favourite of James the Fifth; and Pitscottie says the King placed him as Governor of Temptallon or Tautallon Castle, when the powerful family of the Douglasses were driven into exile.—(Hist. p. 224.) It is more probable it was some years later that he received the command of this stronghold, which is on a cliff overhanging the sea, about two miles to the east of North Berwick. In the Treasurer's Accounts, June 1537, we find L120 "was delivered to Olivere Sinclare, in Cowper, to pay the Kingis gentillmen with." In the following month, L20 was paid "to Olivere inclare, in compleat payment of his lyveray clathis." And on the 6th Oct. 1540, there was "gevin to Olipher Sinclar at the Kingis command, to the warkis of Tamtalloun," L66, 13s. 4d. In November 1541, when the Queen Dowager died at Methven, he and John Tennant, two of the gentlemen of the King's Privy Chamber, were sent to take and lock up all her goods.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 194.) He was taken prisoner after his shameful defeat at Solway; but obtained his liberty in 1543. Sadler mentions, that when he was about to repair to Tantallon Castle, at the end of that year, as a place of security, under the protection of Sir George Douglas, Sinclair was lying in wait, in a small village near hand, in the hope of seizing him and his retinue.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 220, 329, 333.)

[225] Lochmaben, in the parish of that name in Annandale. Lesley, however, says, "During the tyme of this Raid, the King of Scotland remanit in Carlaverock upoun the Bordour, not far from Soloway Moss."—(Hist. p. 165.) The distance of either place from the scene of this disgraceful defeat was not considerable. Lochmaben was a Royal Castle; and Pitscottie, like Knox, says, that the King "was in the Castle of Lochmaben."—(Hist. p. 174.) But Pinkerton and Tytler follow Lesley.

[226] Hand, or hold: in MS. G, "hald."

[227] In Vautr. edit., MS. G, &c., "and so went."

[228] 25th of November.—James was still at Edinburgh on the 30th of November, when he wrote a letter to Henry the Eighth.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 228.)

[229] See note 245.

[230] Hallyards, in the parish of Auchtertool.

[231] In Vautr. edit., MS. G, &c., "the Lady of Grange." This was Janet Melville, daughter of Sir John Melville of Raith, and Helen Napier. She married James Kirkcaldy of Grange, High Treasurer, from 1537 to 1542. See page 82, note 3.

[232] Yule, or Christmas; as in Vautr. edit., MSS. E, I, and L 2.

[233] In Vautr. edit. "Christmas daye."

[234] Castle of Carny, in the parish of Moonzie, in the shire of Fife.

[235] These words are omitted in MS. G.

[236] Lesley and later writers say that Mary was born on the 7th of December. Prince Labanoff, however, proves that it was the 8th, "C'est la veritable date.—J'ai trouve dans le State Paper Office de Londres, une lettre autographe de Marie Stuart de 1584, dans laquello elle dit: le viij Decembre, xlij^e de ma naissance."—(Lettres de Marie Stuart, vol. i. p. 1.)

[237] This story of Cardinal Beaton having forged, or caused the King, in his last moments, to subscribe his name to a paper, which he afterwards filled up as a Will, constituting Beaton Regent during the minority of Mary, has been discredited; (see note in Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 63;) but it undoubtedly obtained credence at the time, as Sadler reports a conversation he had with the Governor on the 12th April 1543, who said, "We have other matters to charge the Cardinal with; for he did counterfeit, (quoth he,) the late King's Testament; and when the King was even almost dead, (quoth he,) he took his hand in his, and so caused him to subscribe a blank paper."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 138.) Lesley also says the Cardinal made some impediment to Arran's appointment as Governor, "alleging that the King be his Testament nominat four Regentis: bot the same on no wise could be verefeit nor provin."—(Hist. p. 169.) Buchanan further confirms this by asserting, that Beaton "having bribed Henry Balfour, a mercenary priest, he, with his assistance, forged a false Will for the King," &c.—(Hist. lib. xv. 1.) This Henry Balfour is the Priest or Chaplain who is mentioned at the end of note 186.

[238] In MS. G, this sentence occurs on the margin, having been omitted in the text by the transcriber.

[239] James the Fifth died at Falkland, and was buried in the Chapel of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. The day of his death is variously stated. Some writers, as Knox, calling it the 13th, others the 14th of December; but in the Treasurer's Accounts, there are various payments connected with his obsequies, under this head,—

"The Expensis debursit be the Compter fra the tyme of the Kingis Grace decess quhoine God assolze, quhilk ves the xxj day of December, anno etc. xlij^e" &c.

[240] See note 237.

[241] Buchanan states, that the three persons who were joined with Beaton, when the King's pretended Will was proclaimed, were the Earls of Huntly, Argyle, and Arran. Knox and Spottiswood, instead of Arran, name the Earl of Murray, who was bastard brother of James the Fifth.—(Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 64.)

[242] James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, failing Mary Queen of Scots, then an infant, was next heir to the Crown.

[243] In MS. G, "successors."

[244] In Vautr. edit. "appoints;" the same blunder is copied in MSS. I, and L 2.

[245] On the last of February 1542-3, the Treasurer's Accounts exhibits this "Item, gevin to Henry Wardlaw, for the writing of the Inventour Buke of all the Kingis clething, jowellis, and uther gere, for his laubouris, xl s."

[246] The infant Queen remained in the Palace of Linlithgow, under the nominal charge of the Queen Dowager. Parliament, in March 1543, nominated the Earls Marishal and Montrose, Lords Erskine, Ruthven, Livingstone, Lindesay of Byres, and Seton, and Sir James Sandilands of Calder, "as keepers of the Quenis Grace," or any two of them quarterly.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 414.)

[247] On the 22d of December 1542, after the death of James the Fifth, James Hamilton, 2d Earl of Arran, was chosen Regent or Governor of Scotland during the minority of the infant Princess. At the first meeting of the Estates of Parliament, on the 12th of March 1543, his appointment was confirmed, with a declaration of his being second person of the realm, and nearest to succeed to the Crown, "failing our Sovereign Lady, and the children lawfully to be gotten of hir body."—(Acta Parl. Scot, vol. ii. p. 411.)

[248] Friar Thomas Guilliam, (or Williams,) is described as a native of Athelstaneford in East Lothian; and is said to have attained considerable distinction in his Order of Dominican or Black Friars in Scotland. The Governor entertained him as his Chaplain, until the return of his brother the Abbot of Paisley from France, had the effect of withdrawing him from the English interest, and disowning the new doctrines. The Friar's name occurs in the Treasurer's Accounts:—

1542-3, On the 23d of February, there was furnished "to be ryding gownis, with hudis, to Freir Thomas Gilzame, and Freir Alexander Lindsay, of Scottis black," &c. Also, "cottis, ryding sokkis," &c.

1543, 21st April, "Gevin to Freir Thomas Gilzem, at his Grace command, at his passing to Hamilton, v lib. x s."

On the following day, the 22d of April, Sir Ralph Sadler communicates to Henry the Eighth the information, "that the Governor was clearly altered from your Majesty, and will surely revolt to the Cardinal, the Earls of Lennox, Huntley, Argyle, and Murray, and the clergy, to his own utter confusion.... In so much as the said Governor hath not only put away his Friers preachers, which he hath all this while defended, and kept about him to preach the Word of God, but also hath secretly sent to the said Cardinal and Earls," &c. (vol. i. p. 158.)

[249] In Vautr. edit., MSS. G, &c., the words "in the dayis of Marie of curssed memorie," are omitted.

[250] Calderwood, under the year 1531, says, "A landed man, named Johne Scot, after he had travelled through Italie, France, and the Holie Land, returneth home. He brought with him from Jerusalem some date-tree leaves, and a pocke full of stones, which he fained were taken out of the pillar to which Christ was bound, when he was scourged." He then records some instances of Scot's extraordinary fasting, first in Scotland, and afterwards at Rome, Venice, and London; and also of his deceptions.—(Hist. vol. i. p. 102.) In April 1532, John Scot "was wardit in the Castle of Edinburgh, for not obeying a decreit against him be James Lawson of Hieriggs; the quhilk Johne Scot fastit without meat or drink of veritie xxxij dayes, exceptand ane drink of water." And on the 6th of October, "he was brocht nakit to the Croce of Edinburgh, quhair he preichit publictlie, the samyne quhilk fasting was be helpe of the Virgin Marye."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, pp. 14,16.) In 1541, on the 11th of July, there was paid "to Johne Scot, callit the Santt, at the Kingis command, xxij s."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) In George Makeson's MS., among his "Recollectionis of my Lordis G[racis] missives," &c., is this note, "To let Freir Johne Scott vant [want] na thing for his bukis and pensioun: at command quhairof I gaif him xxiij lib. 3 Septembris 1553."

[251] Edward Hope, in 1560, was one of the Bailies of Edinburgh.

[252] This Patrick Lyndesay was probably the same person whose name appears in the Treasurer's Accounts, as follows:—

1543, April 21. "Item, gevin to Patrick Lindsay, goldsmyth, for making of the Quenis Grace selis, and graving thairof, and for service and laubouris done he him to our Soverane Lord, quham God assolze, as the precept direct thairupoun beris, xxxj lib."

[253] In Vautr. edit., &c., "at length by notice given."

[254] Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, near Haddington, whose name is honourably associated with the early poetical literature of Scotland, was born in 1496, and studied at St. Andrews. He then went to France to study the laws. He was admitted as a Judge in 1551, and was often employed in public commissions. He died at the advanced age of 90, on the 20th of March 1586.—(Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, p. 97.)

[255] Cardinal Beaton was arrested in the end of January 1542-43, and imprisoned by the Governor first in the Castle of Dalkeith, from whence he was transferred to Blackness. He at last obtained permission to go to his own Castle of St. Andrews, under the guard of George fifth Lord Seaton, (who died in 1545.) Sir Ralph Sadler confirms the above statement by Knox, of Seaton having been bribed by the Cardinal. In a letter to Henry the Eighth, 12th April 1543, he says the Governor told him of the proposal to have the Castle of St. Andrews delivered to the Lord Seaton, and all the Cardinal's retainers put out, "Nevertheless, (quoth he,) the Lord Seton being corrupt by the Cardinal with great sums of money and other gifts, brought the Cardinal into his own strength, in the said Castle of St. Andrews. And whereas the Lord Seton, (quoth he,) hath not twelve or sixteen men within the Castle, the Cardinal hath three hundred; so that he is plainly at his own liberty," &c. Sadler adds, "I told him he had been very evil served, and that the Lord Seton had a great matter to answer unto. Whereunto he said, That he should answer to it," &c.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 70, 107, 131, 136, and 137.)

[256] Pasche, or Easter: the Parliament met on the 12th of March 1542-43.

[257] Knox apparently refers to various Acts passed in the Parliament held at Edinburgh, 14th of March 1540-41, at which the King was present. These Acts prohibited all discussion on matters of religion; and persons from arguing against the Pope's authority, under the pain of death and confiscation of their goods; suspected heretics were declared to be incapable of exercising any office; and such as had fled to avoid the censures of the Church, were held to be condemned.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 370.) There were still earlier Acts against Heresy, and the importation of Heretical books. The Act 17th July 1525, contains some additions in the original record, on the 5th September 1527, (see fac-simile plate, vol. ii. p. 295;) and the Act so enlarged was renewed, 12th June 1535, (ib. p. 341.) There is also preserved a letter written by James the Fifth, addressed to the Lords of Council and Session, dated at Aberdeen, 3d May 1534, in reference to "diverse tractatis and bukes translatit out of Latin in our Scottis toung be Heretikis, favouraris and of the secte of Luther," which were sent to various parts of the realm; and the Lords, on the 8th of May, passed some stringent rules, for destroying all such books, and for punishing trespassers and suspected persons.—(Acts of Sederunt, p. 21, Edinb. 1811, folio.) But the Acts alluded to were in part nullified by the additions made to them on the 15th March 1542-43, (Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 415.) On the same day, Parliament sanctioned the "haifing the Haly Write, in the vulgar toung," as mentioned in note 265.

[258] These words, "Now, yf" &c., are omitted in MSS. A and W.

[259] The words, "and to hear it preached," are omitted in MS. G.

[260] In MS. G. "[Greek: agape.]"

[261] David Rizzio.

[262] Henry, Lord Darnley.

[263] It may be remarked, that either Hay's name, or Dean of Restalrig, appear to be a mistake; and the marginal note may have had reference to this.—In 1540, Thomas Gibson, Dean of Restalrig, was conjoined with Cardinal Beaton as his suffragan; and it was proposed, that whilst acting in that capacity, Gibson should retain the benefices which he then held. At the Provincial Council in 1549, Mr. John Sinclair, afterwards Bishop of Brechin, and Lord President, sat as Dean of Restalrig.—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46.)

[264] In MS. G, "lesoun," (lesum.) In Vautr. edit. "lawfull."

[265] The Act of Parliament, 15th March 1542-3, allowing the translation of the Scriptures "in the vulgar tongue, in the English or Scotish, of a good translation," was proclaimed on the 19th of that month. It has been doubted whether, during the short interval which this Act was allowed to remain in force, any edition was printed in Scotland; most probably there was. But we know that Parliamentary enactments of a previous date were insufficient to prevent the importation of copies of Tyndale's translation of the New Testament, so early as 1526, as well as in subsequent years: See the Rev. C. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii.

[266] Sir Ralph Sadler was born in the year 1507. Having gained a situation in the family of Thomas Lord Crumwell, he was brought under the notice of Henry the Eighth, and after various other engagements, he commenced his diplomatic career in 1537, by an embassy to Scotland. He was again in this country as ambassador on seveval subsequent occasions. His "State Papers and Letters," edited by Arthur Clifford, with a Memoir by Sir Walter Scott, Edinb. 1809, 2 vols. 4to, is a work of great importance for illustrating the history of the period to which they relate.

[267] Lady Jane Seymour.

[268] In Vautr. edit., and in MS. G, Hamilton's name is omitted.

[269] The Commissioners sent to England in March 1542-43, were Sir James Learmonth of Balcomie, Treasurer; Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar; and Henry Balnaves of Halhill, Secretary. Their names frequently occur in the political transactions of the period. They returned to Edinburgh sometime between the 10th and 31st of July 1543. In the course of their negotiation, (in May,) the Earl of Glencairn and Sir George Douglas wore joined with them. See Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. pp. 59-63, 83, 90.

[270] Alluding to the pensions granted by the English Monarch, as an effectual mode of securing such persons to his interest.

[271] In Vautr. edit. "Solon mosse." The rout of the Scotch forces at Solway took place on the 26th of November 1542. Among the State Papers (vol. v. p. 232) recently published, is a document intitled, "The yerely value of the lands, and also the value and substance in goodis, of the Scottish prisoners lately taken at Salone Mosse." The principal persons were the Earls of Cassilis and Glencairne, Lords Somerville, Maxwell, Gray, Oliphant, and Flemyng, Oliver Sinclair, George Hume of Eyton, Robert Erskine son of Lord Erskine, Walter Seton of Tough, Patrick Hepburn of Waughton, and John Ross of Craigie.

[272] In Vautr. edit. "immediately."

[273] The treaty of pacification between the two kingdoms, and the projected alliance of Edward the Sixth with Queen Mary, when she had attained the age of ten years, sanctioned by the Parliament of Scotland, 8th of June, was concluded at Greenwich on the 1st of July 1543. But this proceeding, as stated in the text, was opposed by Cardinal Beaton and the French faction. (See next note.) The Commissioners, however, as mentioned in the preceding note, having returned, this treaty, on the 25th of August, was solemnly ratified by the Governor, "at the High Mass, solemnly sung with shalms and sack-buts, in the Abbey Church of the Holyroodhouse," and the Great Seal of Scotland appended to the treaty.—(Rymer's Foedera, vol. xiv. pp. 786-791; Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 425, 426; Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. p. 270.)

[274] In Vautr. edit. the words, "and they made a brag to depose the Governour," are omitted.—Sadler, on the 16th of July 1543, writes to the English Monarch, that the Governor had informed him of the intention of the Cardinal and his party "to come to Linlithgow to surprize the young Queen, and afterwards, (if they can,) to depose and put him downe."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 233.) And in another letter from Edinburgh, dated the 23d of July, he says, "I thinke they woll not fight, for all their bragges. The Cardynall and his complices do lye at Lythcoo, with the nomber of 5 or 6000; and the Governour and his frendes and adherentes, with 7 or 8000, do lye here in this toune, not 12 myle a sonder; and ambassadours go bytwen them to treate the matiers, so that, by treatie, it is thought they shall agree, and no hurte done."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 326.)

[275] This sentence, on to the words "confouud all," is written on the margin of the MS. with this addition, "as after follows;" which, I presume, has reference to the concluding part of the sentence, although it is partially deleted. The statement is not only correct in itself, but is required for the context. In MS. G, Vautr. edit., and all the other copies, while the marginal addition, "The Papists raged," &c., and also the words, "as after follows," are incorporated with the text, the clause, "And without delay," &c., is wholly omitted.

[276] Sir James Foulis of Colinton was appointed Clerk-Register in 1531, and was also admitted a Lord of Session, at the first meeting of the Court, on the 27th of May 1532. He held the office of Clerk-Register till 1548, the year before his death. The Treasurer paid "to Maister Henry Foullis, for his umquhill fatheris feyes, in the yeris of God 1547 and 1548, L26, 13s. 4d."

[277] In Vautr. edit. "preparation."

[278] John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley. He arrived in Scotland between the 2d and 18th of April 1543.

[279] George Crichton, a son of Crichton of Naughton, (Keith's Bishops, p. 94,) must have been far advanced in life at this time. He was a fellow-student with Dunbar the poet at St. Andrews, having taken his Master's degree in the year 1479. He was Abbot of Holyroodhouse, which he probably resigned on obtaining possession of the See of Dunkeld, previously to November 1520. In 1533, he was nominated an Extraordinary Lord of Session, (Senators of the College of Justice, p. 45;) and died on the 24th of January 1545.

[280] See note 30.

[281] Or, Bellenden, Justice-Clerk. see note 166.

[282] It is surprising that Sir David Lyndesay, among the various persons who were accused of heresy, should have escaped all persecution. For a time, the personal attachment of James the Fifth may explain this exemption, having been in his service since the King's infancy; but the effects of Lyndesay's satirical writings must have rendered him peculiarly obnoxious to the clergy. Yet we find him officially employed in foreign missions, as Lyon-King at Arms, till within a short time of his death, which took place about the year 1555.

[283] Michael Durham appears among the Determinants in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 1527, and the Licentiates in 1529. It is probable he then went abroad, and took a degree in medicine at some foreign University. From the Treasurer's Accounts, we learn that for a short period before the death of James the Fifth, he was King's physician:—

1542, July or August, "Item, to Maister Michaell Durehame, doctour in medecyne, (enterit before the last feist of Whitsunday,) for his half yearis fee, L50."

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