Followed by a number of the citizens the chaplain took his way towards the Palais de Justice. There, too, ever since eight o'clock everyone had been extremely busy. Two by two the members of the High Court of Parliament in their scarlet robes had marched out of the Council Chamber, with their four state officials in violet preceding them, and a guard of the Cinquantaine before. In this chapel they all heard the "Messe du Prisonnier," and then sat down to the enormous repast called the "Festin du cochon," with which (on a smaller scale), every public body and every household in Rouen fortified themselves for the doings of that splendid day. By the end of dinner the chaplain and his cartel had arrived, and the whole courtyard of the Palais was ringed with crowds of people. Accompanied by his Prevot and four other members of the Confrerie St. Romain, the chaplain was escorted into the great hall, the name was solemnly read out, and the officials of the Parliament went to the particular gaol in which the prisoner happened to be kept. Bareheaded, with his irons still upon one leg, the man was brought quickly to the Conciergerie, that his name might be enregistered as a formal prisoner of the Palais; for all the legal bodies were particularly touchy about their own prerogatives. When a man could not walk he was carried, as was Antoine de Lespine in 1602, who had been wounded in a duel two days before, and could only be got to the Conciergerie in a clothes-basket.
After certain solemn preliminaries the prisoner was brought into the great hall, and while all the councillors stood up he knelt before the president to receive admonition for his past sins and pardon for the future. Still bareheaded, he was then led out by the "huissiers" of the court through the great open space in front, and as his foot touched the pavement of the street beyond, a signal set the great bell Georges d'Amboise ringing from the Cathedral tower. At the sound, every steeple in Rouen rocked with answering salutations. "Rura jam late venerantur omen." From every parish church for miles round the ringers, waiting for the "bourdon's" note, sent out a joyful peal in chorus, and every villager drank bumpers to the prisoner's health. Himself, a little dazed we may imagine with this sudden tumult in the streets and in his heart too at deliverance from death, he marched along with the arquebusiers beside him, through a cheering crowd towards the old Halles. There the authority of the law let go its grip, and he was handed over to the chaplain and the deputies of the Confrerie St. Romain, who took him to an inner room. There he was given refreshment, his chains were struck off and wound round one arm, and he was dressed in fresh clothes.
Meanwhile, after the Cathedral choir had sung a solemn Te Deum, the great procession of the church had moved out of the Portail des Libraires, chanting in mighty unison "Christe quem sedes revocant paternae," down the Rue St. Romain to the western gate of St. Maclou, where choir-boys met them bearing lighted candles and swinging incense. And the chaplain brought the prisoner out into the Place de la Haute Vieille Tour, and leading him up the right-hand steps of the Chapelle de la Fierte, presented him to the mass of people in front just before the procession arrived from the Cathedral. So he knelt bareheaded and kissed the holy shrine which two priests had borne up to its place; the Archbishop addressed him in the hearing of his fellow citizens, and before them all he made confession, receiving his absolution as he raised the shrine of St. Romain thrice by its bars upon his shoulders, while all the people cried "Noel! Noel!" Then a confrere de St. Romain put a garland of white flowers upon the prisoner's head, and holding one end of the shrine himself he gave the prisoner the other, and all men put themselves in order for the march back up the Rue de l'Epicerie to the Place de la Calende and so to the Parvis and the western gate of the Cathedral.
As the first notes of the "Felix Dies Mortalibus" were chanted by the priests, a hundred and twenty poor orphans moved forward, each carrying in one hand a wooden cross all wreathed with flowers and in the other a great loaf of bread. Behind them came the shrines of all the saints whose churches guarded Rouen, each with the Confrerie over whose interests they watched; St. Blaise with his wool-merchants, St. Jean with the orange-sellers, St. Sebastien with the hatters, and many more; each marching confrere wreathed in flowers, and every shrine attended with its special banner and its priests and candles. These were followed by the archers of the Cinquantaine, and the banner of their great Dragon, who appeared again upon a lofty pole, swallowing a fish; by a band of sweet music and of singers chanting melodiously their "cantiques and motets"; by all the burgesses of Rouen walking decorously two by two; by the choir-boys of the Cathedral and two hundred of the clergy, the canons in violet, and the greater dignitaries in soutanes of red silk; by the officiating canon, and lastly by the Archbishop himself, blessing the people as he went along.
As the chanting died away, after a short interval came the beadle all in violet livery bearing the great "Gargouille" of the town, and followed by a rabble of laughing, screaming lads in motley, swinging bladders, and throwing flowers and cakes about the street—that note of ribaldry without which no such procession was complete—and then came suddenly a silence, for the most holy shrine of St. Romain passed by, borne by the prisoner and a priest. The last seven prisoners followed him, bareheaded and with torches. And then the laughter and the cheering broke out again as more burgesses tramped along with bouquets in their hands, and young girls all in white with garlands of flowers about their bosoms scattered blossoms on the bystanders, and more guards and soldiers closed up the procession and kept the crowd from breaking through its ranks.
By this time the first line had reached the Parvis, and as the voices of two priests singing on the summit of the Tour St. Romain floated down upon the people, all men passed in through the Portail de St. Romain of the Western Front, under the great shrine held crosswise, so that all who went beneath received the blessed influence. When everyone had entered, and the shrine was once more on the High Altar, the Grand Mass was sung, and the prisoner was once more publicly exhorted by the Archbishop, before he was taken away again by the Confrerie St. Romain to a great feast in the Master's House which was the real celebration of his return to freedom.
The life of a sixteenth-century French town has often been described before, but I am particularly fortunate in being able to sketch you something of what went on in Rouen, not merely with the background of Lelieur's drawing, but even with the sound of the music which was heard in her streets; and, if I mistake not, the one is as unknown to English readers as the other. It has been said that Guillaume le Franc, a musician of Rouen, actually composed the tune known as the "Old Hundredth," originally set to the 134th Psalm in the Geneva Psalter, and used by English Protestants for the 100th about 1562. It was Haendel's opinion that Luther composed it, and to Claude Goudimel, who was assassinated in the St. Bartholomew of Lyons, the honour has also been attributed; but local patriotism insists upon le Franc, and after reading the specimen of local musical talent I shall give you, I believe you will be readier to allow that Guillaume le Franc may have done what his fellow-citizens believe.
The madrigal I have printed here was written in a rare old book I found in the Library of Rouen. It was most kindly copied out for me on the spot by M. Baurain, and Mr J.A. Fuller-Maitland was so good as to decipher the ancient notation and provide me with a score that anyone can play and sing to-day. He has also written the last paragraph of this chapter, and with his learned explanation I may leave you to the enjoyment of a song that has never been published since 1551, and that will reproduce for you, for the first time since then, the sound of the welcome given to Henri II. and Catherine de Medicis as they entered their good town of Rouen in 1550.
[Footnote 72: Its title-page is too good to be lost, and runs as follows, without the charming spacing and lettering of the original:—
"Cest La Deduction du sumptueux ordre plaisantz spectacles et magnificques theatres dresses et exhibes par les citoiens de Rouen ville Metropolitaine du pays de Normandie, A la sacree Maieste du Treschristian Roy de France Henry secōd leur souverain seigneur, Et a Tresillustre dame, maDame Katharine de Medicis, La Royne son espouse, lors de leur triumphant joyeux et nouvel advenement en icelle ville, Qui fut es iours d'Octobre, Mil cinq cens cinquante, Et pour plus expresse intelligence de ce tant excellent triumphe, Les figures et pourtraictz des principaulx aornements d'iceluy y sont apposez chascun en son lieu comme l'on pourra veoir par le discours de l'histoire.... Avec priuilege du Roy. On les vend a rouen chez Robert le Hoy Robert et Jehan dictz du Gord tenantz leur Boutique Au portail des Libraires. 1551."]
In the history of music this four-part song is interesting as giving evidence of the general cultivation in music that must have prevailed among the French people at the time. In the present day we are apt to think of the madrigal or motet writers as a class of specialists working at elaborate harmonic and contrapuntal problems for their own delight, but as having little influence on the national acceptance of music. Nothing could be further from the truth, as far as England, the Netherlands and Italy were concerned; and in France, where the art of the simple tunes of the troubadours represents for us the typical national music of mediaeval times, it is important to have a document which shows as clearly as this does the kind of music which was recognized as suitable for a great pageant. In style, the French school of the sixteenth century differs not at all from that of the Netherlands, of which it is generally regarded as an off-shoot (see Grove, "Dict. of Music and Musicians," vol. iii., p. 267). In the works of Pierre Certon, Claude Goudimel, and others, would be found many compositions constructed on similar lines to the example here given; that is to say, that the rules of madrigal writing are strictly observed, although the preference for massive treatment of the opening of each line seems to point to the use for which it was intended, viz., to be sung in the open air. There are not many instances of works of this class apparently meant for female voices only, and there may have been some reason for this connected with the general plan of the ceremony. The little piece is in the Dorian mode, and in the original is clearly and correctly printed, in four separate parts on the same double page. In scoring it, the accidentals, which do not occur in the original, have been added in brackets. It is, of course, impossible to surmise who may have been the author, but it is certain that, whoever he was, he had attained to a remarkable skill in writing effective music. If we consider the prescribed limitations in which he worked, with nothing lower than the second alto part for his bass, it is surprising to notice the sonority of sustained tone that is got by skilful disposition of the harmonies, while the beautiful antiphonal effect at the point "Vive le Roi" is of a kind that must appeal to hearers of all classes and periods alike.
A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY MADRIGAL
Louange et gloire en action de grace, Chantons a Dieu de la paix vray auteur: Par qui la France en seur repos embrasse, Ses ennemys faictz amys en grand heur. Vive son Roy, vive, Vive son Roy de ce bien protecteur Soubz qui de paix divers peuples jouyssent Dont luy est deu cybas joye et honneur, Puis que les cielz de la paix s'esiouyssent, Puis que les cielz de la paix s'esiouyssent.]
NOTE.—For the benefit of those not learned in Sixteenth-Century Music, it may be interesting to hint that the melody is written here for the Second Soprano, and to add, for their encouragement, that the experiment of performing this Madrigal, unaccompanied, with two ladies, and two male voices in the Alto parts, proved perfectly successful, thanks to the science of Mr Fuller-Maitland and the goodwill of the singers.
Literature and Commerce
Rouen est ville bien marchande C'est a cause de la mer grande Et est ce semble sans doutance Quasi la meilleure de France.
Ouy fameuse cite c'est toy qui prens la peine D'aller chercher bien loin l'ambre, la porcelaine, Le sucre, la muscade, et tant d'excellents vins.... ... Soye, oueate, tabac, draps de laine, poisson, Bois, bleds, sel, bescars, tout luy vient a foison.
Such popular festivals as that I have just described upon Ascension Day are of very ancient origin, even if they do not date back to that earliest "Fete aux Normands," whose institution you will remember in 1070. Two years afterwards began the Confrerie de la Vierge to which Pierre Dare, Lieutenant-General for the King, gave fresh lustre when he was elected its Master in 1486. Though older poems (like that of Robert Wace) are connected with the Confrerie, to him is due the beginning of those "Palinods" sung in honour of the Virgin in the Church of St. Jean des Pres, which were called the "Puy de Conception," like the Puy d'Amour of the Provencal troubadours. The name probably originated in the refrain which ran through all the various metres allowed in the poems which were sent in for competition, as Pierre Grognet describes in 1533—
"On y presente les rondeaulx Beaulx pallinotz et chans royaulx Et sappelle celle journee La feste du Puy honoree."
In these rhymes are preserved just those details of the people's life for which we have been looking. Great events and mighty personages in the world outside are passed unnoticed. The important trivialities of the householder's existence are the main theme of every verse. The Muse Normande of David Ferrand is a collection of such fragments of many "Concours des Palinods" from its beginning till his death in 1660. They are chiefly written in that "langue purinique ou gros normand" which was the distinctive patois of the working classes, and especially of those "purins" or "ouvriers de la draperie" who dwelt in the parishes of Martainville, of St. Vivien, and St. Nicaise in the city. You may hear it to this day in the villages of Caux. Here the gossip of the populace is reproduced, and you read of the burdens laid upon the people, of the abundance of wine (which did away with any need for beer), of the rivalries of corporations, of the amusements of the town, the mysteries and Miracle Plays, the Basoche, and the rough practical joking of the populace.
One of the most important subjects, for our purpose, in all David Ferrand's verse is that famous "Boise de Saint Nicaise," round which a seventeenth-century war waged, more bitterly and fiercely disputed than half the contests which take up the pages of your sober royal histories. You must know that this "Boise de Saint Nicaise" was an enormous beam of wood, chained by iron bars and links to the church walls, where every evening the gossips used to gather in the cemetery and talk over the scandal of the parish, or regulate the proceedings of the town. Thrice in 220 years had Rouen been besieged, once by the English and twice by its own countrymen, and each time the virtues of the famous "boise" had saved it from pillage and desecration. Upon its black and shining length the disputes of every century had been heard and settled: masters had brought up their quarrels with the workmen, merchants had wrangled over sharp practice in their business, girls had been summoned to receive a lecture from the elders of the parish on the flightiness and immodesty of their behaviour. No parish had ever such a palladium of its dignity. And you can easily conceive the derision and contempt with which the mighty "boise" was treated by the boys of the rival and neighbouring parish of St. Godard, who used to sing—
"Les habitants de Saint Nicaise Ont le coeur haut et fortune basse."
This was a bad pun on the choeur, or choir, of the church that was too good for its worshippers. For there was a great contrast between the populations on each side of the dividing line. St. Godard was filled with magistrates and mighty men of law, who lived in sumptuous houses and carved their coats of arms upon their massive sideboards, who quoted Malherbe, and approved the early efforts of a young man called Corneille, and prided themselves upon the delicacy and scholarship of their speech. In St. Nicaise, on the contrary, you heard little save the "purinique," or patois of the workmen; in narrow, dark, and twisting streets the drapers and weavers and dyers carried on their trades and earned their bread by the sweat of their brow. Their children had to work early for their living, and helped the business of their parents when still in the first years of their youth. No wonder these who "scorned delights and lived laborious days" laughed at the effeminacy of their neighbours, saying that
"Aux enfants de Saint Godard L'esprit ne venait qu' a trente ans."
By 1632 this feeling of rivalry and mutual distrust had been sharpened into positive hatred; for, of course, when the troubles of the Ligue had come, and St. Godard had declared for its old kings and saints, St. Nicaise had openly professed belief in Villars and Mayenne, and almost raised a chapel to the memory of Jacques Clement the assassin; and you may imagine the gibes of Royalist St. Godard when the tide of fortune turned against the rebel parish. Athens and Sparta were not more different, or more hostile. One day the smouldering fires broke into flame. It was the day of a procession when, at the very meeting line of the two parishes, the clergy of St. Godard, splendid in gold and embroidery, with a cross of gold before them, and behind them a line of ladies richly dressed and escorted by red-robed magistrates, were moving in procession, with the banner at their head presented by the Lady President of Gremonville, whereon the figure of the patron saint was embroidered upon crimson velvet hung round with cloth of gold. Consider the disdain of these fine ladies for the modest little gathering that walked, across the way, beneath a little banner of ordinary taffetas bearing a tiny effigy of St. Nicaise, worked in worn colours of old faded pink, and followed by a crowd of workmen clad in blouse and sabot and rough woollen caps. At a certain point the contrast became unbearable. The workmen, with a shout of fury, made a sudden rush upon that hateful new banner of St. Godard, tore it from the standard-bearer's hands, and threw it in the muddy waters of the boundary-stream. How the two processions got home after that you may imagine for yourself. It says much for the control of the respective clergy that there were no open blows at once. But that night St. Nicaise was vulgarly merry, and St. Godard wrapped its wrongs in ominous and aristocratic silence. What the songs were that those workmen sang in the cemetery of St. Nicaise you can read in a queer little book written by one "Abbe Raillard" in 1557, an "Abbe des Conards," who imitates Rabelais when he tries to be original, but is of far more value when he merely reproduces what he heard, to wit, "la fleur des plus ingenieux jeux chansons et menus flaiollements d'icelle jeunesse puerille, receuilly de plusieurs rues lieux et passages ou il estoit repandu depuis la primitive recreation, aaze, jeunesse et adolescence Normande rouennoise."
Here is a chorus which no doubt resounded on that night of victory over St. Godard—
"Jay menge un oeuf La lange dun boeuf Quatre vingt moutons Autant de chapons Vingt cougnons de pain Ancore ayge faim,"
or this, again—
"Gloria patri ma mere a petri Elle a faict une gallette Houppegay, Houppegay j'ay bu du cidre Alotel (bis)."
Unfortunately, after having gone shouting to bed, the men of St. Nicaise slept sound without a thought of possible reprisals. But the young bloods "across the way" were all alert. Waiting till the change of guard at St. Hilaire should make that customary noise of clinking arms and tramping feet which every citizen would recognise and forget, sixty of the bravest champions crossed the Rubicon and advanced in the depth of the darkness to the cemetery of St. Nicaise. With heavy labour they broke up the sacred chains, detached the time-worn rivets, and dragged off the famous timber, the "Boise" of St. Nicaise, the palladium of the obnoxious parish. The next morning the gossips discovered to their stupefaction that there was no log to sit upon! Following a few traces that were left here and there, the horrified drapers and tanners found the smoking remnants of their cherished wood scattered in the square of St. Hilaire, surrounded by a laughing crowd of the children and young men of St. Godard. Vengeance was plotted on that very evening, and a smart skirmish took place up and down the streets of the aristocratic quarter, in which the victory of the velvet doublets only roused redoubled ardour in the men of smocks and leather aprons. The Palais de Justice and the majesty of the Law was obliged to intervene. The Duc de Longueville, Governor of the Province, tried to smooth over the crisis with the gift of a new and most enormous log; but nothing could replace the relic that was gone. At last the good priests of each parish set to work to heal the breach, and soundly damned each hardened sinner who attempted to break the good peace of the town with further quarrels. Messire Francois de Harlai, Archbishop of Rouen, aided their efforts, and at last the feud died down; but the event was never forgotten:
"Donc qu'o mette o calendrier Qu'o dix huitiesme de Janvier Fut pris et ravy notte BOISE Boise dont j'etions pu jaloux Et pu glorieux entre nous Que Rouen n'est de Georg d'Amboise."
David Ferrand's "patois" has preserved a good deal of the life and humour—racy of the soil—that gave Rouen her character, even after the sixteenth century was over. Something of the old life and its bravery lingered a little longer, and in the more pretentious Latin poems of Hercule Grisel you see how all these fetes and jollities lasted on till well into the seventeenth century. The Fete St. Anne, when boys dressed as angels and girls as virgins ran about the streets; the St. Vivien, which was a great popular fair in Bois Guillaume and in the city; the Festin du Cochon, when Parliament was dined; the Pentecost, when birds and leaves and flowers were rained upon the congregation from the roof of the Cathedral; the Feast of the Farmers, in November, when the principal dish of roast goose was provided by a crowd of boys who had to kill the wretched bird by throwing sticks at it, as it fluttered helplessly at the end of a high pole; the Papegault, when the Cinquantaine, or Company of Arquebusiers, went a-shooting to settle who should be the Roi d'Oiseau, very much as it is described in Germany in the pages of Jean Paul Richter; the Jeu d'Anguille in May, when there was a jousting match upon the river like the water tournaments of Provence; the jollities of Easter Eve, when bands of children went about the streets shouting derision at the now dishonoured herring, and pitching barrels and fish-barrows into the river; the greatest and most impressive ceremony of all, the Levee de la Fierte, upon Ascension Day—all these festivities made up a large part of the life of the real Rouennais of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which was so narrowed and restricted in itself that it took every opportunity of expanding into a common gaiety shared by all the neighbours and the countryside.
The river was a scene of far greater bustle and activity and picturesqueness than it is now. Like the Thames, the Seine lost half its beauty when the old watermen disappeared. The harbour of the sixteenth century was always full of movement: sailors were always spreading over the riverside streets into the countless inns and drinking-places; the river was full of boats going to and fro; the bank upon the farther side was the fashionable promenade of all the ladies of the town; the bridges were filled with idlers who had no better business than to look on. At the fete called the Gateau des Rois all the ships were lit up in the port, and every tradesman in the town sent presents to his customers: the druggists gave gifts of liqueurs and condiments; the bakers brought cakes to every door; the chandlers brought the "chandelles des Rois" to every household. At the favourite meeting-places of Ponts de Robec, or the Parvis Notre Dame, or the Eglise St. Vivien, the housewives gathered to watch their husbands drink and gamble, or bought flowers from the open stalls, or chaffered with the apprentices who stood ready for the bargain. Meanwhile, from all the forests near, the children of the poor were coming in with bundles of the faggots they were allowed to gather free; at every large house parties were gathering, each guest with her special contribution to the common fund of sweetmeats and of fruit, some even had brought bottles of the famous mineral water sold at the Church of St. Paul, and the Confrerie de St. Cecile was hard-worked distributing its musicians broadcast to the many private gatherings that called for pipe and tabour. Then as the evening lowered, men told stories over the hearth of the girl who had seen three suns at once upon the morn of Holy Trinity from a neighbouring hill-top, or of the luck of their compere Jehan, whose boy, born on the day of the conversion of St. Paul, was safe for all his life from danger of poison or of snake-bite. All these customs and superstitions are reflected in Hercule Grisel's Latin verses, which he begins with a needless apology—
"Rotomagi patriae versu volo pandere mores, Quis captum patriae damnet amore suae?"
No one will blame his patriotic love of every detail of the life around him; and though the Latin that he uses might well have been exchanged for his own language, it must be remembered that even when Malherbe and Corneille, Racine and Boileau, were writing French, the older language kept a firm hold on such men as de Thou, Descartes, Bossuet, Arnauld, and Nicole, who desired to appeal to European audiences. "Victurus Latium debet habere liber" was their motto; and by Jesuits and Oratorians, University dignitaries and ecclesiastics, lawyers and doctors, the same language was used as that in which Hercule Grisel has preserved the life of the town from 1615 to 1657.
The greatest name of seventeenth-century Rouen is Pierre Corneille, "ce vieux Romain parmi les francais" as Voltaire called him; and we may be grateful that after getting the second prize for Latin verses in the third class of the Jesuit College, he gave up stilted affectations for the vigorous phrases of his mother-tongue. Though his brother Thomas passes over the little episode in silence, his nephew Fontenelle lets us into a literary secret which reveals Corneille's first love affair in Rouen. In the comedy of "Melite," the heroine is Catherine the daughter of the Receveur des Aides, Eraste is the poet himself. In real life, Thomas du Pont, the Tircis of the play, supplanted his friend and married the lady. It was to another Rouen acquaintance that Corneille owed the advice to study Spanish plays, which resulted in his imitations of de Castro, and no doubt the many Spanish families then settled, for commercial reasons, in the Rue des Espagnols and elsewhere, helped to turn the young poet's thoughts in the same direction. His evident knowledge of the details of legal procedure, when it cannot be ascribed to the natural Norman turn for lawsuits, is accounted for by his position as Avocat du Roi and one of the Admiralty Court (called the "Marble Table") of Rouen. Though in the "Cid" his law is Spanish, and in "Horace" it is a paraphrase of Livy, yet Corneille was the first to realise that the speeches of lawyers, which were then little known to the general public, would form a very interesting scene upon the stage. His immediate success proved the worth of the idea. But that such success was possible at all is even more extraordinary than any particular form it may have taken. He created types for well-nigh every kind of dramatic literature in France, in the midst of his work as an advocate, among serious family troubles, through years of plague, of popular riots, of military occupations.
[Footnote 73: The portrait of him reproduced in this chapter was etched on steel in 1644, from a drawing by Michel Lasne of Caen.]
[Footnote 74: The fine chapel of the Lycee Corneille, with its facade upon the Rue Bourg l'Abbe, is well worth visiting.]
His house in the Rue Corneille, formerly the Rue de la Pie, is still preserved, though the front has been damaged by the widening of the street, and it is marked by a bust of the poet over the entrance. In the last few months it has been put up for auction, and it may be hoped that the town authorities have taken advantage of the opportunity to secure it from further mutilation. For it has been not merely the home of Pierre Corneille and his brother Thomas, but the meeting-place of several other men distinguished in French literature. In the summer of 1658, for instance, Moliere brought his travelling troupe to Rouen, and set up his theatre at the bottom of the Rue du Vieux Palais. There he played in "L'Etourdi" and "Le Depit Amoureux," which Corneille went to see, and tradition says that the most distinguished of her audience fell in love with du Parc, the pretty actress, from the spectators' seats, not improbably on the occasion when his own play of "Nicomede" was being performed. It is certain at any rate that Moliere, who was then some thirty-six years old, visited Corneille, who was sixteen years his senior, and already famous in the wider world of literature. And it is at least curious that only after the six months during which his visits to the elder poet must have been both frequent and fruitful, did Jean Baptiste Poquelin become recognised as the Moliere of "Le Malade Imaginaire," a play, which I confess I would rather hear to-day than anything Corneille ever wrote, even though Parisian audiences can still patriotically endure almost the whole series of his heroic dramas. This was not Moliere's first visit to Rouen, where a peculiarly dark and dirty street preserves the memory of his light-hearted appearances. For there is his signature in the town registers of 1643, when he was only twenty-one, and as the date is November 3, the coincidence of time has tempted patriotic antiquarians to suggest that his first debut in public was at the famous Foire du Pardon. What Rouen looked like at this time you may see in the view, reproduced from Merian's engraving of 1620, printed with this chapter.
Even if the language and ideas of Corneille's plays do not touch a sympathetic chord in these days when the musketeers of Dumas and the bravery of Cyrano de Bergerac hold the stage on both sides of the Channel, it is impossible to refuse to Corneille a very high position in any estimate of French dramatic literature. With that estimate I am not here concerned, but in sketching the history of his birthplace, I may be permitted to suggest some of the influences which may be traced from it upon his work. And in addition to those already mentioned, I would especially refer to an occurrence some time previously, which left its undoubted marks upon the writing of Corneille, and may also serve to introduce you to yet another interesting figure in the tale of Rouen. For when he was only thirty-three, when he had won fame with the "Cid," and had followed up his success by "Horace" and by "Cinna," Corneille had the advantage of meeting a family of particular distinction.
In 1639 the father of Blaise Pascal was sent down to Rouen as an "Intendant du Roi." Though but sixteen, the youth had already attracted the notice of the mathematical world by his treatise on conic sections. Even when only twelve the precocious boy had worked out the solutions of the first thirty-two propositions of Euclid unaided. While at Rouen he invented a calculating machine, and got a workman in the town to set it up. In 1646 he made his famous experiments on the vacuum before more than five hundred people, including half a dozen sceptical Jesuit fathers. Though his famous letters on the burning question of Jansenism were not written until 1656, after he had returned to Paris, yet the religious influence of the family must have been a strong one upon all their intimate friends, and it is hardly too much to suggest that under this influence Corneille wrote "Polyeucte" and "Theodore," even if it be too great an extension of the idea to suggest that Racine's "Esther" and "Athalie," even Voltaire's "Zaire," were also due to the same impressions.
It is pleasant to imagine that cultured circle, conversing over the troubles of the time or arguing on literary and scientific subjects. There were two girls in the Pascal family, the pretty Gilberte, who very soon married a young councillor of Rouen at twenty-one, and Jacqueline, five years her junior, who won the prize at the Puy des Palonods, and had the honour of an ode from Corneille on her literary success. There was Berthe Corneille too, the mother of Fontenelle, and though Thomas was but young, he may well have had his share in a friendship which must have been very attractive to his older brother. This house of theirs in the Rue Corneille was not the only one in which Pierre wrote his tragedies. Indeed, I imagine it was more the town-lodgings of his legal father, and only used by the sons when business kept them near the Law-courts. In the country outside, at Petit-Couronne south of the Seine, Corneille did nearly all his best work; and in estimating that work it is well to remember that he was not merely born at Rouen, but that he lived and wrote there till he was fifty-six.
The Pascals left Rouen in 1648 during the disturbances of the Fronde. They had come there in even more troublous times, for the riots called the "Revolte des Va-nu-Pieds" had only just been quelled before their arrival. The salt-tax had already created strong discontent in Southern Normandy, and in August 1639 a tax on the dyers roused the men of the Rue Eau de Robec into such hot rebellion, that they killed the King's officer and burnt the tax-gatherer's house. In the same street to-day, which must be but little changed, you may still imagine the furious assemblages by those black dye-stained waters that flow muddily beneath their multitude of bridges from the Place des Ponts de Robec to the eastern confines of the town. Chancellor Seguier was sent down with several thousand infantry and 1200 horse, called the "Fleaux de Dieu," and kept the gallows as busy as at any Black Assizes for some three months.
One sad result of all this was that many of the festivities described in the earlier pages of this chapter never came off at all in 1640. "En ceste annee," says the local chronicler sadly, "il n'y a point eu d'estrennes, ny chante 'Le Roy Boit.' En la maison de Ville n'y eust point de gasteau party, ni le lendemain a disner." And the loss of the famous "Fete des Rois" at the Hotel de Ville was something more than ordinarily unfortunate. For it was celebrated each year with much pomposity, to the sound of all the carillons of the town ringing lustily while every member of the Council "tirait le roi de la feve," and the lucky winner of the Bean, after being presented with a wax basket of artificial fruit (for the sixteenth century is over now), at once gave his comrades an enormous feast, at which the toast of the evening was received with loud cries of "Le Roy Boit." Nor was this the only festivity indulged in by the City Fathers. The "Feu St. Jean" was solemnly lit by the senior sheriff, to the sound of pipe and tabour. The "Buche de Noel," or Yule log, was burnt in the Grande Salle. Here the different members of the Estates of Normandy were feasted, here the civic ceremonials were conducted with many presents, speeches, and "toasts." And the industries of the town seemed to flourish, in spite of the miseries suffered under Richelieu. Trade spread to England, Spain, Africa, Florida, Brazil; even with Canada a brisk bartering of furs went on, and in 1627 the baptism is registered in the Cathedral, early in December, of Amantacha, a native of Canada, who was "held at the font" by Madame de Villars, and the Duc de Longueville, to be blessed by Monseigneur Francois de Harlay. Half a century later, it was from Rouen that Rene Cavalier de la Salle set out to explore the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico; and by a Rouen diplomat, Menager, was drawn up in 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht, against which modern British inhabitants of Newfoundland are complaining so bitterly in 1898.
But for Englishmen a far more interesting fact in seventeenth-century Rouen is that Lord Clarendon died at No. 30 Rue Damiette on December 7, 1674. The house is standing still, behind a garden that is shut off from the street by high gates, and is not open to the public, though by a fortunate accident I was enabled to see it in the August of 1897. It is known as the Hotel d'Aligre, and as the property of Mademoiselle Le Verdier is almost unchanged since the great exile lived in it two centuries ago. There are three windows on the ground floor and a basement. Between the two windows of the first floor is a medallion held by two figures. On each side of the circular pediment is a little "Mansard" window in the roof, and on the pediment itself are two statues. The windows are all decorated with carved flowers and wreaths, and the cornice beneath the eaves is prettily ornamented. This is the main facade looking out on the interior court. The garden front has less decoration, but is an extremely elegant example of the simple town house of the period. Among the shrubs the fountain for which Lord Clarendon especially asked still plays in its old stone basin, and beyond the trees is the Cemetery of St. Maclou.
He had lived, during his exile, in Montpelier, Moulins, and Evreux, and at last he moved nearer to England and wrote pathetically asking to be recalled. Seven years, his letter says, was the term of God's displeasure, yet for more than seven had he borne the displeasure of the King. A longer life no man could grant him, he asked only that death might not come to him in a foreign land, but in England near his children. His prayer was not granted, and in 1674 the archives of the Hotel de Ville in Rouen record that the King of France had allowed "Monsieur le Comte de Clarendon, Chancelier de l'Angleterre" to live where he pleased within the kingdom by consent of His Majesty of Great Britain. The house now leased by Monsieur le Comte (goes on this sad little record) used to have a small lake in the garden, and Monsieur desired that water might again be directed into it. The request was granted that same month at a meeting held in the Town Hall.
The first mention of a building on this spot is in the Town Records of October 1448, when it is called "Hostel des Presses de la Rue de la Miette," a name for the street which seems to show that this "Damiette" is at any rate not of eastern origin. The word "Presses" is connected with the story of Rouen trade by the fact that it commemorates the presses set up for pressing and finishing cloth by one of that family of Dufour who did so much towards the decoration of their parish church of St. Maclou. The house that is standing now was built (though without its later seventeenth-century ornaments) by Guillaume le Fieu, who had been treasurer of the Stables of Catherine de Medicis, or "Receveur de l'Ecurie de la Reine" in 1558, and the Archives of the Department now possess, by the gift of later occupants of the house, a very interesting manuscript of his accounts for a year in this capacity. By the untiring diligence of M. Ch. de Beaurepaire these have been analysed, and his paper describing them, though too detailed to be reproduced here, is of the highest importance for any writer attempting to describe the habits of a queen whose abilities as a horsewoman were so highly praised by Brantome. Guillaume le Fieu had evidently considerable financial abilities, for we find him promoted, later on, to be "Receveur General de la Generalite de Rouen," and finally "Maitre Ordinaire de la Chambre des Comptes de Normandie," so that he is also connected with the two beautiful buildings, so different in style and date, which were described in Chapter XI.
In No. 30 Rue Damiette he died in 1584, having scarcely completed the house before his daughter married one of the King's secretaries. In January 1646, an old lease shows that the house was owned by Henry Dambray, "Conseiller au Parlement," and it was by him let for a year to Lord Clarendon. It was called the Hotel de Senneville until the Revolution, when it became the property of the families of Pommereux and d'Alligre. Though Lord Clarendon was first buried in Rouen, when his grand-daughters (through the marriage of the Duke of York, brother of Charles II., with his elder daughter) became Queens of England, his remains were transported from Rouen to Westminster Abbey, where they now are.
The last scene by which this tale of Rouen was connected with the history of France was when Captain Valdory held the town against Henri IV. And in leaving for a moment more domestic details of the city's story, I can suggest the transition no better than by telling you of another literary claim which Rouen archaeologists will not permit a visitor to forget, the authorship of the famous "Satyre Menippee," which did as much as any political pamphlet could ever do to reveal to the people the true character of the Ligue, and to restore their affection to that King Henri whom for so long they had refused within their gates. This immortal piece of sarcasm and good sense was written after the Etats de la Ligue of January 1593. De Thou said, "le premier auteur de l'ecrit est, croit-on, un pretre du pays de Normandie, homme de bien...." And the edition of 1677 gives his name as "Monsieur LeRoy, chanoine de Rouen, qui avoit este aumosnier du Cardinal de Bourbon." In the portions before each harangue, he mentions the tapestry in Rouen Cathedral, the Revolte de la Harelle, the Foire St. Romain, and other details, with an accuracy and affection which betray the citizen. He went blind in 1620, and died in penury in 1627.
The troubles of the League had barely died away before the agitation of the Fronde began, and after the Fronde princes had been arrested in January 1650, the Duchesse de Longueville tried to continue the role of her husband, though his party had fairly been laughed out of Rouen. Her own attempts were thwarted by Mazarin, who brought the little Louis XIV., then only twelve years old, to Rouen for fifteen days in February 1650. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes repaid this hospitality in somewhat untoward fashion, for it reduced the population of the town by 20,000 souls (of whom many carried their trade to England or the Low Countries), and commerce almost disappeared. "Men live," cried St. Simon, "on the grass of the field in Normandy."
Yet the exhaustless vitality of the town was not easily tapped. In 1723 Voltaire found nothing to complain of, and in the Rue aux Juifs the first edition of his "Henriade" was printed by Robert Viret. In 1731 he came back, and in the Rue du Bec, or the Rue Ganterie, had many pleasant conversations with M. de Bourgtheroulde, M. de Fresquienne, and others, but he left his little sting behind him as usual, and it remains so true that I must reproduce it here, on the theme—"Vous n'avez point de mai en Normandie."
"Vos climats ont produit d'assez rares merveilles C'est le pays des grands talents Des Fontenelle des Corneilles Mais ce ne fut jamais l'asile du printemps."
As the eighteenth century progressed, commercial prosperity returned with extraordinary rapidity, and the town shows every sign of making an intelligent use of its opportunities. A mission is sent to Smyrna and Adrianople to learn the textile methods of the East; dyers in the Rue Eau de Robec are busier than ever; the Quartier Cauchoise is set apart for industrial work, for silk and wools and linens; there is a great storehouse for grain, a huge "Halle des Toiles"; a Bourse for business men. In 1723 a new "Romaine," or Custom-House, was built, which involved the destruction of the Porte Haranguerie and the Porte de la Viconte, and upon its triangular pediment was placed Coustou's beautiful carving of "Commerce," of which I reproduce a drawing in these pages. After the Revolution the "Tribunal des Douanes" was held in the Maison Bourgtheroulde, until in 1838 the present "Douane" was built by Isabelle, and Coustou's relief was set beneath its rotunda inside. The various fortunes of the Custom-House of Rouen have been described by M. Georges Dubosc, another of those patriotic antiquarian writers, in whom Rouen is richer than any provincial town I know. His large volume on the architecture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gives so complete and accurate a list that I am fortunately relieved from any discussion of a period with which I must confess an uninstructed want of sympathy. But I owe it to his insight that the beautiful courtyard (illustrated in this chapter) in the Rue Petit Salut (now No. 13 Rue Ampere) was not put down as sixteenth century in my notes, a date to which I was inclined by the fine open staircase and doorway on the right of the courtyard. On its left is an undoubted Renaissance pillar, probably taken from its original position in another place, and high above you rises a gabled window with carved sides.
The only historical event I have been tempted to connect with this spot is the entry of Louis d'Orleans in 1452, who is said to have lodged in the "Hotel d'Estellan, Rue Petit Salut." But the house is worth visiting if only to speculate on the dungeon windows in the corner of the little street outside, and to look up the Impasse Petit Salut a little further on, where the Tour de Beurre rises with an extraordinary effect of solitary beauty above the twisted roof trees into the sky.
By the time of Louis XV. it becomes somewhat difficult to find the interesting men of this or any other French city; you must look for them in the anti-chambers of the Duc de Choiseul, in the robing-rooms of the Pompadour or the Du Barry. In 1774 Rouen saw the typical sight of the Duchesse de Vauguyon reviewing her husband's troops. When Louis XV. passed through the town, and the Pompadour was seen smiling by his side, the citizens' reception of the doubtful honour was a very cold one. And when Louis XVI. paid his call of ceremony upon the Mayor, a still more melancholy presage broke the harmony of the peal that welcomed him from the Cathedral belfry, for the great bell Georges d'Amboise—which weighed 36,000 pounds, and had rung in every century since the great minister of Louis XII. gave him to the town—cracked suddenly, and was never heard again. He has a successor now, but his own metal was used for quite another purpose. When the Revolution broke out, the bronze that had served to call the faithful from all the countryside to prayer was melted into cannon and roundshot that were to send the Royalists to heaven by much quicker methods.
Rouen passed comparatively lightly through the Reign of Terror. Only 322 persons were guillotined in the whole of Normandy, and the local justices beheaded nearly as many in suppressing the disorders that followed the general disorganisation of society. Even on the 1st of November 1793 we hear of the first night of Boieldieu's "La Belle Coupable" performed at the Theatre de la Montagne. And though Thouret is sent up as Deputy to Paris (and afterwards to draw up the Constitution), though the irascible Marquis d'Herbouville is always making a disturbance, though the "Carabots" revolt and break out into pillage, it is only when "Anarchists" from Paris come down to trouble them that the good folk of Rouen "draw the line." In fact, they hanged the over-zealous Bourdier and Jourdain upon the quay just by the bridge.
It is interesting that no less a personage than Marat, then plain Dr Marat, had several Memoires crowned by the Academy of Rouen, one of them on Mesmerism. Voltaire thought little of his capabilities then, but the "ami du peuple" left a gentle reputation in the town, and is even credited with having preserved an old illuminated manuscript under his mattress during some riots that threatened its safety. A more authenticated fact is that Charlotte Corday came from Caen, and popular tradition insists still that it was from the carving of Herodias on the facade of Rouen Cathedral (which the townsfolk call "La Marianne dansant," for some unknown reason) that the suggestion came to her of saving the People from their Friend.
The great Napoleon first saw Rouen in its capacity as a trading centre. Its industry very soon recovered after the Revolution, and an actual "Exposition" was organised in the Tribunal de Commerce, which was inspected by Josephine and the First Consul Bonaparte. He returned as Emperor, and in 1840 the city solemnly received him for the last time, when his body was brought back from St. Helena and passed beneath the first bridge across the Seine at Rouen.
The kings who had been deposed with so much bloodshed and fanfaronade, reappeared as if nothing had happened when Louis Philippe laid the first stone for the pedestal of Corneille's statue carved by David d'Angers. In 1871 that statue was all draped in black. The streets of Rouen, hung with funereal emblems, were all in the deepest mourning, every shop was closed and every window shuttered. Upon the plain of Sotteville a great army was manoeuvring to and fro to the sound of words of command in a strange tongue. General Manteuffel, the Duke of Mecklenburgh, and "Prince Fritz" had led the German army of invasion into Rouen, and from December till July they occupied the town and its surrounding villages. For the last time Rouen was in the hands of foreigners. But the traces of this catastrophe have absolutely disappeared. The ruin of the Revolution and the iconoclasm of the religious struggles have left far deeper marks; and Rouen, sacked by the English, and occupied by the Germans, suffered more injury at the hands of her own citizens, than either from Time or from any foreign foe.
In the last half of the eighteenth century it was that Rouen lost most of her mediaeval characteristics, under the levelling regime of Intendant de Crosne, whose one good work was the building of the boulevards. Hardly as much change was wrought when the great new streets of 1859 were cut that swept away the old infected quarters of the fifteenth century. The Revolution, that is responsible for the debasement of St. Laurent and St. Ouen, among many other atrocities, did most injury in abolishing those picturesque local bodies, like the "Cinquantaine" and the "Arquebusiers," and substituting for them a meaningless "Garde Nationale." Its efforts at "national" nomenclature were fortunately in most cases abortive.
The Rouen of to-day, though so much taken up with commerce, is not unworthy of her great traditions. A town that in art can show the names of Poussin, Jouvenet, and Gericault; and in letters, Gustave Flaubert, Maupassant, and Hector Malot, has not been left too far behind by older memories. But it is in the number of its citizens who have devoted themselves to the history and the archaeology of their own town, their "Ville Musee," that Rouen has been especially blest. In Farin the historian, in M. de Caumont the archaeologist, in Langlois, de la Queriere, Deville, Pottier, Bouquet, Periaux; above all, in Floquet, the town can point to a band of chroniclers of which any city might be proud. To all of them I have been indebted. And no less does this sketch of their city's story owe to those who are still living within its streets, and still ready to point the visitor to their greatest beauties: M. Charles de Beaurepaire, whose work in the Archives is of the highest value, and to whom I am indebted for nearly every reference to the records of the town; MM. Noel and Beaurain, who preside over the Library; M. Georges Dubosc, M. Jules Adeline, and many more.
Scarcely a year before these lines were written one more link between Rouen and the literature of the world was lost. In August 1896 died a "Professor of German" in the Lycee de Rouen, who had held her post since 1882. There had lived Camille Selden, in a quiet seclusion, from which she published the "Memoires de la Mouche." Universally beloved for her sweetness, her simplicity, her gentle nobility of soul, she was the unobtrusive friend of all the best spirits of the day. Upon her there seemed to have fallen some few mild rays from the genius of Heine, whom she loved so well. Her last days were spent in studying the correspondence of two great citizens of the town which sheltered her, Bouilhet and Flaubert.
My task is over; and I can but leave you now to discover for yourself the many details, which, for lack of space and leisure, I have perforce omitted. Yet in this "Story of Rouen" you will find, if you read it where it should be read, all the typical occurrences which have made the city what she is, strong in commerce, strong in traditions, strong above all in the memories of her sons.
"Strength is not won by miracle or rape. It is the offspring of the modest years, The gift of sire to son, thro' these firm laws Which we name Gods; which are the righteous cause, The cause of man, and manhood's ministers."
A few more interesting walks in Rouen
It was in my mind at first to place here an itinerary I had planned by which it would be possible to visit everything of interest in Rouen in six days, starting from the Hotel du Nord near the Grosse Horloge, and returning to the same spot. But it is perhaps better after all that you should visit the places mentioned in my chapters as the spirit moves you, and that I should merely set down in these last pages a few old streets or houses which you must not miss, merely because I have had no space to speak of them before.
Returning from the Chartreuse de la Rose, it will be good to take the Route de Lyons la Foret past the chateau called Nid de chiens (a name which preserves the memory of the old Dukes' Kennels) where Henri IV. was entertained. You will see the seventeenth-century house on your left, between two railway bridges which cross the road, just before the Caserne Trupel. Continue by the same road, keeping the Aubette on your right, and turn round the wall of the great Hospital enclosure till you reach the Rue Edouard Adam, and pass the Rue Eau de Robec which is beautiful on each side of you. Pass the new Fontaine Croix de Pierre, and as you turn down the Rue Orbe look quickly at the backs of the houses on the Robec, and then swing to the right up the Rue des Champs. At the Rue Matelas you must stop. St. Vivien's Church closes the quaint vista of the street, and at No. 19 is an aged doorway to a dark courtyard, and beyond that, a charming turret staircase on the roadway with a gallery outside all wreathed in roses. The gables and the woodwork and the shadowed windows make up an exquisite little picture of mediaeval domesticity. When you return again to the Rue Orbe, look down the Rue Pomme d'Or to your left, and then turn up the Rue Poisson and admire the beautiful choir of St. Nicaise, remembering the story of the famous "boise" I told you in the last chapter. Up the Rue St. Nicaise, past the Rue Floquet, the hideous slit of the Rue d'Enfer opens on the left, so you turn away to the Rue Roche opposite, and keep swinging to the left up the Rue de la Cage and so on to the Boulevard Beauvoisine. The Place du Boulingrin, where I have no doubt the English garrison of 1420 played at bowls, is still green and inviting a little to your right. But pushing on still westwards to the left you come to the Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, and pass the road that leads northwards to a fascinating Cider-tavern in the Champs des Oiseaux. A little further on is the Rue Verte (leading northwards to the Railway Station and southwards to the Rue Jeanne d'Arc and the river) and at last you reach the Place Cauchoise and the Rue St. Gervais which mounts to the north-west. Look at No. 31 (the Menuiserie Briere) as you pass, for the sake of the charming old wooden gallery in its courtyard, and then at No. 71 with its pretty eighteenth-century panels like plaques of Wedgewood, an ornament which is closely imitated in the medallions on the wall at the corner of the Rue Chasselievre. After visiting St. Gervais come back to the Place Cauchoise and take the Rue Cauchoise until you reach the Rue des Bons Enfants, where at No. 134 died Fontenelle. As you pass the Rue Etoupee stop to look at the sign of the house at No. 4, built in 1580. If you are wise you will lunch at the old inn at No. 41 Rue des Bons Enfants, admire the stables, and inspect Room No. 10. Refreshed and fortified, go straight on, across the Rue Jeanne d'Arc into the Rue Ganterie and so by way of the Rue de l'Hopital to the crossing of the Rue de la Republique. Almost in front of you on the other side is the queer little alley called the Rue Petit Mouton, and as you pass down it you will see how much bigger the streets look on my Maps (for the sake of being clear) than they are in reality. This leads you across the Place des Ponts de Robec to the beginning of the Rue Eau de Robec where you will notice at once, on the left, the house at No. 186, with the sign which shows the faithful horse returning from the scene of his master's murder to bring the news into the town. No. 223 on the other side at the corner of the Rue de la Grande Mesme is fine, and so is No. 187 at the angle of the Rue du Ruissel. All the while the inky water is trickling under countless bridges on your left hand ("Ignoble little Venice" Flaubert calls it all in "Madame Bovary," which gives you, otherwise, the worst impression of Rouen in any book I know), and swarms of little children chatter and play about the cobblestones, while women throng the countless dens and cubbyholes, until you fly for shelter into one of the numerous curiosity shops and buy a fifteenth-century door-knocker manufactured expressly for your visit. Past the Place St. Vivien and the Church, the Eau de Robec still continues; and, as the Rue du Pont a Dame Renaude opens on your left, there is a good house at the corner of the opposite street. Further on to the left a great building with overhanging eaves stretches from 34 to 30. Then, over a broader bridge, the Rue des Celestins goes northwards, and this street of bridges ends in the green trees of the Boulevard, with a lovely view of that Maison des Celestins which the Duke of Bedford endowed, far to your right in the distant corner of the old wall of the Hospital.
Coming back by the Robec (for it well deserves looking at from each end), when you reach the Rue de la Republique turn northwards for a sight of the south front of St. Ouen, and then leave the Place de l'Hotel de Ville by way of the Rue de l'Hopital due west. No. 1 is an exquisite Renaissance house with its colonnade and arches and carved capitals. In the courtyard within is a beautiful doorway of the same period set at right angles to the street facade. Upon its entrance columns (which are double, one set above another) two delicately moulded statuettes of women are placed on each side of the slender upper shaft. Over the door is the motto—"DomiNuS MICHI ADIUTOR," the same which occurs above the arms of Cardinal Wolsey on the terra-cotta plaque at Hampton Court. This fine house extends some way down the street, and leads you pleasantly onwards till the Rue Socrate opens to your left. Go down it and glance on each side as the Rue des Fosses Louis VIII. crosses your path. At the end is the great Palais de Justice. Beyond that (you may go through Louis XII.'s archway or keep the Palace wall upon your right) is the Rue aux Juifs, in which No. 35 is an exact model of its ancient predecessor. In the Rue du Bec there are remains of fine houses and spacious courtyards, and through it you arrive at the Rue de la Grosse Horloge and the great archway that holds the famous clock of Rouen.
The only other houses I can remember as worthy of a special visit are Nos. 5, 7, and 18 in the Rue St. Etienne des Tonneliers, which opens out of the Rue du Grand Pont just before the quays. Where the Rue Jacques Lelieur enters it are the ruins of a lovely church fallen upon very evil days. All over Rouen you may find walks equally interesting, but I have done enough in suggesting a few of the most typical.
Monuments classes parmi les Monuments Historiques de France
HORS CLASSE. Cathedrale (Etat). Maison Corneille, Petit Couronne (Depart.).
I. CLASSE. Chapelle de St. Julien des Chartreux a Petit Quevilly. St. Godard (verrieres). St. Maclou. St. Ouen. St. Ouen (Chambre ou Tour aux Clercs). St. Patrice. St. Vincent.
II. CLASSE. Tour St. Andre. Cathedrale, Salle Capitulaire et Cloitre. Fontaine Croix de Pierre (Musee des Antiquites). St. Gervais (Crypte et Abside). Aitre St. Maclou. Choeur de St. Nicaise. Chapelle de la Fierte St. Romain, a la Vieille Tour.
III. CLASSE. Eglise Mont aux Malades. Eglise St. Paul (abside). St. Vivien (clocher).
Museums and Libraries
The Musee des Antiquites at the northern end of the Rue de la Republique contains some very interesting prehistoric remains; a quantity of Merovingian relics, such as axe-heads, finger-rings, lance-points, necklaces, buttons, buckles, needles, combs, and pottery; the standard measures of Rouen from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century; lead crosses with formulas of absolution stamped upon them from the eleventh to the thirteenth century; medals and tokens of many local abbeys and confreries; coins of the Dukes of Normandy from 911 to 1216; an eleventh-century Oliphant; some glass mosaics; and the statue of Henri Court Mantel from his tomb in the Cathedral. All these are in the first room. In the next are Roman vases and glassware; some fine bronze weapons; and a large Gallo-Roman mosaic; also "La Capucine," as the first municipal fire-engine was called, which was only instituted in 1719. It was only in 1686 that any organisation at all was made to prevent fires, and the first "Pompiers de Rouen" were created in 1800. These facts, in connection with the general use of wood for common houses even till late in the sixteenth century, explain a great deal of the terrible destruction by fire in every quarter of the town. In a third room are gathered together some good examples of tapestry and furniture, and in a room by itself is a magnificent mosaic from Lillebonne. Of the inner quadrangle and the front courtyard I have spoken already in earlier pages.
* * * * *
The Musee de Rouen in the Rue Thiers has four separate divisions each worthy of your attention. The first is the beautiful garden which stretches westward to the Rue Jeanne d'Arc. The second is the Town Library, which is entered by its own door opposite the Eglise St. Laurent. In my list of authorities I have mentioned books which can all be obtained in the Library, where there are excellent arrangements for the student to work and take notes from as many books as he likes, and keep them together from day to day. Among its more remarkable manuscripts are Anglo-Saxon writings of the tenth century, illuminated "Heures" of the fifteenth century, the "Missel" of Georges d'Amboise; there are also several "incunables d'imprimerie de Rouen," and other rare works; by the help of M. Noel, M. Beaurain, and their capable assistants, no student of civic or departmental history can fail to find all he desires. For more careful researches into original authorities he will do well to consult M. Charles de Beaurepaire, who presides of the Archives, near the Prefecture in the Rue Fontenelle; and he will find further documents of interest in the Hotel de Ville and the Library of the Chapterhouse, which is reached by way of the staircase out of the north transept in the Cathedral. The third division of the Musee de Rouen is the Gallery of Faience and Ceramics. The enamelled tiles for Constable Montmorency, called the "carrelages d'Ecouen," which bear the mark, "Rouen, 1542," were not made by Bernard Palissy, but by the man of whom a record exists in May 24, 1545, "Masseot Abaquesne, esmailleur en terre demeurant en la paroisse St. Vincent de Rouen." After 1565 this "terre emaillee" is not made here any more, but in 1645 Esme Poterat is the best maker of porcelain in France, and was the founder of the famous Rouen school of the "fond jaune ocre," in which Guilleband and Levavasseur were conspicuous for their "style rayonnant" in the seventeenth century. On the right of this gallery is a very fine example of this style, with blue arabesques, and in the same room a queer mixture of localities is observable in the Chinese figures dancing the dances of Normandy, to the tune of Norman bagpipes, in a queerly Celestial atmosphere. There is also the famous "violon de faience" to be seen. The fourth and most important division is, of course, that which contains the pictures, and by a very sensible arrangement those which have especially to do with the ancient or modern history of the town are usually gathered into one gallery, which is of the highest interest to any student of the history of Rouen. Some two hundred and fifty prints, drawings, and paintings of local interest may often here be studied. In the galleries themselves, No. 413 is a view of Rouen taken from St. Sever by Jean Baptiste Martin who died in 1735. It shows the gates of the town, even the Vieux Palais on the left, the wooden bridge, the Ile St. Croix full of trees, the old piers still standing of the Empress Matilda's Bridge, and a fashionable assemblage on the Cours la Reine, by the St. Sever bank. After reading this book, you will find few pictures more interesting as a reproduction of the various pieces of architecture now vanished.
Out of a list of pictures most kindly made for me by M. Edmond Lebel, the keeper of the Museum, I will select a few which must on no account be missed.
No. 421. Ecce homo Mignard. " 34. Concert sur une place publique Berghem. Paysage Ruydael. " 570. Portrait Velasquez. " 494. Le Bon Samaritain Ribera. " 536. Chasse au Sanglier Sneyders. " 285. Portrait de l'auteur Jouvenet. " 481. Venus et Enee Poussin. " 54. Vierge et Enfant Sandro Botticelli. " 210. Vierge et Enfant (avec portraits) Gerard (David). " 573. Vision Veronese. " 316. Baigneuses Lancret.
No. 265. La belle Zelie Ingres. " 115. Paysages Corot. Etudes Diverses Gericault. " 152. La Justice de Trajan. Delacroix. " 544. Un metier de chien Stevens (Joseph). " 239. Etudes Diverses Meissonier. " 97. Portrait Francois Millet. " " Tete Bonington. " 489. Le Pilote Renouf.
No. 811. Etude Lebrun. " 833. Figures Rembrandt. " 795. Visite de Bonaparte a Rouen Isabey. " 737. Vue de Rouen in 1777 Cochin. " 796. Etude Jouvenet. " 856. Diverses Etudes Gericault. Etudes Delacroix.
No. 937. Napoleon (marbre) Canova. " 959. Gericault (tombeau, marbre) Etex. " 946. Armand Carrel (bronze) David d'Angers. " 934. Pierre Corneille (terre cuite) Caffieri. " 941. Boieldieu (marbre) Dantan Jeune. " 985. Fontenelle (marbre) Romagnesi.
Though I desire to express my indebtedness to all the works mentioned in these pages, the books given in the list that follows are those which should be first consulted by anyone who wishes to follow on completer lines the story of the town which I have been obliged to shorten. The commonplace of artistic, or historical, or architectural literature I have omitted. Those who know it will easily recognise the passages in which I have made use of Freeman, of Ruskin, of Viollet le Duc, of Michelet, of many other standard works. Those who yet have it to discover can find it for themselves in any library.
But the undermentioned works, some of them only to be found in Rouen itself, are worthy of the attention of any student who wishes to carry his researches further into one of the most interesting of French mediaeval cities. All the publications of the "Societe Rouennaise des Bibliophiles" and of the "Societe des Bibliophiles des Normandes" may be consulted with advantage, and every volume of "Normannia" issued by the "Photo Club Rouennais."
Histoire du Parlement de Normandie—A. Floquet, 1840, 7 vols.
Histoire du Privilege de St. Romain—A. Floquet, 1833, 2 vols.
Anecdotes Normandes—A. Floquet, second edition, 1883.
Rouen Monumental au XVIIme et XVIIIme siecle—Georges Dubosc, 1897.
Dictionnaire des Rues de Rouen—Nicetas Periaux, 1871.
Histoire Chronologique de Rouen—Nicetas Periaux, 1874.
Sculptures Grotesques de Rouen—Jules Adeline, 1878 (illus.).
Description Historique des Maisons de Rouen—E. Delaqueriere, 1821 (illus.).
Description, etc., vol. ii., 1841 (illus.).
Siege de Rouen (1418-19)—M.L. Puiseux, 1867.
La Danse des Morts du cimetiere St. Maclou—E.H. Langlois, 1832 (illus.).
Stalles de la Cathedrale de Rouen—E.H. Langlois, 1838 (illus.).
Rouen, Rouennais, Rouenneries—Eugene Noel, 1894.
Rouen, Promenades et Causeries—Eugene Noel, 1872.
L'Ancien Bureau des Finances—Georges et Andre Dubosc, 1895.
Peintures Murales du XIIme siecle—G.A. Le Roy, 1895.
Tapisseries de Saint-Vincent—Paul Lafond, 1894 (illus.).
Le Donjon du Chateau (Tour Jeanne d'Arc)—F. Bouquet, 1877.
La Muse Normande (David Ferrand, 1625-1653), 5 vols., Rouen, 1891.
Mystere de l'Incarnation, etc., avec introduction, etc.—P. le Verdier, 1886.
Description des Antiquites de Rouen—Jacques Gomboust, 1655.
Roman de Rou (by Robert Wace), edited by F. Pluquet, 2 vols., 1827.
Le Livre des Fontaines (J. Lelieur), edited by T. de Jolimont, 1845 (illus.).
Les Quais de Rouen—Jules Adeline, 1879 (illus.).
Les Fastes de Rouen (H. Grisel), edited by F. Bouquet, 1870.
Eloges de Rouen (P. Grognet, etc.), edited by Ed. Frere, 1872.
La Friquassee Crotestyllonnee—"Abbe Raillard," 1604.
Rouen Pittoresque, drawings by Lalanne, text by various hands, 1886 (illus.).
Rouen qui s'en va—Jules Adeline, 1876 (illus.).
Rouen Disparu—Jules Adeline, 1876 (illus.).
Rouen Illustre, drawings by Allard, text by various hands, 2 vols., 1880 (illus.).
La Tapisserie de Bayeux—H.F. Delaunay, 1824.
Une Fete Bresilienne a Rouen en 1550—F. Denis, 1851.
Rouen au XVIe siecle (d'apres J. Lelieur, 1525)—Jules Adeline, 1892 (illus.).
Tombeaux de la Cathedrale de Rouen—A. Deville, 1881.
The works published by M. Charles Robillard de Beaurepaire deserve special mention by themselves. The student should consult every one he can discover. They are chiefly in the shape of paper pamphlets, containing invaluable reprints from the manuscripts of the town, with notes and introductions. Published, as they ought to be, in several collected volumes, they would make an extraordinary contribution to the history of Northern France from Norman times to the present day. I have consulted and quoted so many, that I have no space to give all their titles, but the few which follow are merely those which were of the greatest importance to me in the pages which have gone before:—
Memoire sur le lieu du supplice de Jeanne d'Arc, 1867. Don Pedro Nino en Normandie, 1872. Duc de Bedford a Rouen. Accord conclu par Robert de Braquemont, etc. La Senechaussee de Normandie, 1883. Les Etats de Normandie sous Charles VII., 1875. L'Ecurie de Catherine de Medicis. Notes sur les Lepreux. Notice sur une Maison de la rue de la Grosse Horloge. Les Architectes de Saint Maclou. Logis de Lord Clarendon en 1674, Rue Damiette. L'Ancien Clos des Galees, 1869. Charles VIII. a Rouen, 1853. Les Tavernes de Rouen au XVI siecle, 1867.
ABBAYE de St. Amand, 15; 71; 85.
"ABJURATION" of Jeanne d'Arc, 223.
AITRE St. Maclou, 299 etc.
ALAIN Blanchart, 194.
ALIGRE (Hotel d'), 384 etc.
AMPERE (No. 13 Rue), 389.
ANDRE (St.), 247.
ANGLO-SAXON Architecture, 100.
ANSELM, 40; 63; 77.
ANTIQUARIES (Society of), 341; 342.
ANTIQUITES (Musee des), 7; 12 etc.; 23; 397.
ARCHITECTS (of Cathedral), 126 etc.; 129 etc.
ARGENTEUIL (Tale of the murder at), 288 etc.
ARISTOTE (lai d'), 260.
ARPENTS (Rue des), 4.
ARRET du Sang Damne, 275.
AUBETTE, 2; 70.
AUDOWERE, 25; 29.
BAC (Rue du), 15.
BALAIS (Marche aux), 352.
BASSE Vieille Tour, 5.
BATAILLE (Pre de la), 52.
BAYEUX Tapestry, 66; 78.
BEAUREPAIRE (Charles Robillard de), 402.
BEAUVAIS (Bishop of), 206 etc.
BEAUVOISINE (Porte), 54.
BEC (Hotel du), 172.
BEDFORD (Duke of), 197; 198.
BELFRY of the town, 139.
BELLENGUES (The Story of Jeanne de), 172.
BERGERIES carved on Maison Bourgtheroulde, 334.
BERNARD the Dane, 52.
BERTRAND du Guesclin, 149.
BIGOT (Laurent), 289 etc.
BLIND man of Argenteuil, 288 etc.
BLOIS (Theobald of), 46.
BOHIER (Thomas), 286.
BOISE de St. Nicaise, 370 etc.
BOIS Guillaume, 2.
BONNE Ame (Bishop Guillaume), 69.
—— Nouvelle (Church), 68.
BONS Enfants (Hotel des), 161.
BOULINGRIN (Place du), 6.
BOURGTHEROULDE (Maison), 9; 83; 321 etc.
BOURSE (Quai de la), 48.
BOUVREUIL (Castle of), 5.
—— (Porte), 91.
BRAZILIAN Fete, 350.
BREZE (Jacques de), 263.
—— (Tomb of Louis de), 314.
—— (Pierre de), 261.
BRUNHILDA, 24 etc.
BUREAU des Finances, 285.
BURNING of Jeanne d'Arc, 228.
CACHE Ribaut (bell), 9; 137.
CALENDE (Place de la), 42; 48; 70.
CANARIES (King of the), 150.
CARADAS (Maison), 346.
CARMES (Rue des), 7; 90; 114.
CARVINGS of Maison Bourgtheroulde, 338 etc.
CATHEDRAL, 115 etc.; 256 etc.
—— Architects, 126 etc.
CATHERINE de Medicis, 350.
CATHERINE (Mont Ste.), 2.
CAUCHOISE (Place), 6.
—— (Rue), 6.
CAUCHON (Pierre), 206 etc.
CELESTINS (Couvent des), 197.
CELESTIN (Joyeux), 198.
CEMETERY of St. Maclou, 299 etc.
—— of St. Ouen, 222.
CHAMP du Pardon, 69.
CHANNEL ISLANDS, 52.
CHAPEL of the Archbishop, 213.
CHAPELLE de la Fierte, 5; 37; 108; 357.
—— St. Julien, 96.
—— des Ordres, 214.
CHARLES V., 129.
—— VI., 155.
—— VII., 232.
—— VIII., 40.
—— VIII. in Rouen, 240 etc.
—— le Mauvais, 148.
CHARTREUSE de la Rose, 182.
CHASSELIEVRE (Rue), 17.
CHASTEL (St. Pierre du), 5.
CHATEAU, Gaillard, 87.
CHURCHES of Rouen, 233 etc.
CIVILLE (Francois de), 316.
CLARENDON'S House at Rouen, 383 etc.
CLEMENT (St.), 42; 48.
CLERCS (Tour aux), 71.
CLOCK of the Town, 139.
CLOS AUX GALEES, 112.
CLOS AUX JUIFS, 70.
COMMERCE, 85; 112; 349; 369 etc.
COMMUNE (of Rouen), 110.
CONCEPTION (Confrerie de la), 69.
CONFRERIES, 79; 85.
—— (carvings), 259.
CONFRERIE de la Conception, 69.
—— de la Passion, 168.
CONFRERIE de St. Michel, 305.
—— St. Romain, 356 etc.
CORDAY (Charlotte), 391.
CORDELIERS (Rue des), 5; 48.
CORNEILLE, 377 etc.
—— (Pont de Pierre), 7.
COUR d'Albane, 218.
—— des Comptes, 287.
COUSTOU'S Bas Relief, 389.
CREPIN (St.), 85.
CRIMES. See RECORDS of the Fierte.
CROIX (Ile St.), 3.
—— (St., des Pelletiers), 85.
CROSNE (Intendant de), 392.
CRYPTE, St. Gervais, 9; 18 etc.
D'AMBOISE (Tomb of the Cardinals), 310.
DAMIETTE (No. 29 Rue), 12.
—— (No. 30 Rue), 384 etc.
—— (Rue), 299.
DANSE Macabre, 306 etc.
DARE (Pierre), 369.
DEATH, 292 etc.
—— personified, 293.
DEMOCRATIC Architecture, 119.
DENIS (Rue St.), 15; 48.
DETANCOURT (Maison), 140.
DONJON of Chateau de Bouvreuil, 208 etc.
DUDO of St. Quentin, 40.
EAU DE ROBEC (Rue de l'), 6.
EDWARD the Confessor, 66.
EGLISE St. Paul, 99.
ELECTION of Georges d'Amboise, 253 etc.
ELOI (St.), 23; 42; 48.
EMENDREVILLE (St. Sever), 68.
ENFANTS (Hotellerie des Bons), 9.
ENGLISH Army of 1418, 179.
ENGLISHMEN and Rouen, 326.
ENGLISH Palace, 196.
ENGLISHMEN with Henry of Navarre, 319.
ENTRY of Francis I., 280 etc.
EPEE (Rue de l'), 6.
EPICERIE (Rue de l'), 9; 352; 353.
ERMONDEVILLE (St. Sever), 55.
ESPAGNOLS (Rue des), 6.
ETIENNE des Tonneliers (St.), 70.
EURE (river), 2.
FACADE of St. Ouen, 237.
FACADES of Rouen churches, 237.
FAIENCE and Ceramics, 398.
FEAST of the Farmers, 375.
FERRAND (David), 370.
FESTIN du Cochon, 375.
FETE St. Anne, 375.
—— aux Normands, 69; 369.
—— des Rois, 383.
—— St. Vivien, 375.
FIELD of the Cloth of Gold, 326.
FIERTE (Chapelle de la), 5.
—— (Levee de la), 69.
—— (Prisoners released by), 163.
—— (Prisoners of the), 200 etc.
—— (Procession of the), 354 etc.
—— (Record of the), 264 etc.; 295.
FINANCES (Bureau des), 285.
FITZOSBERN (William), 62; 66.
FOIRE du Pardon, 69.
—— du Pre, 68.
FONTAINE Croix de Pierre, 13.
—— de la Grosse Horloge, 111.
FONTENELLE, 377 etc.
FORTIN (Mont), 2.
FOSSES Louis VIII. (Rue aux), 15.
FRANCE (Hotel de), 15.
FRANCIS I. (Entry), 279 etc.
FREDEGOND, 24 etc.
GARRISON of Rouen in 1418, 178.
GASTINEL (Tomb of Denis), 212.
GATEAU des Rois, 376.
GEORGES d'Amboise (Election), 253 etc.
GEORGES d'Amboise, 256; 390.
—— (bell), 9; 129; 356.
GERMAN Invasion, 391.
GERVAIS (St.), 5.
GERVAIS (Crypte St.), 9; 18 etc.
—— (Fair of St.), 68.
—— (Priory of St.), 17; 77.
GISELA, 49; 51.
GODARD (St.), 21; 48.
GOSSE (Edmond), 274.
GOTHIC Architecture, 102; 116.
GOUJON (Jean), 244.
GRAND Pont (Rue), 7.
GREGORY of Tours, 31.
GRISEL (Hercule), 375; 377.
GROSSE Horloge (Rue de la), 6.
GROTESQUE carvings, 124 etc.
GUISCARD (Robert), 61.
HALLAGE (Rue du), 159; 353.
HALLES, 91; 112; 348.
HARELLE (Revolte de la), 150 etc.
HARENGUERIE (Rue), 343.
HARO (Clameur de), 146.
HAROLD BLACKTOOTH, 53.
HASTINGS the Dane, 47.
HAUTE Vieille Tour, 5.
HENRI BEAUCLERC, 77; 80.
HENRY II., 95.
HENRI II. (Entry), 350.
HENRY V.'S plan of invasion, 177.
HERBLAND (Eglise St.), 16; 22.
—— (St.), 41.
HILAIRE (St.), 2.
—— (Place St.), 6.
HILPERIK, 25 etc.
HLODOWIG (Clovis), 21; 24.
HORLOGE de la Ville, 138.
—— (Rue de la Grosse), 6.
HOTEL Bourgtheroulde, 321.
HOTEL d'Aligre, 384 etc.
HOTEL de France, 15.
HOTEL des Bons Enfants, 161.
HOTEL de Ville (Place de l'), 6.
HOTEL de Ville, 84; 110; 144.
HOTEL du Bec, 172.
HUGH II. (Archbishop), 58.
ILE, St. Croix, 3.
JEANNE D'ARC, 6; 200 etc.
—— (Rue), 7; 15.
—— (Tour), 5; 6; 208.
JOHN LACKLAND, 87.
JUIFS (Clos aux), 70.
—— (Rue aux), 90.
JULIEN (St. J. Petit Quevilly), 95 etc.
JUMIEGES (William of), 40
JUSTICE (Mediaeval), 264 etc.
—— (Palais de), 15; 277.
LAI d'Aristote, 260.
LANFRANC, 63; 64; 67; 75; 77.
LATIN Language, 377.
LAURENT (St.), 85; 248.
LECOINTE (Guillaume), 97.
LELIEUR (Jacques), 5; 16; 40; 344; 345.
LE PUY (des Palinods), 69.
LEROUX (Rouland), 130.
LE ROUX, 322.
LESTRANGE (Archbishop Guillaume de), 155.
LEVEE de la Fierte St. Romain, 69; 104 etc.
LION (Porte Guillaume), 4; 6. Lo (Parish of St.), 90.
—— (Priory St.), 15.
LONDON, 16; 21; 88.
LOTHAIR (of France), 57.
LOUIS (of France), 53.
LOUIS d'Outremer, 52.
LOUIS VII., 85.
—— VIII. (Rue aux Fosses), 15; 42.
—— (St.), 115.
—— XI., 157.
—— XII., 40.
—— XIV., 387.
—— XV., 390.
—— XVI., 390.
—— Philippe, 391.
MACABRE (Danse), 306 etc.
MACLOU (Eglise St.), 15.
—— (St.), 243 etc.
MADELEINE (Rue de la), 48.
MADRIGAL sung in 1550, 360 etc.
MAISON Bourgtheroulde, 321.
MAISON des Celestins, 197.
MAISON de Diane de Poitiers, 136.
—— Jeanne d'Arc, 220.
MALADES (Mont aux), 2.
MALPALU (Rue), 15; 80.
MAL S'Y FROTTE, 6.
MARC D'ARGENT, 234.
MARCHE aux Balais, 352.
MARCHE Neuf, 42.
—— (Place du Vieux), 6.
—— VIEUX (Place du), 51.
MARIE D'ESTOUTEVILLE (bell), 9.
MARTAINVILLE (Place), 6.
MARTIN (St., of Tours), 18; 45.
—— (St.), 30; 48.
—— (St. M. de la Roquette), 22; 47.
—— (St., Sur Renelle), 85.
MASSACRE (Porte), 84; 90.
—— (Rue), 42; 82; 135.
MATILDA (Empress), 68; 82; 98.
MATILDA of Flanders, 63; 76.
MAURILIUS, 64; 70; 91.
MEDIAEVAL Workmen, 118.
MELANTIUS, 33; 34.
MELLON (St.), 17; 18.
MEREDITH (George), 169; 393.
MEROWIG, 25; 28 etc.
MESSE du Prisonnier, 355.
MICHEL (Confrerie de St.), 305.
MILITIA of Rouen, 147.
MIRACLE PLAYS, 105.
MOLIERE, 378 etc.
—— (Rue), 299.
MONT FORTIN, 2.
MONT AUX MALADES, 2; 92; 93 etc.
MONT RIBOUDET, 2.
MONT SAINT AIGNAN, 2.
MONT STE. CATHERINE, 2; 99; 176.
MONUMENTS Historiques, 39.
MOSSELMEN (Pol), 258.
MUSEE des Antiquites, 7; 12; 23; 397.
MUSEE DE ROUEN, 398.
MUSIC sung in 1550, 362.
MYSTERY Plays, 105; 167.
NAPOLEON (the Great), 391.
NATIONALE (No. 41 Rue), 48.
NICAISE (St.), 17.
—— (story of St.), 371.
NID DE CHIENS, 182; 394.
NORMAN Architecture, 101.
NORMANDS (Fete aux), 69.
ODO of Bayeux, 63; 78.
OLD Houses, 394 etc.
OLD Hundredth, 359.
ORDERIC Vital, 40.
OUEN (St.), 5; 6; 17; 35; 48; 152; 233 etc.
—— (Cemetery of St.), 222.
OURS (Rue aux), 15; 42; 48.
PALAIS (Rue du Vieux), 6.
—— de Justice, 15; 42; 277 etc.; 351.
PALINODS (Puy des), 69.
PARDON (Champ du), 69.
—— (Foire du), 69.
PARVIS of Cathedral, 4; 6; 16; 42; 70; 86.
PEDRO NINO, 170.
PETIT Quevilly, 3; 95 etc.; 97.
—— Salut, 389.
PETRARCH'S "Triumphs," 332.
PHILIP AUGUSTUS, 6; 90.
PIERRE DE BREZE, 261.
—— (Eglise St., du chastel), 48.
—— (Fontaine Croix de), 13.
PILON (Germain), 308.
PLACE de la Calende, 42; 48; 70.
PLACE de la Haute Vieille Tour 38.
—— du Marche Vieux, 51.
—— de la Pucelle, 226; 227; 321.
—— de la Rougemare, 56.
—— Verdrel, 42.
—— de la Vieille Tour, 354.
—— du Vieux Marche, 226 etc.
PONT Boieldieu, 96.
—— de Pierre Corneille, 7; 68.
—— de l'Arche, 46.
—— (Rue Grand), 7.
—— de Robec (Place des), 6; 16; 42.
PONTIFZ (Guillaume), 129.
PORTAIL de la Calende, 126.
—— des Libraires, 6; 70.
—— aux Libraires, 121 etc.
PORT Morant, 16.
PORTE Beauvoisine, 54.
—— Guillaume Lion, 4.
PRE de la Bataille, 52.
PRETEXTATUS, 25; 29; 31; 32; 33.
PRISONERS released by the Fierte, 264 etc.
—— released by the Privilege St. Romain, 295 etc.
PRIORY of St. Gervais, 17.
—— St. Lo, 15.
PRIVILEGE St. Romain, 37; 104 etc.
—— St. Romain (Prisoners of), 163 etc.
—— St. Romain (Records of the), 295 etc.
PROCESSION of the Fierte, 354 etc.
PUNISHMENTS of the XVIth century, 273.
PUY de Conception, 370.
PUY des Palinods, 69.
Quentin (Dudo of St.), 40.
—— (Petit), 3; 95 etc.
RAGNAR LODBROG, 45.
RECORDS of the Fierte St. Romain, 163 etc.; 200 etc.; 264 etc.; 295 etc.
REHABILITATION of Jeanne d'Arc, 229.
REIGN of Terror, 390.
RELIGIOUS Wars, 315.
REPUBLIQUE (Rue de la), 7.
REVOLTE de la Harelle, 150 etc.
—— des Va-nu-Pieds, 382.
RICHARD (the Fearless), 52; 58.
RICHARD II. (Duke), 68.
RICHARD COEUR DE LION, 86; 87; 98.
RIBOUDET (Mont), 2.
ROBEC, 2; 15; 48; 70.
—— (Eau de), 48.
—— (Ponts de), 15; 42.