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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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60 m. N. from Marseilles, and 130 m. S. from Grenoble, is Manosque, pop. 6200 (see pp.166 and 168). 4 m. N. from Manosque is Volx village and station, with beds of lignite. 69m. N. from Marseilles is La Brillanne, pop. 400, on the Oraison. 3m. N. from Brillanne is the station and village of Lurs, pop. 1000, on a hill overlooking the Durance. It contains the convent of Alaun, visited by pilgrims, and a Roman road called the Chemin-Seinet.

[Headnote: PEYRUIS.]

{77}{112} PEYRUIS, pop. 1000; Inn: Latil; curiously situated on the Durance, at the base of cliffs of conglomerate more than 1000 ft. high, which by the action of water have been cut up into tall pinnacles.

{80}{109} ST. AUBAN, pop. 250, junction with line to Digne. (For Digne, see p.166, and maps pp.162 and 304.)

Digne to Barcelonnette by La Javie, Seyne, Le Lauzet, and Thuiles, 53 m. E., by coach; time, 11 hrs.; fare, 10 frs. 9m. from Digne is La Javie, famous for plums; pop. 500; H. de France, at the junction of the Blonne with the Arigeol. 2 m. beyond is Beaujeu, pop. 400, on the Combefre, whence a narrow valley leads to the Col de Labouret, 3990 ft. Thence descend to Le Vernet, pop. 300, on the Besse, with beds of gypsum, 19 m. from Digne and 33 from Barcelonnette. Near Le Vernet is commenced the ascent of the Col de Maure, 4708 ft.; from which descend to Seyne-les-Alpes, pop. 2800, on the flanks of a mountain, and half-way between Digne and Barcelonnette. It contains a church of the 11th and 12th cents. 18 m. from Barcelonnette, and 5from Le Lauzet, is St. Vincent, pop. 600, situated on a grassy eminence overlooking the Ubaye. From Le Lauzet to Barcelonnette, see Gap to Barcelonnette, p. 341.

[Headnote: COLMARS.]

Digne to Barcelonnette by Draix, St. Thomas, Colmars, and Allos, 55m. N.E. 10m. from Digne and 4 from La Javie is Draix, pop. 200, on a confluent of the Blonne. 21 m. beyond is Colmars, pop. 1100, at the foot of Mts. Meunier and Draye, on the Sence at its junction with the Verdon. Excellent cheese, called Thorame. Cloth and saw mills. 5 m. beyond is Allos, pop. 1400, with a small inn, 18 m. from Barcelonnette. A short way from Allos by the hamlet Champ Richard, in one of the wildest and most sequestered valleys of the Alps, is Lake Allos, 7346 ft. above the sea, 4 m. in circumference, 140 ft. deep, containing capital trout, and surrounded by cliffs in some places 590 ft. high, over which tower bleak mountains, of which the most lofty is Mt. Pela, 8600 ft. The lake discharges its surplus water through a subterranean canal 1640 ft. long, whence it issues under the name of the torrent Chadoulin. From the village of Allos proceed to Barcelonnette by La Foux, pop. 150, with an interesting church, and Mourjouan, both on the Verdon, a tributary of the Ubaye. (For Barcelonnette, see p. 341. For Cannes and Grasse to Digne, see p. 165.)

[Headnote: SISTERON.]

miles from MARSEILLES miles to GRENOBLE

{91}{99} SISTERON, pop. 5000. Good resting-place. Hotels: Vassail; Negre; their omnibuses await passengers at station. Picturesquely situated, 1575 ft. above the sea, on both sides of the Durance at its confluence with the Buech. At the railway end of the town are the church of Notre Dame, 11th cent., and three towers, part of the fortifications built by the Counts of Provence. Notre Dame has been very much altered externally by restoration and repairs. The effect of the graceful octagonal tower has been destroyed by the square tower adjoining. In the interior the arches are early pointed, inclining to the stilted form. The three apsidal terminations are semicircular. The small window at the end of each is closed. The end of the town farthest from the railway is picturesque. From the gateway rise perpendicular cliffs of blue limestone, on the top of which is a fortress of the third class. Immediately opposite, on the other side of the Durance, are similar strata heaved up and twisted into an enormous pyramid. A little beyond the gateway, agood road leads up by the cemetery to a place where there is a good view of the valleys of the Durance and the Buech. 7 m. N. from Sisteron is Mison station, 2002 ft. above the sea, on the border of the Hautes-Alpes. 5m. farther, Laragne station, 1883 ft. 34 m. N. from Laragne is Eyguians-Orpier station, 1979 ft.

[Headnote: SERRES.]

{112}{77} SERRES, pop. 1200; Inns: *Alpes; Voyageurs; Commerce; consisting of dirty, steep, narrow streets, on the sloping side of a calcareous cliff rising from between the Buech and the Blme. Diligence to Nyons, 41m. E., p.51. 8m. N. from Serres is Chabestan, 2411ft.

[Headnote: VEYNES.]

{121}{68} VEYNES, 2614 ft. above the sea, pop. 1800. Inns: At station, H. and Rest, de la Gare; in town, H.Dousselin.

Junction with rail to Mont Dauphin-Guillestre, 51m. N.E. This branch line extends to the passes leading to the roads which traverse the valleys of the Waldenses.

[Headnote: GAP.]

On this branch line, 16 m. E. from Veynes and 34m. S.W. from Mont Dauphin, is Gap, on the Luye, 2895 ft. above the sea, pop. 9300. Inns: Poste; Nord; Provence; France. This, the ancient Civitas Vappium, has a large Champ de Mars, extensive barracks, long avenues of walnut trees, and a handsome modern cathedral, built on the site of one of the 11th cent. In the Prfecture is the mausoleum of the Connetable Lesdiguires, originally one of the leaders of the Protestants. In the hamlet of Tareau, close to Gap, Guillaume Farel, a celebrated French reformer, was born in 1489. He died on the 13th Sept. 1565. The most remarkable features of his character were dauntlessness and untiring energy and zeal. He possessed a sonorous and tuneful voice, fluency of language, and passionate earnestness; yet, although seldom failing to arrest the attention of large audiences, he often, by imprudent torrents of denunciation, aroused against his doctrines unnecessary opposition.

[Headnote: LE LAUZET.]

Gap to Barcelonnette, coach daily; distance, 42m.; fare, 8frs.; time, 8 to 9 hrs. The road follows the Luye to its confluence with the Durance, 5 m. S. from Gap. From this point it ascends by the N. side of the Durance, passing the pretty village of Remollons, 10m. from Gap. 3 m. farther is the roadside station of Espinasse, where the horses are changed. 300 yds. above the confluence of the Ubaye with the Durance the road crosses the Durance by the bridge of Saulze, and ascends by the right side of the Ubaye to the village of Ubaye, 23m. from Gap, producing large quantities of walnuts, of which oil is made. The apples of this neighbourhood were once famous. From almost every part of the road between Espinasse and Ubaye are seen the picturesque fort and extensive forest of St. Vincent. 28m. from Gap is Le Lauzet, pop. 1000, Inn: France, surrounded by great mountains, with narrow gorges and lofty waterfalls. In the neighbourhood is a lake abounding with trout. 3 m. higher up is the hamlet of Martinet, at the entrance to the beautiful valley of the Laverq, extending to the S. side of Mt. Siolane, on whose slopes the spire of the church of Meolans occupies a prominent position. From Martinet the road crosses to the right side of the Ubaye, whence, passing by Les Thuiles. 4m. from Barcelonnette, and St. Pons, 1 m., arrives at Barcelonnette. St. Pons contains the ruins of a castle, a church said to be of the 7th cent., and a Via Crucis up a steep hill. The most curious part of the church is the S. portal, under a soffit, having pillars on each side. Above the pillars are small quaint figures of the apostles, and over the door one of J. C. On the tympanum is a fresco representing the presentation of the kings to the child Jesus. On N. side of chancel is a square tower with short spire, which seems to have served as a pattern to all the church towers in, the department of the Alps, the characteristics being that the height of the tower is proportionally great to the height of the spire.

[Headnote: BARCELONNETTE. ST. PAUL.]

Barcelonnette, 3718 ft. above the sea, pop. 2100, Hotels: Nord; France; on the Ubaye, in the midst of meadows, surrounded by mountains clothed with walnut, larch, and fir trees. The present village was built in 1230 on ground given by Reymond Beranger, in honour of whose ancestors, the Counts of Barcelona in Spain, the newly-erected town received its name. The parish church, begun in 1230, was, on account of a conflagration, nearly rebuilt in the 16th and 17th cents. The tour de l'horloge at the corner of the "Place" is all that remains of the church of N. D. de Confort, built in 1290 and destroyed in 1789.

From Barcelonnette, besides the coaches daily to Gap and Digne, there is also one to the village of St. Paul, 4730 ft. above the sea, and 13 m. N.E. from Barcelonnette, fare, 2 frs.; time, 3 hrs., by the Maddalena road, the length of 2 m. above La Condamine, where it diverges 6 m. N. up the narrow and picturesque gorge of the Ubaye. The wheel-road continues 10 m. beyond St. Paul to Maurin, 6565 ft. above the sea. From this a bridle-road enters Italy by the Col Longet, 8767 ft., and the hamlets of Chenal (Italian custom-house with a fair inn) and Chteau Dauphin and the river Vraita.

[Headnote: JAUSIERS. BERSEZIO.]

Barcelonnette to Cuneo by the Col della Maddalena, Vinadio, Demonte, and Dalmazzo, 62 m. E., 12 hours' walk to Vinadio; whence there is a diligence to Cuneo. Wheel-road all the way (see map, p.304). Guide not necessary. 3 m. from Barcelonnette is the hamlet of Faucon. 3m. more, Jausiers, pop. 1000, on the confluence of the Ubaye with the Sanires and the Verdon. Church of the 14th cent. The road, to avoid the narrow passage called the Pas de Grgoire, ascends to a considerable elevation, and then descends to the village of Condamine-Chtelard, 7 m. from Barcelonnette, under the fortress of Tournoux, with remarkable excavations and stairs. 2m. beyond La Condamine the road divides into two. One goes northward up the valley of the Ubaye to St. Paul (see p. 341), the other goes to the Pass of La Maddalena. 7 m. beyond Chatelard, or 14m. from Barcelonnette, is Larche, pop. 800, Inns: Alpes; Italie; 5570 ft., the last French village. 5m. beyond, or 19 m. from Barcelonnette, is the culminating point of the Pass of the Maddalena or Argentire, 6548 ft. above the sea, between Mt. Mourre and the Punta della Signora, 7190 ft. The mule-path on the S.E. side now descends 850 ft. by the Lago della Maddalena, the source of the Stura, to the hamlets of Maddalena and Argentiera, 5596 ft., with an inn and Italian custom-house. Alittle distance farther, or about 7 m. from the Col and 24 from Barcelonnette, is Bersezio, with an inn situated amidst much fine wild scenery. 14 m. from Bersezio is Vinadio, with an inn. The Baths are up a steep glen, which ramifies southward from the Stura at the hamlet of Plancies, about 4 m. beyond the village of Vinadio. 8m. from Vinadio is Demonte, near the junction of the Staura with the stream di Valcorera, descending from the pass of the Colle del Mulo, 8422 ft., leading over to the picturesque valley of the Grana, about 25m. W. from Cuneo. 12m. from Demonte, 5 from Cuneo, and 57 from Barcelonnette is S. Dalmazzo, whence steam tram to Cuneo. (For Cuneo, see pp. 182 and 279.)

Gap to Grenoble by Laye, Corps, and La Mure, 62m. Diligence to Vizille, the remaining 8 m. by rail.

From Gap the diligence road extends 62 m. northwards to Grenoble, by Laye, 6 m. N., where the Col de Bavard, 4088 ft., is traversed. On the summit is a house of refuge. 4 m. beyond Laye is Les Barraques, Inn: H. Gentillon, near which is, at the mouth of the valley of the Drac, St. Bonnet, 3350 ft., pop. 2200, the birthplace of Lesdiguires, in a most fertile district. 23 m. from Gap is Corps (see p.333).

[Headnote: LA MURE. CHORGES.]

23 m. from Grenoble and 38 from Gap is La Mure, pop. 3800, and 2860 ft. above the sea-level. Inns: Pelloux; Commerce. Acoach runs between La Mure and Grenoble by La Motte. Situated on the Jonche. There is a large trade carried on here in cattle and grain. 3m. distant are the anthracite mines of Availlans. 20m. from Grenoble is Pierre-Chtel, pop. 1200, to the E. of Mont Tabor, 7829 ft. 10m. W. by a branch road is Motte-les-Bains. 16 m. from Grenoble is Laffrey (see p. 333).

26 m. from Veynes junction is Chorges, pop. 1900. Inn: H. de la Poste. This, the ancient capital of the Caturiges, occupies a marshy unhealthy situation. The parish church was originally a temple to Diana. In the "Place" is a marble pedestal with the name of Nero. In and around the town are fragments of Roman buildings. The chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Rencontre, in the valley of Chorges, is visited by pilgrims.

[Headnote: SAVINES. EMBRUN.]

34 m. from Veynes is Savines, pop. 1300. Inn: H. de la Poste, on the Rallon. This is the place to alight to visit the forest and valley of the Boscodon, with splendid gorges. The road extends all the way to the valley of the Ubaye, which it enters near Martinet and Meolan. 6 m. beyond Savines is

Embrun, 3014 ft. above the sea, pop. 4000. Inns: Thouard; Poste; 8 m. S.E. from Rallon and 12 from Pruntres. This, the Ebrodunum of the Romans and one of their important military stations, is situated on an eminence in the midst of mountains on the Durance, and the S. side of Mont St. Guillaume, 5550 ft. above the town. In a conspicuous situation stands the church of Notre Dame, said to have been founded in the time of Charlemagne. The walls, pierced with small round-headed deep-set windows with sculptured arches resting on colonnettes, are supported by flat buttresses rising to the eaves. The faade or west end consists of a flat gable with a 4-storied spired tower rising from the N. side. Above the portal is a rose window with valuable old painted glass. The N. portal is within a portico on four columns. The two outer rest on lions; the two inner, each a cluster of four slender columns, rest on the shoulders of men in a sitting posture. The apse with its two apsidal chapels and part of the adjoining wall are probably the only parts of the church which date from the time of Charlemagne. The interior is about 60 yds. long and 25 wide. On each side of the nave are four wide spanned early pointed arches resting on massive rectangular piers. Above each arch is a small roundheaded deeply-recessed window within a corniced arch resting on colonnettes. Below in the aisles are their exact counterparts, only about double the size. The roof of the nave is quadripartite, and that of the aisle semicircular. The high altar and angels are of white marble. The organ and most of the ornaments date from the time of Louis XI., who frequently visited this church to pray to Notre Dame d'Embrun, that white marble image of the Virgin and Child over the altar fronting the northern entrance. On the inside of the northern doorway (left hand) are two horseshoes, not exactly of the same size. It is said that Lesdiguires, the Protestant leader, attempting to ride into the church to the altar of the image of Notre Dame, the horse reared, and the shoes of its hind hoofs sticking to the pavement, the animal could proceed no farther.

Behind the cathedral is the archbishop's palace, now a barrack. In the centre rises a lofty square machicolated tower called the Tour Brune. 3 m. S. the road passes the village of Les Crottes.

After Embrun the rail passes Chteauroux, 3m. N.E. from Embrun, with a bridge over the ravine of the Rabious, and St. Clement, 3m. farther, near the Plan-de-Phazy, a poor village with a bathing establishment supplied by four hot mineral springs.

[Headnote: MONT DAUPHIN.]

51 m. N.E. from Veynes is Mont Dauphin, an isolated rock of coarse reddish conglomerate rising from the junction of the Guil with the Durance to the height of 3445 ft. above the sea, or 496 ft. above the road, the railway, and the rivers. A carriage-road leads up to the summit, where to the right are large barracks with the stables on the top story. To the left is the promenade, consisting of a group of stunted elms and horse-chestnuts, and immediately above is the village, which, like the other parts of the fort, has an untidy appearance. From the ramparts are magnificent views of valleys and mountains, including Mont Pelvoux. In the village is the inn Univers, and down at the foot of the rock is the inn St. Guillaume.

[Headnote: GUILLESTRE. QUEYRAS. AIGUILLES. ABRIS.]

2 m. from Mont Dauphin, up the Rioubel, an affluent of the Guil, is the village of Guillestre, 3116 ft., pop. 1000, with an inn and church of the 16th cent. The road now ascends the valley of the Guil, passing through La Gorge de Chapelue, bounded by precipices from 700 to 800 ft. high. At the hamlet of Veyr, 9 m. from Mont Dauphin, is a cascade. 3 m. farther up the Guil, at the upper end of the defile, are the fort and village of Queyras, 17 m. S. from Brianon and 14m. N.E. from Mont Dauphin, with an inn. "In the valleys around Queyras Protestants are numerous, especially in the Val d'Arvieux, reached by a road branching off on the left about 1 m. below Chteau Queyras; as well as in the Commune of Molines, and its hamlets, St. Veran, Pierre Grosse, and Fontgillarde. They have churches at Arvieux, St. Veran, and Fousillarde, in all of which service is performed once in three weeks by a pastor who resides alternately for a week in each parish" (see p.304, and Murray, p.216). A little higher up the left or S. bank of the Guil is the Ville-la-Vieille, with a church, 10th cent., and an inn. 18 m. from Mont Dauphin is Aiguilles, pop. 700, with an inn, on the right bank of the Guil. 21 m. from Mont Dauphin, and 5 hrs. walk from the foot of Monte Viso, is Abris, with an inn and Romanesque church, the highest village in the valley of the Guil. Although Abris is a convenient halting-place, it is a most unattractive spot as headquarters. 4 m. S.E. from Abris on the Guil is La Monta, with custom-house, where France is left.

For Perosa to Mont Dauphin, see p. 307; Torre-Pllice to Mont Dauphin, p.306; Saluzzo to Mont Dauphin, p. 308, and map p.304.

Mont Dauphin to Saluzzo and Mont Viso, 65m. E.From Mont Dauphin a good road extends 21 m. E. to Abris, the highest village in the valley of the Guil, 5 hrs. walk from the foot of Monte Viso. From Abris a mule-path leads over the Col de la Traversette, 9680 ft., on the S. flank of Monte Meidassa, 10,185 ft., to Crissolo, 7m. E. from the Col. 8 m. beyond by post-road is the village of Paesana, the chief town in the valley, and 1778 ft. above the sea. 5m. farther E., on the road to Saluzzo, is Sanfront, whence a road strikes off, about 17 m. S., to Sampeyre, 3205 ft., the principal village in the valley of the Vraita. Saluzzo is 14 m. E. by coach from Paesana and 25m. N.E. from Sampeyre (see p. 307, and map p.304).

[Headnote: MONT PELVOUX.]

45 m. N.E. from Gap, and 9 m. N.E. from Mont Dauphin, is La Besse, 3420 ft. above the sea, pop. 1000. Inn: H. de la Poste. Here passengers alight for Mont Pelvoux, and proceed to the village of Val Louise, about 6 m. W. by the Col de la Batie, 3445 ft. (see p.333). 10 m. N. from La Besse is Brianon (see p.333). "Nearly opposite La Besse to the N.W. opens out the Val Louise, which terminates in the glaciers and peaks of the Mont Pelvoux, whose top, rising 12,973 ft. above the sea-level, is visible from the road in clear weather. The Val Louise branches into two; that on the right leads to Mt. Pelvoux. Its summit, or Pic des Arcines, is a mass of ice. By the other branch there is a difficult pass, called Col de Celar, into the Val Godemar. Within the Val Louise was a cavern called Baume des Vaudois, from a number of these people having concealed themselves within it in 1488, carrying with them their children and as much food as they could collect, relying on its inaccessible position and the snows around for their defence. When the officer despatched by Charles VIII. arrived with his soldiers in the valley, none of its inhabitants could be found; but at length tracing out their hiding-place, he commanded a quantity of wood to be set fire to at the mouth of the cave to burn or smoke them out. Some were slain in attempting to escape, others threw themselves headlong on the rocks below, others were smothered; there were afterwards found within the caverns 400 infants stifled in the arms of their dead mothers. It is believed that 3000 [French Vaudois] perished on that occasion in this valley. The cavern has fallen, and is nearly buried in the dbris. The present inhabitants are all Roman Catholics, and a miserable goitred race." —Murray, p. 218.

miles from MARSEILLES miles to GRENOBLE

{126}{64} ASPRES, pop. 2000, 2493 ft. above the sea. Inn: Ferdinand. Junction with road to Livron, 68m. W., on E. side of Rhne (see p.46). The road after leaving Aspres crosses the Col de Cabres, and then proceeds westwards by the valley of the Drme (see p.47).

{154}{35} CLELLES, 2400 ft., pop. 1000. Inn: Lion d'Or. Station to alight at to make the ascent of Mont Aiguille, alimestone rock 6880 ft. high, near Chichiliane, about 7m. distant towards Die.

{163}{27} MONESTIER DE CLERMONT, pop. 1000. Inns: Europe; France. Cold acidulous spring for diseases of the kidneys and stomach.

[Headnote: VIF.]

{177}{13} VIF, pop. 3000. At the foot of a calcareous ridge, which connects Mt. Moucherotte, 7454 ft., with Mt. Moucherolle, 7509ft.

[Headnote: VIZILLE.]

{181}{9} VIZILLE, pop. 4000. Inns: Terrat; Europe; Parc. Vizille, the Vigillia of the Romans, is an ill-built manufacturing town on the right bank of the Romanche, with a castle built by Lesdiguires, now restored and used as a manufactory (see p.333).

{185}{5} PONT DE CLAIX, pop. 2500, at the foot of mountains from 5000 to 6000 ft. high (see p.328).

{190}{ } GRENOBLE. (See p. 324.)

Paris to Lyons by St. Etienne.

See fly-leaf, and Map of the Rhne and Savoy, p.27.

miles from PARIS miles to LYONS

{ }{349} PARIS. For time-tables, see under Paris, Roanne Lyon par Saint Etienne. For the first 200 miles, between Paris and the important junction of St. Germain-des-Fosss, see pp.351 to 358.

{220}{129} ST. GERMAIN-DES-FOSSES. All the trains halt here.

{231}{118} LA PALISSE, pop. 3000, on the Bbre. The ruined castle on the eminence overlooking the town was built in the 14th century.

{235}{113} ARFEUILLES, pop. 3400, on the Barbenant. Fine waterfall, and castle of Montmorillon, 15th cent.

{262}{87} ROANNE, pop. 20,000. Hotels: Centre; Commerce; *Nord. Abusy, well-built, manufacturing town, on the Loire and the canal of Digoin, possessing many interesting Roman remains. Among the buildings the most noteworthy are—the church of St. Etienne, built in the 15th cent.; the ruins of the ancient feudal castle, and the college built by the Jesuit Cotton, the confessor of Henri IV. The cotton-mills employ 1200 workmen, and the annual value of the produce is 1,120,000. After Roanne, the line to St. Etienne and Le Puy passes through a picturesque country among the Cevennes and their offshoots.

{282}{67} FEURS, pop. 4000, on the Loire. Inn: Poste. This, the ancient Forum Segusinorum, contains several antiquities, and a church partly of the 12th century. In the neighbourhood is a chalybeate spring, called La Fontaine des Quatre. Many Roman remains.

{297}{51} SAINT GALMIER, pop. 3100, on the Coise. Hotel: Poste. Springs of mineral water of great repute, called by the Romans Aquae Segestae. It is exported, and not utilised on the spot (see p.348).

{312}{37} SAINT ETIENNE, 1770 ft. above the sea, pop. 127,000. Hotels: Nord; France; both first-class. The Poste; Europe; Des Arts; Paris, are less expensive, and frequented by commercial travellers. From the Europe the diligences start for Annonay. In the Rue de la Paix is the Temple Protestant. East from the temple, in the Rue des Jardins, is the Palais de Justice, a large handsome building.

This great manufacturing town, cold and muddy in winter, and dusty in summer, was founded by the Romans B.C. 56, and from a very early period became famous for forges and the manufacture of cables, ribbons, firearms, and "faence" or crockery. It is situated in the long narrow valley of the Furens, amidst productive coal-beds. One long street, bearing the names of the Rues de Roanne, Paris, Foy, St. Louis, and Annonay, extends from west to east, dividing the city into two nearly equal parts. Off this street are the principal squares or "Places." In nearly the centre of this street, where it is intersected by the Rue des Jardins and the Rue Royale, leading northwards to the railway station, is the Hotel de Ville, with, at the west end, the Post and Telegraph Offices. On the south side of the part of the street called the Rue St. Louis are: the Theatre, and on the hill behind, the Ecole de Dessin, reached by 53 steps, passing an artificial grotto. Above the Ecole, in the Rue St. Barbe, reside some of the many weavers of ribbons, who exhibit their looms with pleasure to visitors. On the summit of this hill is a Capuchin convent and church, surmounted with a gilded image of the Virgin. The road from this convent, down the hill, passes the church of St. Etienne, built in the 12th cent., containing some beautiful glass, and a relief representing the martyrdom of St. Etienne.

[Headnote: MUSEUMS—MANUFACTURES.]

A little to the east, and also on the side of the hill, is the PALAIS DES ARTS, open from 10 to 12 and from 2 to 4. It contains The Picture Gallery, The Museum of Natural History, and complete collections of specimens of the manufactures of St. Etienne. On the ground-floor are the fire arms, labelled and ranged in rows. Under glass-cases are the separate pieces, from the smallest screw to the barrel; including locks, triggers, cartridges, percussion-caps, shot, and balls. The centre room upstairs contains the Picture Gallery, nearly all modern. The most striking is, "Nero beholding the effect of poison on slaves." On one side of the Picture Gallery is the Natural History Museum, and on the other, collections of ancient tapestry, enamels, cabinets, and furniture. In a separate saloon is the faence, consisting chiefly of plates. In the second storey is the MUSEE DE FABRIQUE. In the centre of the room are models of the ribbon-looms, and round the walls, under glass, specimens of the ribbons, which, from their small size and arrangement, do not show to advantage. Even the portraits, although most remarkable specimens of silk-weaving, are apt to be passed by, as simply very good engravings. Among them is a group in a sitting posture representing the Queen, Prince Albert, and the Prince of Wales, woven by Carquillat, who has several other works of art in this room. In the lower cases, in pattern books, are specimens of all the varied fabrics from the looms of St. Etienne. The annual value of the silk manufactures is estimated at 3,300,000, employing 40,000 workmen and 280,000 spindles (broches), of which 165,000 work organzines and trames, and 114,000 work the silk intended for crapes and gauze ribbons. The number of looms has been estimated in all at 65,000 for weaving silks, and 80,000 for ribbons. The coalfields occupy nearly 85 square miles, employ 5000 miners, and produce on an average annually 1,600,000 worth of coal. At the west end of the long street, opposite the gas-works, are the Manufacture d'Armes of the Government, and adjoining their coal-pits (puits). This large establishment is under the superintendence of artillery officers of high rank, and employs about 2800 men. There are, besides, several private gun manufactories throughout the town, which turn out annually as many as 300,000 stand of arms, including pistols and revolvers. The Promenade of St. Etienne is the Cours Fauriel. It adjoins the Jardin des Plantes, and is north from the Place du Palais des Arts, by the straight street, the Rue de la Badouillire.

[Headnote: ROCHETAILLE.]

Excursions.—Nearly 2 m. S. is Valbenoite, pop. 7000, with large hardware manufactories, and the great reservoir of the city called the Gouffre d'Enfer. 2 m. farther by the same road is the village of Rochetaille. This is also the road to take to ascend Mont Pilat. A carriage-road reaches the length of Bessat, 10m. from St. Etienne. Thence a path leads to the farm of the Perdrix, 7m. farther, where pass the night. Mont Pilat has two peaks—the Trois Dents, 4480 ft., and the Crte de la Perdrix, 4705 ft.

14 m. by rail from St. Etienne is the St. Galmier station, 1260 ft. above the sea (see p. 346). An omnibus awaits passengers for the town, 1 m. distant, on a hill 200 ft. above the station. It is a poor place with poor inns, the Commerce and Voyageurs. At the foot of the hill are the mineral springs and the establishments for bottling the water. The springs are at a considerable distance below the surface, reached by deep shafts, like the "Source Remy," cased with masonry, and furnished with spiral staircases.

From Roannes (p. 346), on the St. Galmier branch line, an omnibus starts for St. Alban, 6 m. distant, with a hotel and bathing establishment possessing cold acidulous chalybeate springs.

Nearer St. Germains, at the station of St. Martin d'Estreaux, acoach awaits passengers for Sail-les-Bains, 3 m. from the station. The bath-house has a hotel of its own. The establishment is supplied by six springs containing bicarbonate of soda, sulphur, and iron.

St. Germains is the station for Vichy (p.358).

Paris to Lyons by Tarare.

Distance, 318 miles. Time, 17 hours.

miles from PARIS miles to LYONS

{ }{318} PARIS. This route is the same as the preceding as far as Roanne. For time-tables, see under "Paris, Tarare, et Lyon." The route becomes picturesque after Roanne.

[Headnote: ROANNE.]

{262}{56} ROANNE. (See p. 346.) 5 m. S.E. is L'Hpital, and 19m. more the manufacturing town of Amplepuis, pop. 7000, at the foot of a hill 1525 ft. above the sea-level, producing considerable quantities of muslin, calico, cotton, and linen cloth. 3m. from Amplepuis commences the tunnel, 3200 yards, which pierces the ridge that separates the basin of the Loire from the Rhne. The temperature of the Rhne basin in winter is rawer and colder than that of the Loire.

[Headnote: TARARE.]

{288}{30} TARARE, pop. 15,000. Hotel: Europe; an uninteresting and unattractive manufacturing town on the Turdine, surrounded by steep mountains, among which is Mont Chevrier, one of the highest summits of the Beaujolais range. At the low end of the town is the railway station, and at the high end the viaduct of 21 arches across the valley of the Turdine. The arch which crosses the road has a span of 95 ft., the others average 35 ft. About 60,000 men in the town and environs are employed in the manufacture of velvet, embroidery, trimming, and especially in the particular kind of muslin called "tarlatan," athin gauze-like fabric, for which it is celebrated.

{318}{ } LYONS (see p. 29).

[Headnote: MONTBRISON.]

Lyons to Clermont-Ferrand,

121 m. W. by GIVORS-CANAL, ST. ETIENNE, MONTBRISON, and THIERS.

At Givors-Canal passengers for stations on the west side of the Rhne change carriages. From Givors-Canal to St. Etienne the train passes towns with coal-mines and large smelting works and foundries. At St. Etienne (p.346) a long halt is generally made. Alittle way up from the station will be found the steam tram, which, after traversing the best part of the town, returns to this terminus. 56m. W. from Lyons and 64 m. E. from Clermont is Montbrison on the Vizezy, pop. 6700. Inn: H. Lion d'Or. An uninteresting town, whose public buildings occupy religious edifices, secularised after the revolution of 1793. Of these the most prominent is the Palais de Justice, in the convent and church of the nuns of "Sainte Marie."

Behind the inn is the parish church of N. D. d'Esperance, founded in 1223, but recently repaired. The west portal (restored), with its heavy square tower and buttresses, was built in 1443 by order of Charles I. de Bourbon. The most interesting part is the five-sided apse, with in each side one long lancet window, and above it two small windows separated by an impost colonnette. To each corner is attached diagonally a long, narrow, slightly receding buttress. The church is 206 ft. long, and 62 ft. high from the pavement to the roof. At the E. end of the N. aisle is the mausoleum to Count "Fores and Niver, Guigo IV.," who founded the church in MCCXXIII. Opposite is the monument to the jurist Vernato, d. MCCCLVIII.

[Headnote: SALLE DES ETATS.]

Fronting the E. end of the church is the Salle des Etats (house of Parliament) du Forez, built about the year 1300 by JeanI., Comte de Forez, and recently restored by the Duc de Persigny from plans by Violet-le-Duc. The name was afterwards changed into the Salle de la Diana (decana), from having been converted into the chapter-house of the church. It now contains the library of the Diana society, who also hold their meetings here. It is 64 ft. long, 26 ft. wide, and 26 ft. high. The roof is entirely covered with small painted representations of the escutcheons of the Counts of Forez, and of every family that has possessed land in the territory. The large end windows are modern additions. The chimney-piece, though modern, occupies the place of the original one.

Less than m. from the inn, by the Clermont road, is a cold mineral spring, containing bicarbonates of lime, magnesia, and soda, with free carbonic acid gas. It makes a refreshing drink, as well as a tonic and diuretic. A little farther, about a mile from the town, is the old untidy village of Moingt, with church 12th cent., and in front of it a ruined gateway and round tower 13th cent. Montbrison is 49 m. W. from Lyons by the Dombes railway. The Lyons terminus of the Dombes railway is the station of St. Paul (p. 30).

Between Montbrison and Thiers there is nothing remarkable till just after St. Remay, the station before Thiers, when the train passes by the gorge of the Durolle at an immense depth below. At this part the train traverses eight tunnels, and crosses the valley of the Durolle by a viaduct of seven arches. 24 m. E. from Clermont, 40m. W. from Montbrison, 60 m. W. from St. Etienne, and 96m. W. from Lyons is

[Headnote: THIERS.]

Thiers, pop. 16,500, at first a small hamlet beside a fortress (Tigernum castrum) and a chapel dedicated to St. Symphorien (see p. 367).

Thiers is 72 m. N. from Darsac by coach, passing Olliergues, Vertolaye, Ambert, Marsac, Arlanc, and Chaise-Dieu (see p.89).

Thiers makes a pleasant railway excursion either from Vichy or Clermont-Ferrand.

1 m. W. from Thiers and 23 m. E. from Clermont-Ferrand is

Courty. Junction with line to St. Germain des Fosss, 27m. W., passing Vichy, 21 m. N.

[Headnote: VERTAIZON. BILLOM.]

13 m. W. from Courty and 10 m. E. from Clermont is Vertaizon, pop. 2200, situated 1 m. S. from the station. Junction with branch line to Billom, 5 m. S., pop. 4300. Inns: Voyageurs; Commerce. Aprettily situated town among hills crowned with ruins of castles from 12th to 16th cents. Church St. Cerneuf, 11th to 13th cents.

The train from Vertaizon takes 30 minutes to reach Clermont-Ferrand (see p. 369).

Paris to Marseilles by Clermont and Nmes.

This Route conducts to the volcanic region of Central France; to the famous Spas of Vichy, Royat, Mont-Dore, Bourboule, and St. Nectaire; and to the best towns for studying the architecture of Auvergne. (See Maps, pp. 1 and 27.)

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{ }{530} PARIS. Start from the station of the Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon, and request a ticket for Nmes by Clermont-Ferrand. The first stations passed are Brunoy (p.2), Melun (p.2), and Fontainebleau (p.3). At Moret, 42m. S.E. from Paris, the rail to Marseilles by Nevers and Nmes separates from the rail to Marseilles by Dijon and Lyon. (For Moret, see p.10.)

{73}{457} MONTARGIS, pop. 10,000, on the Loing and the canal Briare. Inns: Poste; France. The principal street leads directly from the station to the Htel de la Poste at the opposite end of the town. The streets about the old castle are narrow and dirty, and some of them steep. This castle, rebuilt by CharlesV., called formerly the "berceau des enfants de France," became private property in 1809. Ahouse has been built within the circle of the crumbling walls, of which a 14th cent, gateway still stands.

The parish church is of different epochs—the nave and the aisles belong to the 12th cent., and the chancel, which is four steps higher, to the 16th. It is supported on ten tall slender columns, from which the groining of the roof ramifies in all directions.

The town fairs are held in the promenade, called the Patis. In the adjoining forest, covering 21,030 acres, is the Dolmen of Paucourt. Montargis is a great railway junction on one of the main lines between Paris and the south of France.

10 m. S. by rail from Montargis is Nogent-sur-Vernisson, station for Chtillon-sur-Loing. Time, 75 minutes; fare, 1fr. Admiral Coligny was born in 1516 in the old castle of this place, situated in the midst of the hereditary domain of the family.

{96}{434} GIEN, pop. 7600. Inns: Poste; Paris. An old town on the Loire, and an important railway junction. On the hill rising from the town is the church of St. Pierre, flanked by a square tower, 15th cent., commanding an admirable view. Adjoining is the chteau, ahandsome edifice built in 1494 by Anne de Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI. It is now occupied by the Prfecture. Below, in the town, is the church of St. Louis, 17th cent. 38m. N.W. by branch line is Orleans (see pp.148 and 151 in Black's Normandy).

[Headnote: BRIARE.]

{102}{427} BRIARE, pop. 5200. Inn: H. de la Poste. Apleasant town on the Loire, where large quantities of buttons are manufactured. 3m. farther S. by rail is Chtillon-sur-Loire, pop. 3300. Inn: H. des Trois Rois; omnibus awaits passengers.

[Headnote: COSNE.]

{121}{409} COSNE, pop. 7000. Inns: Grand Cerf; Belle toile. This little town, with ironworks of considerable importance, and still retaining parts of its old fortifications and castle, is situated on the Loire at its junction with the Nohain. The best of the churches is St. Aignan, of which the portal and apse are of the 11th cent.; the rest is modern. 6m. farther S. by rail is Sancerre on the Loire, pop. 3700. Inn: Pointe du Jour. With castle, 13th cent., on a hill 987 ft. above the sea. In the neighbourhood are important quarries.

{138}{392} POUILLY-SUR-LOIRE, pop. 3500. Inn: cu. The surrounding vineyards produce a famous white wine, with a peculiar flavour. It is drinkable in the second year, and deteriorates after the 15th.

{141}{389} LA CHARIT, built on a hill sloping down from the railway to the Loire, crossed by both a stone and suspension bridge. Inns: Poste et G.Monarque; Dauphin; omnibuses await passengers. It has still part of its fortifications and towers of the 14th cent. Of the church St. Croix, consecrated in 1107 by Pope PascalII., there remain a vast narthex, the choir, and a high and profusely ornamented tower. This church belonged to a Benedictine convent, whose deeds of charity gave to the town its name. The convent is now occupied by the order of the Visitandines (Visitation). In the treasury are the chasuble and mitre of St. Franois de Sales.

[Headnote: POUGUES LES EAUX.]

{150}{380} POUGUES LES EAUX, pop. 1400. Hotels: Near the station, the H. du Chlet. At the entrance into the avenue, the H. de l'Etablissement, and opposite the "Etablissement," the Htel Thermal. Pougues, being a quiet place, can be recommended only to those in search of repose, whose stomach or other internal organs have become weak or deranged. The establishment, which has every kind of apparatus for administering the water, is situated in a park extending to the Loire, where fair rod-fishing may be had. The water, principally used internally, is cold, has a pungent taste, and contains a large amount of carbonic acid gas, both free and in combination with lime, soda, potash, magnesia, and iron, and is serviceable in the cure of dyspepsia, enlargement of the liver, gall-stones, and diseases of the kidneys. Douche baths of carbonic acid gas are employed.

[Headnote: FOURCHAMBAULT.]

{154}{376} FOURCHAMBAULT, pop. 6500. Inns: H. Bourges at station; in town, H.Berry. Atown on the Loire full of large ironworks, employing above 5000 workmen. The Colonne de Juillet and the Pont du Carrousel were cast here. Omnibus at station.

[Headnote: NEVERS.]

{158}{372} NEVERS, pop. 20,400. Hotels: at the station, H. de la Paix; H. du Chemin de Fer. In the town the France, Europe, and Nivre. Ashort distance N.W. from the station, or from the N.W. corner of the Park, is the nunnery of St. Giddard, containing the tomb of Bernadette Soubirous, to which establishment she was entrusted after her reported interviews with the "immaculately conceived one," and where she died, after a lingering illness, caused, it is said, by the knowledge that the present pope had not the same implicit faith in her story as his predecessor Pio IX. entertained (see under Lourdes, in Black's South France, West Half). In the garden of the convent, in a small chapel, is her grave, covered by a marble slab bearing the following inscription:— "Ici repose, dans la paix du Seigneur, Bernadette Soubirous, honore Lourdes en 1858 de plusieurs apparitions de la Trs Sainte Vierge. En religion Soeur Marie Bernard, dcde Nevers, la Maison-Mre des Soeurs de la Charit, le 16 Avril 1879 dans le 35e anne de son age et la 12me de sa profession religieuse. C'est ici le lieu. Psalm 131, v.15."

[Headnote: FAENCE.]

Julius Csar kept his military stores in Nevers; but after his defeat at Gergovia (p.372) the inhabitants plundered his camp and massacred the soldiers. Of the old fortifications there remain the tower of the Loire, of which the lower part is of the 11th cent.; the tower of St. Eloi, 16th cent.; the tower Goguin, 12th cent.; and the Porte du Croux, asquare tower of the 12th cent., but rebuilt in 1393, now containing an antiquarian museum. At the entrance into the town by the Paris road is a triumphal arch, erected in 1746 to commemorate the victory of Fontenoy, 12th May 1745, when the French defeated the Anglo-German and Dutch forces under the Duke of Cumberland. Nevers stands on the slope of a hill rising from the Loire in the midst of a flat country abounding with iron, giving employment to important ironworks. In the most elevated part is the Grande Place, with the Palais de Justice, formerly the Palais Ducal, astately edifice built in 1475 by Jean de Clamecy, Comte de Nevers, but altered and enlarged during the 16th cent. by his successors, belonging to the families of Clves and Gonzaga. It is in the form of a parallelogram, flanked with four towers, each containing a staircase. In the centre turret is the "Escalier d'honneur," ornamented with sculpture representing scenes connected with the history of the house of Clves. The market-place occupies the site of the old Palais de Justice, built in 1400 by Philippe de Bourgogne. Opposite the Palais de Justice is a fountain by Lequesne. In the Htel de Ville are the Library, the Picture Gallery, and an interesting collection of faence, which has been manufactured at Nevers for eight centuries. Faence is the French term for all descriptions of glazed earthenware, and corresponds nearly to the English word "crockery." The manufacture of majolica or enamelled pottery was introduced into France by Catherine de Mdicis and her kinsman Louis Gonzaga, who, by marriage with Henrietta of Clves in 1565, became Duke of Nevers. There are still important pottery works in the town.

[Headnote: CASSINI.]

Opposite the Palais de Justice is the Cathedral of St. Cyr, reconstructed in the 13th cent., with parts belonging to other epochs. The nave was rebuilt in 1188, the N. portal in 1240, the choir in the 14th cent., and the S. portal, which is flamboyant in style, adorned with complicated mouldings, in the 15th cent. In the interior we find a western and eastern apse; the former, 16th cent., covers a crypt of the 11 th cent. Statuettes like Caryatides sustain the columns of the triforium. On the floor of the western end is the meridian traced by the astronomer Cassini while engaged in the triangulation of France.

The church of St. Etienne, 1097, is in the Romanesque style. St. Pre was built in 1512, St. Genest, now in ruins, in the 12th cent., and the chapel of the Visitandines in 1639.

32 m. E. by rail is Cercy la Tour, where a coach awaits passengers for the comfortable bathing establishment of St. Honor. The water is hot, and in chemical composition resembles very much the springs in the Pyrenees. Hotel at the establishment. (See map, p.1.)

[Headnote: VARZY. CLAMECY.]

Junction with branch to La Roche, 108 m. N. on the direct line between Paris and Turin (see p.14). On this branch line, 8m. N. from Nevers, is Guerigny, pop. 3050, on the Nivre, with the important ironworks called the Forges de la Chaussade, employing upwards of 1300 men. 24m. farther by the same line is Varzy, pop. 2890; Inn: H. de la Poste; with a very beautiful church, St. Pre, 13th and 14th cents., surmounted by two square towers. In the interior are an elegant triforium and a beautiful Flemish painting (1535) of the Martyrdom of St. Eugenie. 44m. S. from La Roche and 64m. N. from Nevers is Clamecy, pop. 5400 (p.15); Inns: Boule d'Or; Univers; *Poste; on the junction of the Yonne with the Beuvron. On the bridge across the Yonne is a bronze bust by David of Jean Rouvet, the inventor of those large rafts by which the wood from the forests is floated down to Paris and other parts. In the church of St. Martin, 12th to 15th cent., are a statue of Ste. Genevive by Simart, ahandsome organ-case of the 16th cent., and a beautiful reredos on the high altar. Under the markets are the vaults of the old castle of the Dukes of Nevers. The Palais de Justice, the gendarmerie, and the prison occupy one large building.

22 m. N. from Clamecy is Cravant (p. 14), an important railway junction. Junction also at Nevers with line to Chagny, 178m. E. (see p.24). Branch to Le Creusot and Autun (see p.24).

[Headnote: SAINCAIZE.]

{154}{ } SAINCAIZE, 600 ft. above sea; junction with line to Bourges, 38m. W. (See Black's South France, West Half.)

[Headnote: MOULINS.]

{195}{335} MOULINS, pop. 22,000. Hotels: At the station, H. du Chemin de Fer; in. the town, Dauphin, Paris, France, Allier. Omnibuses at the station. Acheerful town with extensive boulevards and pleasant walks along the banks of the Allier, crossed by a bridge built in 1763, of 13 arches, and 328 yards long. In the centre of the town is the Cathedral of Notre Dame, in the transition florid style of the 15th cent. The faade, over which rise two handsome spires, is of white sandstone, with colonnettes of dark Volvic lava. The tops of the buttresses are adorned with statues. The choir, which is seven steps higher than the nave, is lighted by windows containing valuable 16th cent. glass, and covered with a curious roof. In the chapel to the right of the altar is a small mausoleum with a recumbent figure illustrating the condition of even the fairest forms after death. Under the altar, in a little crypt, is an Entombment. In the first chapel, N. side of the choir, is an "Adoration of the Virgin" of considerable merit. Opposite the main entrance is a large square tower called "La tour mal coiffe," 15th cent., now a prison, which, with the handsome portico of the Gendarmerie, formed part of the famous castle of the Dukes of Bourbon. The most interesting old houses are within and around the Place de l'Allier. In that square is also the church of St. Nicolas, built in the style of the 13th cent. In the chapel of the Lyce, No. 15 Rue de Paris, alittle beyond the Palais de Justice, is the marble mausoleum, by Coustou, Anguier, Renaudan and Poipant, of HenriII., Duc de Montmorenci, godson of Henri IV., and one of the bravest marshals of France. He had the misfortune to draw upon himself the enmity of Cardinal Richelieu and the displeasure of Louis XIII., which led to his execution in the Capitole of Toulouse on the 30th October 1632, where the knife is still preserved. His widow, Maria Orsini, caused his body to be brought to this chapel, then belonging to the convent of the nuns "de la Visitation." The statues, all of the finest Carrara marble, represent the duke in a half-recumbent posture and the duchess seated near him. Fee, fr. In the Htel de Ville is the public library, with 25,000 vols. and a manuscript Bible of the 12th cent, called the Souvigny Bible. The town clock, with its moving statues, is mounted on a square tower, 15th cent., 40 ft. high.

[Headnote: DUKE OF BERWICK. STERNE'S MARIA.]

Lord Clarendon, while on his way from Montpellier to Rouen, stayed some time at Moulins, where he wrote a part of his History of the Rebellion, which he finished while resident in Rouen, where he died on the 9th of December 1674, after having appealed twice in vain to CharlesII. to be allowed to return to England. James Fitz-James, Duke of Berwick, amarshal and peer of France, natural son of James Duke of York, afterwards JamesII., by Arabella Churchill, sister of the great Duke of Marlborough, was born at Moulins on the 21st of August 1670, and died 12th June 1734. Montesquieu said of him: "In the works of PlutarchI have seen at a distance what great men were; in Marshal BerwickI have seen what they are." By the side of the Paris road, under a tree at the northern entrance into Moulins, the forlorn Maria, with her lute and her dog Sylvie, used to sit. Thwarted in love by the intrigues of the parish curate, she became the prey to a deep-seated melancholy. (See Sterne's Sentimental Journey, "Maria.")

[Headnote: SOUVIGNY.]

9 m. W. from Moulins by rail is Souvigny, pop. 4000. Hotel: Croix d'Or. At the end of the village farthest from the station is a beautiful basilica, commenced in the 10th cent and rebuilt and restored at various periods. It is 275 ft. long, 125 broad, and 56 high. In the Chapelle Vieille, to the right of the high altar, is the mausoleum of LouisII., Duc de Bourbon, and Anne his wife. On the other side is that of Duc CharlesI. and Anne de Bourgogne his wife. Both chapels are enclosed in a stone screen with delicate flamboyant tracery. To the left of the principal entrance is an ancient column with the signs of the Zodiac sculptured on it. N. from the church, on the opposite side of the street, is the old castle of the Bourbons, occupied by people of humble rank. From the Souvigny station an omnibus runs 10m. N. to Bourbon l'Archambault, passing at about half-way St. Menoux (Htel de l'cu). It stops in front of the church just sufficient time to allow the traveller to cast a rapid glance over this pleasing specimen of Aquitaine and Auvergne architecture of the 11th cent. (See map, p.1.)

[Headnote: BOURBON-L'ARCHAMBAULT-BATHS. ST. PARDOUX SPRING.]

Bourbon-l'Archambault, pop. 4500. Hotels: Close to the bathing establishment, the Htel Montespan, on the site of the house which used to be occupied by Madame de Montespan and Louis XIV. About 100 yds. distant the Htel de France. On a hill at the northern side of this ancient town are the ruins of the once strong feudal castle of Bourbon, commenced by LouisI. in 1321, and finished in the 15th cent, by Duc PierreII. Four massive towers, built of stone, with projecting points, still remain of the twenty-four which it had originally. On a hill at the opposite side of the town is the parish church, commenced in the 12th cent., resembling the church of St. Menoux. In the centre of the town is the copious spring of mineral water which, besides supplying the bathing establishment, is largely used for drinking and domestic purposes. It is clear, inodorous, unctuous, easily digested, slightly saline and aperient, and 128 Fahr. One-sixth of its volume is free carbonic acid gas, besides the same acid in combination with lime, magnesia, and soda; and some salts of bromine, iodine, and iron. It is eminently diaphoretic, diuretic, and tonic, and excellent for rheumatism, rheumatic gout, and scrofula. Between the bathing establishment and the church is the cold water spring called the "Source de Jonas," containing bicarbonates of lime and magnesia, chlorides of soda and magnesia, silicates of lime, alumina, and soda, the carbonate of iron and the oxide of manganese. The water is tonic and slightly laxative. 9m. S. from Bourbon is St. Pardoux, in a wooded and hilly country, forming one of the best drives from Bourbon. There is here a spring of remarkably sparkling water, 5/6ths of its volume being free carbonic acid gas. It contains the bicarbonates of lime, magnesia, and soda, silicates of lime and alumina, and the oxide of iron. It is delightful to the taste, very pungent, and, owing to the presence of so much carbonic acid gas, slightly heady. It is an excellent tonic, highly diuretic, and stimulates the secretion of bile. It is sold in litre bottles at Bourbon at 3d. per bottle. Madame Montespan, when in the height of her power, used regularly to visit Bourbon to recruit her health, and here she died, in solitude, on the 25th of May 1707, cast off and deserted by Louis XIV. 33 m. W. from Souvigny by rail is Commentry (see map, p. 1).

From Moulins branch line extends 73 m. E. to Montchanin, passing, at 17m. E. from Moulins, Dompierre; at 23 m. E., Gilly, station for Bourbon-Lancy; 29 m. E., Saint Agnan; 35m. E., Digoin; and 41m. E., Paray-le-Monial (see p. 27, and map, p.1).

Dompierre-sur-Bebre, pop. 2230. Inns: Commerce; Lion d'Or. Coal and iron found in this neighbourhood. The country is undulating and well cultivated. Near the next station, Diou on the Loire, is the Cistercian abbey of Sept-Fonds, founded in 1132, rebuilt in the 17th cent., and now an agricultural school.

[Headnote: GILLY.]

Gilly, station for Bourbon-Lancy, pop. 3300, 8m. N. by the Loire. Coach awaits passengers at station, fare 1 fr. Inn:: H. Trois Barbeaux, where carriages for drives can be had. The village, situated on an eminence, is full of old houses, of which the best are near the clock-tower, 15th cent. In the valley at the foot of the eminence is the suburb of St. Leger, with an excellent small Bathing Establishment, supplied by five alkaline springs, temp. 132 Fahrenheit, which flow into large basins in the court fronting the baths. The water contains free carbonic acid gas and 19 grains of the chloride of sodium to the pint. In lesser quantities the chlorides of calcium and magnesium, the sulphate of soda, the carbonates of lime and magnesia, and the oxide of iron. In Vichy the drinking of the water is the most important, but here it is the external application by baths and other means. They are very serviceable in the cure of nervous and cutaneous diseases, in neuralgia of the face, and in every form of rheumatism. The baths are of marble and easily entered, and furnished with ingenious contrivances to facilitate the application of the water to any particular part. Near the Casino, and standing by itself, is a swimming bath, 62 ft. long by 29 wide and 5 deep, filled with the mineral water cooled down to 90 Fahr. The surplus water is still carried off by the underground channels constructed by the Romans. At intervals along their course perpendicular shafts are sunk down to the bed of the outlet.

On a height near the bathing establishment is a hospital built by M. and Mme. Aligre, and given by them to the town. Amonument to their memory is in the Place of St. Leger, and a replica of the statue of Madame in silver is in the hospital. Inns: Opposite the establishment, the *Grand Hotel, 12 frs., and the G. H. des Termes, pension 8 frs. A little farther, the G. H. des Bains, 7 frs.; for a lady, 6frs. Opposite, the H. Allier. The charge for the baths and Casino is very reasonable. For particulars write to M. Le Regisseur des Bains de Bourbon-Lancy. The surrounding country is of considerable interest, the Loire is within an easy walk, while several important cities are within a few hours by rail.

A little beyond Gilly is Saint Agnan on the Loire. Inn: H. de Marion. A small town in the midst of iron and coal mines. 6m. farther is Digoin, pop. 3300. Inns: H. des Diligences, in the town; at the station, the H. de la Gare. Church of the llth cent. Suspension bridge across the Loire.

[Headnote: ST. GERMAIN-DES-FOSSS.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{220}{310} ST. GERMAIN-DES-FOSSES, 845 ft. above the sea. Large refreshment rooms. Always a great deal of traffic at this station. Change carriages for Vichy. Behind the station, on a little eminence, is the inn G. H. du Pare (bed 2frs.), with garden. At the warehouse end of the station is the inn H. de la Gare. In the village, the Paix. 7m. S. from St. Germain and 227m. S. from Paris is

[Map: Vichy]

[Headnote: HOTELS AND THEIR CHARGES.]

VICHY

on the Allier, pop. 7000, 8 hrs. by express from Paris. Hotels: The largest and best are around the Parc. Of them the most elegantly furnished are:—The Nouvel Htel, pension 25 frs.; the H.Parc, 12 to 20 frs.; Ambassadeurs, 12 to 20 frs.; Mombrun, 12 to 20 frs.; and the Grand Htel, 12 to 16 frs., all first-class.

The following, also round the Parc, are equally comfortable, but the furniture is not so costly. The H. des Thermes, 10 to 12 frs., adjoining the Villa Strauss, in which Napoleon III. resided; Cherbourg, 9 to 15 frs.; the Princes, 9 to 15 frs.; the G. H. de la Paix, 12 to 15 frs.; the G.H. Velay et des Anglais, 9 to 13 frs.; Royal Hotel, Amiraut, 7 to 10 frs.; and H. de la Restauration. Almost adjoining the Ambassadeurs, the H. Moliere, 8 to 12 frs., a smaller house. In all the above hotels, excepting in the first three, servants are taken at the rate of 6frs. per day. The above prices include everything except the charge of 1 fr. for candles at the end of the stay.

Adjoining the north corner of the Etablissement, near the Grande Grille, is the G. H. des Bains, 9 to 14 frs. Opposite the Etablissement, the H. Britannique, 7 to 10 frs.; the Richelieu, 8 to 10 frs.; and behind it the H. Grande Grille, 8 to 11 frs., amore handsome house.

In the Rue Petit, near the Chlets in the Boulevard National, *H. d'Amerique, 9 to 10 frs., a clean quiet house, generally full.

In the Place de l'Htel de Ville at the south end of the Parc are the H. d'Espagne, 6 to 10 frs., a small house served principally by the family; and the Deux-Mondes, 8 to 10 frs., fronting likewise the Place Rosalie. The fraction in the prices is for service.

In the Place Rosalie are the Source de l'Hpital and the Banque de Vichy, where circular notes are cashed and money changed.

In the Rue de Nmes, a busy street, separated from the Parc by a row of houses, is the H. de Nice, 8 to 10 frs.; one side faces the church. On the other side of the church is the *H. Notre Dame, 9 to 10 frs. Then follow the G. H. du Centre, 7 to 10 frs.; H. Fnlon; H. du Regence, 8 to 9 frs.; Orleans and Milan same price.

In the Rue de Paris, the street between the town and the railway station, are the G. H. du Louvre et de Reims, 7 to 10 frs., open all the year; Univers, 8 to 10 frs.; *Rome, 7 to 9 frs.; the Suisse; H. Dubessay; *Couronne, 8 to 9 frs.; Beaujolais; Brest, 7 to 8 frs.; Cote d'Or, 7 to 7 frs.; Globe, 7 frs., open all the year—all between the railway station and the Etablissement.

At the end of the Rue de Paris, in the Rue de Ballore, the G. Htel Maussant, 8 to 10 frs. In the Avenue Victoria, behind the military hospital, and in front of the petrifying spring, is the H. de Provence, 6 to 9 frs. In front of hospital, Hotel Lucas.

In the Rue de Nmes, between the Parc and the Parc des Celestins, are the G. H. Palais, 7 to 10 frs.; Genve; Milan; Bordeaux. Near the entrance into the Parc des Celestins, the H.Venise, 8 to 9frs. and the H. Palais-Royal.

There are a great many maisons meubles, in which furnished rooms are let at prices varying from 4 to 8 frs., and fr. for service. Lodgers can always have a breakfast prepared for them of coffee, bread, and eggs, without any extra charge, but the dinner is more troublesome. Among the maisons meubles are the Villa Svign (in which Madame resided) in the Boulevard National, near the Source Larbaud.

Travellers wishing to inspect the hotels and maisons meubles before deciding which to take should alight at one of the hotels in the Rue de Paris, as they are nearest the station, and sufficiently comfortable without being expensive.

Close to the principal establishment, in the Rue Lucas, is one of the best apothecary shops, the Pharmacie Durin, where information regarding the different doctors can be had.

Vichy, during the season, from 15th May till the end of September, forms a most enjoyable residence. It is full of comfortable hotels presided over by civil landlords, charging various prices from 6 to 25 frs. per day, which includes wine, service, and everything else. The best situations are the Parc and in the contiguous streets. Tastefully-planned grounds, called the Neuf Parc, extend between the town and the Allier, crossed here by a handsome bridge, on the site where Caesar built his wooden bridge. On an eminence at the southern end of Vichy are the old town and the old parish church of St. Blaise, 13th and 14th cents. In works undertaken for the railway numerous coins have been dug up bearing the effigy of the Gallic chief Vercingetorix, as well as many Roman objects belonging to all the epochs of the empire. In 1402 Louis II., Duke of Bourbon, surrounded Vichy with a moat and fortified walls, within which he erected his castle; but of it all that remains is the great clock-tower or belfry.

[Headnote: MINERAL WATER ESTABLISHMENT.]

At the head of the Rue de Paris, on the north end of the Pare, is the Mineral Water Establishment, composed of two large buildings—1st, The "Grand Etablissement," containing only first-class baths; a parallelogram 167 ft. long by 250 broad, provided with 100 cabinets with baths, and traversed by a gallery from N. to S., having on the western side the gentlemen's baths, and on the eastern side the ladies'. At the extremity of this passage is an inhaling-room. Each bath costs 2 frs., including service and linen. An hour and a quarter is allowed, including dressing. Below the baths are large reservoirs. In front of the entrance to the central gallery, near the spring Chomel, is the office for the taking down of the bathers' names and for the sale of the bath tickets.

2d, Separated by a narrow street is a similar edifice in which second and third class baths are given, costing respectively 1 frs. and 60 c. each. The difference in the price of the baths arises from the quality of the accommodation and the amount of linen and towels supplied. The baths themselves are the same, and are filled too from the same springs. The two buildings contain together 350 baths and 150 shower-baths, and during the season as many as 4000 baths can be given in a single day. They commence at 3.30 A.M. and continue till 5 P.M., but at one part of the season till even later. But it must always be remembered that the external application of the water is not nearly so important as the internal. Patients may visit Vichy, at any time; but the season suited to follow with success the course of treatment is from the 15th May till the beginning of October. The month of May is sometimes rainy. August and September are generally the driest months, and the most equable. The Vichy treatment lasts from 3 to 4 weeks. The waters are taken in the morning and during the day, and baths daily or every second day. For elderly people with sanguine and irritable temperaments and delicate constitutions the duration of the bath should not be more than 20 or even 15 minutes.

[Headnote: CASINO.]

At the south or opposite end of the Parc is the Casino, ahandsome comfortably-furnished edifice. The ballroom is 60 ft. long by 38 wide and 45 high, and lighted by five large bay windows looking into the park. The decorations are of the period of Louis XIV., with elegantly-painted walls and ceiling. A gallery, running across the building in a lateral direction, separates the ballroom from the theatre, which occupies the centre of the Casino and contains seats for 800 persons. The remainder of the building is occupied by the reading, billiard, and gambling rooms, and a saloon for ladies. One entrance ticket, 2frs.; a month, 25 frs. There is music every morning, a concert in the afternoon, and theatricals in the evening. A great quantity of journals and reviews are at the disposal of members; also books, pianos, and music. Aprofessor of billiards is attached to the Casino.

[Headnote: THE VICHY SPRINGS.]

The Vichy Springs.—The Vichy waters are stimulating, but not tonic. They are gaseous and alkaline, their principal constituents being carbonic acid and the bicarbonate of soda. They differ materially from each other only in temperature. They are easily digested and readily eliminated into the system, where they restore the vitality of the organs below the diaphragm. None of the springs possess any special specific property, the best for the patient being that which agrees best with him. Nevertheless, experience has detected certain peculiarities which may assist him to discover the most suitable spring. The maximum quantity which can be taken daily with advantage is from 24 to 28 oz. The usual dose is four glasses of 5 or 6 oz., taken at different times throughout the day, and not necessarily from the same spring. The water may with advantage be mixed with the wine taken at dinner. Carafes are filled at the springs without any charge. In the shops are sold graduated glasses of 150 to 180 grammes, divided into three equal parts. 30 grammes equal 1 oz.

The Springs and their peculiarities.—Under the vestibule of the principal establishment are three important springs—the Grande Grille, the Puits-Chomel, and the Mesdames (see plan).

[Headnote: GRANDE-GRILLE, CHOMEL, MESDAMES.]

The Grande-Grille, 110 Fahr., is slightly aperient, and is employed with success by persons suffering from indigestion, obstructions of the viscera, congestion of the liver, spleen, biliary calculi, and gravel.

The Puits-Chomel, 113 Fahr. The water of this spring possesses marked anodyne properties, which render it very valuable whenever the weakened state of the constitution or its irritability requires to be moderately excited. Of all the Vichy waters it contains the least carbonic acid without being more difficult of digestion, and as, on the other hand, it is the most mineralised, it can in many cases profitably replace the other springs.

Mesdames, 61 Fahr., highly chalybeate, is beneficial in cases of chlorosis, amenorrhoea, and in debility following loss of blood. In cases where the constitution has been weakened without any evident derangement it stimulates the energy of the digestive functions so as to enable the patient to recover his usual strength.

The only other spring in the establishment is the Puits-Carr, 113 Fahr., which rises in the centre of the building, and is used for supplying the baths.

[Headnote: PRUNELLE, PARC, HPITAL.]

About 100 yards E. from the principal establishment, in a building opposite the military hospital, is the Source Prunelle, acold spring, recommended for diseases of the liver, gravel, and calculi. A little farther E. is the Source Lucas, 84 Fahr., principally employed in baths for diseases of the skin. As a drink it is beneficial where the organs are more disturbed than diseased. In the park, opposite the Htel de la Paix, is the Source du Parc, 71 Fahr., recommended for sluggish action of the digestive organs, atonic derangement of the intestines, and affections of the bronchial tube caused by chronic irritation or catarrh. At the N. end of the Casino, in front of the town hospital, is the Source de l'Hpital or Rosalie, 89 Fahr., resembling very much the Grande Grille, but less exciting. It is recommended to those affected with diseases of the digestive organs, dyspepsia, gastritis, obstinate diarrhoea, and dysentery; and is particularly useful to literary men whose digestive functions are deranged from mental labour. It renders important service in ovarian tumours and other diseases of females.

[Headnote: CELESTINS.]

A short way up the river by the Boulevard des Celestins are the five important springs, the Sources des Celestins, 54 and 58 Fahr., of which the nearest is under a handsome artificial grotto. They are largely exported, and have the same action, the only question being their respective degree of efficacy. Those who chiefly frequent these springs are invalids suffering from gout, gravel, and affections of the urinary organs, whose stomachs are sufficiently sound to be able to digest the water easily. Otherwise it is best to commence with either the "Hpital" or the "Grande Grille" spring. In all cases the water of the Springs Celestins should be drunk moderately and with caution. Just beyond the Celestins, at the end of the Boulevard and near the Parc des Celestins, are the Lardy springs and establishment. The water, 77 Fahr., which rises from a depth of 620 ft., has a stimulating action on the mucous membrane of the stomach, is easily eliminated, and is generally drunk after meals by the Vichy invalids. "Stomach disorder, attended with heartburn and acidity, is in many cases capable of being cured or materially relieved by the use of one or other of the Vichy waters. When complicated with pain (gastralgia) and diminished power of the stomach, the Hpital spring in some cases, the Lardy and Mesdames in others, would be most likely to have a beneficial effect: in other cases, where a more energetic action is required, the Grande Grille would be preferable." —Dr. E.Lee.

[Headnote: SOURCE HAUTERIVE. INFLUENCE OF VICHY WATER.]

3 m. S. from Vichy, on the W. bank of the Allier, is the Source Hauterive, 57 Fahr., used principally for exportation. In therapeutical qualities it resembles the Celestins.

The principal use of the Vichy waters is in the treatment of gout, and in chronic diseases of the stomach and abdominal viscera, such as dyspepsia, chronic hepatic disease, biliary calculi, fatty degeneration or cirrhosis, and in hmorrhoidal affections, which are so often connected with congestion of the liver. They are equally serviceable in enlargements of the spleen and in many cases of hypochondriasis. Moreover, this spa is specially adapted for the cure of some of the chronic diseases of women connected with disordered menstruation, and for the anomalous "critical complaints" which often set in at the period of life when this function ceases. "The complaint for which nine-tenths of the English visitors drink these springs is gout; but it should be distinctly understood that Vichy water is not a specific for gout; it can only act on the gouty diathesis by improving the tone of the digestive organs, augmenting the secretions, and correcting the abnormally acid condition of the blood." —Madden's Health Resorts. "The Vichy waters do not cure gout. They have, however, a very beneficial effect when administered with caution in cases of either hereditary or acquired gout, whether articular or internal, acute or chronic. The proper time to use the waters is in the interval of attacks, and as far as possible from the last attack. If too near the last attack, a repetition is to be feared, and there is almost as much danger in provoking nature as in resisting its action in a crisis." —Dr. Daumas. "We may then sum up the effects of a Vichy course, when judiciously prescribed, as restorative to the digestive and assimilative functions, and invigorative to the general health. The tone of the stomach is soon improved, digestion becomes easier and more rapid, pain and weight after food disappearing. The bile flows more freely. The bowels become regular. Diarrhoea, if previously present, ceases. The consequence of these changes is better assimilation, and therefore flesh is often gained. With the improvement in nutrition the colour returns to the cheeks and energy to the mind." —Dr. P. James.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL SPRINGS.

GG Grande Grille P Park Ch Chomel H Hopital Md Mesdammes Ce Celestins L Lucas Hr Haute-rive

+ + + Acids and Bases NAMES OF THE SPRINGS. contained in + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ each litre. GG Ch Md L P H Ce Hr + + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Carbonic Acid 4.418 4.429 5.029 5.348 5.071 4.719 4.705 5.640 Sulphuric " .164 .164 .141 .164 .177 .164 .164 .164 Phosphoric " .070 .038 traces .038 .076 .025 .050 .625 Arsenic " .001 .001 .002 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 Hydrochloric Acid .332 .334 .222 .324 .344 .324 .234 .334 Silica .070 .070 .032 .050 .055 .050 .060 .071 Protoxide of Iron .002 .002 .012 .002 .002 .002 .002 .008 Lime .169 .169 .235 .212 .239 .222 .180 .168 Strontia .002 .002 .002 .008 .003 .003 .003 .002 Magnesia .097 .108 .134 .088 .068 .064 .105 .160 Potash .182 .192 .098 .146 .151 .228 .163 .098 Soda 2.488 2.536 1.957 2.501 2.500 2.500 2.560 2.368 + + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ TOTALS 7.997 8.043 7.866 8.877 8.687 8.302 8.327 9.039 Saline ingredients in each litre. + + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Free Carbonic Acid .908 .768 1.908 1.751 1.555 1.067 1.049 2.183 Bicarb. of Soda 4.883 5.091 4.016 5.004 4.857 5.029 5.103 4.687 " Potash .352 .371 .185 .282 .292 .440 .315 .189 " Magnesia .303 .338 .429 .275 .213 .200 .328 .501 " Strontia .303 .003 .003 .005 .005 .005 .005 .003 " Lime .434 .427 .604 .545 .614 .570 .462 .432 " Protox. of Iron .004 .004 .026 .004 .004 .004 .004 .017 Sulphate of Soda .291 .291 .250 .291 .314 .291 .291 .291 Phosphate .130 .070 traces .070 .140 .046 .091 .046 Arseniate .002 .002 .003 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 Chloride of Sodium .534 .534 .355 .518 .550 .518 .534 .534 Silica .070 .070 .032 .050 .055 .050 .060 .071 + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ TOTALS 7.914 7.959 7.811 8.797 8.601 8.222 8.244 8.956 + + -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

The Larbaud spring, which is not given in this analysis, differs only slightly from the Clestins.

In a garden of a house in the Boulevard Victoria is a petrifying spring, containing a large quantity of the carbonate of lime.

Excursions.

CAB FARES.—The course within the town from 6 A.M. to 12 P.M. with 1 horse, 1 fr.; 2 horses, 2 frs. By time, carriage and 1 horse, first hour, 3frs., and 2 frs. each successive hour. Half the day, 9frs.; the day, 18 frs. Carriage with 2 horses, first hour, 4frs., the following hours, 3 frs. each. The half-day, 12 frs. 50 c.; the day, 25 frs.

Art. 17—The price for the first hour, in or outside Vichy, is always fully charged although the coachman has not been employed the entire hour. All the other hours are divided and paid by quarters.

Art. 18.—The day is fixed at 12 hrs., which comprises 2 hrs. for rest; the half-day at 6 hrs., and 1 hr. for rest.

[Headnote: DRIVES. CUSSET.]

For drives with a fixed destination the price should be settled beforehand. The following are the usual prices. To the Casino des Justices (about 2 m. beyond Gusset), there and back, 1 horse, 7frs.; 2 horses, 10 frs. The same prices are charged, there and back, from Vichy to Charmeil, Cte St. Amand, Hauterive, Les Malavaux, and Montagne-Verte. To the Ardoisire, there and back, 1 horse, 8frs.; 2 horses, 12 frs. To Chateldon and back, 1 horse, 15 frs.; 2 horses, 20 frs. To Busset and back by the Ardoisire, 1 horse, 16 frs.; 2 horses, 20 frs. To Maulmont and back, 1 horse, 15 frs.; 2 horses, 20 frs. To Randan by Bois-Randenez, return by Maulmont, 1 horse, 18 frs.; 2 horses, 24 frs.

Cusset, pop. 6200, on the Sichon, 2 m. E. from Vichy. Inn: H. du Centre, in the Place de la Halle, near the church. Omnibus, 20 c. At the entrance into the town is the Etablissement Thermal Ste. Marie, a neat building of red and black brick, with a large entrance flanked with turrets. Opposite are the "Sources Ste. Marie" and Elizabeth, both cold. The baths cost 1 fr. From 9 in the morning till 2 in the afternoon only 1 fr. is charged. The waters are of the same class as those of Vichy, but have a little more soda and iron.

From Cusset a pleasant road leads to Les Malavaux, 2m. S.E. Take the road to Les Guitons the length of the bridge, which do not cross, but walk up by the course of the stream Joland. The hill to the right is called the "Cte des Justices," because on it criminals suffered the extreme penalty of the law. Shortly afterwards the valley narrows into a miniature gorge between basaltic rocks, and situated in the prettiest part, 1 m. from the bridge, is an inn with refreshment rooms. Pension per day, 10 frs. Beyond the inn the valley gradually widens and flattens. From the inn are visited the Puits du Diable; and on the Malavaux the Fontaine des Sarrasins and the scanty ruins of a castle said to have been built by the Knight Templars; admission, 1 fr. each.

[Headnote: MONTAGNE-VERTE.]

2 m. N. from Vichy by the Rue de Ballore is the Montagne-Verte, 1288 ft. above the sea, with a restaurant on the top, whence there is a good view of the surrounding country. This road makes the nicest walk in the neighbourhood of Vichy. At about a mile it passes by the cemetery.

Vichy to Busset by Cusset and the Ardoisire, 10m. S.Return by St. Yorre, where the rail may be taken.

[Headnote: GRIVATS.]

The road passes by Cusset and then extends southwards by the side of the Sichon. The first village passed on the Sichon is Grivats, famous for the manufacture of the Toiles de Vichy, called also Grivats, a variegated cotton stuff used for gowns and petticoats. The best quality, made only at Grivats, costs 1 fr. the mtre (1-1/8 yard); the inferior qualities, made chiefly at Roanne, cost from 75 c. to 1fr. the mtre. At Grivats they are all made by handlooms in the houses of the weavers. Among the best shops in Vichy for this article is that of Delorme-Desfougres, Rue de l'Hpital.

From Grivats the road, after passing through a fertile country, reaches the Ardoisire, situated at the foot of Mont Peyroux, 7m. S. from Vichy. Inn with refreshment rooms. Here there is an abandoned slate quarry, charge to visit 1 fr., but it is not worth entering. The favourite excursions here are to the falls of the Sichon or the Cascade du Gourre-Saillant, fee 1 fr., which, unless after heavy rains, are very small; and to the ruins of the Chteau des Templiers on the top of Mont Peyroux, whence there is a beautiful and extensive view.

[Headnote: BUSSET.]

The road now leaves the banks of the Sichon and extends due S. towards Busset, 2m. from the Ardoisire, or 10 m. from Vichy by this road. Busset is a poor village at the foot of a hill, on which is the Chteau Bourbon-Busset, built in 1319, but restored since. Admission readily granted. Splendid view from the Tour de Riom. W. from Busset, on the E. side of the Allier, is St. Yorre (see below), where the rail may be taken to Vichy, 5 m. N.

Nearly 8 m. S.E. from the Ardoisire by the valley of the Suhan and the village of Arronnes is Ferrires, with, in the neighbourhood, the ruins of the old feudal castle of Mont Gilbert, the Roc St. Vincent, the Pierre-Encise, the Grotte des Fes, and the Puy-Montoncel. Time required from Vichy and back, 8 hrs.

[Headnote: RANDAN. VESSE-INTERMITTENT-SPRING.]

Vichy to Randan.—Coach daily from the Place de la Marine at 11.20 A.M.; arrives at Randan at 1 P.M.; leaves Randan at 3.20, and is back to Vichy by 5. Fare there and back, 2 frs. The castle of Randan is open on Thursdays and feast-days. The return journey, 4m., by Maulmont costs 3 frs.

The coach, having crossed the bridge of the Allier, passes on the left hand a small house with the sign SOURCE INTERMITTENTE. In the garden is the very interesting intermittent spring of Vesse, which acts every 6 or 7 hours, when it rises from a depth of 375 ft. to the height of 16 ft. above the surface. During the irruption, which lasts 30 minutes, the water has a milky hue, from the quantity of air it contains. Admission, 25 c.

From this spring the road follows at a little distance the course of the stream Sermon, passing the villages of Les Schauds and the Bois Randenez, and then enters the forest of Boucharde, at the southern extremity of which is situated Randan, with its large modern mansion belonging to the Orleans family. It contains a picture gallery with several drawings by the gifted Marie d'Orleans, the rooms of Madame Adelaide and of her brother Louis Philippe, abeautiful little chapel, and a large kitchen (see p. 368). From Randan the road leads due E. through the woods to the hunting-seat of Maulmont, constructed by Madame Adelaide in the Gothic style, on the site of an old commandery of the Knight Templars. From this the Allier is crossed by the suspension bridge of Ris, whence the return journey may be made by rail or by the high road along the E. side of the river.

[Headnote: ST. YORRE. RIS.]

Vichy to Thiers by rail, 22 m. S., changing at Courty. 5m. S. from Vichy are the village of St. Yorre and the Larbaud mineral water establishment, with an intermittent spring in the grounds. The water, which is bottled here, rises from a depth of 340 ft.

The next station S. from St. Yorre is the station Ris-Chateldon, 5m. from St. Yorre and 10 from Vichy. About 200 yards N. from the station the road that crosses the rail leads directly to the suspension bridge, or the Pont de Ris, over the Allier, about 1m. W.The broad road opposite the station leads to Ris (pronounce thes) about 1m. E. It is a large village, with dunghills, geese, and ducks in the principal street. The church, 12th and 13th cents., has narrow aisles and nave and semicircular apse.

[Headnote: CHATELDON. THIERS.]

For Chateldon, 3 m. S.E. from station, take the road that follows the rail southward to second road left. This village, more interesting than Ris, is situated in the little valley of the stream Vauziron, surrounded by hills covered with vineyards. In the "Place" is the principal inn, the H. Camin, pension 6 to 7frs., whence the coach starts for the station, but not for every train. The house with the mineral water springs is up at the other end of the village, by the side of the Vauziron.

Maringues is 11 m. W. from the station by the Pont de Ris. Puy de Guillaume, 3 m. S. from the station.

23 m. S. from Vichy by rail is the picturesquely-situated town of Thiers, pop. 16,230. Inns: *Paris; Aigle d'Or; Univers; all near each other, and on almost the same level as the station. Also approached by rail from Clermont, passing through a mountainous country.

Thiers, with its old houses, and steep, tortuous, dirty streets, is built on the side of Mt. Besset, which rises to the height of 1716 ft. above the sea, but only 405 ft. above the old prison near the "Place." At the foot of this mountain flows the impetuous Durolle, which turns the wheels of the paper-mills and forges in the low town. From the different terraces are splendid views of the curiously-shaped surrounding mountains and of the plains of the Limagne. The manufacture of cutlery (coutellerie) is the standard occupation of the inhabitants. The steel is made in the forges; all the rest is done in the houses of the workmen, each individual of the family taking the part in the manufacture corresponding to his or her ability. At the foot of Mt. Besset, near the Durolle, is the church of St. Moutiers, of the 11th cent., excepting the square apse, which is of the 7th. From the chancel a very pretty road leads up the valley of the Durolle to the Margeride. The church in the high part of the town to the left is St. Jean, 14th cent., with a cemetery. Considerably higher than St. Jean is St. Genest, built in about 1020. It has been recently restored. Over the second altar, left or north of the high altar, is a fresco, 16th cent., representing Mary among angels entering heaven. The painted glass is modern. 3 m. S.E. from Thiers is the village of Escoutoux, where a pleasant sparkling wine is made called Champagne de la Dore. Excellent butter and cheese are made at Thiers. The richest are flat and thin, but the most pungent is a cheese not unlike the Stilton in shape and colour. The best of the thin moist cheeses are those of Mont d'Or, near Lyons, not the Mt. Dore of Clermont. From Thiers the country becomes most picturesque all the way to St. Etienne, the line winding its way around the steep sides of lofty mountains with roaring torrents in the deep ravines below. After leaving Thiers it follows the course of the Durolle to its source. 3 m. from Thiers by rail is the station for St. Remy, pop. 5000 (see below).

Vichy to the Chteau d'Effiat, 18 m. S.W. by the villages of Vesse (or Vaisse) and Serbannes, and the forest of Montpensier.

[Headnote: GANNAT. AIGUEPERSE.]

The Chteau d'Effiat (15th cent.) belonged in the 16th cent. to Antoine Coiffier Ruse, a marshal of France, whose eldest son was the unfortunate Cinq-Mars. It was afterwards purchased by the famous Scotch financier Law of Lauriston, who had to give it up to his creditors. The castle was dismantled by order of the State, but is now partially restored. 3 m. W., on the line between Gannat and Clermont, is Aigueperse, pop. 2600. Inn: St. Louis. Acoach runs between Aigueperse and Randan, 8 m. E. (see below). Between Vichy and the railway station of St. Remy is the modernised Chteau of Charmeil on the Allier, 3 m. N. from Vichy. It forms a pleasant afternoon drive.

2 m. N. from St. Germain-des-Fosses railway station are the ruins of the Chteau de Billy (14th cent.), formerly one of the strongest and most imposing in the Bourbonnais. In the village are some old houses.

17 m. N.E. by rail from Vichy, on the, Lyons line, is La Palisse on the Bbre, pop. 2830; Inn: H. de l'cu; with a castle (14th cent.) on an eminence overlooking the town (see p.346).

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{224}{ } SAINT-REMI-EN-ROLLAT, 867 ft. above the sea.

{235}{294} GANNAT, pop. 6000. Inns: Nord; Poste. Atown of crooked streets, on the Andelot, at the confines of the plain of La Limagne. The church of St. Croix (choir 11th cent., nave reconstructed in the 14th cent.), is a good specimen of the architecture of Auvergne. Some of the windows are by J. du Paroy. In the "Place" are two houses, one belonging to the Dukes of Bourbon, the other to the Fontanges family, both 15th cent. Gannat is famous for beer. Junction at Gannat with the railway system of the Chemins de Fer d'Orleans, leading to Orleans and Tours, and the Feudal Castles on the Loire. See Black's Normandy, Brittany, and Touraine.

{242}{288} AIGUEPERSE, pop. 2600. Hotels: St. Louis; Lion d'Or. The finest building is the Sainte Chapelle, built in 1475. The Htel de Ville is in a convent of the Ursulines, built in 1650. Acoach from this station goes to Randan in the Limagne, 8m. E., pop. 2000, with a beautiful castle of bright and dark coloured bricks, reconstructed in 1822 by Mme. Ad. d'Orleans. 2 m. distant, on the border of the forest of Randan, is another castle constructed by Mme. in the style of the Middle Ages. See under excursions from Vichy.

[Headnote: RIOM.]

{253}{277} RIOM, 1105 ft. above the sea, pop. 11,000. Inns: H.Paris; Poste; Puy-de-Dome. Diligences to Volvic, 3m. S.W.; to Chtelguyon, 5m. N.; and to Chteauneuf, 20m. N.W. The most interesting church in Riom is St. Amable, 12th cent., with a large nave supported on 14 piers, each pier having three engaged columns. On the tower and south transept is the same kind of rude mosaic which ornaments the church of Issoire. Near St. Amable is the Tour de l'Horloge, 16th cent., and close to it a few 15th and 16th cent. houses. Down this same street, the Rue de l'Horloge, is the church of Notre Dame, 15th cent. Attached to the west end of the Palais de Justice is the Ste. Chapelle, 14th cent., consisting of a choir, with a pinnacle at each corner of the west end. In the building called the "Htel Chabrol" is the museum and picture gallery.

20 m. N.W. from Riom, by diligence starting at 6 A.M., are the mineral baths of Chteauneuf, pop. 1000. Hotels: Viple; Denys; Mossier. Water saline. Temperature of the fourteen springs from 60 to 102 Fahr. Recommended for obstruction of the liver, neuralgia, nervous affections of the heart, cutaneous diseases, glandular swellings. Bath, 1 fr.

5 m. N. from Riom by omnibus are the hot mineral springs of Chtelguyon, most picturesquely situated among mountains. Hotels: Bains; Thermes; Barthlemy; Marret; Lacroix. Bathing establishment with every accessory. Recommended for dyspepsia, constipation of the bowels, gall-stones, chronic bronchitis, syphilis. Water saline. Temp. 100 Fahr.

3 m. S.W. from Riom by diligence is Volvic, pop. 4000, built on lava. Visit the church, the Muse in the Mairie, and the workshops where the lava brought from the quarries of the Puy de la Nugre is hewn (see p. 377).

[Headnote: CLERMONT-FERRAND.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{260}{269} CLERMONT-FERRAND, 1335 ft. above the sea, pop. 43,000, on an eminence crowned by the cathedral, of which the principal faade, the west entrance, is towards the Place de Jaude, while the chancel or eastern end is towards the railway station. Hotels: in the Place de Jaude are the *Univers; *Poste, for commercials; Europe. Just off the Place de Jaude are the Paix; France. All the above are large houses. Near the Acadmie and the Botanic Gardens, the H. des Facults, asmall but good house. Among the hotels in front of the station the best is the H. des Voyageurs. Coaches from the Place de Jaude for Saint Mart, Royat, St. Amand, and Champeix. During summer, coach to nearly the top of the Puy-de-Dome (see page 372). In the "Place" are a large cabstand and offices where carriages may be hired for excursions.

[Headnote: POST OFFICE. CATHEDRAL.]

The general post office is in the Place St. Herem, down from the N. side of the cathedral, just under the Promenade de la Poterne, whence there is a charming view of the Puy-de-Dome mountains. In the Place St. Herem is a bronze statue of Blaise Pascal, 1623-1662, in a sitting posture. Alittle beyond the foot of the stairs to the right of the statue is the Temple Protestant, service 1 P.M. The first narrow street beyond the post office leads down to the Fontaine Petrifiante.

Large quantities of fruit are preserved in Clermont, both in the moist and crystalline (glac) state.

The most prominent edifice in Clermont is the Cathedral, founded in the 9th and rebuilt in the 14th cent. The material is basalt and Volvic lava, which admits of a very sharp edge. The narrow round belfry on the N. side is 165 ft. high. Round the nave and choir are twenty-eight, or, including those of the transepts, thirty-six fascicled piers, which rise nearly to the roof. Between are pointed arches, and immediately above, the triforium, having over each arch a treble window resting on four fascicled and three impost colonnettes. As the choir contracts towards the apsidal termination the piers become less massive and the arches 1/3 narrower. The stained glass of the clerestory windows of the nave dates from the 15th cent.; but only a few are complete, having been injured by a hailstorm in 1835. The best glass is in the apse and in the N. transept, dating from the 13th cent. The glass in the rose of the S. transept, which is also beautiful, is modern. The clock, with its three men to strike the hours and quarters, dates from the 16th cent. Ten chapels radiate from the choir. In the first on the N. side is a miracle-working image of Mary and Child.

The house in which Blaise Pascal was born in 1623 is No. 2 Passage Vernines, asmall kind of court near the right or S. angle of the principal entrance into the cathedral. It is more easily found by going to the front, No. 2 Place de la Cathedral, on the third story of which is a bust of Pascal. This part of the building is modern. Through the shop in a little room up a few steps is the exact spot where he was born.

[Headnote: NOTRE DAME DU PORT.]

The Rue des Notaires leads down from the cathedral to the Place de la Poterne, where there is a good view of the surrounding mountains. The large block of buildings passed on the right includes the Palais de Justice, the Htel de Ville, and the prison. The second street beyond these buildings, the Rue du Port, leads down to Notre Dame du Port, built in 578, destroyed by the Normans in 853 and restored in 866, according to the inscriptions on the tablet in the N. transept. The exterior is decorated with blind arches, mouldings, and dental friezes, while the apse and its radiating chapels have besides patterns in mosaic. From the intersection of the transept rises an octagonal tower.

In the interior the roof is waggon-vaulted with no groining. Round the nave are fourteen piers with attached columns, having on their capitals sculptured figures of men, animals, and plants. The chancel is surrounded by columns of the same kind, on which rest arches more or less stilted according to the width of the space. The triforium is massive and on short columns. All the glass is modern, excepting in the window behind the high altar and in each of the windows in the S. and N. ends of the chancel, which date from the beginning of the 13th cent.

Below the chancel is the crypt, supported on twelve massive columns. Over the altar is a miracle-working image, about 6 inches high, of Mary and child Jesus, found at the bottom of the well, 18 ft. deep, in 578, when the foundations of the first church were being laid. The well, which is covered, is in front of the altar. Its water is endowed with miraculous properties. The walls are lined with expressions of gratitude for favours obtained by praying to this tiny representative of the woman Mary.

It was within the walls of the upper church, when Pope UrbanII. and Peter the Hermit were exhorting their hearers in 1096 to undertake the first crusade, that the whole assembly, as if impelled by an immediate inspiration, exclaimed with one voice, "It is the will of God!" which words became the signal of battle in all the future exploits of the Crusaders.

The open space behind the statue of General Desaix leads to the wide Rue Lagarlaye and to the Boulevard du Taureau, in which is situated the Acadmie or College of Clermont, containing, besides the class-rooms, the picture gallery, the museum of natural history, and the Public Library founded by Massillon when bishop of this diocese.

[Headnote: BOTANIC GARDENS.]

Behind the Academy are the Botanic Gardens, in which a considerable part is wisely devoted to the training, grafting, and pruning of fruit trees and vines. Attached is the cole de Pisciculture, with tanks and a small aquarium. Near the Academy is the Htel Dieu. Tolerable wine is made at Puy-de-Dome, but it is generally cold and flat, and does not sit easily on the stomach.

[Headnote: ROMAGNAT.]

3 m. S. from Clermont is Romagnat, pop. 2000, at the foot of M.Rognon, 1875 ft., and 1m. more is Mt. Gergovia, 2240 ft., the site of the principal city of the Averni, which was successfully defended by Vercingetorix against a powerful army commanded by Csar, whom he compelled to retreat with great loss. The Roman headquarters are supposed to have been on a lower hill called Le Crest. (See also under Les Laumes, p.19.)

Coach to the Puy-de-Dome from Clermont. The road from Royat up to the Puy-de-Dome passes by Fontanat and the poor village of Font-de-l'Arbre; or, if preferred, the road to Fontgieve may be taken as far as the Baraque, and ascend by the S. side, which is easier.

The Puy-de-Dome is 4806 ft. above the level of the sea, has no crater, and is covered with a long tufted grass, with here and there a rough spongy rock cropping out, of volcanic origin, and called trachyte, of which the variety found here, and almost here alone, has been named domite. It is grayish-white, fine grained, compact, earthy, often friable, and with flakes of brown mica. It appears to be a decomposed trachyte, in which the feldspar has been affected, but not the mica. The most perfect craters here are the Puy-de-Pariou, 3970 ft. high, and the Nid de la Poule. On the top of the Puy-de-Dome is an observatory, connected with the keeper's house by an underground way. On the Puy are also the ruins of the chapel of St. Bernab, 2d or 3d cent., and of a Gallo-Roman temple to Mercury.

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