The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Map: Ardeche: Its Vineyards and Extinct Volcanoes]

[Headnote: SAOU.]

Coaches daily from Crest to Montelimart, 22m. S.W. (see Index); also to Beaufort, 12 m. N.E., on the Geroanne. From the copious source of the Geroanne are occasionally thrown up blind trout. 3miles from Beaufort is the picturesque gorge of Omblze. Coach also to Bourdeaux, 16m. S., passing Saou, 9 m. S. from Crest (see map, p.56). Saou, pronounced Sou, pop. 1200, is a poor dirty village on the Vebre. Inn: H. Lattard. Mixed up with and built into the surrounding squalid houses are the remains of the abbey church and buildings of Saint Tiers, founded in the 9th cent. The best parts are the wall and square tower near the Mairie. The remains of the church are within the court of a stable. Near it is the little parish church, 12th and 13th cents. Saou is visited principally on account of the beauty of the narrow valley of the Vebre, between two ranges of wooded mountains, from 4000 to 5000 ft. above the sea, with sand and limestone strata piled up into vertical cliffs and twisted into strange fantastic forms. It is 8 m. long, and from a few yards to 2m. wide. At the commencement or west end, and on the right or N. side of the stream, is the Roche Colombe, 4595 feet above the sea, and opposite, on the other side, is the Roc, an isolated cliff like the shaft of a column. Mt. Colombe has also a columnar cliff, and at the base a house called the Donjon de Lastic, 14th cent., and a little farther down a square house, with two round turrets, called the Chteau d'Eurre. The best parts of the valley are this entrance and the east end, or its termination, where the Roche Courbe or Veillou rises to the height of 5324 ft. above the sea, and on which is the source of the Vebre. At the foot of Mt. Pomeyrol, about a mile from the entrance, the valley becomes so narrow that there is scarcely sufficient room for the stream to pass through. 2 m. farther up is the villa of Tibur, and, a little beyond, the terminus of the valley.


Coach from Saou to Bourdeaux, 7 m. S. Bourdeaux, pop. 1800. Inns: Blanc; Petit; Temple Protestant. On both sides of the Roubion, 8m. N. from Dieulefit. On the left side of the river is the old town, composed of squalid houses and execrably paved steep lanes, creeping up the hill, crowned with the ruins of a large castle founded in the 8th cent. Agriculture and the rearing of silkworms are the chief industries. Although Bourdeaux is hardly 8m. from Dieulefit the courrier requires 2 hours to perform the journey, as a high mountain ridge, the Dieu-Grace, intervenes between the two places.

Dieulefit, pop. 5000. Inns: H. du Levant; Temple Protestant. On the Jabron at the foot of Mont de Dieu-Grace, 17m. E. from Montelimart, between which two towns several coaches run daily. In the town are silk, cotton, and cloth mills, and in the suburbs potteries where a coarse kitchen ware is made. The principal towns passed on the road to Montelimart are Pot-Lavat, 3-1/8 m.; La Begude, 7m.; under Chteauneuf-de-Mazenc and Montboucher, situated on eminences at a considerable distance from the road (see map, page 56).

[Headnote: DIE.]

CREST TO ASPRES (Maps, pp. 46 and 56).

Crest to Aspres, 57 miles east by Die.—The road as far as the Pass de Cabres follows the course of the Drme. The first town passed is Saillans, 9 m. E. from Crest, pop. 1800. Inns: Lambert; Latour. In a ravine of the Drme, 6 m. farther, is Pontaix, similarly situated. 23m. E. from Crest, and 34 m. W. from Aspres, is Die, pop. 4000, the principal town in the valley of the Drme, which here receives the Mrosse. Inns: St. Dominique; Alpes—the coach stops between them; glise Protestante. The Clairette de Die is a thin white wine, drank during its first year; in the second it is apt to deteriorate. Coach to Chtillon, 12 m. S.E. Die, on the Drme, is in a small plain surrounded by mountains, of which the most remarkable is Mont Glandaz, 6648 ft. above the sea, flanked by great buttress cliffs. On the top is an undulating plateau, covered with small stones and grass; 5 hrs. required for the ascent. At the foot of the mountain is the rustic but not uncomfortable establishment of Sallires-les-Bains; pension per day, with baths, 9 frs. The treatment is called "Sudations rsineuses." The bath resembles a large oven, in which, after having been heated with resinous fir-wood, the patients sit as in a Turkish bath. Open from 15th June to 15th September. The landlord is likewise proprietor of a large part of Mt. Glandaz, whence he receives his supplies of fir-wood. On the top of a hill on the other side of the Drme is a similar establishment, called the Martouret, pension 12 frs. The way to it strikes off the main road opposite the eminence, on which is the chapel of Notre Dame, commanding a very good view of the valley. At the entrance into Die from Crest, at one of the old gateways, a road strikes off to the left, which makes the tour of the ruins of the castle, amidst vines and mulberry trees. At the other end of the town, near the viaduct, is a much better gateway or Roman triumphal arch, fronting the "Place" St. Marcel. The parish church has been rebuilt, excepting the narthex.

[Headnote: LUC. ASPRES.]

From Die the road to Aspres is continued by another diligence, which changes horses at LUC en Diois, pop. 940. Inn: Du Levant; glise Protestante, 10 m. S. from Die, or 23 N.W. from Aspres. Apoor town, among vineyards and walnut trees, on the Drme, at the foot of high mountains. Nearly a mile up the river the narrow gorge becomes almost closed by huge fantastic masses of conglomerate which have fallen from the adjoining cliffs. 9 m. farther up the valley is the village of Beaurires (Inn, where the coach changes horses). The ascent is now commenced by a beautiful and excellent road, of the Col de Cabres, 15 m. S. from Luc, and 4923 ft. high. On the pass, 2m. from Beaurires, is La Baume, with the cave of Baumette, and a waterfall 195 ft. high. 4 miles from Baume, and 3 from Aspres, is St. Pierre d'Argenson, with a sparkling acidulous chalybeate spring, grateful to the palate and invigorating to the system, and forming a refreshing mixture with the wine of Aspres, which is thin, and is at its best when 2 years old. Aspres, pop. 800, is situated on the railway, 126m. N. from Marseilles, and 77 m. S. from Grenoble. The coach sets down passengers either at the station or at the inn H.Ferdinand. The church has been rebuilt, excepting the portal, which has on the tympanum a curious representation of the Trinity.

[Headnote: MONTLIMART.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{412}{125} MONTLIMART, pop. 12,000, situated at the confluence of the Roubion and Jabron with the Rhne. Hotels: near the station, the France; in the town the Poste; the Princes. The office of the coaches for Le Teil, on the W. side of the Rhne; for Grignan, p.49; Dieulefit, p.47; Bourdeaux, p.47; and Nyons, p.50; is near the hotels Poste and Princes. Up the Grande Rue is the principal church. On the opposite side of it is the Place d'Armes, with the Post Office, the Palais de Justice, and the Htel de Ville. At the top of the first flight of steps in the Htel de Ville is a marble slab 1 yard long and 2 ft. wide, bearing in Latin a charter of the town engraved in 1198. At the end of the street, the Rue Porte-Neuve, off the "Place," is the Temple Protestant. Montelimart is famous for white almond-cake, "Nougat," of which the best is in the shops in the Grande Rue. On an eminence on the side of the town farthest from the station are the ancient citadel and the tour de Narbonne, 11th cent. Montelimart, originally a city of the Seglauni, became a Roman settlement under the name of Montilium, which was changed afterwards into Monteil-d'Adhemar by a powerful family, who came into possession of it in the days of Charlemagne. To the same family belonged also Rochemaure, on the opposite side of the Rhne (see page 92, and map page56).

Omnibuses to the sparkling chalybeate spring of Bondonneau, 2m. S.E. Two coaches daily to Grignan, 15 m. S.E. from Montelimart; one by Alan and Reauville, the other goes round by Donzre, 4m. longer. (See map, page 56.)

According to Mr. Murray (p. 109) in the village of Alan, half-way between Montelimart and Grignan, "there existed down to 1802 the first white mulberry tree planted in France. It was brought from Naples by Guy Pope de St. Auban, seigneur of Alan, one of the soldiers who accompanied Charles VIII. on his Italian campaign, in 1494." The mulberry tree occupies a much wider zone in the south of France than the olive (see map, page 56).


Grignan, pop. 1900; Inn: Svign, is built on the slopes of a hill on the top of which, 100 ft. above the "Place," are the gardens and ugly half-ruined and half-inhabited castle where Mme. Svign died. The former Salle du Roi has been converted into a picture-gallery, containing upwards of 300 paintings, among which the most interesting are—the portraits of Madame and her daughter, by Mignard. About half-way up the hill is the church, commenced in the 12th cent. In front of the altar a white marble slab, 2 ft. long by 1 wide, bears the following inscription:— "Cy Git Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Svign. Dcd le 18 Avril 1696." Above the well, in the "Place," is a bronze statue of her with corkscrew curls. About m. from the town is what was one of her favourite walks to an overhanging ledge of sandstone called the Grotte de Roche-Courbire. To visit it, descend from the inn, then take the first byeroad right, by a row of poplars to a short stair. A coach runs from Grignan to Nyons, 20m. S.E. by Valras and Taulignan. Valras (pronounce the "s"), 8m. from Nyons and 22 from Orange, pop. 950; Inn: H. du Nord, is partly surrounded with its old walls, garnished with square towers and pierced by narrow gateways. Taulignan, 17m. N.W. from Nyons by Valras and 11 m. by Rousset, Inn: H. du Commerce, pop. 1200, is also partly surrounded with its old walls.

{420}{117} DONZERE. H. du Commerce. Romanesque church with handsome spire. Four and a half miles south is Pierrelatte station, and the terminus of the unfinished railway to Nyons, 15 miles from Grignan. Coach from Pierrelatte to St. Paul-Trois-Chteaux, fare 6 sous, time 45 minutes. This, the Roman Augusta-Tricastinorum, contains an interesting cathedral of the 12th cent., restored. Many Roman relics have been found in the neighbourhood.

[Headnote: LA CROISIERE.]

{432}{105} LA CROISIERE. Two small inns at station. Omnibus awaits passengers for Pont Saint-Esprit, H. de l'Europe, 3m. W. on the other side of the Rhne by an avenue of poplars. Fare, 40 c. The bridge is 2756 ft. long, has 20 arches, was commenced in 1265 and finished in 1309. Till 1865 it had 21 arches, when the two at the W. end were demolished and converted into one large iron arch for the convenience of the steamboat to pass through. (For Pont Saint-Esprit, see page 98).

Diligence at La Croisiere station for Nyons, 29m. E. by the valleys of the Lez and the Aigues, and the town of Bollne, pop. 6000. Inn: Croix Blanche, on the Lez, 4m. E. Manufactures of fire-bricks and clay-tubing. 7 m. E., Suze-le-Rousse, pop. 2200. Coach here to Mansis. 12 m. E., Tulette, pop. 1300; Inn: Vigne. Horses changed here. 15 m. E., St. Maurice, pop. 1000; Inn: Lion d'Or. Near the village of Vinsobres a cross-road leads to the highway between Nyons and Vaison. At Nyons the coach stops in the "Place" in front of the H. du Louvre; whence the diligences start for Grignan and Montelimart (see map, page 56).

[Headnote: NYONS.]

NYONS, on the Aigues, pop. 4000. Hotels: Louvre, in the Place; Voyageurs, in a corner. Temple Protestant next the hospital. Nyons, surrounded by high mountains, is famous for its mild springs, and therefore eminently fitted for those returning from the Riviera. The orange and palm do not grow here, but abundance of mulberry, almond, fig, peach, and pear trees. In the oak forests are remarkably fine truffles. Silk mills and the preserving of fruit and truffles supply the principal industries. The old town, called Les Forts, is built on an eminence partly surrounded with its old walls garnished with square towers, 14th cent. The vieux chteau, or centre tower, has been converted by the curate into a chapel surmounted with an image of the "immaculately conceived." The part of the town below is called Les Halles, whose dirty streets are bordered with thick heavy arches. The rest of the town, extending to the Aigues, is called the Bourg. The bridge, built in 1341, is of one arch and considerably higher in the centre than at the ends.


Behind the old town is the ridge called the Col-du-Divs, on which is the cavern, or rather hole, whence it is reported (most absurdly) that the night-breeze called the Pontias issues. In winter this wind is very cold, and blows from 5 P.M. to 9 A.M. In summer it is pleasant, and blows from 9 P.M. to 7 A.M. The peculiarity is, that the degree of force is constant, and never breaks out into gusts. To go to the cave, commence from the foot of the tower of the church and ascend by the Rue Pousterle, having on the left the old town-walls. Beyond the last tower a path strikes off to the right, which take, and ascend to a small chapel on the top of the ridge, passing at about half-way a pavilion. Or, if preferred, continue the road from the tower to the part of the ridge where there is a gap; whence take the path at the back of the ridge leading to the chapel. Those who have ascended by this latter way retrace their steps from the chapel by the same path for 116 yards; while those who have come by the other go 116 yards beyond the chapel. Then about 30 yards to the left of the path will be observed the thin ledge of a rock overlying a small cavity, which is the entrance to the Pontias hole, of great depth, but otherwise of insignificant dimension. Among the neighbouring calcareous strata are several crevices. The view of the valley of the Aigues from this hill is very beautiful. The ascent takes 35 minutes.


Nyons to Serres (see map, p. 56), 41 miles east by the valleys of the Aigues and Blme, bounded on both sides by high mountains. Time, 7 to 8 hours. Fare, 7 frs. Most of the towns passed are at a considerable height above the road, and sometimes on account of the steepness of the banks cannot be seen from it. The first village passed is Les Piles, situated on the road 3m. from Nyons, and 3m. from the gorge "Des 30 Pas," one of the excursions from Nyons. A little farther E. is Curnier, on a hill on the S. side of the river, here crossed by a bridge. Then follows Sahune, also on a hill on the S. side of the river. The gorge now becomes very narrow and the mountains precipitous, and, having passed under Villeperdrix, the road crosses to the S. side of the river and arrives at the station for St. May, where there is an inn, H. Marius. St. May itself is high up on the opposite side of the river. The cemetery is on the point of a lofty precipitous rock. After St. May the diligence crosses the river to the village of Rmusat, 17 m. E. from Nyons on the Oule, at its junction with the Aigues. The diligence now returns to the S. side of the river, which it crosses for the last time at Verclause, 22m. from Nyons, and then proceeds to Rosans, 3 m. farther or 15m. from Serres. From Rosans commences the ascent of the low Col of Ribeyret, whence the road descends to Serres by the N. side of the Blme, passing the villages of Epine and Montclus. Serres, pop. 1200. Inns: Voyageurs; Alpes. On the railway, 112 m. N. from Marseilles and 77 S. from Grenoble (see p. 340).

[Headnote: ORANGE.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{444}{93} ORANGE, pop. 10,300. Inn: H. de la Poste et des Princes. This, the Arausio of the Romans, is situated on the slowly-running Meine. Close to the hotel is the Triumphal Arch supposed to have been erected in honour of Tiberius for his victory over Sacrovir and Floras, A.D. 21. It stands E. and W., is of a yellowish sandstone, 75 ft. high, 64 wide, 27 deep, and consists of 3 arches, of which the centre one has a span of 17 ft. and each of the other two a span of 10 ft. The soffits are ornamented with six-sided sculptured panels. By the side of each arch is a grooved Corinthian column. Over the small arches are sculptured trophies in the shape of shields, boars, bulls, rostra, ropes, masts, dolphins, arrows, etc. Over the main arch, on each side, is a group representing a combat.

At the other end of the town are the cathedral and the Roman theatre at the foot of the hill, crowned with an image of Mary. The Cathedral of Notre Dame, 12th cent., is small, and resembles in style the churches of the S.W. of France, of which the cathedral of Perpignan is the great type. No transepts nor triforia. Lofty chapels between the buttresses, and over the arches diminutive clerestory windows. Aplain and ugly square tower, in this case, at the east end. Adjoining is the Place de l'Htel de Ville, with a statue to "RaimbaudII., Comte d'Orange, vainqueur Antioche et Jrusalem en MXCIX." In the promenade of the town, the Cours St. Martin, is a statue to the Comte de Gasparin, awriter on agriculture, and a native of Orange; where also he died in 1862. At the foot of the hill, overlooking the town, are the grand and imposing ruins of one of the most perfect Roman theatres. It is built in a semicircular form, has a faade 118 ft. high and 384 ft. wide. The wall is 13 ft. thick, composed of huge blocks of stone. The semicircular wall consists of five stages, and included accommodation for 6500 spectators. The building has recently been repaired and cleared of a quantity of rubbish.


In the 11th cent. Orange became an independent countship, probably under RaimbaudI., whose successor, RaimbaudII., has just been noticed. On the death of Philibert of Chlons, last of the third line of princes, the inheritance fell to his sister's son Count Ren (Renatus) of Nassau-Dillenburg, who remaining childless chose as his successor his cousin WilliamI., stadtholder of the United Netherlands. The title "Prince of Orange" was consequently borne by the stadtholders Maurice, Frederick-Henry, WilliamI., WilliamII., and WilliamIII. After the Revolution in Ireland of 1688, the English-Protestant party were designated Orangemen, from the title of their leader, WilliamIII., Prince of Orange. Louis XIV. seized the principality of Orange in 1672, but lost it by the peace of Ryswick. On the death of WilliamIII. there were two claimants—John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, designated by William's will, and FrederickI, King of Prussia, who claimed to be nearer of kin, and to have been appointed by the will of Frederick-Henry. Thereupon Louis XIV. declared the principality a forfeited fief of the French crown, and assigned it to the Prince of Conti. The Parliament of Paris decided that this last prince should have the dominium utile; and its finding was confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht (1713), which, however, left the title and coat of arms to the King of Prussia, who is still styled Prince of Orange (Prinz von Oranien). John William Friso, however, also took the title, and his successors the stadtholders and kings of the Netherlands have all been designated princes of Orange-Nassau. Vast numbers of silkworms are reared at Orange. Coach daily to Valras 22m. E., p.49, and to Vaison 17m. N.E. (Map p.56.)

[Headnote: VAISON. ST. QUENIN.]

Vaison, pop. 3400. Inn: H. du Commerce. 5m. N. from Malaucene, 17m. N. from Carpentras, 11 m. S. from Nyons, 13m. W. from Le Buis, and 4 m. S. from Villedieu. Old or high Vaison is on the left side of the Ouvze, and new Vaison on the right. Both are connected by a Roman bridge of one arch of 48 ft. span, having at the left side a more elongated curve than at the right. The old town, with its squalid streets and poor houses, covers the sides of a hill crowned with the ruins of a castle built by Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, in 1195. It is a plain rectangular edifice, 20 yards square, with a small square tower at one of the angles. A little below is the parish church with round and early pointed arches and square tower at S.E. end. The view from the terrace is beautiful.

The most ancient and most interesting buildings are in new Vaison, and very near each other. Take the Villedieu road to just without the town, where a byeway on the right leaves the main road at an acute angle. Continue this byeway to two arches, which indicate the site of the Roman theatre. The chapel seen to the N.W. is St. Quenin, while a little beyond is the cathedral. The amphitheatre, or "les arnes" as they call it, is built on the same plan, and in a similar position, as the theatre of Orange, but far less perfect. Besides the two arches, there exist still five tiers, but all the stone seats are gone, excepting those on the lowest stage. Now it has become a vineyard and an orchard. Beyond, by a narrow road, is St. Quenin, of which the east end is Roman, and may date from the 4th cent., but the rest belongs to the 10th. The east end, or apsidal termination, is in the form of an equilateral triangle, with an attached fluted Corinthian column at the apex, and also at each of the angles of the base. One of the pillars has figures on the capital. The neat little round-headed window on each side of the triangle is evidently a later addition. Bishop Quenin died in 578.

Of the Cathedral the best part is also the outside. Under the eaves of the roof of the nave run a dentil moulding, and a frieze of medallions connected by an undulating line of foliage. The walls are pierced by small round-headed windows resting on spiral colonnettes. The frieze of the aisles is plainer. In the interior, early pointed arches of great span, rising from four massive piers of clustered pilasters on each side of the nave, support a narrow-vaulted roof, also pointed. This part of the church dates from the 12th or 13th cent.; but the chancel, with its two Roman pillars, and arcade of blank arches on colonnettes, is much earlier. Over the little chapel, at the N.E. side, rises an elegant square tower. Next the tower is a very beautiful cloister, 11th cent., bearing some resemblance to the cloister of St. Michel in Brittany. It is 22 yards square, surrounded by an arcade of 13 arches on colonnettes in couples 3 ft. high. At the corners is either a massive stone pier, or the stone hewn into 5 colonnettes. All the Roman antiquities Vaison has retained for itself are under this corridor. The most perfect piece of sculpture is a skull. On the top of the hill opposite the castle stands an image of the "Immacule" on the capital and part of the shaft of a Roman column. (Map p. 56.)

[Headnote: SORGUES.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{455}{82} SORGUES, pop. 4000, on the Sorgues, which rises at Vaucluse. Junction with line to Carpentras, 10m. eastwards. Carpentras, pop. 10,500, on an eminence surrounded by avenues, rising from the Auzon. Hotels: Universe; Orient, both good, and in the large "Place" opposite, the Htel-Dieu, built in 1760 by Bishop Malachie. In the Htel-Dieu are a portrait by Rigaud of the Abbot Ranc, and a handsome staircase. In the centre of the Place is a bronze statue of the benevolent Malachie d'Inguimbert. From this "Place," up the narrow street, the first public building is the church of St. Siffrein, dating from 1405. The square tower, with octangular cupola, attached to the north side of the chancel, was part of a former church constructed in the time of Charlemagne. The stair (89 steps) up to the roof, whence there is a pleasing view, commences at the south side of the chancel, outside. Among the pictures in the interior of the church, the best is a "Salutation" by the Flemish painter Andreas Schoonjans. Behind the pulpit is a picture by Mignard representing Mary giving some of her milk to St. Bernard. At the commencement of the chancel, near the cupola, is the chapel in which the reliquaries are kept. Among them are the skull and bones of St Siffrein, and the nail that pierced the right hand of J. C. on the Cross. In the chancel is a "Coronation" of Mary painted on wood, 15th cent., and behind the altar another "Coronation" by P. Veronese. In the foreground are Saints Laurence and Siffrein. Adjoining is the Palais de Justice, 1640, with frescoes and a crucifix in the "salle des assises." Within the court, right hand, is a Triumphal arch, erected by Diocletian between 284 and 305, 30 ft. high (but originally higher), 25 ft. wide, 14 ft deep, and 10 ft. span. On the N. side, between two attached fluted columns, is, in bold relief, a Latin cross with the arms at obtuse angles. On each side stands a prisoner, with his hands behind him, chained loosely to the cross. From the cross are suspended swords, horns, and pouches. On the south side is a similar cross, but not in such a good state of preservation. The main beam resembles more the stem of a tree. From the top hangs the dress of a warrior.


The continuation of the street from the church leads to the Porte d'Orange, surmounted by a square tower 120 ft. high, of which only three sides exist. It was built by InnocentVI., who also surrounded the town with the ramparts, which now form beautiful Boulevards. From the boulevard in front of the gate are seen to the left the canal aqueduct, to the right the town water aqueduct, and in the distance, between the two, beyond a smaller ridge, Mont Ventoux, extending from N.W. to S.E., with a slight bend. The aqueduct which brings water to Carpentras crosses the valley of the Auzon by 48 massive arches. The canal, which by irrigation fertilises the surrounding country, extends from the Durance to the Ouvze, a distance of 43 miles, and cost 90,000. In the principal Boulevard, nearly opposite the manufactory of preserved fruits of Eysseric, is the building containing the library and museum. The library contains a valuable collection of manuscripts, explained in a printed 4to volume, several rare incunables, and above 4000 vols., for which there is not sufficient accommodation. In the "Muse" are a few good pictures, and Roman statuettes in bronze and marble, all from Vaison, excepting a small Apollo found at Carpentras. The gem of the antiquities is an Egyptian-Aramaic limestone slab, 4th or 3d cent. B.C., 19 in. long by 13 wide and 1 thick, divided into three compartments by narrow borders. In the principal compartment stands a young woman with uplifted hands before Osiris, who is seated in front of a table on which are sacrifices. Behind Osiris stands Isis. Below, in the second compartment, is the embalmed body of the deceased, attended by the jackal-headed Anubis and the hawk-headed Horus. Below the body are the four customary funeral vases. Below this, in the third compartment, is an Aramaic inscription in four lines, of which the last two are injured. The first French opera was written in Carpentras by the Abbot Mailly in 1646.

[Headnote: TRUFFLES.]

Truffles or tuberous mushrooms are black, dark gray, violet-coloured, or white. The last variety, principally found in the N. of Italy, has the smell of garlic. About Carpentras, and in the department of Vaucluse, they are black, and are found from 4 inches to 1foot below the ground, at the extremities of the fibrous roots, both of the common and of the evergreen oak. The season for gathering them is from November to the end of March, after which those which remain become soft and decompose. They are at their best in January, when the rind is black, hard, and rough, and the inside mottled black and white. In size and shape the best resemble small round potatoes, of which the largest may weigh lb., although few are of that size. They are sought by means of dogs and swine, both of a peculiar breed; the sow being the more dexterous of the two, and continues efficient for its duty for upwards of 21 years. It scoops out the earth with its powerful snout in a masterly manner faster than any dog can do. When just about to seize the truffle, the attendant thrusts a stick between its jaws, picks up the truffle himself, and throws to the sow instead two acorns. Without this reward each time, the sow would not continue the search. Till the truffles are ripe, they have no odour.

[Headnote: ORTOLANS.]

The ortolans, which breed about the hills and woods of Carpentras, migrate in autumn. While on the wing they are allured down to nets laid for them by ortolans singing in cages. Those caught are put into dark rooms, where they are fattened. In about a month's time they become so plump as hardly to be able to fly, when they are killed and sold, excepting a few kept for alluring the others next year. The singing time of these is transferred from spring to August, by pulling out the large feathers of the tail and wings in April, and keeping them in a dark apartment till August.

Carpentras is also famous for its preserved fruits and "berlingots," a sweetmeat made of the syrup of a mixture of fruits, not unlike barley sugar, but cut into pieces 1 in. square. The best maker is Eysseric.

Carpentras is a good halting-place for delicate people returning from the Riviera—the hotels are comfortable and the prices moderate—excellent public library, pleasant walks, and in the vicinity of many interesting places connected by roomy diligences.

Coach daily from Carpentras to Nyons 28 m. N., by Vacqueyras 6m., and Vaison 17m. Also to Nyons 26 m., by Malaucene 10m. N.E., and Vaison 15 m. by this way. Coach to Buis-les-Baronnies 23m. N.E., passing through Malaucene. Coach from Buis to Nyons 19m. N.W. by Mollans. Courrier from Vaison to Buisson 7m. N. on the Aigues. Coach to Sault 28 m. E.

Omnibus several times daily to St. Didier 4m. S.E. Coach daily to L'Ile 10 m. S., convenient for visiting the fountain of Vaucluse. Coach on market-days from Carpentras to Apt 28m. S.E., by Venasque 7 m. S.E. (For these places see Index, and maps pages 56 and 66.)


Coach daily to Bedoin 8 m. N.E., 900 ft. above the sea, pop. 1300. Inn: Htel de Mont Ventoux. Station to ascend Mont Ventoux, 6274 ft., by a good road from the south end of the ridge. The base is about 2m. from the village and the top 10 m. by the easy southern slope. Time to ascend, from 5 to 6 hours. Mule, 10 frs. No guide necessary. Before commencing the ascent, go to the top of the hill by the side of the church and take a general survey of the land. The road extending to the right, under those mulberry trees, is the one to take. Alittle distance along it, at a well with a cistern, anarrow road strikes off to the left and ascends the mountain by a steeper and shorter way. The mountain offers a splendid field for botanists. To see the sun rise from the top, travellers generally start at 11 P.M., and await the appearance of the glorious luminary in the chapel of Ste. Croix, on the summit. Mont Ventoux is the culminating point of the Lure range, an offshoot from the Alps. Among the minerals it has quartz in every form and colour, in nodules and in strata. Also beautiful jasper and fossils such as ammonites and belemnites. The kaoline clay, "terre de Bedouin," is found in the plain between Bedoin and Crillon, avillage 2 m. N.E. At different parts in this neighbourhood are strata of sandstone with fossils, overlying beds of sand. These strata crop up at different parts of the department.

[Map: The Plains between the Ardeche, the Rhone and the Durance]


Four and a half m. S. by omnibus from Carpentras is the village of St. Didier, with a good hydropathic establishment in an old chteau. Rooms from 1 fr. to 3 frs. Servants' rooms, 1fr. Meat, breakfast and dinner, both with wine, 5 frs. Coffee in the mornings, fr. Meat, breakfast and dinner, for children and servants, 3frs. Service, fr. First consultation, 10 frs. Every other consultation in the study gratis; but in the guests' room 1 fr. each time. The baths are in the style of the Turkish baths, with the addition that the heated air is impregnated with resin or is turpentinised (trbenthin). It has a beneficial effect on the lungs and muscular rheumatism. St. Didier is 2 m. W. from Venasque and 2 m. from Le Beaucet (map p.56).

Two coaches daily from Carpentras to Buis-les-Baronnies, 23m. N.E., by Malaucene 10 m. N.E. The road from Carpentras, in crossing the N.W. extremity of the Ventoux chain, passes by the village of Le Barroux on a hill crowned with the ruins of a castle, 15th cent. At the foot of Mont Ventoux, 5m. S. from Vaison and 13 m. S.W. from Buis, is Malaucene, 1000 ft. above the sea, pop. 3000. Inn: Htel de Cours, in a picturesque neighbourhood, of which there is a good view from the calvary on an eminence in the town. At about m. from the inn is the spring Groseau, gushing forth from the base of a lofty calcareous cliff, crowned with the ruins of the chapel of Groseaux, 11th cent. The stream that issues from the spring is soon strong enough to set in motion the machinery of paper, silk, and flour mills. Any one may visit the silk mills. In 1345 Petrarch ascended Mont Ventoux from Malaucene. The ascent from this place is more difficult, but more picturesque than from Bedoin and requires 2 hours more. On the side of the mountain are the springs—Angel, 3826 ft.; Puits de Mont-Serein, 4774 ft.; and Font Filiole, 5866 ft.

The road from Malaucene to Buis follows the picturesque valley of the Ouvze. The most important village passed on the way is Mollans, with, in the neighbourhood, a great cave, beyond which is a deep lake. Shortly before arriving at Le Buis are seen, on an eminence, the bronze statue of Bishop Trophime, and beyond, the cliff of St. Julien. No public vehicle goes farther than Le Buis, although the road is good the length of the railway between Marseilles and Grenoble, passing St. Euphemie 7m. E., St. Auban 10 m. E., Montguers 11m. E., Lacombe 13m. E., and Laborel 27 m. E., after which the road descends to the railway by the valley of the Cans.

[Headnote: LE BUIS.]

LE BUIS, pop. 2000; Inns: Luxembourg; Commerce; is situated in a hollow on the Ouvze surrounded by mountains covered with olive, mulberry, fig, peach, and cherry trees. Schistose and shingle strata cover some parts; at others there are calcareous rocks in every form, either in gigantic cliffs or in countless strata of various thickness and at different angles. To go to the statue of St. Trophime and to the top of St. Julien, having crossed the bridge, ascend by the winding road to the valley, right hand, which continue to the next bridge. For the statue cross the bridge and go directly to the right: for the cliffs, ascend by the back of St. Julien by the path on the left, just before reaching the bridge.


1. Palace of the Popes: the small building opposite is the Consistoire de Musique; by the side of the palace is the church of Notre-Dame Des Doms, and by the side of the church, on the top of the hill, the beautiful promenade des Doms; whence a stair leads down to the Rhone, near 23, the old bridge Bnzet. Below the promenade is, 2, formerly an archbishop's palace, now a seminary. Below the Pope's Palace is B, the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, with the H. de Ville and theatre. The street C C, extending southward to the principal station, is called the R. de la Republique or Rue Petrarque, its original name. Just behind, 3, the Hotel de Ville is the church of St. Agricol, and a little farther S.W. is the Rue Calade, with, at 4, the Muse Calvet, and at 5, across the Rue de la Republique, the Muse Requien, amuseum of natural history. Farther east is, 6, St. Joseph's College, with all that remains of the Church of the Cordeliers, where Laura was buried. That large building at the east corner of the town, 7, is the Hotel-Dieu or hospital; the gate, O, beside it, is the Porte St. Lazare; while 8 indicates the road to the cemetery. Ashort way E. from the Place de l'Hotel de Ville is, 9, the church of St. Pierre. No. 10, not far from the station, is the Penitentiary, formerly the Convent of the Celestins, founded by Clement VII. in 1879; entrance from the Place du Corps-Saint. No. 13, Convent du St. Sacrement. 14. Chapel Bnzet on bridge. 15. St. Symphorien. 16. Sacr-Coeur. 17. Prison. 18. Mont-de-Pit. 19. Court-house. 20. Lyceum. 21. Prefecture. 22. Suspension Bridge. 23. Bnzet Bridge. A, Place du Palais. B, Place de l'Htel de Ville. C, Rue de la Rpublique. D, Rue Calade. F, Place du Corps Saint. G, Rue des Lices. H, Place Pie. J, Vieux Septier. K, Rue du Saule. L, Rue Carrterie. M, Porte du Rhne. N, Porte de la Ligne. O, Porte St. Lazarus. Q, Porte L'Imbert. R, Porte St. Michael. S, Porte St. Roche. T, Porte de l'Oulle.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{461}{76} AVIGNON, pop. 39,000, surrounded with strong embrasured walls, garnished with 39 towers, and pierced with 9 gates, is situated on the Rhne, 2m. above its junction with the Durance, and 20m. N.E. from Nmes by the railway passing the Pont d'Avignon and Remoulins. Hotels: *Europe, near the Pont; *Luxembourg; Louvre; St. Yves, in the centre of the town, near the Place Pie, the great market-place. Temple Protestant in the R.Dore, near the Prfecture. Cabstands at station and in the Place de l'Htel de Ville, 2frs. per hour. From the station, abeautiful avenue, the Cours de la Rpublique, leads up to the Place de l'Htel de Ville, with statue "au brave Crillon," the friend of Henri IV., "Louis des Balbes-Berton duc de Crillon et Lieutenant-colonel de l'infanterie franaise," died at Avignon in 1615. To the right is the road leading up to the *Palace of the Popes, the church of *N. D. des Domes, and the promenade, *"au Rochers des Doms;" which, with the ramparts, compose the principal sights of Avignon. The concierge of the palace lives just within the entrance. Fee for party, 1fr. Opposite gate is the Conservatoire de Musique, built in 1610 for a mint. The churches are closed between 12 and 2. The Muses are open to the public on Sundays between 12 and4.


The present Palace, commenced by Benedict XII. in 1336, and finished by Gregory XI. in 1370, is an ugly huge structure, consisting of plain walls 100 ft. high and 14 thick, strengthened by long ungainly buttresses. Above the entrance, composed of a low archway, are the arms of ClementVI.; and higher up, on two oriel turrets, the balcony from which the Popes blessed the people. Within the gate is the Cour d'Honneur, avast quadrangular space between flat walls, pierced by from 3 to 4 stories of windows, not on the same level nor of the same size. From the court ascend the Escalier d'Honneur, agroined staircase, of which the steps were formerly of marble, to the Salle Consistoriale d'Hiver, with an elegantly-groined roof. Before this hall was divided into two, it was 52 ft. high, 65 wide, and 170 long. From it we enter the Salle d'Armes, with mural paintings by Simone Memmi of Sienna. Ascending higher the grand staircase, we pass on the left the small window for the Spies, and then go along a narrow lobby tunnelled in the wall, to a succession of large bare halls, the Galerie de Conclave, the Salle des Gardes, the Salle de Reception, and then enter the Tour St. Jean, containing the Chapelle du Saint-Office, or the chapel of the Inquisition, with mural paintings. In the story immediately below is the chapel of the Popes. From the Tour St. Jean, after passing through a large hall, we enter an octagonal room, gradually narrowing towards the centre, till it forms a chimney-tower, called the Tour Strapade. Some say this was the torture room; but it is evidently more suited for a kitchen, which in all probability it was. Adjoining is the Glacire, into whose underground cellars, now built up, the democrats of 1791 flung the bodies of 60 men and women they had murdered. From this we enter again the Place d'Honneur by the Tour Trouillas, in which Rienzi was imprisoned five years, bound to a chain fixed to the roof of his cell. During the time of the Popes, from 1305 to 1234, and till 1793, the half of Avignon was occupied by ecclesiastical edifices, which tolled daily 300 bells, and had among them a daily succession of religious processions.


From the palace the road leads up to the highest part of the town, the Rocher des Doms; commanding a magnificent view, and laid out as a public garden, with in the centre a statue of Jean Althen, who introduced, in 1766, the culture of the "garance," the Rubia tinctoria, now superseded, for the dyeing of red. From this terrace a stair leads down to the Rhne near the Bridge Bnzet (see page 63). In the middle of the river is the Ile de Barthelasse, and on the other side are the Tour de Philippe le Bel, the town of Villeneuve, and above it the Fort St. Andr. On the promenade is the Cathedral Notre-Dame-des-Doms, 194 feet above the Rhne, approached by a stair called the Pater, because originally it had as many steps as there are words in the Lord's Prayer. This church has undergone many changes, and belongs to various periods. The portal and lower part of the tower are of the 10th cent., and are due to Fulcherius. The nave is two centuries later. The apse was added in 1671. The most remarkable part of the structure is the cupola, terminating in an octagonal lantern, and supported on pendentive arches. It bears traces of frescoes painted in 1672. In the sanctuary is the marble throne used by the Popes, in the sacristy the Gothic mausoleum of Jean XXII., and in one of the side chapels the tomb of Benoit XII. In the third chapel (right hand) is a Madonna in white marble, by Pradier. The sacristan is generally in the small room next the main entrance. Fee, fr. for showing the church and the tomb.

Now return to the Place de l'Htel de Ville. At the foot or south end a tram-car leaves every to the Pont d'Avignon station on the other side of the Rhne, 2 sous; and another to St. Lazare at the eastern end of the town near the cemetery, 2 sous. An omnibus starts every hour from the corner of the theatre for Villeneuve, where it stops at the east end of the church. Fare both ways, 4 sous.


In the "Place" the principal edifice is the Htel de Ville, built in 1862, on the site of the Palais Colonna, 14th cent, of which all that remains is the handsome belfry called Jacquemard and his wife, from the two figures which strike the hours. Next the Htel de Ville is the theatre, built in 1847. Behind is the church of St. Agricol, 1340, the patron saint of Avignon. To the right on entering is the tomb of the painter Pierre Mignard, d. 4th April 1725, aged 86, and third chapel on same side is a virgin and child in wood by Coysevox. To the left of the entrance is an ancient and elegant marble baptismal font. At the foot of the short street St. Agricol, in the Rue Calade, is the Oratoire, built in 1730. At No. 65 of the Rue Calade is the Muse Calvet, containing a valuable collection of art treasures open to the public on Sundays from 12 to 4, and a library and reading-room open every day except Sunday. Against the wall of the inner court is the tomb of the donor of this museum, Claud Franois Calvet, d. 25th July 1810, in his 82d year. On the right is the monument erected by Sir Charles Kelsall in 1823 to Laura de Sade, dead of smallpox in 1348, and buried in the church of the Cordeliers (see p.62). On the other side is the tomb of the military strategist Folard, anative of Avignon. In the outer court, and in the rooms and passages on the ground-floor, are Roman altars, monuments, milestones, torses, amphor, and 170 Latin inscriptions, found in the neighbourhood, but chiefly from Orange and Vaison (p.53). Among the sculptures in relief, one represents a Roman chariot drawn by two horses with their hoofs shod. There are 27 Greek inscriptions, 3d or 4th cent., from Venice. The statuary and sculpture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance have been gathered principally from the suppressed churches and convents. The most noticeable are: the mausoleums of Pope UrbainV., of Cardinals Lagrange and Brancas, and of Marshal Palice. Within railings are: Cassandra by Pradier, afaun by Brian, and a bather by Esparcieux, all in the finest white marble. Upstairs is a valuable collection of Roman glass and bronzes, and 20,000 coins and medals, including a complete set of the seals and medals of the Popes during their residence at Avignon, and the seal used by the Inquisition while here. There are nearly 500 pictures, and a collection of drawings, including the original sketches of Horace Vernet. Most of the pictures have the artists' names affixed. Those in the great hall are by Albano, Bassano, Berghem, Bloemen, Bourdon, Canaletto, A.Carracci, Caravaggio, Chlons, Coypel, Credi, David, *Eckout (crucifixion), Sasso Ferrati, F.Floris, Gericault, Girodet, Gros, Holbein, Lomi, Meel, P. and N.Mignard, J. and P.Parrocel, Poussin, Euysdael, Salvator Rosa, Teuiers jun., Veronese, Vige-Lebrun, and Zurbaran. In the small room are the paintings by Claude-Joseph, Horace and Carle Vernet, with a few by Paul Huet. The marble busts of Horace and Carle are by Thorwaldsen. In the centre of an inner room, containing the medals and engravings, is the famous ivory crucifixion, 27 inches long, of one piece, excepting the arms, achef-d'oeuvre of the sculptor Guillermin in 1659. It is said that Canova stood in ecstasy over this delicate achievement in art. Continuing down the R.Calade to the other side of the R.Petrarque or de la Rpublique, we have on the right the Museum of Natural History in the church St. Martial, 15th cent. [Headnote: REQUIEN.] The greater part of the specimens were bequeathed by M.Requien, d. 1851, and of them the most interesting are those connected with the neighbourhood, such as the flamingo and beaver of the Rhne, and the fossils from Aix. In the eastern continuation of the R.Calade, at No. 62 R. des Lices, is the Collge Saint Joseph, containing within its grounds all that remains (the belfry and piece of the north aisle) of the church of the Cordeliers; in which Laura was buried. The aisle has been repaired, and is now used as a chapel. Visitors are freely admitted. It is to the left of the entrance. Of the tomb there are no vestiges, having been destroyed along with the church by an infuriated mob in 1791. On the E. side of the R.Petrarque, by the narrow R.Prvot, is the church of St. Dedier, 1355, containing, in first chapel right from entrance, arelief in marble representing Christ bearing his cross, executed by Francesco in 1481 at the request of King Ren. Opposite, over second arch, 36 ft. above the floor, is a stone pulpit with a sculptured pendant. The grave of St. Bnzet is under a plain slab in the middle of the nave, in front of the high altar. Near St. Dedier is the Htel Crillon, 17th cent.; and to the east of the Place de l'Htel de Ville is the church of St. Pierre (9in plan), 1520, with an elaborately-sculptured door and pulpit. The pictures about the high altar are by N.Mignard, J. and P.Parrocel, and Simon de Chlons. From the S.E. corner of the Place de l'Htel de Ville, the R. des Marchands and its continuation the Rues Saunerie and Carrterie, lead to the Porte St. Lazare, with, to the right, the town hospital (7in plan), having a frontage of 192 yards, built in the last century on the site of the hospital of St. Martha, founded in 1354. Here, outside the town-walls to the right, then by a broad road to the left, is the Cemetery. The Protestant division is on the right side of the entrance. [Headnote: J.S. MILL.] In a corner at the end of a short avenue of pine trees is the white marble monument to John Stuart Mill, b. 20th May 1806, d. 7th May 1873. In the same grave is interred Harriet Mill, his beloved wife, who died at Avignon in the Htel de l'Europe, Nov. 3, 1858. Atouching epitaph, recounting her virtues, occupies the whole surface of the top slab. From the Porte St. Lazare, awalk may be taken between the ramparts and the Rhne down to the bridge built in 1184, partly in the style of the Pont-du-Gard, by the shepherd, saint, and architect, Bnzet, who before had constructed one over the Durance at Maupas. This bridge, which stood 100 years, was 2952 ft. long and 13 wide, on 19 arches, of which four still remain. On the second arch is the chapel of St. Nicolas, in which the relics of St. Bnzet were kept till removed to the church of St. Dedier.


Avignon to Villeneuve.

Every , a tram crosses the bridge for the Pont d'Avignon station, while every hour an omnibus crosses for Villeneuve-les-Avignon, pop. 3100, 2m. from the "Place," or 1m. from the Pont station. Near the parish church, 14th cent., is the Hospital, containing, in the chapel to the left, the mausoleum of InnocentVI., under a lofty elaborately-sculptured canopy, rising in pinnacles to the roof. Upstairs is the picture gallery, in two rooms. The most remarkable picture belongs to the 15th or 16th cent., painted on wood, and represents two subjects, Purgatory and the Judgment Day, apparently by two different artists. Although stiff, the design is admirable, and all the heads, even the smallest, are carefully executed. But the gem is the most charming and bewitching portrait by Mignard of Mme. de Ganges attired as a nun. She was born at Avignon in 1636, and when only 13 married the Marquis de Castellane, with whom she frequented the court of Louis XIV., where she was called La Belle Provenale. After her husband's death she married the Marquis de Ganges, with whom she returned to Avignon, where her sorrows commenced, caused by the conduct of her two brothers-in-law, the Abbot and the Chevalier de Ganges, whose unlawful passion she steadfastly resisted. At last the exasperated abbot having made her drink poison, she threw herself out of the window, and while lying on the ground in the agony of death, the chevalier pierced her seven times with his sword. These two monsters were condemned by the parliament to be broken alive on the wheel. The other pictures in the collection by Mignard are: Jesus before the Doctors, an Annunciation, and a St. Bruno. Fee, 1fr., given to the hospital. In the parish church, built in the 14th cent, by Cardinal Arnaud de Via, there is nothing extraordinary. Near it are the ruins of the Chartreuse-du-Val-de-Bndiction, and on an eminence Fort Andr, now inhabited as a walled village. The omnibus for Avignon starts every hour at the hour, from the apsidal end of the parish church of Villeneuve.

Avignon is very much exposed to different winds, especially the Mistral, yet perhaps they are necessary, for, according to the adage, "Avenio ventosa, cum vento fastidiosa, sine vento venenosa," the odours from the drains in some of the streets being very offensive.

Till July 26, 1793, Avignon belonged to the Papal See, when it was forcibly taken possession of by the Republican army under General Cartaux, who owed his victory to the skill of his captain of artillery, the young commandant Napoleon, who afterwards remained nearly a month in this town for the establishment of his health, in No. 65 Rue Calade, opposite the Muse Calvet, where he wrote "Le Souper de Beaucaire."


Avignon to Nmes.

Avignon is 1 hour or 15 miles N.E. from Nmes by rail, starting from the Pont-d'Avignon station on the west side of the Rhne. Those wishing to visit the Pont-du-Gard on the way should take their tickets for the Pont-du-Gard station, changing carriages at Remoulins. If with luggage, it is better to take the tickets only to Remoulins; where, without loss of time on arriving, take other tickets to the Pont-du-Gard, leaving the luggage behind. Time will generally be saved by returning from the Pont to Remoulins on foot, about 3m. by the road, but 5m. by the rail. See Map, p.56. For Nmes see p.101, and for the Pont-du-Gard see p.104. Consult the "Indicateur des Chemins de Fer du Lyon" before starting.


Avignon to Vaucluse by L'Isle.

From Avignon the Fontaine de Vaucluse is 18m. eastward, by the village of Isle, on the line to Cavaillon. L'Isle, pop. 7000, avillage on the Sorgues, with decorated church rebuilt in the 17th cent. Handsome reredos over high altar and several good paintings. The Tour d'Argent dates from the 11th cent. At the station the omnibuses of the Isle hotels, Petrarque et Laure and St. Martin, await passengers and take them to Vaucluse and back for 4frs. each. From the village of Vaucluse, pop. 600, take for the fountain the road on the right bank of stream, but for the house and garden of Petrarch take the left side, crossing the bridge. On the left side, against a cliff near the cloth mill, is a small house on the site of Petrarch's, of which it is a copy. Before it, is still a piece of what was Petrarch's garden. On the other side of the Sorgue is a cigar-paper mill. There is a little hotel at Vaucluse, the Htel Petrarch et Laure. Under a stupendous cliff 1148 feet high is the source of the river Sorgue, the placid Fontaine de Vaucluse, about 30 yards in diameter— "amirror of blue-black water, so pure, so still, that where it laps the pebbles you can scarcely say where air begins and water ends." During floods, however, the cavern being no longer able to contain the increased volume, the water rushes over in a cascade into the bed below. The poet's modest house stood at the foot of the rock crowned by the ruins of the castle in which lived his friend Cardinal Philippe de Cabasole. Petrarch himself gives the following description of the site:— "On one side my garden is bounded by a deep river; on another by a rugged mountain, abarrier against the noon-day heats, and which never refuses, not even at mid-day, to lend me its friendly shade; but the sweet air reaches me through all obstacles. In the distance a surly wall makes me inaccessible to both man and beast. Figs, grapes, walnuts, almonds—these are my delights. My table is also graced with the fish that abound in my river; and it is one of my greatest pleasures to watch the fishermen draw their nets, and to draw them myself. All about me is changed. Ionce used to dress myself with care; now you would believe me a labourer or a shepherd. My house resembles that of Fabius or Cato. Ihave but a valet and a dog. The house of my servant adjoins my own. Icall him when I want him, and when I have no more need of him he returns home."

[Headnote: PETRARCH.]

On the 6th of April 1327 Francesco Petrarca saw in a church of Avignon Laura the daughter of Audibert de Noves, for whom he conceived a romantic but hopeless attachment. Incessantly haunted with the beautiful vision of the fair Laura, he visited in succession the south of France, Paris, and the Netherlands, and after an exile of eight months returned to bury himself in the solitude of Vaucluse.

Vehicles are also hired at Avignon. Fare to Vaucluse and back, 12 to 18 frs.; time, 8 hours. Also for the Pont du Gard, same price.

20 m. from Avignon by rail is Cavaillon (p.66), whence a branch line extends 20m. E. to Apt, another line 27m. S.E. to Pertuis on the Marseilles and Grenoble line, and another 22m. S. to Miramas (p.76), between Arles and Marseilles. (See map, p.66.)

[Headnote: APT.]


40 m. E. by rail from Avignon, by Cavaillon, is Apt, pop. 7000, on the torrent Calavon, in a sheltered hollow surrounded by mountains and calcareous cliffs. Hotels: The *Louvre; des Alpes. The principal industries are agriculture, pottery, and the making of preserved fruits. Fruit to be glazed with sugar, as well as that on which the sugar is to be crystallised, is allowed to soak from 2 to 8 months in a strong solution of white sugar, in uncovered "terrines," like small basins. Fruits with thick rinds, such as oranges, are pricked before being immersed. The best pottery (Bernard Croix) is near the station, to the left on descending the hill. The clay, gray and reddish, is in thick beds close to the establishment, and resembles that of Vallauris, near Cannes, in its power of resisting fire, and is therefore principally used for the manufacture of kitchen pottery. M. Croix has added artistic pottery and dinner and tea services, of which the prices are extremely low. Opposite is the establishment of L. A. Esbrard, who confines himself almost exclusively to kitchen pottery.

The parish church of St. Anne dates from the 11th cent. To the left on entering is the chapel of St. Anne, under a low octagonal domed tower. Below the altar is a crypt, 10th cent., said to contain the bones of the mother of Mary. Round about the town are pleasant walks, of which many are shaded with Oriental plane trees. Coach daily to Manosque (Hotel: Eymon), 26 m. E., passing Creste, 5m. E., and Reillanne, on the top of a hill, 5 m. farther. Manosque is on the rail between Marseilles and Grenoble. (See maps, pages 26 and 66.)

Cavaillon to Miramas, 22 m. S. (see map, p.66), across a fertile plain, with vineyards and groves of olive, almond, and apricot trees. Cavaillon (pop. 8000). Inns: Parrocel; Teston. Omnibus at station. Cavaillon is a pleasant town, intersected by avenues, and situated on the Durance at the base of great limestone cliffs. It possesses an ancient triumphal arch and a cathedral dating from the 12th and 13th cents., with a cloister of the 12th. Excellent melons are grown in the neighbourhood. 4 m. S. from Cavaillon is Orgon (pop. 3000. Inns: Paris; Poste), on the Durance. 11 m. farther S. is Salon (pop. 7100. Inns: Poste; Croix de Malte), on the canal Craponne. This town, dealing largely in first-class olive oil, has still remnants of its old ramparts: a church, St. Michel, of the 13th cent., another, St. Laurent, of the 14th, and a castle of the same date. In the town is a fountain to the memory of Adam de Craponne, the engineer of the canal. (For Miramas, see p. 75.)

[Map: The Mouths of the Rhone]


miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{474}{63} TARASCON, pop. 11,000. Hotels: At the foot of the station stairs, the Luxembourg; in the town, the Empereurs. Junction with branch to Nmes, 17m. W., and 31m. farther Montpellier. Below the station is a large hospital for old men and orphans, founded in 1761 by Clerc Molire. Tarascon is an unimportant town on the Rhne, opposite Beaucaire, and connected with it by a chain bridge 1450 feet long. In the church of St. Martha, built in the 12th cent., is an ancient crypt, just under the spire, with the tomb of Martha, the sister of Lazarus, whose mortal remains are said to repose here under the peaceful-looking marble effigy which marks the spot. The tradition of the place says she had come with her maid from Aix, at the request of the inhabitants, to kill a terrible dragon with a body as thick as a bull's, and having succeeded, the inhabitants, out of gratitude to her, after her death buried her in this place. Afew steps from the church, by the side of the river, rises the massive strong square castle, begun in 1400 and finished by the Roi Ren, now used as a prison. On the opposite side of the river, overlooking Beaucaire, are the more picturesque ruins of the castle of Montmorency, whose adjoining garden forms one of the many promenades of the people of Beaucaire. Beaucaire is a poor town with poor houses. The formerly famous fair, commencing on July 1, has become now of little importance. It is held in the broad avenue between the castle and the Rhne.

[Headnote: ST. REMY. LES BAUX.]

9 m. east from Tarascon by rail is St. Remy, pop. 6800. Inn: Htel du Cheval Blanc, acomfortable house, where carriages can be hired for Les Baux, 6m. S.W., 10 frs. Also for Arles by Les Baux and Mont-Majour, 19m. distant, 24 frs. Amile from the Htel Cheval Blanc, by the high road, stood the ancient Glanum, one of the commercial stations of the Phoenician traders from Marseilles, before it fell into the possession of the Romans, who have left here two remarkable monuments, of which the more perfect consists of an open square tower standing on a massive pedestal, and surmounted by a peristyle of ten columns surrounding two statues representing the parents of Sextus and Marius, of the family of the Julii, by whom it was erected. It is 50 ft. high; the faces of the statues look to the north. The sculpture on the north side of the pedestal represents a cavalry fight; the south, "sacrificing;" the west, acombat between infantry; and the east, which is the most dilapidated, "Victory crowning a wounded soldier." Alongside stands a triumphal arch, of which the most perfect portions are the coffered panellings of the soffit.

6 m. S.W. from St. Remy is Les Baux, the ancient Castrum de Baucis, pop. 100. Inn: Monte Carlo. The castle town of Les Baux, commenced in 485, occupies a naked mountain of yellow sandstone, worn away by nature into bastions and buttresses, and coigns of vantage, sculptured by ancient art into palaces and chapels, battlements and dungeons. Now art and nature are confounded in one ruin. Blocks of masonry lie cheek-by-jowl with masses of the rough-hewn rock; fallen cavern vaults are heaped round fragments of fan-shaped spandrel and clustered column shaft; the doors and windows of old pleasure rooms are hung with ivy and wild fig tapestry; while winding staircases start midway upon the cliff and lead to vacancy. High overhead, suspended in mid-air, hang chambers—lady's bower or poet's singing room—now inaccessible, the haunt of hawks and swallows. Within this rocky honeycomb— "cette ville en monolithe," as it has been aptly called, for it is literally scooped out of one mountain block—live a few poor people, foddering their wretched goats at carved piscina and stately sideboards, erecting their mud-beplastered hovels in the halls of feudal princes. From Les Baux road to Fontvieille, 7m.; whence rail to Mont-Majour and Arles (see map, page66).

[Headnote: ARLES.]

{483}{54} ARLES, pop. 26,000. Hotels: Nord; Forum; near each other in the Place du Forum. Arles is situated on the Rhne, near the Camargue, in a marshy place, as its original name, Arelas, from the Celtic words, "Ar lach," damp place, indicates. It is said to have been founded 900 years before Marseilles, 700 years before Rome, and 1500 before the birth of Christ. The ramparts and walls rising from the public gardens and the Boulevard des Aliscamps are chiefly the work of the Emperor Constantine, who came to Arles with his family and mother, Saint Helena. He built by the side of the Rhne a superb palace, called afterwards "de la Trouille," because opposite a ferry-boat, which was pulled or dragged from one side of the river to the other. Of this palace little more remains than the attached tower La Trouille, constructed of alternate layers of brick and stone. On the 7th August 312 his wife Faustina presented him with a son, ConstantineII., who succeeded his father in May 357. He commenced the Forum, but was shortly after killed in battle defending himself against his brother Constance, who usurped the throne and finished the Forum. All that remains of this formerly splendid edifice are the two Corinthian columns, with part of the pediment encrusted into the wall of the Htel du Nord. It occupied the site of the Place du Forum, called also the Place des Hommes, because labourers and men-servants used to be hired in this "Place."

In the Place de la Rpublique is the Htel de Ville, built in 1675 on the site of the Roman baths constructed by the Emperor Augustus. The spacious vaults under the Htel du Nord formed probably a part of these baths, although in later times they seem to have been used as an ossuary.

[Map: Arles]

Almost adjoining the Htel de Ville is the church of St. Anne, now the Archological Museum, with a collection of inscriptions, sarcophagi, urns, statues, columns, friezes, altars, and tombstones, those of the Pagans having the letters D.M., Diis manibus. Also some of the long lead pipes, with the name of the plumber, "C. Canthius Porthinus fac.," which helped to bring water from the fountain at the foot of the hill on which Baux stands. At the inner end, right hand, is a torse of Mithras of white Pharos marble, 3 ft. 2 inches high, found in 1598 on the site of the Roman Circus. Aserpent is coiled round the body, and between the coils are the signs of the Zodiac. In the opposite corner is an altar in Carrara marble to the good goddess "Bonae-Deae," found under the church La Major. On the front face is a garland of oak leaves and acorns, and 7 inches distant from each other two human ears. Near it is a good head of Augustus, and a mutilated one of Diana. About the centre of the room is a recumbent figure of Silenus, with a wine skin under his arm.

In the centre of the "Place" is the monolith obelisk, 49 ft. high, hewn by the Romans from the quarries of Esterel. It stood originally in the Circus at the S.W. corner of the town; but of it no vestiges remain.

[Headnote: ST. TROPHIME.]

Opposite St. Anne is the cathedral of St. Trophime, consecrated on the 17th May 626, and rebuilt in the 9th cent. The portal, erected in 1221, consists of a semicircular arch resting on six columns, behind which are statues of apostles and saints separated by pilasters. In the tympanum is Christ, the judge of the world, with the symbols of the Evangelists. In the interior the door on the S. side of the choir leads out to the cloister, of which the N. side belongs to the 9th, the south to the 16th, the east to the 13th, and the west to the 14th cent.

Passing from the cloister into the street, and turning to the left, we arrive at the Theatre, commenced during the dominion of the Greeks, and finished before the Christian era. In the centre of this grand ruin, originally 335 ft. in its greatest diameter, stand two Corinthian columns 30 ft. high, and the base of other two, which formed part of the proscenium. Opposite them is the semicircular space for the spectators, with still many of the stone seats. The Venus of Arles, one of the most valuable statues in the Louvre, was found here. The theatre is open to the public, but the keeper endeavours to attach himself to strangers.


A short way N.E. is the far grander and more imposing Amphitheatre or Les Arnes, said to have been commenced by the father of Tiberius Nero, B.C. 46. It is elliptic, 459 ft. long and 132 wide, surrounded by a double wall 60 ft. high, each with two stages of arches, and in each stage 60 arches. From around the arena rise 43 tiers of stone seats, capable of containing 23,438 spectators. The stone steps leading up to them were 1 ft. high and 2 ft. 3 inches long. There were besides above 150 rooms for the gladiators and men connected with the theatre, and 100 dens for wild beasts. The three towers were added by the Saracens in the 8th cent. Bull-fights are given in the building, when a multitude of spectators, as in the time of the Romans, fill the galleries. Asplendid view of the amphitheatre, the city, and of the commencement of the delta of the Rhne, is had from the western tower. The entrance into the amphitheatre is by the north gate. The doorkeeper lives in a house a little to the left of the gate. This grand ruin should, if possible, be visited by moonlight; yet during the day the beautiful masonry is more easily examined. It is the great sight in Arles, and it is better to omit all the others than to do this one hurriedly.

The Camargue or Delta of the Rhne, commencing at the outskirts of Arles, is a triangular plain of 180,000 acres extending to the Mediterranean, bounded on the west by the Petit Rhne, and on the east by the Grand Rhne. It contains small villages and large farms, with extensive vineyards and grazing ground for cattle, sheep, and horses. It is best visited by the steamboat sailing between Arles and Port St. Louis on the mouth of the great Rhne. (See p.72, and map, p.66.)


S.E. above the Promenade is the church of St. Cesaire, 9th cent., on the site of a temple of Jupiter. From this to go to Alyscamps, walk down the Boulevard Alyscamps to the canal Craponne, where turn to the left. The first ruin passed is an old entrance into what was the domain of the monastery of St. Cesaire. The Avenue of Alyscamps is lined on each side by 33 large stone coffins with lids, and 120 smaller coffins without lids. This, the Elysei Campi, an ancient Roman cemetery, is now divested of all its valuables and statues, of which a few are in the museum. As J.C.Himself is said to have appeared during the consecration of the cemetery, it was believed that at the resurrection it would be especially favoured by Him; hence the efforts made by so many to bury their friends here. It is said that up to the 12th cent. coffins with their dead, and money for the funeral expenses, floated down the Rhne, of their own accord, to be buried in this privileged spot. At the end of the avenue is the church of St. Honorat, on the site of the chapel founded by Trophimus the Ephesian, one of St. Paul's converts, who was sent to Arles to preach the gospel and to put an end to human sacrifices. Among the first things he is said to have done was to consecrate the Alyscamps and transform it thus from a heathen into a Christian burial-place, and add to it a little chapel. An old Arles writer alleges on his own authority that Trophimus dedicated this chapel to Mary, who was then alive. After labouring 36 years in this diocese he died on the 29th of November 94, and was buried in the little chapel he himself had built. Among the successors of Trophimus were Ambrose in 160, who remained here 20 years; Augustine in 220, who died 10 years afterwards; Jerome in 230, who also died 10 years afterwards; Marcien in 252, the originator of the Novatien sect; and St. Cyprien in 253. Saint Virgil, one of the successors, founded in 601 the church of St. Honorat beside the chapel of Trophimus. The present church dates only from the 12th to the 14th cent. The best and oldest part, excepting the foundations, is the apsidal termination, which is semicircular, with 4 pilasters and a small window in the centre to give light to the officiating priest. Over it rises a neat octagonal belfry in two arcaded stages. Under the chancel is a small crypt. The keeper calls a small chapel at the left hand corner of the chancel, the chapel of Trophimus.


The Picture Gallery, or the Muse Reattu, is at No. 11 R. Grand Prieure, near the Tour Trouille. The house and pictures were bequeathed to the town by a cousin of the painter Reattu, b. at Arles 1760, d. 1833. On picture 119 are portraits of himself, wife, and two cousins. Next the picture gallery is the school of design.

Branch line from Arles to Fontvieille, 7 m. E., passing Mont-Majour 4m. E.Fontvieille is 7m. S.W. from Les Baux by a good road. Junction at Arles with line to Aigues-Mortes, 36m. S.W., and to Montpellier, 58m. S.W.; Cette is 17m. farther. (See map, p.66.)

[Headnote: MONT-MAJOUR.]

4 m. eastwards by rail from Arles are the ruins of the castle and abbey of Mont-Majour, all in a good state of preservation, excepting the domestic buildings, constructed in 1786. The concierge lives in a house near the station. Fee, 1fr. He generally shows first the church, 11th cent., and the spacious crypt below, 9th cent. Adjoining the church are the cloisters, 11th cent., of the same kind as those of St. Trophime, but more interesting and more perfect, and containing the tombs of some of the counts of Anjou. Next is the beautiful square dungeon tower, nearly as perfect as when erected in 1374. It is 262 ft. high, is ascended by 137 steps, and commands a wide prospect. From this, astair leads down the face of the hill to the chapel and cell of St. Trophimus, principally hewn in the soft limestone cliff. Standing apart at the base of the hill is St. Croix, dedicated in 1019, consisting of four semicircular sides, crowned with semidomes projecting from a square tower crowned with a kind of pyramid spire. At Fontvieille (Htel du Commerce) are important quarries of soft calcareous sandstone.


Arles to Port Saint Louis, at the mouth of the Great Rhne, 25m. S. by steamer on the Great Rhne. Time, 5 hrs. Fare, 2frs. Railway unfinished (see map, p. 66). The steamboat passes by an important part of the Camargue with large vineyards, rendered very fertile by irrigation, the water being forced up from the river by steam engines. Cattle, sheep, and horses are reared on the tufts of coarse grass which cover the more arid portions. The population is so sparse that not a village is seen during the whole journey. (See also p.70.)

Port Saint Louis (Htel Saint Louis), 6m. W. from Port Bouc, consists of a straggling village between the Rhne and the basin of the canal constructed to enable vessels to avoid the bar of the Rhne. This canal is 2 m. long, 196 ft. wide, and 22 ft. deep. To understand the geography of this desolate flat region of land and water, exposed to every wind, it is necessary to ascend the "tour Saint Louis," whence the plain, intersected by the Rhne and numerous canals, appears literally like a map. The only villages seen in the vast expanse are Fos, on a hill, and near it the Port Bouc.

Great expense has been incurred to make Port St. Louis a convenient place for shipping, and attract to it some of the commerce from Marseilles.

23 m. S.W. from Arles, and separated from Port St. Louis by the great Etang Valcars, is the port called Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, or simply Les Saintes. The parish church, 12th cent., surrounded by fortifications, contains the tombs of the Maries and some good sculpture.

For Arles to Port Bouc, 29 m. S., see p.76. The steamer sails from the S.W. corner of Arles (see map, page 66).

[Headnote: ST. GILLES. LUNEL.]

11 m. W. by rail from Arles is St. Gilles, pop. 7000. Htel du Cheval-Blanc. A poor and ancient town on the canal of Aigues-Mortes, near the Petit Rhne. The abbey church, founded in 1116, is considered a good specimen of Byzantine architecture. The faade consists of a bald wall with a plain tower on each side. Between these towers are three semicircular recessed portals, below an entablature resting on two single and two double columns. The capitals are Corinthian, but the pedestals (considerably effaced) consist of lions and grotesque animals in uncouth positions. Behind them, on the piers of the arches of the portals, stand in bold relief statues of apostles and saints, separated from each other by pilasters. The interior, consisting of a nave and two aisles, is 290 ft. long, 88 wide, and 62 high. In the N. aisle a stair of 33 steps leads down to the lower church, with semicircular arches on short massive piers. From the centre 7 more steps descend to the tomb of St. Gilles. All the characteristics of this church are equally well represented in St. Trophime of Arles.

16 m. farther W., or 28 m. from Arles by rail, is Lunel, pop. 7300. Inns: Palais; Nord; Tapis-verd; none good. Atown of narrow streets, with a park and promenade by the side of the canal. The church is constructed after the pattern of those of Carcassonne and Perpignan. On the surrounding plain an inferior wine is grown. The first-class vineyards, producing the generous white wines from 17 to 18, are all on the neighbouring gravelly eminences.

[Headnote: AIGUES-MORTES.]

8 m. S. by rail from Lunel is the more interesting town of AIGUES-MORTES, "stagnant waters," pop. 4300, 4m. from the Mediterranean, and 4 ft. above it, and connected with it by a navigable canal. Inn: Saint Louis. It is of great historical interest, and is surrounded by the most perfect old embrasured wall in France, built in the form of a parallelogram, 596 yds. long by 149 yds. broad. It is 36 ft. high, and is flanked by 15 towers. On the western side rises the famous round tower of Constance, 96 ft. high and 72 in diameter, containing two vaulted superimposed circular chambers, used by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. as prisons for their Protestant subjects of both sexes, who here suffered such cruelties that the Dutch and Swiss Governments were roused to interfere in their behalf, and even Frederic the Great is said to have interceded for them, but in vain. From the platform at the top of this tower is the highly interesting view of the flat country at the mouth of the Rhne, whence the traveller may judge for himself whether the sea has, or has not, receded from the town since the time of Saint Louis—we think not. Both the tower of Constance and the walls are the work of Saint Louis, who had a predilection for Aigues-Mortes, as he considered it the most suitable place in his kingdom from which to embark for Palestine. On 25th August 1248, after having heard mass in the church Notre-Dame-des-Sablons (fronting his statue), he and his Queen Marguerite sailed from Aigues-Mortes on their first expedition to Palestine. On the 3d of July 1270 he again sailed from the same place; and on that same year, on the anniversary day of his first expedition, the 25th of August, he perished among the ruins of Carthage. 4m. S. from Aigues-Mortes by omnibus, or steamer by the canal, is the bathing station of Port-Grau-du-Roi. Inns: Pommier; Dubois (see map, page 66).

49 m. N. from Lunel by rail is Vigan. (See page 105.)

96 m. W. from Marseilles, 43 m. W. from Arles, 31m. S.W. from Nmes, and 15 m. S.W. from Lunel, is

[Headnote: MONTPELLIER.]

MONTPELLIER, on the sides and summit of an eminence 145 ft. above the sea and 7 miles from it. Pop. 56,000. Hotels: H.Nevet, the best and most expensive, at the commencement of the Esplanade. On the same side, only a little farther up, is a block of handsome buildings containing the Public Library, closed on Sundays and Thursdays, and the Picture Gallery or Muse Fabre, open on Sundays and Mondays. Adjoining is the Lyce.

In the Place de la Comdie, near the Esplanade, is the H. du Midi, the next best hotel. In the Grande Rue, the H.Cheval Blanc, frequented by commercial men. Opposite the station is the H. de la Gare. In the fine broad street, the Rue Maguelone, leading from the station to the Place de la Comdie, is the H. Maguelone, second class. Their omnibuses await passengers.

Temple Protestant near station, in the Rue Maguelone. Telegraph Office in the Boulevard de la Comdie. Post in the Boulevard Jeu-de-Paume. From the Esplanade omnibus runs to Castelnau. From near the Place de la Comdie coach to Mauguio. From the Boulevard de Blanquerie, below the prison, coach to Claret and St. Hippolyte. (See map, p.66.)


The most modern part of the town is the Rue Maguelone, leading from the station to the Esplanade, a delightful promenade bounded by the citadel. At the N.W. angle of the Esplanade a stair leads down to a line of boulevards, passing up by the "Hpital Gnral" to the Botanic Gardens, the earliest institution of this kind in France, founded in the reign of Henri IV., and for some years under the direction of the famous botanist De Candolle. It contains an area of 9 acres, divided into three parts: at the N. end is a nursery; at the S., in a hollow, surrounded by trees, the botanical part; and between these two divisions the arboretum. Opposite the Botanic Gardens is the once famous cole de mdecine, said to have been founded by Arab physicians under the patronage of the Counts of Montpellier. It now occupies the old bishops' palace, built in the 14th cent., with additions in the 17th. At the entrance are bronze statues of Barthez, 1734-1806, and La Peyronie, 1678-1747. Within the entrance are busts of the most celebrated professors and divines connected with the college and the church of Montpellier. In the same building are also valuable anatomical and pathological collections, and a library with 55,000 vols. Adjoining is the Cathedral of St. Pierre, 14th and 15th cents., but the choir is recent, though in the same style. White marble statue of Mary and child by Canova.

Overlooking the Botanic Gardens is the beautiful promenade, the Place du Peyrou, on an eminence at the western side of the town. In cold weather invalids and nurses with their children frequent the lower terrace of this "Place," the promenade Basse du Midi. At the western end of the Peyrou is the Chteau d'Eau, ahexagonal Corinthian building, which receives and distributes through the town the water brought from the fontaine de St. Clement, 5m. from Montpellier. The aqueduct, which conveys the water across the valley from the opposite hill, consists of two tiers of arches 70 ft. high and 2896 ft. long. The gate at the end of the promenade was erected to commemorate the victories of Louis XIV. Adjoining is the Palais de Justice, with statues of Cambacrs and Cardinal Fleury. Eastwards, by crooked streets, are the Mairie and the markets.

[Headnote: MUSE FABRE.]

A short way north from the Htel Nevet, by the Rues Ste. Foi and also on the Esplanade, is a handsome modern edifice, comprising the Muse Fabre, the Bibliothque publique with 65,000 vols., and the "Collection de la Socit archologique." The Muse Fabre, open on Sundays and Mondays and feast days, contains, among many works of inferior merit, some good pictures by great artists, such as Berghem, Fra Bartolommeo, P. C. Champaigne, Cuyp, L.David, G. Dow, Van Dyck, Ghirlandajo, Girodet, Granet, Greuze, Metsu, Palma, P.Veronese, Porbus, P. Potter, Poussin, Samuel Reynolds, Salvator Rosa, Rubens, Ruysdael, Andrea del Sarto, D. Teniers, Terburg, Titian, and Zarg. The library contains some curious MSS. connected with, the Stuarts, which belonged to Prince Charles Edward.

Montpellier produces a lovely coloured wine with good bouquet, called St. Georges d'Orgues. The manufacture of verdigris, the preparation of preserved fruits, dye works, chemical works, and distilleries, are the principal industries.

From the railway station, opposite the Htel de Nevet, aline extends through the lagoon Prols, covering a surface of 3000 acres, and yielding annually 2000 tons of salt, to the port of Palavas, 5m. south (pop. 1000), with a beautiful beach. At the Palavas terminus is the Casino hotel, and on the Canal the Htel des Bains and the Restaurant Parisien. A cabine (bathing-house), including costume and linen, costs 1 fr. Leave the train at the Plage station. 3m. from Montpellier, in the retired valley of the Mosson, is the mineral water establishment of Foncaude. Water saline, unctuous, and sedative. Good for indigestion and nervous disorders. 12m. north from Montpellier is the Pic du Loup, rising from the village St. Mathieu (pop. 500) to the height of 680 ft., commanding an extensive view, and having on the top a chapel visited by pilgrims.

From Montpellier a line extends 43 m. W. to Faugres on the line from Beziers to Capdenac by Rodez. (See map, page27.)


109 m. from Marseilles and 4 from Cette is Frontignan, pop. 3000. Possessing 570 acres of vineyards producing rich amber-coloured, luscious, and spirituous wines, made principally from the clairette and picardan grapes. The neighbouring marshes yield annually about 50,000 tons of salt.

114 m. from Marseilles is Cette, pop. 29,000. At this point the Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon system joins the Chemins de Fer du Midi, and consequently carriages are often changed here. For Cette to Toulouse and Bordeaux, see Table "Bordeaux Cette" in the "Indicateur des Chemins de Fer du Midi." Cette is 271m. east from Pau, 266 from Bordeaux, and 84 from Perpignan. Omnibuses and coaches await passengers. Hotels: Barrillon; Grand Galion; Bains; Souche. Cette makes a pleasant halting-place. The best walk is to the top of Mt. Setius, 590 ft. Ascend by the Rue d'Esplanade, and when at the highest part of the Public Gardens take the road to the right. The view is magnificent. In front is the Mediterranean, and behind Lake Thau with its villages. At the base of the mountain is Cette, and beyond Frontignan. The Port of Cette is protected by a breakwater 548 yds. long, which encloses a harbour of 210 acres, furnished with two jetties; the western, constructed by Vauban, is 656 yds. long, and the eastern 548 yds. This busy port, besides having an extensive carrying trade, has a large wine manufactory, where above 100,000 pipes of imitations of all the well-known wines are made annually, by mixing different wines with each other.

From the first bridge over the canal (not including the railway bridge) a small steamer starts three times daily for Balaruc and Meze, on Lake Thau. Meze, like Cette, is entirely devoted to the wine trade. Balaruc has a bathing establishment, supplied by intensely saline springs, resembling strong sea-water, temperature 125 Fahr. Aquart contains 106 grains of chloride of sodium, 13 of the chloride of magnesia, and a fraction of the chloride of copper, 15 grains of the sulphate, and 13 of the bicarbonate of lime. Pension, 8 to 9fr., and the bath treatment 4 fr. additional. The Canal du Midi enters Lake Thau at Les Onglous, 11 m. W. from Cette. (See map, page27.)


miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{503}{34} MIRAMAS, pop. 900, south from the station at the head of the tang Chamas. At the station there are a small inn and a large plantation of almond trees, which, when in flower, exhale a delightful perfume. Passengers to Avignon by Cavaillon and L'Isle change carriages here (p.65). Also for Port Bouc, 16m. south.


Miramas to Port Bouc by rail through a flat plain (see map, p.66). The two most important towns passed on the way are: Istres, 6m. from Miramas station and 10 N. from Port Bouc, pop. 4000, founded in the 8th cent. on Lake Olivier, and possessing still part of its ancient ramparts. The principal industry is the manufacture of salt and of the carbonate of soda. 13m. from Miramas is Fos (Fossae Marianae), pop. 1100, on a hill crowned with the ruins of a castle, 14th cent. At the foot of the hill, by the side of the Arles canal, are large tanks for the manufacture of salt. From Fos, other 3miles south by rail, or 16 miles altogether from the Miramas railway station, or 29 miles S. from Arles by the canal, is Port Bouc, pop. 1000. Inns: near the stations of the railway and the canal steamer, the Htel du Commerce; near the jetty, the Htel du Nord. Port Bouc, on the tang Caroute, near the entrance to the great lake, the tang de Berre, is an important fishing-station with a large and well-protected harbour. At the end of the jetty is a fixed light, seen within a radius of 10 m. At the other side of the entrance is Fort Bouc with a massive square tower in the centre and another lighthouse. About 7miles west from Port Bouc by the coast road is the Port of St. Louis, page 72. (For Port Bouc to Martigues and Marseilles, see p.118.)

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