The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Map: The Rhone & Savoy with the Passes from France into Italy]




The Riviera is a strip of land extending 323 miles along the coast of the Mediterranean at the foot of the Maritime Alps and their off-shoots. It is usually divided into two portions—the Riviera from Hyres to Genoa, 203 miles long; and the Riviera from Genoa to Leghorn, 112 miles long. The milder and more frequented of the two is the former—the Western Riviera—which has been subjected to most careful and minute meteorological observations, and the various stations classified according to their supposed degree of temperature. Yet in the whole 203 miles the difference may be said to be imperceptible. No one station in all its parts is alike, the parts of each station differing more from each other than the stations themselves. Yet each station has some peculiarity which suits some people more than others; this peculiarity being more often accidental and social—such as the people met with, the lodgings, the general surroundings, and many other little things which exercise a more powerful influence upon the health and well-being of the mind and body than the mere fractional difference of temperature. None of the protecting mountains of any of the stations are sufficiently high, precipitous, and united to ward off the cold winds when the higher mountains behind are covered with snow. All the ridges have deep indentations through which the cold air, as well as the streams, descends to the plain. Hence no station is exempt from cold winds, and all delicate persons must ever be on their guard against them—the more sunny and beautiful the day, especially in early spring, the greater is the danger. All the stations suffer also, more or less, from the famous Mistral, anorth-west wind, which in winter on the Riviera feels like a north-west wind on a sunny summer day in Scotland. The mean winter temperature (November, December, and January) of Hyres, considered the coolest of the winter stations, is 47.4 Fahr., and of San Remo, considered the mildest, 48.89 Fahr. The coldest months are December and January. With February the temperature commences to rise progressively. Throughout the entire region bright and dusty weather is the rule, cloudy and wet weather the exception. "In December wild flowers are rare till after Christmas, when the long-bracted orchid, the purple anemone, and the violet make their appearance. These by the end of January have become abundant, and are quickly followed in February by crocuses, primroses, and pretty blue hepaticas. Meanwhile the star-anemones are springing up in the olive-woods, with periwinkles and rich red anemones. In March the hillsides are fragrant with thyme, lavender, and the Mediterranean heath, to which April adds cistuses, helianthemums, convolvuli, serapiases, and gladioli." —H. S. Roberton. There is a much less quantity of wild flowers now than formerly. The date-palm flourishes in the open air. Capital walking-sticks are made of the midrib of the leaf. Among the trees which fructify freely are the orange, lemon, and citron trees, the pepper tree (Schinus molle), the camphor tree (Ligustrum ovalifolium), the locust tree (Ceratona siliqua), the Tree Veronica, the magnolia, and different species of the Eucalyptus or gum tree and of the true Acacia. In marshy places the common bamboo (Arundo donax) attains a great height; while the Sedum dasyphyllum, the aloe, and the Opuntium or prickly-pear, clothe the dry rocky banks with verdure. The most important tree commercially is the olive, which occupies the lower part of the mountains and immense tracts in the valleys. The higher elevations are divided among the cork tree (Quercus suber), the Maritime, Aleppo, and umbrella pines, and the chestnut tree. The Japanese medlar (Eriobotrya japonica) is common in the orchards, flowers in December, and ripens its fruit in May. With the exception of the orange, lemon, and cherry, all the other orchard trees ripen their fruit too late for the winter resident.

On the Riviera generally, but especially in Hyres, St. Raphael, Grasse, and Menton, board and lodging in good hotels can be had for 8s. or 9s. per day, which includes coffee or tea in the morning, and a substantial meat breakfast and dinner, with country wine (vin ordinaire) to both. In some boarding-houses (Pensions) the price per day is as low as 6s. If two are together, especially two ladies or a gentleman and his wife, an excellent plan is to take a furnished room, which, with a south exposure and good furniture, ought to cost about 2 per month. They can easily prepare their own breakfast, and they can get their dinner sent to them. If the party be numerous, apartments should be taken, which vary from 2 to 30 per month. For the season, from October to May, furnished apartments are let at prices varying from 18 to 100. As a general rule it is best to alight at some hotel, and, while on the spot, to select either the pension or apartments, as no description can give an adequate idea of the state of the drains nor of the people of the house. Amaid-servant costs nearly 1 per month, acook about one-half more, but they are not easily managed. Fluids are sold by the litre, equal to nearly a quart of four (not six) to the gallon. Solids are sold by the kilogramme, or, as it is generally called, the kilo, equal to 2 lbs. 3oz.


Bread is about the same price as in England. The best beef and mutton cost from 1s. 10d. to 2s. the kilo. Agood chicken 2s. 6d. Eggs when at their dearest cost 1d. each. Excellent milk costs 4d. the litre. The best butter 3s. 2d. to 3s. 6d. the kilo. Of French cheese there are a great many kinds, all very good. Among the best are the Roquefort and the fromage bleu, both resembling Stilton, and cost from 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. the kilo. Fish are dearer than in England. The best caught off the coast are: the Rouget or Red Mullet, the Dorade or Bream, the Loup or Bass, the Sardine, and the Anchovy. The Gray Mullet, the Gurnard (Grondin), the John Dory (Dore Commune), the Whiting (Merlan), and the Conger are very fair. The sole, turbot, tunny, and mackerel are inferior to those caught in the ocean. The cuttle-fish is also eaten. Good vegetables can be had all through the winter, such as carrots, leeks, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, peas, lettuce, spinage, sorrel, and artichokes. The cardon (Cynara cardunculus) and salsifis (Tragopogon porrifolius) are often served up at dinner in the hotels. The cardon tastes like celery, but the salsifis has a bitter flavour. The potatoes are of good quality, but often spoilt in the cooking. In all the stations are English clergymen, physicians, apothecaries, bankers, bakers, and grocers.

[Headnote: ADVANTAGES.]

Before commencing to treat in detail the different stations of the Riviera, "some of the general advantages of the invalid's life in this region must be noticed. The chief of these is the amount of sunshine which he enjoys for weeks and even months together, when the sun often rises in a cloudless sky, shines for several hours with a brightness and warmth surpassing that of the British summer, and then sinks without a cloud behind the secondary ranges of the Maritime Alps, displaying in his setting the beautiful and varied succession of tints which characterise that glorious phenomenon of the refraction of light, asouthern sunset; when he imparts to the rugged mountains a softness of outline and a brilliancy of colouring which defy description. In the early stages of phthisis, and especially when the patient is young and active-minded, struck down by overwork or sudden exposure, this cheering influence is most beneficial. It is of great importance that, while taking the needful care of himself, he should not degenerate at an early age into a hopeless valetudinarian, especially as an every-day increasing mass of evidence warrants us in believing that under the influence of medicine and climate a large number of these patients gradually recover their health and lead useful lives, and, with due care, lives of no inconsiderable duration. Patients should never neglect to consult a doctor on their first arrival, as his experience and advice with regard to lodgings, food, etc., are of great value, and may often prevent them from falling into bad hands, or settling in unhealthy localities." To these remarks of Dr. Williams may be added, that patients should bring with them a letter from their physician describing their case and the treatment he thinks should be adopted.

The best time for walking and driving is between 9 and 12, as then there is rarely either wind or dust. For invalids requiring quiet sunny walks there are no stations on the whole coast so suitable as Hyres and Bordighera.


Sea-bathing on the Riviera may be continued with advantage by many during the greater part of the winter season. As the rise and fall of the tide are so trifling, the beach is always in a fit state for the bather. The water of the Mediterranean is more highly mineralised than that of the ocean. It contains about 41 per cent of common salt.

Doctors' Fees.—French doctors charge their countrymen generally 10 frs. for each visit. English doctors charge for each visit 5, 10, or 20 frs., according to what they suppose to be the means of their patients. An extra charge is made for night work.

Tourists may find it convenient to take with them a little brandy, tea, arrowroot, Liebig's extract, Gregory's mixture, opium pills, and a little of whatever medicine they are in the habit of using. The ordinary wine at the hotels is neither so good nor so safe as formerly, and should always be watered.

[Headnote: MARSEILLES.]


MARSEILLES, pop. 319,000, 15 hrs. 25 min. from Paris, and 6 hrs. 37 min. from Lyons. From Cannes it is 4 hrs. 31 min., and from Nice 5 hrs. 27 min. 536m. S. from Paris, 190m. S. from Lyons, 120m. W. from Cannes, and 140m. W. from Nice. On the departure side of the railway station is the Terminus Hotel (dear). The hotel omnibuses await passengers. Call out loudly the name of the hotel desired, to which the driver of its omnibus will respond.

A plentiful supply of Cabs is both at the railway and the custom-house station of the Bassin de la Joliette. Each coachman is furnished with an official tariff, which, though constantly changing, may be stated to be—Between 6 A.M. and midnight, for a cab with one horse, the course, 1fr.; the hour, 2frs. With 2 horses, the course, 1 fr.; the hour, 2 frs. From midnight to 6 A.M. 75 c. extra. Portmanteaus not above 30 kilo., or 68-4/5 lbs., 25 c. each. The hotel omnibuses charge each passenger 1fr.

Hotels.—In the Rue Cannebire, ascending from the Port, are very fine Cafs, and in the eastern continuation of it, the Rue Noailles, the best Hotels. The Htel du Louvre et de la Paix; the Htel Noailles; and the Htel Marseilles; all near each other, and charging from 12 to 20 frs. per day.

Less luxurious and expensive are: the Petit Louvre, No. 16 R. Cannebire, over the office of Messageries Maritimes steamboats; between the Port and the Bourse, the Htel de Genve, acomfortable house; on the opposite side of the Rue Cannebire and near the opera house, the Htel Beauveau; near it, in the R.Vacon, the *Htel des Colonies.

In and about the Cours Belsunce, where there are a large cab-stand and an important tramway terminus, are some good second-class hotels, of which the best is the Hotel des Phocens, 28 R. des Rcolettes. Rooms, 2 frs.; Dinner, 3 frs. with wine. Next it, at No. 26, is the Htel de l'Europe, a"maison meuble," in which good rooms, including service, cost 2frs. Breakfast and dinner can be had in the neighbouring restaurants. Of them, one of the most comfortable is G.Restaurant des Gourmets, adjoining the hotel. Near it is the Restaurant Bouches du Rhne, acheap house. The other second-class houses in the Cours Belsunce which can be recommended are—the Californie; Deux Mondes; Hotel St. Marie; Ngociants; Alger. The Htel du Cours is good also, but it is only a "maison meuble." The continuation of the Cours Belsunce is called the Cours St. Louis, where a flower-market is held. Just off this Cours, in the Rue d'Aubagne, is a cheap, good, and clean house, the hotel and restaurant St. Louis; rooms from 1 to 3frs.; dinner, la carte. At No. 8 Place de Rome is a good and cheap house, the Htel Forer, well situated, but it is one of those for which either a cab or the general omnibus must be taken at the station.


Steamboats.—The steamers of the Messageries Maritimes, of Morelli et Cie., of Fraissinet et Cie., of the P. and O.Navigation Co., etc., arrive and depart from the Dock or Bassin Joliette. The custom-house is at the north end of the dock, and just outside the dock-gates are porters and a large cab-stand. The custom-house contains one waiting-room for the first and second class, and another for the third. Passengers before they can have their baggage examined have to pay 6 sous at the end of the baggage-room for each box, for which they receive an acknowledgment. Atramway runs from No. 1 Quai Joliette to Longchamps, entering the Port and the Rue Cannebire by the R. de la Rpublique. There are no hotels near the steamboat station.

Small boats' station at the head of the Port. Boats to and from the Chteau d'If, 8frs. from 3 to 3 hrs. On feast days small steamers make the round of the islands, starting from nearly the same place, but do not land the passengers, fare fr., time 1 hr. At this part of the quay the feluccas from Spain discharge their cargoes of oranges and other fruits. From the Htel de Ville (1in plan) on the port, the Bateaux Mouches cross over to the Place aux Huiles opposite, 1 sou. At the mouth of the port, from between La Consigne and the Fort St. Jean, other Bateaux Mouches cross over to the Bassin Carnage, by the side of Fort St. Nicholas, and just below the interesting old church of St. Victor, 1 sou. From this a road leads up to Notre Dame.

The principal Temple Protestant is in the R.Vincent, No. 2. There is another in the R.Grignan, No. 15, near the General Post Office at No. 53. Poste-Restante, "guichet," on the ground-floor, opposite the entrance door. Telegraph office, No. 10 Rue Pav d'Amour. Anglican chapel, No. 100 Rue Sylvabelle, south from the Rue Grignan and parallel to it. The public library is in the Boulevard du Muse, in the cole des Beaux Arts. Open daily except Sunday.

Best money-changers by the west side of the Bourse, 10 in plan.

The Opera is near the Port; the other theatres are around the Rue Noailles.

[Map: Marseilles]

[Headnote: SIGHTS. TRAMS.]

Sights.—Palais Longchamp, an artistic edifice, containing the Picture Gallery and the Natural History Museum; free. Closed on Mondays and every day between 12 and 2 (see p.114). Near the Palais is the Zoological Garden, free on Sundays. Notre Dame de la Garde (p.116). The shops and cafs in the Rues Cannebire and Noailles. Adrive on the Corniche road.

Of all the Trams the most important starts from the left of the statue in the Cours Belsunce, and runs by the Chteau des Fleurs and the Prado to its Bonneveine terminus, alittle beyond the racecourse. Just behind the Bonneveine terminus is the Chteau Borly, containing the Muse d'Archologie, including a collection of Phoenician relics found in the neighbourhood, which support the hypothesis of the Phoenician origin of Marseilles. Open on Sundays and Thursdays. On the ground-floor are Roman mosaics, busts, altars, tombstones, jewellery, mummies; and in the end room is a stone with a Phoenician inscription, regulating the tariff of the prices to be paid to the priests for sacrifices in the temple of Baal. Upstairs are collections of antique glass, necklaces, fayence from Provence and Marseilles, bronzes, gold jewellery, lamps, vases, weapons, and an octagonal plan of Marseilles 18 ft. in diameter.


Return from the Bonneveine terminus by the tram for the Place de Rome, near 12 in plan. On its way it follows the Corniche road, considered the most beautiful drive about Marseilles, fare fr. The gardens and pleasure-grounds in the whole of this neighbourhood are due to the irrigation afforded by the canal. Of the bathing establishments on the Corniche road the best is the Roucas Blanc; and of the restaurants the best is the Hotel Roubion, afirst-class house, charging 15 frs. per day, and for vin ordinaire, lights, and service, 5frs. additional. The house is situated on an eminence rising from the Corniche road, at the entrance into the Vallon de l'Oriol, commands a splendid sea view, has handsome dining-rooms, and is famed for its fish dinners and Bouillabaisse. Trams and omnibuses are constantly passing it. This establishment, as well as most of the other restaurants along the Corniche road, has tanks in the rocks on the beach, in which is kept a supply of live fish to make the Provence dish called Bouillabaisse, akind of fish soup, which, like most national dishes—plum-pudding, puchero, haggis, etc.—admits of considerable latitude in the preparation. The essentials are—whole rascasses and chapons (scorpion fishes), and rock lobsters stewed in a liquor mixed with a little of the best olive oil, and flavoured with tender savoury herbs. An extra good Bouillabaisse should include also crayfish, afew mussels, and some pieces of any first-class fish, such as the bass.


Those having little time to devote to Marseilles should, after taking a short stroll about the Port and in the Rues Cannebire and Noailles, enter the Joliette tram on its way up to the Palais de Longchamp, fare 2 sous. The Palais de Longchamp, which cost 165,000, consists of two rectangular wings, united by a semicircular colonnade of Ionic volute-fluted columns. In the centre, under a richly-sculptured massive archway, an inscription records that the great undertaking of bringing the water of the Durance to Marseilles was begun on the 15th November 1839, and was accomplished on the 8th July 1847, in the reign of Louis PhilippeI. Another records that the palace was commenced in the reign of NapoleonIII., on the 7th April 1862, and finished on the 15th August 1869. From a group of colossal bulls under the colonnade gushes a copious stream of water, which in its descent makes a cascade of 90 ft. in three stages. The wing to the right, standing with the face to the palace, contains the Natural History Museum; and the other, the picture and sculpture galleries.

All the pictures are labelled. On the first floor are some large pictures by French artists and a few statues. In the second small room left hand is a collection of sketches by famous painters. Among the best pictures in the large centre hall of the upper story are:—F. Bol, d. 1681, portrait of woman and of King of Poland; Bourdon, d. 1671, portrait of P. de Champaigne; Cesari, d. 1640, Noah inebriated; Fontenay, d. 1715, Fruit; Girodet, d. 1824, Fruit; Gongo, d. 1764, Sacrifice to Venus and Jupiter; Greuze, d. 1805, portrait; Holbein, d. 1554, portrait; Loo, d. 1745, portrait of lady; Maratta, d. 1713, Cardinal Cibo; Mignard, d. 1695, Ninon de Lenclos; Nattier, d. 1766, Mme. de Pompadour as Aurora; Peeters, d. 1652, marine scene; Pellegrino, d. 1525, Holy Family; Perugino, d. 1524, Holy Family; F.Porbus, d. 1584, portrait; Raphael, d. 1520, St. John; Rembrandt, d. 1669, AProphetess (sibyl); Reni, d. 1642, The Protectors of Milan; Ribera, d. 1656, Juan de Porcida; Rigaud, d. 1745, Duc de Villars; Rubens, d. 1640, Wild-boar Hunt; Salvator Rosa, d. 1675, Hermit; Veronese, d. 1588, Venetian princess; Zurbaran, d. 1662, St. Francis. In the room to the right is the "cole Provenal," containing, among other paintings—Barry, The Bosphorus; Duparc, d. 1778, The Milkmaid, and portraits of old man, woman, and girl knitting; Papety, d. 1849, "La Vierge Consolatrice"; P.Puget, Madonna. In the left room are, among others, J.F. Millet, b. 1815, Woman feeding Child.

The most important parts of the Museum of Natural History are the conchological division and the collection of ammonites.

From the Palace gardens is a good view of Marseilles. Behind the palace, on the top of the hill, is the great reservoir 242 ft. above the sea, supplied with water from the main channel by a branch canal. (See under Roquefavour, p.77.) At this part of the hill is one of the entrances to the Zoological Gardens; free on Sundays, when they are crowded with people. Near the entrance is the Observatory, one of the most important in France.


The port of Marseilles has in all an area of 422 acres, and is protected on the E. by Cape Croisette, and on the W. by Cape Couronne. Its approaches are lighted by 6 lighthouses, of which the most distant is on the Planier rock, 130 ft. above the sea, and 8m. S.W. from Marseilles. The large steam vessels lie in the dock La Joliette, covering 55 acres, and finished in 1853; while the old-fashioned trading-vessels, with their lateen sails, crowd together in the harbour called emphatically the "Port," containing 75 acres. From the end of the "Port" extends eastwards the handsome and greatly-frequented street La Cannebire, so called from the rope-walks, whose site it now occupies. At nearly the middle of the N. side of the "Port" is the Htel de Ville (1in plan), built in the 17th cent., and adorned with sculpture by Puget, born at Marseilles; while at the western extremity of the same side, next Fort St. Jean, is a low building called La Consigne, or Health Office. Over the chimney-piece in the council-room of the Consigne is a beautiful relief in white marble by Puget, representing the plague at Milan. To the right is a picture by Gerard, representing Bishop Belsunce administering the sacrament to the plague-stricken inhabitants of Marseilles in 1720. To the left, St. Roch before the Virgin, by David. Fronting the windows, "The frigate Justice returning from Constantinople with the plague on board," "l'an 4 de la Rpublique." Opposite the fireplace, "The cholera on board the Melpomene," by Horace Vernet. Next it, by Guerin, "The Chevalier Rose assisting to bury those who had died of the plague." Between them is a Crucifixion by Auber. Between the two windows is a portrait of Bishop Belsunce. (Fee, fr.) Near the Consigne is the pier of the ferry-boats. Above the Htel de Ville is the town infirmary, and beyond it, on a terrace 30 ft. above the quay of Joliette, [Headnote: CATHEDRAL. ARC DE TRIOMPHE.] the Cathedral, aByzantine basilica, 460 ft. from S. to N., and 165 ft. from E. to W. at the transept; built of gray Florentine stone alternating with a whitish sandstone from the neighbourhood of Arles. The nave is 52 ft. wide, and the roof 82 ft. high. The great dome is 196 ft. high. Behind the cathedral are the Episcopal palace (5 in plan), the Seminary (4), and the Hospice de la Charit (7). Eastwards, in the Place d'Aix, is the Arc de Triomphe, an imitation of the arch of Titus at Rome, commenced on the 4th November 1825, to commemorate the prowess of the Duc d'Angoulme in the Spanish campaign of 1823. It is 58 ft. high and 58 ft. wide, has on the south side statuary by Ramey emblematic of the battles of Fleurus and Heliopolis, and on the north side similar statuary by David, representing the battles of Marengo and Austerlitz. Over the arch is the inscription— "A la Rpublique." From the arch a steep street, the R. d'Aix, descends to the Cours Belsunce, with at the N. end a statue of Bishop Belsunce, "pour perpetuer le souvenir de sa charit et de son dvouement durant la peste; qui desola Marseille" in 1720. By the side of it are the terminus of the Bonneveine tram (p.113) and the Alcazar Lyrique, akind of superior caf chantant.

[Headnote: BOURSE.]

The continuation southwards of the Cours is the Rue de Rome, and farther S. the spacious Promenade du Prado. At the S. end of the Cours are, to the right the R.Cannebire, and to the left the R.Noailles, the two best streets in Marseilles. At the W. or Port end of the former is the Bourse (marked 10 in the plan), aparallelogramic building, 154 feet broad by 223 long, erected between 1858 and 1860. The principal hall, 60 feet by 94, is ornamented with mural paintings. In the vestibule are allegorical statues of Marseilles and France, and a bas-relief representing Marseilles receiving productions from all parts of the world. On the opposite side of the street, by the R. de Paradis, are the Opera-house, the Palais de Justice, and the Prfecture (12 in plan). The Palais de Justice, built in 1862 in the Greek style, has on the pediment and peristyle bas-reliefs by Guillaume, representing Justice, Force, Prudence, etc. The outer hall, the "Salle des Pas-Perdus," is surrounded by 16 columns of red marble. The Prfecture is a splendid edifice in the Renaissance style, 300 ft. long by 260 ft. wide, adorned with statues and bas-reliefs, and furnished with a grand staircase, escalier d'honneur, communicating with handsome reception-room ornamented with mural paintings.

From the Bourse a pleasant road leads up to the church of Notre Dame de la Garde, one of the principal sights, and the most prominent object in Marseilles. From the Rue Paradis turn to the right by the Cours Pierre-Puget, traverse the pretty promenade, the Jardin de Colline, and then ascend the narrow road, the Monte des Oblats. On descending be careful to take the path to the left of the stone altar under a canopy on 4 columns. Asmall omnibus drives up the length of the Plateau de la Croix, whence a series of 178 steps has to be ascended to attain to the terrace on which the church stands, 535 ft. above the sea. The church is shut between 12 and 2, but the tower, ascended by 154 steps, can always be visited. Fee, fr. It is 148 ft. high, crowned with a gilded image of Mary 30 ft. high, ascended by steps in the interior to the head. The view, which is just as good from the terrace, commands the whole of Marseilles. To the N.E. the culminating peak is Le Taoume, 2166 ft.; to the S.E. is the Montagne de Carpiagne, 1873 ft.; and S. from it Mont Puget, 1798 ft. In front of Marseilles are the islands Ratonneau and Pomgue, connected by a breakwater. Between them and the mainland is the little island of If (p.118). Off Cape Croisette are the islands of Mare and Peirot. The road down the little ravine (the Valon de l'Oriol) leads to the Corniche.


Notre Dame, an edifice in the Roman-Byzantine style, consists of an upper and a lower church. The dome over the apse is 48 ft. high. The interior of the church is lined with Carrara marble, but the pilasters and columns are of marble from Africa and the Alps. Over the high altar in the low church is the miracle-working image of Notre Dame. It is about 6 ft. high, stands on a pedestal of olive wood, is hollow, and made of a kind of stucco (carton-pierre) silvered over, excepting the face and hands of both it and the child. It weighs 1 cwt. 1 qr. and 14 lbs. On the high altar in the high church is a replica, nearly all of silver. The walls are covered with expressions of gratitude to it, and with pictures illustrating the manner in which its miraculous interposition was displayed.

[Headnote: LYCE.]

From the streets Cannebire and Noailles other handsome streets ramify, such as the Rue de Rome and the Cours Liautaud. Just where the Cours Liautaud leaves the Rue Noailles is the Lyce or head grammar-school, and in the neighbourhood (marked 11) La Bibliothque et l'cole des Beaux Arts, forming together a palatial edifice off the Boulevard du Muse, 177 ft. long by 164 ft. wide. On the ground-floor are the class-rooms, and on the first story, the library, the collection of medals, and the reading-room, 131 ft. long by 19 wide. Among the medals are 2600 belonging to Provence. The library contains 95,000 vols. and 1300 manuscripts.

[Headnote: SAINT VICTOR.]

At the mouth of the Port, on an eminence above Fort St. Nicolas and the Bassin de Carenage (graving dock), is the oldest church in Marseilles, Saint Victor, all that remains of one of the most famous monasteries in Christendom, founded in 420 by St. Cassien, ordained deacon of the church in Constantinople by Chrysostom. The exterior of St. Victor resembles a badly-built small fort surrounded by 7 unequal and uncouth square towers, the two largest at the N. side having been added by Pope UrbanV., aformer abbot of the monastery. Over the entrance door under these towers is a rude representation of St. George and the dragon. The upper church dates only from the beginning of the 13th cent. Near the sacristy in the S. side a stair of 32 steps leads down to the original church, alarge and spacious crypt. Of this crypt the most ancient part is the small chapel shut off from the rest, with several tombs hewn in the rock. Among those buried here were St. Victor, and, according to the tradition of the place, Lazarus also, who is said to have died at Marseilles. The ancient appearance of this chapel is marred by a modern altar with a stone reredos, sculptured, it is said, by Puget. The shaft of one of the columns has a sculptured rope coiled round it. Pieces of ornamental sculpture are seen at different parts of the crypt, and remnants of a fresco painting. This also is the sanctuary of a miraculous wooden image of Mary and Child, said to have been carved by Luke. It is of a dark colour, is 3 ft. high, and is called Notre Dame de Confession, whose intercession is sought by crowds of votaries from the 2d till the 9th of February. The best of the sarcophagi have been removed to the museum in the Chteau Borly (p.113). At the foot of the eminence on which the church stands are Fort St. Nicolas and the Bassin de Carnage, whence a sou ferry steamboat crosses every four minutes to the other side. Among the modern churches perhaps the best is Saint Vincent de Paul, built in the style of the 13th cent.

[Headnote: ISLAND OF IF.]

Excursions.—The principal excursion from Marseilles is to the Island of If, with its old chteau built by FrancisI., long used as a state prison. Boats for the excursion lie at the Cannebire end of the Port. They charge from 5 to 9frs.; but it is necessary to arrange the price before starting. The landing-place is at some low shelving rocks, whence a stair ascends to the terrace, on which are, to the right the entrance to the Chteau, and a little to the left a restaurant. Aman conducts visitors over the castle, of which the most interesting parts are the cell of Monte Christo, and the place where he was thrown over into the sea.

Marseilles to Martigues, 24 m. N.W. by rail (see map on p.66). At Martigues station omnibus for Port Bouc, 3m. W.; fare, fr. From Port Bouc rail to Miramas, or steamboat by the canal to Arles (see p. 76). After leaving Marseilles the first station of importance is L'Estaque (see p.80), 7m. W., with large brick and tile works, at the foot of a wooded hill. 4m. farther is Pas-des-Lanciers, with an inn close to the station. Here the Martigues branch separates from the main line, and the Martigues passengers change carriages. Here also an omnibus awaits passengers for Marignane, 3m. W. on Lake Marignane, pop. 7000. Remains of castle which Mirabeau inhabited. Lake Marignane is separated from Lake Berre by a narrow strip of land. The train after passing Marignane station arrives at the station for Chteauneuf, avillage S. towards the hills.


Les Martigues, pop. 10,000. At station, omnibus for the inn, Htel du Cours, and omnibus for Port Bouc. Martigues is situated on both sides of the outlet from Lake Berre, and on the islets within this outlet, all connected by bridges. The railway station, the hotel, and a large part of the town are on the E. or Jonquire side. On the first or smallest of the 3 islets are the Tribunal de la Pche and the fish-market; on the middle one is the Htel de Ville; and on the third and largest are the hospital and the parish church with sculptured portals. On the N. side of the canal is the part of the town called Ferrires, containing the harbour and the reservoirs for the manufacture of salt. Fishing is the principal industry of the inhabitants.

There are in Marseilles numerous charitable institutions. The infirmary (Htel Dieu), founded in 1188 and rebuilt in 1593, can accommodate 750 patients. The workhouse (Hospice de la Charit) contains generally from 600 to 680 orphan children and aged men and women. Near the Prado is the Hpital de la Concepcion, with 800 beds.

The leading industry is soap-making, which occupies sixty factories, with 1200 artisans, and produces annually 65,000 tons, valued at 2,000,000 sterling. With this manufacture are connected oil and chemical works; in the former, which employ 2000 to 2500 workmen, 55,000 tons of different oils are produced yearly. The chemical works employ 2000 operatives in the manufacture of the salts of soda and concentrated acids, the value of whose annual production may be estimated at 320,000. Metallurgy is another great industry; alarge quantity of ore, imported from Elba, Spain, and Algeria, is smelted in the blast furnaces of St. Louis in the suburbs. The Mediterranean ironworks and yards, together with other private companies, have large workshops for the construction or repair of marine steam-engines, and for every branch of iron shipbuilding, employing several thousand workmen. Marseilles is a great centre for the extraction of silver from lead ore; 16,000 tons of lead and 25 tons of fine silver are separated annually.


Commerce.—The chief imports in point of bulk are cereals from the Black Sea, Turkey, and Algeria; but the one of greatest value, raw silk, 4,000,000 yearly, comes from Italy, Spain, the Levant, China, and Japan. Then follow metals, ores, timber, sugar, wool, cotton, and rice. The principal exports in respect of value are silk, woollen and cotton fabrics, refined sugars, wines and spirits; those of greatest bulk are cereals in the form of flour, building materials, oil-cakes, manufactures in metal, oils, glass and crystal.

History.—The Greek colony of Massalia (in Latin, Massilia) was founded by the enterprising mariners of Phoca in Asia Minor, about 600 B.C. After the ravages of successive streams of invaders it was repeopled in the 10th century under the protection of its viscounts. In 1112 the town bought up their rights, and was formed into a republic, governed by a podestat, appointed for life. In the remainder of the Middle Ages, however, this arrangement was modified, the higher town was governed by the bishop, and had its harbour at the creek of La Joliette. The southern suburb was governed by the abbot of St. Victor, and owned the Port des Catalans. The republic or lower town, situated between the two, retained the old harbour, and was the most powerful of the three divisions. The period of the Crusades brought great prosperity to Marseilles. King Ren made it his winter residence. Louis XIV. came in person to Marseilles to quell the disturbances under the Fronde. He took the town by storm, and had Fort St. Nicolas constructed. Marseilles repeatedly suffered from the plague, and an epidemic raged from May 1720 to May 1721 with a severity for which it is almost impossible to find a parallel; Bishop Belsunce, Chevalier Rose, and others immortalised themselves by their courage and devotion.

During the Revolution of 1793 the people rose against the aristocracy, who up to that time had governed the commune. In the Terror they rebelled against the Convention, but were promptly subdued by General Carteux. The wars of the empire, by dealing a severe blow to their maritime commerce, excited the hatred of the inhabitants against Napoleon. Since 1815 the prosperity of the city has received a considerable impulse from the conquest of Algeria and the opening of the Suez Canal.


The Marseillaise.—The famous anthem called "The Marseillaise" was composed by Joseph Rouget de l'Isle, born at Lons-le-Saulnier on the 10th May 1760, and died (it is said in poverty) at Choisy-le-Roi, 6m. S. from Paris by rail, on the 27th June 1836. On the 24th April 1792, the day before the departure of a detachment of volunteers, Dietrich, the Mayor of Strasburg, gave a banquet to their officers, and during dinner requested Rouget, then an officer in the engineers, to compose a war-song for them. Although it was late before Rouget retired to his room, he had both the music and the words ready before going to bed. In the morning he handed the paper to his host, saying: "Tenez, voil ce que vous m'avez demand, mais j'ai peur que cela ne soit pas trop bon." "Que dites vous mon ami?" said Dietrich, after casting his eye over the MS.; "vous avez fait un chef-d'oeuvre." The mayor's wife having tried it on the piano, the orchestra of the theatre were engaged to perform it in the principal square of Strasburg, when such was the enthusiasm it created that the detachment marched off with nearly 1000 instead of 600 volunteers. For them Rouget called the air "Le Chant de guerre de l'arme du Rhin." In July of the same year a detachment of volunteers was sent to Paris from Marseilles by order of Barbaroux, and as they were in the habit of singing this song both on their march and in the capital it received the name of the "Hymne des Marseillais." Charles Barbaroux, born at Marseilles in 1767, died on the scaffold June 1794, was one of the deputies who contributed most to the fall of the monarchy. He belonged to the party called the Girondins.



See Maps, pages 113, 155, and 185.

miles from MARSEILLES miles to MENTON

{ }{155} MARSEILLES. See under "Marseilles, Toulon, Nice et Menton" in the "Indicateur." The train, after leaving Marseilles on its way to Toulon, traverses beautiful fertile valleys opening to the sea, and bounded by mountains mostly with whitish calcareous tops. Having crossed the stream Huveaune and traversed several tunnels and the Durance and Marseilles canal, the slow trains halt at the villages of St. Marcel, with the chapel of N. D. de Nazareth, and St. Menet, and La Penne, all situated at the foot of Mont Carpiagne. During the season, from May to October, acoach at the St. Menet station awaits passengers for the cold mineral baths of Camoins, 2m. distant, or 5m. by omnibus from Marseilles. The bathing establishment is about m. from the village, in an undulating hollow, among plane trees, olives, and vines. The water is cold, and contains iron and iodine, with a great deal of sulphur. It is very effective as a tonic, and in diseases of the liver. The establishment is quiet but comfortable. Pension 8 to 9frs. per day.

10 m. from Marseilles is Aubagne, pop. 8100. H. Notre Dame. Omnibus daily to Marseilles, stopping at H. St. Louis. Every train halts at Aubagne. Junction with loop-line to Valdonne, 10m. N., with coal-mines and potteries. Coach from Valdonne to Aix by Fuveau, where take rail.

After Aubagne the train passes through the tunnel of Mussaguet, and, if a slow train, halts at the next station, Cassis, apleasant fishing village in an oasis at the head of a small bay, between Mont Gardiole (to the west), culminating point 1800 ft., and Mont de Canaille (to the east), culminating point 1365 ft. Inn: Hotel and Pension Liautaud. An omnibus awaits passengers at the station, 30 cents. Avery pretty path, passing by the Grotte de Regagne and through a forest of pines on the sides of Mont Canaille, leads to La Ciotat, 6m. east by this road, and 23m. from Marseilles by rail. The station for La Ciotat is 2m. from the town, but an omnibus awaits passengers. Inn: H. de l'Univers, at the head of a well-protected harbour, nearly encircled by two strong stone jetties. At the western side of the little bay is a curious promontory, the Bec de l'Aigle (well seen from the station), composed of three lofty rocks in a row, perpendicular on the W. side. Beyond the point is the small island Ile Vert. A little quarrying and coral fishing is carried on in La Ciotat; but the main business of the place is derived from the great shipbuilding yards of the Messageries Maritimes, which may be said to employ directly and indirectly the whole town.

[Map: Marseilles to Cannes]

4 m. beyond La Ciotat, or 27 from Marseilles, is the pretty village of St. Cyr, close to the station. 4m. farther is the station for Bandol, afishing village at the head of a shallow bay with small islands. The industries are cooperage and the culture of immortelles in fields on the plain and on terraces on the sides of the hills.

36 m. E. from Marseilles is the station Ollioules-St.-Nazaire, where omnibuses await passengers for St. Nazaire, pop. 2500, aport on the Mediterranean, and for Ollioules, pop. 3900, Inn: Trotobas; situated a short way inland on the Reppe, in a deep hollow surrounded by limestone cliffs, which, about 2m. up the river, are so close to each other as to form a gloomy ravine, at one time the haunt of the brigand Gaspard de Besse. The great industry of Ollioules, Nazaire, and Bandol is the culture of immortelles, which, when made up into wreaths, are sent all over France. The largest and best cost 24 frs. the dozen. Yellow is the natural colour of the flower, but they are variously dyed or bleached. They are cultivated on terraces among olive trees. Oranges and lemons grow freely here. The coach for Beausset halts in the Place of Ollioules, and then runs up the right bank of the Reppe to Beausset, pop. 3000. Inn: France.

[Headnote: LA SEYNE. SIX FOURS.]

38 m. E. from Marseilles, and 6 m. W. from Toulon, is La Seyne station. An omnibus awaits passengers for the town, pop. 11,000, H. de la Mditerrane, situated on the roads opposite Toulon, between which two ports there is constant communication by steamers. Near the hotel is the office of the omnibus for Tamaris, avillage 1m. S.E., at the foot of Fort Napoleon, and on the Rade (roads) du Lazaret. The omnibus returns by Balaguier. The Toulon omnibus for Reynier passes through La Seyne, from which Reynier is 3m. W. On the hill above Reynier are the new fort and what remains of the ancient village of Six Fours, once a town of importance. The greater part of the crumbling walls has been cleared away, and in their stead a strong fort has been built, which occupies the entire summit of the hill. The old church still remains, of which the earliest part, 6th cent., is at the entrance extending east and west, and was originally the whole building. To the right hand are two stone altars (6th cent.), with windows behind them to give light to the officiating priest, who at that time said mass with his face to the audience. The nave, extending N. and S., was added in the 15th cent. It contains a Madonna by Puget, and some pictures on wood of the 15th cent. Under the church is a large cistern, formerly, according to the "Annales de Six Fours," the chapel or house where Mary, sent by her brother Lazarus, told the inhabitants about Jesus. She was buried in the crypt of St. Maximin (p.143).


42 m. E. from Marseilles, 13 m. W. from Hyres, 22m. S. from Carnoulles, 59m. S.W. from St. Raphael, 79m. S.W. from Cannes, 98m. S.W. from Nice, and 113m. S.W. from Menton, is Toulon, pop. 71,000 (see maps, pp.123 and 129). Hotels: near the station, the Grand Hotel, alarge first-class house; alittle farther and near the post, the theatre, and Temple Protestant, are the Victoria and the Louvre; in the Place Puget is the Nord, and at No. 15 an office where carriages can be hired for Mont Faron and other excursions. From this "Place" start the omnibuses for Hyres, 11m. E. by the road; also omnibuses for Ollioules and Beausset. The porpoises and scallop shells on the fountain in the centre of the "Place" are by Puget. In the Place d'Armes is the H.Place d'Armes, fronting the Arsenal and the Promenade, where the band plays on Sundays.

The omnibuses for Cap Brun, Ste. Marguerite, Le Pradet, La Valette, La Garde, and La Crau, and the diligences for Pierrefeu, Collobrires, Cuers, Sollis-Pont, Belgentier, Meounes, Neroules, and Brignoles, start from the Place d'Italie at the east end of Toulon. In this "Place" are the inns H.Petit, St. Jean, and H.Croix-Blanche. (For the above places see maps, pp.123 and 129.) In the Place Puget are several cheap restaurants. The best restaurants are on the quay of the port.

[Headnote: THE QUAI DU PORT.]

The Quai du Port.—The bronze statue on this quay, representing Navigation, is by Daumas, by whom are also the colossal statues in front of the theatre. Near it are the berths of the steamers for Saint Mandrier, 3m. S., and for the Iles d'Hyres. More to the right is the berth of the large steamers for La Seyne. At the west end is the hulk of the famous Belle Poule, covered with a roof of sloping planks. This was the vessel in which Napoleon's body was brought from St. Helena and deposited in the Htel des Invalides on the 15th December 1840. The Chamber of Deputies granted 40,000 to defray the expenses of the expedition, and entrusted the command to the Prince de Joinville, with whom were associated Bertrand, Gourgaud, the younger Las Casas, and Marchand the Emperor's valet, all the latest and most devoted of Napoleon's adherents. On the 16th October the coffin was opened, when the body was found in an excellent state of preservation. On that same day the remains were embarked on board the Belle Poule, and on the 18th the ship set sail. On the 30th November it reached Cherbourg, where the body was transferred to the steamboat Normandie, which conveyed it up the Seine to Courbevoie, where it was placed on a most magnificent car.


Cab fares.—The course, 1 fr.; the hour, 2frs.

The strongly-fortified port of Toulon occupies a plain rising gradually from the sea to the lofty ridge of Mont Faron, which runs east and west, and sends out lower branches, enclosing the town and harbour on either side. On the summit, immediately behind the town, are Fort Croix and large barracks; to the east is La Platrire, 1000 ft., and immediately behind it Mt. Coudon, 2305 ft. To the west is the Cap Gros, 1735 ft, and behind it Mt. Caoume, 3268 ft. On every commanding position is a fort; while from the water's edge at the west end of the port rises Fort Malbousquet. Similarly situated on the eastern end is Fort Lamalgue, the last held by the English in 1793. The Petit Rade offers a spacious and most secure roadstead. From it are walled off, at the east end, the Port Marchand and the Vieille Darse, or town-docks, whence the steamers sail. Then follow the Government docks of Vauban, Castigneau, and Missiessy, all communicating with each other by swing bridges, and surrounded by well-built quays. The most conspicuous features of Toulon are the arsenals and the establishments connected with them, which are on a scale of almost unrivalled magnificence, occupying 717 acres, and employing above 10,000 men. Near the west end of the Port a large gateway with marble columns forms the entrance into the "Arsenal Maritime," covering 240 acres, and containing a general storehouse, 100 forge fires, two covered building-slips, aropery 1050 feet long, and an armoury with at the entrance two caryatides and a colossal eagle by Puget. Adjoining is the Arsenal de Castigneau, constructed on piles along the bay towards La Seyne, with the bakery, ironworks, and ship-equipment departments.

Although Toulon, rather a dirty town, is crowded with marines and sailors, it maintains by the constant influx of the peasantry all the characteristics of a town of Provence. Theatres of every grade abound, from the Grand Opera House down to the poor little caf chantant, where gaudily-dressed females electrify the audience with popular ballads. The most pleasant lounge in winter is on the Quai du Port, as the wharf fronting the town-dock is called. As long as the sun is above the horizon it shines there, consequently during the cold season it is crowded with all kinds of people, most of whom, unfortunately, are poisoning the air with execrable tobacco. On it are good cafs and restaurants, and booksellers' shops where plans of the town and neighbourhood are sold. This now gay sunny promenade was in November 1793 the scene of one of the most horrid butcheries of human life recorded in history, when the infuriated Republican soldiers, mad with vengeance, slaughtered above 6000 of their countrymen, not sparing even those of their own party, in their blind rage. Sir Sydney Smith, amidst the flames of burning ships and dockyards, and the shrieks and imploring cries of the terrified populace, succeeded in rescuing and embarking some 1500. Napoleon, then a lad of 23, by whose military genius the discomfiture of the English had been effected, exerted himself to the utmost, but in vain, to stay the carnage.

[Headnote: TOWN HALL.]

Among the houses which border the Quai du Port is the Town Hall, adorned with two admirable caryatides by Pierre Puget. In front is the statue representing Navigation, and at No. 64 of the street behind is the corner house Puget built for himself. It contains four stories of nearly square windows, those in the lowest and highest rows being the smallest. The small side has three windows in each row, and the large four, the windows of the first three rows over the doorway being in couples. On the angles are shallow grooved foliated pilasters, and under the eaves a projecting dentil cornice.

The most sheltered street in winter, and the coolest in summer, is the Rue Lafayette, abroad avenue lined with shops and shaded with immense lime trees. It commences at the east end of the Port and bends round to the Place Puget. About half of the street is occupied by a fruit, flower, and vegetable market. In the second story of the narrow five-storied house, at No. 89 (the Port end), is one of the cannon-balls fired by the English during the struggle of November 1793. (See above.) At the Port end of the street is the "Place," whence the omnibus starts for Mourillon; also the church of St. Franois de Paule. The interior contains pictures and statues of some merit. The reredos of the altar to the left represents one of the interviews between J.C. and Marguerite Alacoque, while that of the altar to the right represents Mary announcing herself to the girl swineherd at Lourdes to be the "conceived without sin."


The street ramifying from the west side of the Rue Lafayette, between houses Nos. 77 and 79, leads to the cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure, commenced in the 11th cent., and finished in the 18th. The exterior is unattractive. The interior is better. The organ-loft over the entrance is of carved oak. The alabaster reredos of the altar in the chapel to the right of the high altar is by the sculptor Veyrier. The tabernacle and the two angels under it are by Puget, who is said to have executed also the alto-relievo on the side wall of the chapel representing the apostles looking into the empty tomb of Mary. Over the arch of the chapel on the left of the high altar is a Madonna in wood by Canova. Several very good pictures adorn the church.


All the steamers sail from the Quai du Port. The best and largest are those which cross to La Seyne (p.123). The steamers for the Iles d'Hyres and for St. Mandrier sail also from this wharf. The St. Mandrier steamer makes the trip six times daily, calling first at Balaguier, where the landing-place is between Fort Aiguillette to the north and Fort Balaguier to the south, the latter being easily recognised by its round tower. The restaurant and houses are situated towards Fort Aiguillette. On the other side of the point of Fort Balaguier is Le Tamarin, or Tamaris, consisting chiefly of pretty villas in luxuriant gardens full of palms and orange trees. Behind Tamaris rises Fort Napoleon, commanding a splendid view. An excellent carriage-road leads up to the top. It commences near the neck of land of the peninsula of Cepet. An omnibus runs between Le Tamaris, Balaguier, and La Seyne. The steamer, after touching at Balaguier, crosses the roads or Rade du Lazaret and enters the small bay of St. Mandrier. At the landing-place is a comfortable inn, charging 8 to 10 frs. per day. Round the point, in a warm nook among the hills, is the hospital of St. Mandrier, with 1200 beds, one of the most important establishments of this kind in France. It occupies three sides of a parallelogram, has a handsome chapel, and a great cistern vaulted with concentric circles. Adjoining is a large and well-sheltered garden with orange trees. Visitors are readily admitted. In Toulon, near the Place d'Armes, is the Hpital de la Marine, exclusively for the navy. Although well ordered, it is hardly sufficiently ventilated.

One of the most interesting walks is to the top of Mont Faron, 1792 feet above the sea. From the Porte Notre Dame, at the E. end of Toulon, take the broad road or street leading northwards by the bridge across the railway. Then passing one of the artillery establishments, leave the town by the Port of Ste. Anne—the name is on the gateway. From this the real road commences, excellent all the way, and in its gentle ascent and continuous windings ever unfolding the most lovely views of the town and the bay. When not far from the summit three roads meet. The road to the left goes to the barracks and to the top. The nearly level road to the right goes to Fort Faron, and the steep road to the left to Fort de la Croix on a rock above Fort Faron. Both are on the east or the La Valette side of the mountain. The summit consists of a stony tableland, from which rise knolls of various elevations. It can be done in a carriage.


Toulon Omnibuses.—Among the omnibus-drives from Toulon the best are to Hyres (p.133) by La Valette, and to the village of Dardenne, on a stream in the picturesque valley between Mont Faron on the right or S. side and the steep Tourris mountain, with bald calcareous summits, 1426 ft. high. As far as the omnibus goes the road is good. The road eastwards through the valley leads to La Valette, and the short road northward to the village of Le Revest, on the top of an eminence commanding a good view of the ravine of the Dardenne. The village of La Valette, pop. 1700, is 3m. E. from Toulon and 7 W. from Hyres by the omnibus. The carving on the church door, representing John writing the book of Revelation in the island of Patmos, is said to have been done by Puget. From this village the ascent is made of Mt. Coudon, 2305 ft., in about 2 hours. "From Mt. Coudon there are grand views in all directions. Ihave sought for them a great deal, and seen a great many, but have never beheld any scene so lovely as the graceful yet bold indentured coast of France as exhibited from Coudon." —George Sand. A carriage-road leads up to the very top, but unfortunately, when only a few feet from the summit, farther progress is stopped by a fort, and the best of the view lost. Commence the ascent from the narrow lane opposite the Htel de Ville, and, once on the high road, never leave it. On the way up many very beautiful land and sea views disclose themselves.

The next best omnibus-drives are to Cap Brun and Ste. Marguerite, eastward on the coast, and to Le Pradet, avillage N.E. from Ste. Marguerite, on the road to Carqueyranne. Both omnibuses start from the Place d'Italie. Although this road skirts the coast, very little of it is seen on account of hills and garden-walls. Cap Brun and Ste. Marguerite are both forts on cliffs projecting into the sea. To the east of the Fort Ste. Marguerite is the village, consisting of a few houses, with a small chapel among villas and cottages scattered over the slope of an eminence rising from a tiny cove. Le Pradet is a considerable village a little to the S. of La Garde. La Garde, on its hill crowned with the ruins of a castle, forms a marked feature in the landscape. At Cap Brun is the villa of Sir Charles Dilke.

[Map: Environs of Toulon & Hyres]


The omnibus to the sea-bathing suburb of Mourillon, 3m. E., behind Fort La Malgue or Malague, starts from the Port end of the Rue or Cours Lafayette.

Diligence Drives.Toulon to Meounes, 19m. N. by diligence from the Place d'Italie. Time, 3 hrs.; fare, 2 frs. (see map, p.117).

The diligence, after passing through La Valette, Farlde 4m., and Sollis-Ville, arrives at Sollis-Pont, 272 ft. above the sea and 10 m. from Toulon, situated on the railway and on the Gapeau. The diligence halts near the inn H. du Commerce, where passengers from Hyres can await its arrival. The coach to Brignoles passes by the same way, but at an earlier hour. From Sollis-Pont commences the beautiful part of the route, up the fertile valley of the Gapeau between lofty and precipitous calcareous mountains. The slopes are covered with large olive trees, and the plain with fields and vineyards and numerous cherry trees. Nearly 2m. farther up the valley, but on the other side of the Gapeau, is Sollis-Toucas (328 ft.), situated in a sheltered nook. 5 m. higher up, and 12m. from Toulon, is Belgentier (pronounced Belgensier), on both sides of the Gapeau. The horses are changed here. The inn (auberge), which is indifferent, is round the corner to the right. From Belgentier the olives cease to be continuous. The diligence, after passing the flour-mill Pachoquin, 558 ft., arrives at the best headquarters in the valley, Meounes, 919 ft., on the stream Naille, an affluent of the Gapeau, 3m. N. from Belgentier, 8 m. N. from Sollis-Pont, 6m. E. from Signes, 4 m. S. from Roquebrussane, 12m. S.E. from Le Camp, 5m. S. from Garoules, and 7 m. S. from Forcalqueiret railway station, which is 7 m. E. by rail from Brignoles (see map, p. 123).


The inn of Meounes is behind the church. On a small peak overlooking the village is an image of Mary. Round three sides of the pedestal are the words "Mary conceived without sin, the tower of David, the refuge of sinners, pray for us." On the fourth side "June 1870." Eastward is a great circular mass of mountains, which rises abruptly on the eastern and southern rim, and sinks towards the western and northern. Going round from south to east the culminating points reach the elevations of 1794 ft., 1860 ft., 2073 ft, 2248 ft., 1934 ft., 2326 ft., and 2060 ft. Tablelands, more or less fertile, and peaks of various elevations, occupy the centre. The rocks are calcareous, and most of the paths which traverse this region are excessively stony.

Scarcely 3 m. from Meounes by a very pretty road is the Carthusian Monastery of Montrieux (pronounced Monrieux), on an eminence 945 ft. above the sea. To go to it descend the high road for about 1m. to a bridge and first road right, which take. Alittle way up, the road divides into two; take the left one, which crosses the Gapeau. The building, which is prettily situated, is small, and contains only about from 30 to 35 inmates. It was founded in 1117, and had very large possessions, which, with the house, were taken from the monks at the fatal revolution of 1793. In 1845 the building was repurchased, along with 74 acres of land, and peopled with a detachment of friars from the head monastery of the order, the Chartreuse of Grenoble. The Carthusians and Trappists resemble each other in dress and in their rules, the chief difference being that the Trappists sleep in the same room, and dine together in the same room, while the Carthusians have each a separate suite of small rooms or cells, where the inmate sleeps and feeds by himself. Both affirm: "Nous ne permettons jamais aux femmes d'entrer dans notre enceinte; car nous savons que, ni le sage, ni le prophte, ni le juge, ni l'hte de Dieu, ni ses enfans, ni mme le premier modle sorti de ses mains, n'ont pu chapper aux caresses ou aux tromperies des femmes." A nearer but very stony path, commencing opposite the church door of Meounes, leads also to the convent.

Through Meounes pass the Toulon courrier to Brignoles by Roquebrussane, the Toulon coach to Brignoles by Garoules, and the Toulon coach to Garoules. The drive between Meounes and Brignoles is monotonous, and the inns in the villages poor. Fare from Meounes to Brignoles 3 frs., distance 15 miles. (For Brignoles, see p.142.)


Toulon to Collobrires.—From the Place d'Italie a coach starts daily to Collobrires, 25 m. N.E. by E., passing through La Valette 3m., La Garde with its castle 5 m., and La Crau 7m. Inn: H. de France. Beyond the inn are the post and telegraph offices, and a few yards farther, in the Rue de Gapeau, the halting and meeting place of this diligence with the coach that runs between Hyres and La Crau.

From La Crau the diligence proceeds to Pierrefeu, 18m. from Toulon, where the horses are changed near the first terrace, alittle higher than the inn. From Pierrefeu the diligence proceeds to Collobrires, up the thinly-peopled valley of the river. Fare, 2 frs.; time, 4 hrs. Excursionists from Hyres should await the diligence at La Crau, where it arrives about 4 P.M.; or take the rail to Cuers station, and then the courrier, which leaves Toulon every forenoon for Collobrires, passing through Pierrefeu (p.142).

From Toulon to Pierrefeu the road traverses a fertile plain more or less undulating, covered with olive trees, vineyards, and wheat fields. The Gapeau, the river that supplies Hyres with water, is crossed a few yards beyond La Crau, and shortly afterwards the road to Pierrefeu takes a northerly direction up the valley of the Real-Martin, the principal affluent of the Gapeau. Pierrefeu, pop. 4000, is a dirty village on a hill, 482 ft. above the sea, with narrow, crooked, steep streets. From the terrace there is a pleasing view of the plain below. From Pierrefeu the coach ascends the valley of the Ral-Collobrier to Collobrires, pop. 3600, on an eminence rising from the stream. Inn: H. de Notre Dame, near the diligence office, good and clean. The office of the courrier is in the principal street, near the Post and the Htel de Ville with the promenade. From the top of the hill, where stands the old church, now abandoned, is an excellent view of the valley. The lower part is covered with fields and vineyards interspersed with fruit trees. On the side of the mountains facing the north are forests of chestnut trees, some very old and of most fantastic forms, while on the opposite side are forests of sombre cork oaks. Cork-cutting, wine-making, and the exportation of chestnuts form the principal industries. The wine, when four years old, makes an agreeable vin ordinaire. In the tenth year it is at its best, when it becomes straw-coloured.

A winding coach-road across the Maure mountains extends northwards to Gonfaron, a station on the railway to Cannes. Between this road and Pignans station is the culminating point of the Maures, on which is the chapel of N. D. des Anges, 2556 ft. above the sea.


The Islands of Hyres, or the Iles d'Or.

Steamer every other day from Toulon to Porquerolles; time 2 hrs., fare 2 frs.; thence to the Ile Port-Cros, time 1 hour. Fare there and back to Porquerolles, 2 frs. Steamer also every other day from Les Salins of Hyres to Porquerolles by the Iles du Levant and Port-Cros.

The finest of the views of Toulon and neighbourhood is from the deck of the steamer while sailing through the roads. To the north rises the massive and precipitous Mont Faron with its forts and barracks, and to the east is La Malgue with its forts and batteries. To the west is La Seyne, by the north side of the hill on which is Fort Napoleon, and southwards is the peninsula of Cepet with the large Military Hospital of St. Mandrier. The whole coast from Toulon to Hyres is afterwards seen distinctly from the steamer. Just before arriving at Porquerolles the steamer sails closely along the southern shore of the peninsula of Giens (see p.140, and map, p. 123).

Porquerolles, pop. 500, is 5 miles long, and of an average breadth of 2 miles. The culminating point is 479 ft. above the sea. The northern coast is low, the land sloping upwards to the south, where it terminates in vertical cliffs of schistose and quartzose rocks. The vegetation is nowhere luxuriant. Pines, arbutus, and heaths cover the mountains, while the more fertile plains and valleys have vineyards and fields. The climate is very dry, and the water-supply is obtained from wells. Mosquitoes can hardly be said to exist. Many rare plants are found in the woods, such as the Delphinium requienii, Galium minutulum, Pelargonium capitatum, Latyrus tingitanus, Alkanna lutea, Genista linifolia, Cistus Porquerollensis, and the Cistus olbiensis.

The Port of Porquerolles is situated in nearly the centre of the N. side of the island, exactly opposite Hyres, and 9m. from Les Salins. The pier has not sufficient water to allow the steamer to moor alongside. In the "Place," quite close to the pier, are the church, the museum of the island collected by the most worthy curate, and the two inns, of which the H. du Progrs is the larger of the two. Above the town, at an elevation of 215 ft., is the castle, with some small buildings formerly used as an hospital, now a prison.

There are three main roads in the island—the road by the N. coast westward is called the Chemin du Langoustier, the road by the N. coast eastward the Chemin des Mdes, and the road up the centre of the island, from N. to S., the Chemin au Phare. This last road commences at the N.W. corner of the "Place" and terminates at the lighthouse on Cap d'Armes, the most southern point of the island, 210 ft. above the sea. The lighthouse, first-class, is ascended by 70 steps, is 46 ft. above the ground, and has a white light.

The first road right from the N.W. corner of the "Place" is the Chemin du Langoustier, which, on its way westward, traverses a comparatively open country. The building in ruins, seen on the top of the ridge to the left, 370 ft. high, is an old watch-tower, considered the most ancient structure on the island. Near the end of the road is a decayed soda manufactory. At the terminus on the peninsula is a Vigie, a watch-tower and signal-station combined, 108 ft. above the sea.

The road along the N.E. coast, the Chemin des Mdes, traverses the most fertile part of the island. About half-way, near Point Lequin, it passes round the N. end of a ridge, extending N. and S., on whose summit, 479 ft. above the sea, is a semaphore or signal-station, commanding a perfect view of the whole island, while the view of the other islands, of the peninsula of Giens, of Hyres, and of the coast to beyond Cannes, is admirable. The way up is by the first branch road right at the commencement of the wood. The road at the commencement looks as if it led up the plain. The Chemin des Mdes terminates at a farmhouse called Notre Dame, formerly a monastery, whence the continuation is by a path leading to a fort on Cap des Mdes, to the N. of a hill 449 ft. high.


Port-Cros.—11 m. E. from Porquerolles port is the island of Port-Cros, 12 m. S. from Les Salins, on the western side of the island, at the head of a small landlocked bay. An inn is near the pier. The main road extends from the landing-place up the valley by the church and the proprietor's house to Port Man at the eastern end of the island. Port-Cros consists of a picturesque wooded ridge, whose culminating point is to the south, 669 ft. above the sea; it is 2m. from S.W. to N.E., and 1 m. from N. to S., and contains 1482 acres. The rocks in Porquerolles and Port-Cros are similar—mica, schist, and quartz. Round the coast are numerous little coves with tiny smooth beaches. Excellent sea fishing may be had at all times.

About a mile east from Port Man is the western extremity of the more sterile island of the Levant, 5 m. from E. to W., and 1 from N. to S. The culminating point is in the centre of the island, the Pierres Blanches, on which there is a signal-tower, 423 ft. above the sea. Mica, amianthus, actinolite, and tourmaline abound.

Toulon to Hyres.

Toulon to Hyres.—Passengers at Toulon for Hyres, 11m. E., can go either by the omnibus, which starts three times daily from the Place Puget, fare 1 fr., time nearly 2 hours, or by train. If by rail they should examine the Indicateur, and select a direct train, otherwise they may have to wait some time at La Pauline, where the branch line commences by La Crau to Hyres, 13 miles by rail from Toulon.

[Headnote: HOTELS.]


pop. 13,000, the most southerly of the stations on the Riviera, the nearest to England, and only 18 hours from Paris. It is not so gay as Cannes, Nice, Monte Carlo, and San Remo, nor perhaps even Menton; but none of these places have such beautiful boulevards, nor such a variety of charming country walks and drives either by private or stage coaches. The hotel omnibuses await passengers at the station. The station is m. S. from Hyres, and m. N. from the Hermitage.

Hotels.—At the west of the town are the Htel des Palmiers, below the Place des Palmiers; the *Iles d'Or, with garden off the main road; the H.Continental, on an eminence above the Iles d'Or. These three are first-class houses, and charge per day from 15 to 20 frs., including bedroom, service, wine, candles, and three meals with coffee or tea in the morning. Next the Iles d'Or is the Hesperides, 8 to 12 frs. Off the main street are the Ambassadeurs and the Europe, both from 10 to 12 frs., frequented chiefly by those who come only for a few days. At the east end of Boulevard des Palmiers the H. du Parc, 12 to 15 frs. On opposite side, and well situated for the sun, is the second-class house, the H.Iles d'Hyres, 7 to 10 frs. Near it, but not well situated, is the Mditerrane, third-class. The principal hotel on the east side of Hyres is the H.Orient, 10 to 13 frs., acomfortable and old-established house, opposite the public gardens. Farther east, and off the high road to St. Tropez, is the Beau-Sjour, from 12 to 15 frs. Down by one of the roads to the sea is the H. des trangers, 10 to 13 frs., in a sunny situation. About 1m. S. from Hyres, near the Hermitage chapel, but in a sheltered nook overlooking one of the warmest and most favoured valleys of the Montagnes des Oiseaux, is the *Htel and Pension de l'Hermitage, 9 to 12 frs., retired and comfortable, and frequented chiefly by English. As it is near the sea, in a forest of pines and cork oaks, it combines the advantages of Arcachon with those of Hyres. All the above prices include tea or coffee in the morning, and meat breakfast and dinner, with wine to both. Abundance of furnished apartments and villas to let. In the Place des Palmiers are a French and an English bank. Both exchange money. In the same "Place" is the Temple Protestant, and a little beyond the English Pharmacy. The Episcopal chapel is in the Boulevard Victoria. The town hospital is at the west end of the town.

There are several clubs; the best are the Sicle and the Progrs, which take in English newspapers. Here, as well as in the other stations on the Riviera, all the first-class clubs or "cercles" have large gambling-rooms, as productive of evil as Monte Carlo.

Cab fares.—Per hour, 2 frs. A coach per month with driver and 2 horses, 500 frs. With 1 horse, 300 frs.

[Headnote: DRIVES. COACHES.]

Drives.—A 3 to 4 hours' drive in a coach with 1 horse costs 6 to 8frs., with 2 horses 10 to 12 frs., but, as there is no recognised tariff, it is necessary in every case to settle the price beforehand. The drive to Carqueyranne by the coast and back by the road between the Paradis and Oiseaux mountains, with 1 horse, 8frs. The same price to La Crau, round by the west side of Mt. Fenouillet, and back by the valley of the Gapeau. The great drive, forming a good day's excursion, is to the Chartreuse of Montrieux, 18m. N., by La Crau, Sollis-Pont (arailway station), and Belgentier (pronounced Belgensier). (For description, see p.129.) Coach with 2 horses, 25 frs. there and back. The other great drive (costing the same) is to the Fort of Brganon, 16 miles east by the coast-road, passing by Les Vieux Salins, at the eastern extremity of which a road strikes off due north towards the St. Tropez road, passing Bastidon (7m. from Hyres) amidst large olive trees. After Les Salins the road enters the part of the plain called La Plage Largentire, in which is situated the Chteau de Bormettes, built by Horace Vernet (7m. E. from Hyres). Alittle farther east, on the Plage de Pellegrin, are the chteaux of Loubes (11m.) and Brganon; and, on the western point of Cap Bnat, Fort Brganon, about 4miles west of Bormes. (For Bormes, see p.142.) Another pleasant drive is to Cuers, 14m. N.W. by the Gapeau and Pierrefeu. The first road that ramifies to the right, from the Gapeau valley road, leads up into the Valle de Borel, in the heart of the Maure mountains. This road passes by the large farmhouse of Ste. Eulalie, in a plain full of large olive trees, some 6feet in diameter. There are also some large pines. Besides these excursions there are a great many little drives which may be taken in the wooded sheltered valleys running up between the ridges of the Maure mountains, but for them a light vehicle should be selected, as some parts of the roads are not good.

Coaches.—From the Place de la Rade start daily coaches for Carqueyranne 6m. W., for Les Vieux Salins 4m. E., for La Crau 4m. N. (see p.130), and for St. Tropez 32m. E., whence a steamer sails to St. Raphael. Near the "Place," opposite the Hotel and Restaurant du Var, start several times daily large omnibuses for Toulon by La Valette (see maps, pp.123 and 129).

[Headnote: MASSILLON.]

Hyres proper is a little dirty town of narrow streets, running up the south-east side of the castle hill; like, however, all the other winter stations, the new quarter, with its handsome streets and villas, has far outgrown the original limits. Aplain, 2m. wide, is between the town and the sea. The beautifully-wooded Maure mountains surround it on the land side, mitigating the keenness of the north, north-east, and east winds, but affording indifferent protection from the mistral or north-west wind. The Toulon road, extending east and west, forms the principal thoroughfare. On it, and in its proximity, are the best shops and the best hotels. From it rise the steep streets of the old town, of which two of the gateways still exist. At the east end, fronting the Place de la Rade, is the Porte des Salins, and at the west end the Porte Fenouillet. Exactly half-way between these two stood the principal gateway, the Porte Portalet, from which the street R.Portalet leads directly up to the *Place Massillon, containing the fish-market, abust of Massillon, and the Maison des Templiers, 12th cent., now the Htel de Ville. Standing with the face towards the Htel de Ville, we have to the left a dirty narrow street called the Rue Rubaton, in which is the house, No. 7, where Massillon, the greatest of the pulpit orators of France, was born on the 24th of June 1663. In the pulpit he appeared sedate, without gesture and parade. On one occasion, when he preached to the Court at Versailles, his sermon produced such a powerful effect on Louis XIV. that he exclaimed in the presence of the Court— "Father, Ihave heard several good orators and have been satisfied with them, but whenever I hear you I am dissatisfied with myself." The language of Massillon, though noble, was simple, and always natural and just, without labour and affectation. When he preached for the first time in the church of St. Eustache in Paris his famous sermon on Matthew vii. 14, and had arrived at the peroration, the entire congregation rose from their seats, transported and dismayed. This prosopopoeia, which still astonishes in the perusal, has been chosen by Voltaire in the article "Eloquence" in the Encyclopdie as an example presenting "la figure la plus hardie, et l'un des plus beaux traits d'loquence qu'on puisse lire chez les anciens et les modernes." His father, who spelt his name Masseilhon, was a notary. The business was continued from father to son in the same house from 1647 to 1834.

[Headnote: ST. PAUL.]

Above the "Place" is the church of St. Paul, 12th cent., on a terrace commanding a view towards the sea. The figures by the side of the altar represent the apostles Peter and Paul. In the clumsy modern addition to the church is an ancient baptismal font.

[Headnote: ST. LOUIS.]

At the low part of the town, in the Place Royale or de la Rpublique, is the church of St. Louis, built in the 12th cent. in the Byzantine style and restored in 1840. The floor is 11 steps below the entrance. The quadripartite vault is supported on lofty wide-spanned arches. The pulpit, of walnut, is beautifully carved. The 19 stalls display elegance and originality of design in the form and arrangement of the canopies. The confessionals are also tastefully carved, and are set into the wall. Behind the altar, to the right, is a large and remarkable picture representing the landing of St. Louis with his queen and their 3 children on the beach of Hyres (the Plage du Ceinturon) on the 12th of July 1254, when the royal family were the guests of Bertrand de Foz in the castle. The other picture, which is modern, represents St. Louis about to enter Notre Dame of Paris. The statue over the fountain in this square, the Place de la Rpublique, represents Charles of Anjou and Provence, 9th son of Louis VIII. of France, and brother of Louis IX. In 1245 Charles married the great heiress the Countess Beatrice, which event closed the independent political life of Provence by uniting it to the house of Anjou. In 1257, on the principle that might is right, he dispossessed Count Foz of the castle and territory of Hyres. At the western end of the town is the Place des Palmiers, with palms planted in 1836. Those which adorn the Boulevard des Palmiers were planted in 1864, and came from Spain. NapoleonI. lodged in the house No. 7 of the Place des Palmiers after the siege of Toulon. Around Hyres are numerous nursery-gardens, and on the plain, down by the Avenue de la Gare, is the "Jardin d'Acclimatation," where animals, birds, and plants are reared for the Jardin d'Acclimatation of Paris, of which it is a branch. These gardens form a most enjoyable and amusing retreat, are well sheltered, and plants, flowers, and milk are sold in them. Open to the public.

[Headnote: COSTEBELLE.]

From the railway station to the sea extends a tract called the Costebelle, about 2m. from N.E. to S.W., on the wooded slopes of the Montagnes des Oiseaux. The winter here is exceptionally mild, and some of the villas stand in little hollows clothed with pine and olive trees. Near the southern end of Costebelle, on Hermitage Hill, 320 ft. above the sea, is the chapel of Notre Dame d'Hyres, visited by pilgrims. From this hill are lovely views, not obstructed by trees. In the valley on the western side are old olive trees.

[Headnote: CHTEAU.]


On the top of the hill on which the old town is built is the Chteau of Hyres, which should be visited as early as possible, for the sake of acquiring a topographical knowledge of the environs. Ascend by the Htel de Ville and the steep narrow streets beyond, keeping to the right, as the entrance into the castle-grounds is at the S.E. end of the wall. The castle, 657 ft. above the sea, is believed to have been founded in the 7th cent., although not mentioned till the 10th, when it is called Castrum ararum or aris, "air-castle." Considerable portions of the walls, and some of the towers and dungeons, still remain, the most perfect part being on the western side, above the Htel des Iles d'Or. The view from the ramparts is beautiful. Immediately beneath are the town and its dependencies, like a map in bold relief. Southwards, towards the sea, is the great plain, studded with farmhouses, cypresses, olive plantations, and vegetable gardens. Beyond is the roadstead, with generally one or more vessels of war moored off the village of Les Vieux Salins. Out at sea, to the east, are the islands of Levant, Port-Cros, and Bagaud, the smallest of the three. Farther west, towards the peninsula of Giens, is Porquerolles (p.131), the largest of the islands. Giens is distinctly seen, with its two necks of land 3m. long. On the land side from Giens the view is bounded to the west by the little hermitage hill bearing the chapel of N. D. d'Hyres, and the Oiseaux mountains, on whose sunny flanks is Costebelle. North from Oiseaux peak is Mt. Paradis, 982 ft., which looks as if the top had been shaved off. Northwards from Mt. Paradis, on the other side of the plain, are Mt. Coudon, 2305 ft. (see p.125), and the eastern extremity of Mt. Faron, behind Toulon. Towards the east the view is bounded by the Maure mountains and the Pointe de la Galre, with Fort Brganon. From this fort, northwards by the beach, are the chteaux of Brganon and Loubes. The highest peak of the Maures is 2556 ft. above the sea, crowned by the chapel of Notre Dame des Anges. (Refer to maps, pp.123 and 129.)


Behind Hyres Castle is the highest of the ridges in the Maurette group, the culminating point being Mt. Fenouillet, 981 ft., at the western extremity. The path to it, which skirts the whole ridge, commences at the back of the castle, just under the peak of La Potence, 633 ft., on which is a fragment of a tower. Agibbet for the execution of malefactors stood there, hence the name. The small hill above the east end of Hyres, and standing between the old and new cemeteries, is a favourite walk, and commands a good view. Before descending from the castle observe the road to Mt. Fenouillet.

Excursion to Mont Fenouillet.—Behind the castle ramify three paths. The path to the right leads eastward along a lower ridge of the Maurettes by the Potence to Mt. Decugis, 585 ft. The path to the left, called the "Chemin St. Bernard," leads down to the west end of Hyres, near the octroi office and the hospital. The centre path leads to Mt. Fenouillet through plantations of olives, cork oaks, and firs, and some fine brushwood, of which the most beautiful in winter is the Arbutus unedo, or strawberry tree. When less than half-way a road at Mt. Roustan, 608 ft., diverges N.E. by a ridge projecting into the valley of the Gapeau. Just under the peak of Fenouillet is a small chapel visited by pilgrims. From the summit, at the foot of the cross (3Mai 1877), there is a superb and extensive view. Numerous paths lead from it down to the road between Hyres and Toulon.

[Headnote: THE TROU DES FES.]

Excursion to the Montagnes des Oiseaux.—The best way is to take the path commencing in the first valley N. of the Costebelle road, ascending by the N. shoulder. The whole way the path is good, only in some places it is nearly concealed by brushwood, especially by the Quercus coccifera. The trees on the summit, 982 ft., obstruct the view, but on the way up charming landscapes now and then unfold themselves of Hyres on one side and of Carqueyranne on the other.

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