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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Headnote: S. MARCO—PICTURE-GALLERY.]

By referring to the plan, it will be observed that near to the Annunziata are the Academy of Fine Arts and the Church of S.Marco (standing from S.W. to N.E.) We shall commence with San Marco, erected in 1290, and enlarged in 1427 by Michelozzi. Interior.—Over central door a "Crucifixion" by Giotto. First altar right, Thomas Aquinas before the Cross by S. di Tito, and an Annunciation by P.Cavallini (covered). Second altar, Madonna and Saints, Fra. Bartolommeo. Third, Madonna. Here a small door opens into the sacristy built by Michelozzi, with statue of Christ by Novelli, and of S.Antonino by Montorsoli. To the left of the high altar is the Chapel of the Sacrament, with paintings by Tito, Empoli, Poccetti, and Passignano. In the left transept is the chapel of S.Antonino, with frescoes by Passignano in his best style, and a painting by Bronzino. Between the second and third altars on this the left side of the church, are the graves of the scholar Pico della Mirandola, d. 1494; the poet Girolano Benivieni, d. 1542; and of Poliziano, d. 1494, tutor to the sons of Lorenzo the Magnificent. To the right of the main entrance is the Convent, now the Picture-Gallery, of St. Mark. Open from 10 to 3. Fee, 1fr. Sundays free. During the 15th and 16th cent. this convent had for its superiors the good Bishop Antonino (d. 1459), Fra. Angelico Fiesole (d. 1455), Fra. Girolamo Savonarola, the great preacher and martyr (1498), and Fra. Bartolommeo della Porta (d. 1517), the best collection of whose works is in this convent. Among the very fine frescoes are—On the door of the church, left hand wall, "St. Peter, martyr, with his hand on his mouth," B.Angelico. On the end or S.E. wall, "Crucifixion," with St. Dominic, B.Angelico. The door in the wall opposite the church opens into the refectory, with a fresco representing Angels bringing food to St. Dominic, by Sogliani (d. 1544), pupil of L.Credi. Above is a "Crucifixion" by Fra. Bartolommeo. The door in the south corner of the east wall opens into the chapter-house, with a large fresco of the Crucifixion by B.Angelico. Avery famous work. The crucifix on the left is by B.Montelupo, and the other by his son. The door in the middle of the east wall gives access to the picture-gallery in the upper storey. At the foot of this stair is a grand picture, aLast Supper (Cenacolo) by Ghirlandaio, who has dressed the company in the costume of the brotherhood. From this ascend to the first floor to what were the cells or rooms of the monks, ranged on each side of a narrow passage ornamented with paintings in fresco. At the head of the stair is a very beautiful Annunciation by Fra. Angelico, and also by him, on the opposite wall, aSt. Dominic embracing the Cross. Opposite the Crucifixion is the best of the corridors. The cells of the right corridor are ornamented with frescoes, principally by Fra. Benedetto, and those of the left principally by his more famous brother, Fra. Angelico. Next the staircase we have the library. Second room, banners used for Dante's festival in 1865. Next, two frescoes by Benedetto. In the last two rooms, one a little higher than the other, Cosmo de' Medici (Pater Patri) used frequently to reside. His portrait is by Pontormo, "The Jesus of Nazareth" is by Fra. Bartolommeo, and the beautiful fresco by Angelico. In the cell opposite is a Crucifixion by Angelico. In the third room, painted on wood by Angelico, are an "Adoration" and an "Annunciation." In the fourth, also by him, other two famous pictures on wood, the Madonna della Stella and the Coronation of Mary. Turning to the right we find all the cells (as far as that of Savonarola), with paintings by Fra. Benedetto or some pupil of Angelico. In the middle of this corridor is the beautiful Madonna enthroned, an admirable work of B.Angelico. At the end, in a kind of chapel, are two Madonnas on the wall by Fra. Bartolomeo: aVirgin in terra invetriata, by L. della Robbia; the bust of Savonarola, full of expression, modelled by Bastianini; and a sketch of the bust of Benivieni by Bastianini. In the two little cells at the side, in which dwelt Savonarola, are preserved some manuscripts, acrucifix, and other objects which belonged to him; as also his portrait painted by Fra. Bartolommeo, and a view of the Piazza della Signoria, with the burning of Savonarola and his companions. Proceeding along the corridor, in which there are no cells on the right for some distance, we come to more frescoes by Benedetto, the best being a "Coronation" in the third cell.

[Headnote: ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS.]

At the south-west corner of the Piazza San Marco, at No. 34 Via Ricasoli, is the entrance to the Academy of Fine Arts. Open from 9 till 3. Fee, 1fr. Sundays, free. The principal door is by Paoletti. In the vestibule are reliefs and busts of contemporary artists by L. della Robbia. In the cloister are bas-reliefs by the brother and nephew of Robbia, and Bologna's models for his statues of Virtue and Vice, and of the Rape of the Sabines. Acorridor, containing statues in stucco, to the right of the main entrance, leads to the library. Midway, left hand, adoor opens into the principal gallery, the hall of the large pictures, with 124 paintings, by the following artists: M.Albertinelli, A. Allori, B.Angelico, Spinello Aretino, Fra. Bartolommeo, Biliverti, F.Boschi, Botticelli, Brina, Bronzino, Buffalmaccio, Calabrese, A.Castagno, Cigoli, Cimabue, Credi, Curradi, C.Dolci,I. Empoli, Gen. da Fabriano, A. and T.Gaddi, R. del Garbo, Ghirlandaio, Giotto, Ligozzi, Fra. F.Lippi, Aur. Lomi, Masaccio, Giov. da Milano, Monaco, S.P. Nelli, L. di Niccolo, D.Passignani, Perugino, F.Pesellino, Fra. P. da Pistoia, Poccetti, Fr. Poppi, C.Rosselli, A. Sacchi, A. del Sarto, L.Signorelli, G.A. Sogliani, A.Squazelli, Santi di Tito, Vasari, Veracini, Verrochio, Vignali. In No. 43, the Baptism of Christ, by Verrochio, the angel to the right of the spectator was painted by Leonardo da Vinci when he was twenty-three years old. No. 115, by Cigoli, St. Francis. It is said that in order to obtain the unearthly expression of the face the painter kept a poor pilgrim for many hours without food, until he fainted from hunger. This room is followed by a chamber communicating with the Tribune, built in 1875, for the celebrated statue of David, sculptured by Michael Angelo when 28 years of age. It was brought here in 1873 from the Piazza della Signoria, where it had stood 369 years. From the library a door opens into the Hall of Ancient Pictures, containing sixty paintings. The artists of a large number are unknown. The others are by B.Angelico, S. Aretino, M.Arezzo, A. Baldovinetti, B.Berlinghieri, Neri di Bicci, Sim. da Bologna, S.Botticelli, P. di Buonaguida, A.Ceraiolo, D. Ghirlandaio, Bicci di Lorenzo, G.Pacchiarotto, and Signorelli. In the hall of the small pictures there are seventy-one paintings, by artists already named, the most important being Fra. and B.Angelico, who, with Sandro Botticelli, Francesco Granacci, Luca Signorelli, and Lorenzo di Credi, are better represented here than anywhere else. The most remarkable are 41, "The Day of Judgment," by Fra. Angelico. 13, A"Nativity," by L. di Credi; and 18, Portraits of two Vallombrosian friars, by Raphael or Perugino. Beyond this is a collection of original designs in a room called the Sala dei Cartoni. 2 and 5 are by Raphael. 6, Correggio. 3 and 12, Ben. Poccetti. 1, 4, 9, 10, 11, 18, and 22, Fra. Bartolommeo. 19, Bronzino. 7, 8, and 20, F. Barroccio. 24, Credi, and 23, Carlo Cignani.

From the vestibule a staircase leads up to the Galleria dei Quadri Moderni, acollection of 160 modern paintings, distributed in six rooms. The custodian of the academy keeps the keys of the Cloister dello Scalzo, No. 69 Via Cavour, adorned with fourteen frescoes by A. del Sarto, and two by his friend Franciabigio, in chiaroscuro, during 1517 to 1526, illustrative of the life of John the Baptist. They are not in a good state of preservation.

[Headnote: MOSAICS—GALLERIA DEI LAVORI IN PIETRE DURE.]

Adjoining the Accademia delle belle Arti, at No. 82 Via degli Alfani, is the entrance into the Galleria dei Lavori in Pietre Dure, open from 10 to 3 daily. Entrance free. Rooms 1, 2, and 3 contain, in glass cases, specimens of all the minerals and rocks used in Florence in the manufacture of mosaics. They are numbered, and accompanied with explanatory catalogues. They consist chiefly of varieties of marble and alabaster, agates of different shades, chalcedony, jasper, lapis lazuli, and red porphyry. The large room contains the finished mosaics, all for sale, at prices from 80 upwards. Mosaics are made and sold in numerous establishments throughout the city, but the best and most artistic are sold here.

THE PALACES OF FLORENCE.

The palaces of Florence are great square edifices of a grand and gloomy aspect, built of dark blue stones (pietra forte) measuring from 3 to 4feet. The bases, to the height of from 20 to 30 feet, consist of coarsely chiselled rubble work, which lessens the baldness, and contributes character and effect to the from 200 to 300 feet of plain wall. At intervals are strong bronze banner-rings and torch-sockets, while at each corner is a curiously-shaped lamp of wrought-iron. Near the main entrance there is generally a niche, with an opening called a "cantina," just large enough to allow a quart bottle to pass through, whence various articles of food are transmitted into the house. Those that sell by retail the oil and wine from their estates have painted over this niche "Vino Olio." The empty bottle, with the money, having been passed through, it reappears shortly after full. The windows of the first range are generally 10 feet from the ground, and are grated and barred like those of a prison. Under the eaves runs a deep cornice with bold projecting soffits. The roofs of the palaces, as well as those of the smallest houses, are of a low pitch, and covered with tiles of two different forms—a flat tile with ledges on the side, and a tile nearly semi-cylindrical and tapering upwards, which thus covers the interstice between the ledges of the flat tiles. The entrance to the palaces is by a high arched massive gateway, giving access to a court surrounded by an arcade or loggia, whence massive stone staircases lead up to the highest storeys. The lofty ceilings of the principal rooms are decorated, and the beams though displayed, are carved, painted, and gilded, and contribute to the grandeur of the whole. The floors are of thin bricks, either laid flat or edgeways in the herring-bone or spina di pesce fashion. As in Genoa, several of the palaces contain collections of works of art open to the public on certain days. [Headnote: PALAZZO VECCHIO.] Of these the best are—first, the Palazzo Vecchio, in the Piazza della Signoria, erected in 1218 by Arnolfo di Lapo. It is surmounted by a noble antique tower 305 feet high, commanding an excellent view of Florence. The entrance is through a superb but gloomy court, surrounded by an arcade on massive columns, by Michelozzi, substituted for those of Arnoldo in 1434. They are 8feet in circumference, and of admirable proportions. In the centre is a neat little fountain by Andrea Verocchio, intended originally for the Villa Careggi. Having traversed this court, ascend first stair left hand, and keep turning to the left the length of the first storey, where take first door right, which opens into the great hall or council chamber, 170 feet long by 77 broad, built in 1495, but altered by Vasari in 1540, who also added the frescoes on the walls and oil-painting on the ceiling illustrative of events in the history of Florence. Now ascend to the second storey, where enter the ante-room to the left, the Sala de' Gigli, with a grand but injured fresco by Ghirlandaio in 1482. The lintel of the door in this room opening into the next, the Sala d'Udienza, is by Benedetto da Majano. On one of the leaves of the door is a linear drawing of Dante, and on the other one of Petrarch. The Sala d'Udienza is painted in fresco by Salviati, illustrative of Roman history. It communicates with the Cappella S.Bernardo, beautifully painted in imitation of mosaic by R.Ghirlandaio. Near the chapel of St. Bernard (sometimes approached by the four rooms of Eleanora de Toledo, painted by Stradan of Bruges, and at other times by a narrow passage), is a small chapel beautifully painted by Bronzino, and an adjoining chamber painted by Poccetti.

[Headnote: DANTE'S HOUSE.]

North from the palace, by the Via dei Magazzini, is the Via S.Martino, in which is a house with a marble slab over the door, bearing the following inscription: "In questa casa degli Alighieri nacque il Divino Poeta." —Dante. He was married to Gemma in S.Martino, ahumble little church close by, in the Via dei Magazzini. The Beatrice of Dante (like Petrarch's Laura) lived in the Palazzo Salviati, in the Via del Proconsolo. She married Giovanni delle Bande Nere, and became the mother of CosmoI.

[Headnote: PALAZZO STROZZI—CORSINI—RICCARDI.]

In the Via Tornabuoni is the Palazzo Strozzi, open on Wednesdays from 11 to 1. It was built in 1489 from designs by Majano. The ironwork, rings, and lanterns are by Grosso di Ferrara, 1510. The picture-gallery on the first floor is contained in four large rooms elegantly and comfortably furnished. In each room there is a list of the paintings on a card. The two most remarkable are—Portrait of one of the ladies Strozzi by Leonardo da Vinci; and another of one of the children, "La Puttina," by Tiziano. Between the Strozzi Palace and the Arno is the Piazza S.Trinit. In it, opposite the Hotel du Nord, is a column of Oriental granite from the baths of Antoninus, presented to CosmoI. by Pius IV. Ashort way down the Arno (see plan), at No. 10 Lungarno Corsini, is the Palazzo Corsini, built (1618-56) by G.Silvani, staircase by Ferri. The collection of paintings, contained in twelve rooms, may be visited on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays from 10 till 2. Entrance by No. 7 Via Parione.

Next to the church S. Giovannino (see p. 264), at No. 1 Via Cavour, is the Prefettura della Provincia di Firenze, formerly the Palazzo Riccardi, 300 feet long by 90 in height. This, the cradle of the Medicean family, was erected in 1431, after the design of Michelozzi, by Cosmo Pater Patriae, and continued to be the residence of the Medici till 1540, when it was abandoned for the Palazzo Vecchio. The first row of large windows was opened by Michael Angelo; for originally the base, rising to 30 feet, presented one unbroken space, varied only by the projection of the vast and rudely chiselled stones of which it is composed. In the court below the corridor are statues and busts, and the sarcophagi which were formerly outside the baptistery, and a curtain beautifully sculptured in stone over one of the arches. Upstairs are the Biblioteca Riccardi, apicture-gallery, and a small chapel covered with most charming frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli 1400-1478, painted by lamplight, as the chapel at that time had no window. Palace open from 12.30 till2.

Down the Arno, beyond the Ponte alla Carraia (see plan), is the Church of Ognissanti. In the chapel next the door of the sacristy repose the remains of Amerigo Vespucci, who gave his name to America. In the centre of the nave are frescoes by Ghirlandaio and Botticelli. The frescoes in the cloisters illustrating the life of St. Francis are by Giovanni and Ligozzi. The Last Supper, in the refectory, is by Ghirlandaio. Alittle way up the street called the Borgo Ognissanti is the Hospital S.Giovanni di Dio, founded by Amerigo Vespucci; while the house in which he lived and died stood on the site of the present No. 21 Borgo Ognissanti.

[Headnote: PARK OF FLORENCE—VILLA CAREGGI—PALAZZO TORRIGIANI.]

At the west end of the town, near the Porta Prato, is the Cascine or Park of Florence, on the right or north hank of the Arno, much frequented in the afternoon. An omnibus runs every 10 minutes between the Porta Prato and the Piazza della Signoria. Opposite the Cascine is the hill Monte Oliveto, page 251. Nearly two miles north from the railway station by the Romito road is the Villa Careggi, built by Michelozzi for Cosmo Pater Patriae, in which he died on August 1, 1464, as also Lorenzo the Magnificent, on the 8th of April 1492. At the Ponte alle Grazie, the first bridge above the Ponte Vecchio, is the Palazzo Torrigiani, built by Baccio d'Agnolo, containing a valuable collection of paintings, accompanied with catalogues. Open daily excepting Saturdays and Sundays.

FIESOLE.

At the east side of the town, by the Via Alfieri or Pinti, is the Protestant cemetery, between the Boulevards Eugenio and Amedeo, the latter leading northwards to the Piazza Cavour with the Porta S.Gallo. From this Porta commences the road to the Etrurian city of Faesula, the modern Fiesole, 3miles from Florence, and about 600 feet above it, on the summit of a ridge composed of a dark-coloured sandstone. Rail to Fiesole. Carriage there and back, 8 to 10 fr. From the Porta S.Gallo it is an easy walk of about 2 miles. See the excellent map of the environs (Dintorni) of Florence, published by the "Istituto Topografico Militare," 1fr. Beyond the Porta S.Gallo take the road leading up the left or east bank of the Mugnone for about 1mile, as far as the Villa Palmieri, where, in 1348, Boccaccio wrote his Decameron. From this the road ascends between walls about 1mile more to the Church and Convent of S.Domenico, in which Beato Angelico was one of the monks. The church contains an Annunciation by Empoli; aBaptism of Christ by Credi; aSt. Francis by Cigoli; and in the choir a Virgin with Saints by B.Angelico. Near S.Domenico is the Villa Landore, which was occupied for many years by Walter Savage Landor. The road striking off to the left or towards the Mugnone, leads to the venerable abbey of La Badia di Fiesole, rebuilt in 1462 by Brunelleschi. The road from St. Domenico to Fiesole is rather steep, and passes, at about two-thirds of the way, the beautiful old mansion with terraced gardens called the Villa Mozzi or Spence, once a favourite residence of Lorenzo il Magnifico, and the place in which the Pazzi conspiracy was formed in 1478. Ashort way beyond, the road enters the Piazza of Fiesole (pop. 11,500. Inns: Locanda Firenze; Trattoria l'Aurora), famous for views and stone-quarries. One side of the Piazza is occupied by the Cathedral, dedicated to St. Romulus, commenced in 1028, and in form resembling S Miniato. To the right of the high altar is the mausoleum of Bishop Salutati, and a marble tabernacle by Mino da Fiesole in 1465. The frescoes on the ceiling of the chancel are by Ferrucci; and the statue of St. Romulus in a sitting posture by Luca della Robbia or his nephew. In a garden behind the church are the remains of a Roman theatre. The road passing this garden leads to the ruins of the ancient walls, formed of huge uncemented blocks, not parallel, but of different sizes, and some of them indented into each other. Fronting the Cathedral is the commencement of a little stony road leading up to the terrace of a Franciscan convent, commanding a glorious view, and to the church of S.Alessandro, with columns of Cipollino marble.

[Headnote: S. SALVI—VENCIGLIATO—SETTIGNANO.]

S. SALVI. VENCIGLIATO. SETTIGNANO.—1 mile east from the Porta S.Croce, by the road following the railway, is S.Salvi, containing a Last Supper, by A. del Sarto, in the refectory. From S.Salvi northwards to the Via Settignano, which follow for 1 mile eastwards, then take the road to the left going northwards, and crossing the Mensola above its union with the Frassinaia, is the Castle of Vencigliato, founded in the 10th cent., 5miles north-east from the Porta S.Croce, and situated on the summit of a hill commanding a splendid view. In 1860 it was restored at the expense of an Englishman, Temple Leader. 1 mile east from the part of Settignano road, whence the Vencigliato road ramifies, is Settignano, the birthplace of Michael Angelo.

Straw-plaiting gives employment to numerous females around Florence. The wheat used is sown in March, and is cut before the grain is ripe. The straw is then divided into pieces from 6 to 8 inches long, and exposed for sale in the markets in small bunches. In this state it is bought by the plaiters, who in their turn expose for sale yards of plaited straw to the hatters.

The vin ordinaire given at the restaurants of Florence is principally the Vino Monteferrata, which, when two or three years old, resembles an inferior dry claret. In Savoy and Tuscany large flat cakes are made of ground chestnuts. They are sold hot, have a sweetish taste, and are very nourishing to those who can digest them.

Excursion to Vallombrosa, Camaldoli, and Alvernia to the east of Florence. (See Map on page 199.)

To Vallombrosa. Take rail to Pontassieve, 13 miles east from Florence, pop. 11,000. Inn: Italia; where hire coach for Pelago, 6 miles east. Fare, 6 fr. Pelago (pop. 2000). Inn: Buon Cuore; whence mule, 5fr., guide, 2fr., to Vallombrosa, 8 miles south. Or coach as far as Tosi, about 5 miles from Pelago, and the rest by mule or on foot. At Pontassieve a carriage for two at 12 fr. per day, or for four at 20 fr. per day, may be hired for visiting the three sanctuaries. Having visited Vallombrosa, return to Pelago, and proceed to Bibbiena, 15 miles east, by the Consuma, Borgo alla Collina, and Poppi, 4miles from Bibbiena. From Bibbiena mules or horses must be hired for Alvernia, 2 hours distant. From Alvernia a fatiguing path leads to Camaldoli, in about 6 hours. The better plan is to go to Camaldoli from Bibbiena, distant 4 miles northwards from Bibbiena.

[Headnote: CAMALDOLI—SACRO EREMO.]

A little beyond Pelago the road to Vallombrosa begins to ascend the Apennines, disclosing in the ascent many charming views of hills crowned with villas, and mountains covered with evergreen oaks, intermingled with bare perpendicular cliffs, and roaring torrents tumbling from the crags. Vallombrosa is situated 2980 feet above the sea, on the side of Mt. Protomagno, which rises 2340 feet higher. Although the scenery does not agree altogether with Milton's description in Paradise Lost, book iv. lines 131-159, it possesses that charming loveliness which inspired the divine poet with the ideas conveyed in these lines. The steep acclivity is clothed with a "woody theatre" of stateliest chestnuts, oaks, firs, and beeches, which in ranks ascend, waving one above the other, shade above shade; or hang from the very brows of precipices, whose verdant sides are with thicket overgrown, grotesque, and wild. "Higher than their tops" an occasional glade breaks the uniformity of the sylvan scene, while on the summit expands a wide grassy down with enamelled colours mixed, from which there is a "prospect large" over foliaged hills, and the wild, bleak, sterile mountains of Camaldoli and Alvernia. The church and convent were erected in 1637. The latter is now occupied partly by a forestry school and partly by an inn. Nearly 300 feet higher, by a winding path, is Il Paradisino, a little hermitage romantically situated on a projecting rock commanding a grand view. The scagliola decorations in the chapel were by an Englishman, Father Hugford, who excelled in various branches of natural philosophy, and in the art of imitating marble by that composition called scagliola. He died in the last century. The ascent to the summit of the Protomagno occupies 1 hour; guide 2 fr. The road to Camaldoli winds round the mountain that shelters Vallombrosa on the north side, and then descends into the Val d'Arno Inferiore. On a knoll, encircled with trees in the middle of the plain, is the noble now ruined castle of Romena, and behind it the villages of Poppi and Bibbiena.

[Headnote: CAMALDOLI—SACRO EREMO. ALVERNIA.]

The abbey of Camaldoli, founded by S. Romualdo, aCalabrian anchorite, in 1046, is situated on the torrent Giogana, in a valley surrounded by high mountains. About 2 miles above the monastery, on a hill to the north, by a zig-zag path through the forest, is Il Sacro Eremo, the hermitage of the convent. The church is neat, and possesses an Annunciation in relief by Robbia. From the culminating point of the ridge, the Prato al Soglio, is one of the finest views in this part of Italy. About 14 miles from Camaldoli, on Mons Alvernus, alofty rock towering above the neighbouring eminences, and split into numberless pinnacles of fantastic forms, full of grottoes and galleries hollowed out by nature, is situated the convent of Alvernia, founded by St. Francis in 1213, and inhabited by about 110 monks. From the church a covered gallery leads to the cave with the chapel of the Stemmate, in which St. Francis is said to have received, imprinted on his body, marks similar to those produced on Jesus Christ by the crucifixion. From Camaldoli and from Alvernia return to Bibbiena, where the diligence may be taken to Arezzo, pop. 12,000, whence rail either to Rome, 141 miles south, or to Florence, 54 miles north-west. The drive from Pontassieve to Florence, by the Arno, is very beautiful.

Florence is 291 m. S.E. from Turin by Pistoja, Bologna, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and Alessandria. Time by quick trains, 13 hrs. 1st class, 52 frs. 95 c.; 2d class, 37 frs. 5 c. See Black's South France, East half, page 233.

Florence is 196 m. N. from Rome by Arezzo, Terontola, Chiusi, Orvieto, and Orte. 8 hrs. by quick train. 1st class, 34 frs. 30 c.; 2d class, 23 frs. 55 c. Florence is 60m. E. from Leghorn by Empoli, Pontedera, and Pisa. 2 hrs. 20 min. by quick train. 1st class, 10 frs. 45 c.; 2d class, 7frs. 15 c. See the "Indicatore Ufficiale." To the price given in the Indicatore the amount of the tax has to be added.

[Headnote: BUSALLA. NOVI.]

Genoa to Turin by Alessandria and Asti.

Distance, 103 m. N.W. Time by quick trains, 4 hrs. Map, page 199.

Genoa.—The train after traversing the first tunnel emerges at the busy populous suburb of Sampierdarena, 1m. W. from Genoa and 2 m. E. from Sestri-Ponente. The rail now turns northward and ascends the valley of the impetuous torrent of the Polcevera, traversing six tunnels. Having passed Rivarolo, Bolzaneto, and Pontedecimo, the train arrives at Busalla, 14m. N. from Genoa and 89m. S. from Turin. Busalla is situated on the culminating part of the line (1192 ft.), on the crest which divides the basin of the Adriatic from the Gulf of Genoa. Here also the gradients of the line are highest, being about 1 in 28 or 35 in 1000. The longest tunnel on the line, the Galleria dei Giovi, 3390 yards, is just before arriving at Busalla. It perforates calcareous schists, and is ventilated by 14 shafts. The scenery, which has been hitherto very picturesque, becomes tame after traversing the last tunnel at Arquata, 26m. N. from Genoa, in the narrow valley of the Scrivia. 33m. N. from Genoa, and 70m. S. from Turin, is Novi, H. La Sirena, atown of 11,000 inhabitants, situated among hills; where, in August 15, 1799, agreat battle took place between the French under Joubert and the Austrians and Russians under Suwarrow, when the former were defeated and their general killed. Novi is 60m. S.W. from Milan by Tortana, Voghera, and Pavia.

[Headnote: ALESSANDRIA.]

47 m. N. from Genoa and 56 m. S.E. from Turin is Alessandria, pop. 30,000, 234m. N.W. from Florence by Piacenza, Parma, Modena, Bologna, and Pistoja. See Black's South France, East half. See map, page 199.

At the Alessandria station hot coffee and chocolate are always ready. Hotels: L'Universo; Italia; Europa. Alessandria received its name in compliment to Pope Alexander III. The citadel, capable of holding 50,000 men, was built in 1728. The cathedral has a faade in the modern taste, with granite columns; in the interior is a colossal statue of St. Joseph by Parodi. The other churches are the Madonna di Loreto and S. Lorenzo. The Ghilino palace, now belonging to the crown, was designed by the elder Alfieri. Two great fairs are held annually at Alessandria—one in April, the other in October. In the neighbourhood is the village of Marengo, near which took place (June 1800) the battle between the French and the Austrians that was first lost by Bonaparte and afterwards won by Desaix and Kellermann. From Alessandria the train ascends the valley of the Tanaro, passing the minor stations of Solero, Felizzano, Cerro, and Annone; then at 34m. E. from Turin, and 68 m. N.W. from Genoa, arrives at

[Headnote: ASTI.]

Asti (the Hasta Pampeia, or Pompey's Market, of the Latins), aplace of 18,000 inhabitants. H. Leone d'Oro. Celebrated for its sparking wines, both red and white. The cathedral is a large and fine Gothic structure (1348). The adjacent church of S.Giovanni is built upon a basilica, of which the existing part is borne by monolithic columns with capitals bearing Christian symbols, 6th cent. Near Porta Alessandria is the small Baptistery of San Pietro, 11th cent., resting on short columns with square capitals. Alfieri, the poet, was born here, in a palace built by his uncle, who was a count and an architect. He died in 1803. The tertiary strata of the neighbourhood are very rich in fossils. Loop-line from Asti to Milan in 3 hrs.

From Asti the train descends by Villafranca, where there is a viaduct over the Standvasso, about 100 ft. above the stream. Farther W., at Trofarello, is the junction with the loop-lines to Savona, 82 m. S. (page 183), and to Cuneo, 46 m. S.W. (page 183).

Five miles S. from Turin is Moncalieri. On the hill-side, overlooking the town, is the large royal palace in which Victor EmmanuelI. died in 1823.

For Turin, see Black's South France, East half. Loop-line to Pinerolo, 23 m. S.W., and to Torre-Pellice, 10m. farther west, in the Waldensian valleys. See Black's South France, East half.



Paris to Turin and the Italian Riviera.

By FONTAINEBLEAU, JOIGNY, DIJON, MACON, BOURG, AMBRIEUX, CULOZ, AIX-LES-BAINS, CHAMBERY, MODANE, and MONT CENIS. The continuation of this line southwards from Turin extends to Genoa by Alessandria (page 279).

Part First.—PARIS TO MODANE, 431 miles. Time by the Rapide, 13 hrs. 36 min. Part Second.—MODANE TO TURIN, 58 miles. Time by Express, 3 hrs. 27 min.

Time-tables.—In England, see under "London to Turin" in the Continental Time-tables of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, which Company give through tickets. In Paris, start from the station of the Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon. At the bookstall buy one of their Time-tables, 40 c. The best resting-places are Dijon, Macon, and Chambery. For the whole route consult the Sketch Map on the fly-leaf. For the northern part, between Paris and Macon, see map, page 1; and from Macon to Turin, map, page 26.

PART I.—PARIS TO MODANE.

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{ }{431} PARIS. In front of the departure side of the Chemins de Fer de Lyon Station is the Grand Htel de l'Univers, and under it a Caf Restaurant. Alittle farther off is Htel Jules Csar. Good restaurant also in the station. For the first 274m. between Paris and Macon, see pages 1 to 26. At Morel junction the Vichy line separates from this one. At Montereau, 49m. from Paris (p.10), the Express halts 4 min.; but not the Rapide. At La Roche (p.14) both the Rapide and the Express halt 5 min. At Tonnerre (p.17) they halt again 5 min. At Les Laumes (p.19) the Express halts 5 min. At Dijon (p.20) both halt 6 min. At Macon (p.26) they halt 5 min. At Macon the Turin line separates from the Marseilles line, and goes 23m. E. to Bourg, 297m. from Paris. At Bourg, in the church of Brou, are sumptuous mausoleums. From Bourg a loop-line traverses a picturesque country by Nantua to Geneva, 97m. W. (See map, p.27; and for description, Black's France, North half). 5m. S.E. from Bourg the line crosses the Ain at the village of Pont-Ain, and afterwards arrives at Ambrieu, 316m. S.E. from Paris, and 114m. N.W. from Modane. At Ambrieu the Rapide halts 10 min., and the Express 15 min. Ambrieu, pop. 4000, is a pleasant town on the Albarine at the base of the Jura mountains, and connected by rail with Lyon, 32m. west. From Ambrieu another loop-line extends 11m. S. through a mountainous country to Montallieu, pop. 2000, with important quarries, on the Fouron near its junction with the Rhne. Between Ambrieu and Culoz the rail passes through the last ramifications of the Jura mountains. In approaching Culoz it winds round the S. base of Mt. Colombier, 4733 ft., ascended in 4 hrs. either from Culoz or Artemart. The view is admirable—on one side the Savoy Alps, with the lakes of Bourget, Annecy, and Geneva; while on the side of France it extends to Lyons and the mountains of Ardche.

[Headnote: LAGNIEU.]

8 m. S. from Ambrieu and 3 m. N. from Montallieu is Lagnieu, pop. 3500, station for La Balme, pop. 1000, 3m. S.W., on south side of Rhne. There is a cave here with great galleries and stalactites, and a lake 130 yards long, 8 yards wide, and 13 ft. deep. It is easily approached from Aix-les-Bains by the Lyons steamboats. Alight at the Salette station, 20 min. walk from the entrance into the grotto.

From Ambrieu the train ascends the valley of the Albarine, which, after St. Rambert-de-Joux, 7m. S.E. from Ambrieu, becomes wild and imposing. At Tenay, Inn: Pittion, 4m. farther, the train quits the Albarine and traverses a sequestered valley to

[Headnote: VIRIEU LE GRAND. CULOZ.]

Virieu le Grand, 340 m. S.E. from Paris, pop. 1100. Junction with loop-line to Belley, 9m. S., pop. 5000; Inns: Rey; Camus, with important quarries of lithographic stones. 442m. from Paris and 19m. N. from Aix-les-Bains is Artemart, with the falls of Cerveyrieu.

347 m. S.E. from Paris, 14 m. N. from Aix-les-Bains, and 83 m. N. from Modane, is Culoz, on the Rhne, about m. E. from the station, 771 ft. above the sea, pop. 1200. Near the station are the inns *H. Folliet; H. Mmon. Agreat deal of carriage-changing takes place here. 41m. N.E. is Geneva; see Black's North France, and map p.26. 4m. S. from Culoz and 10m. N. from Aix-les-Bains is Chtillon, 700 ft. above the sea, on the N.E. extremity of Lake Bourget, 2 hrs. distant by row-boat from Aix. In the castle, 13th cent., commanding a charming view of the lake, Pope Celestin was born.

Lake Bourget is 700 ft. above the sea, 10m. long, from 2 to 3m. wide, and from 200 to 300 ft. deep. The W. side is bounded by the steep ridge of Mont Chat. Opposite to Aix is a depression, the Col du Mont Chat, 2070 ft., and immediately to the S. abold craggy peak, La Dent du Chat, 5302 ft., ascended from the little village of Bordeaux in about 4 hrs., after a very fatiguing climb. One of the best points for a view over the lake and the surrounding country is the Revard, 5112 ft., one of the summits of the ridge Mont d'Azy, which bounds the E. side of the plain of Aix (see page 285). It is ascended from the village of Mouxy in about 4 hrs.

The best of the fish caught in the lake is the ombre-chevalier. The lavaret is peculiar to it. There are also trout, perch, pike, shad, carp, gudgeon, tench, and barbel.

[Headnote: AIX-LES-BAINS. HOTELS. CABS.]

{362}{69} AIX-LES-BAINS, 850 ft. above the sea, 1 m. from Lake Bourget, pop. 6000. The Casino is a handsome building, with park of its own extending to the railway station. First-class hotels—their pension is from 12 to 20 frs., but it is necessary to arrange the price at the commencement. On each side of the Casino are the *H. Aix, with garden, and the Univers. Opposite are the H. de la Galerie and the Nord. Then follow the Hotels: *Europe; *Venat, with large garden; and opposite, at the end of R. du Casino, the H.Genve. Second-class houses: in the parallel street, the R.Genve, behind the R. du Casino, are the H.Durand; *Gaillard; in the Place Centrale the H.Poste. Opposite the H.Poste is the office whence the omnibuses start for the lake and the Lyons steamboats, and for Marlioz. Up by the side of the Bath-house is the H. de l'Etablissement. In front, the H. de l'Arc Romain. To the left, in the Rue des coles, is a small clean family house, the H.Germain. Alittle beyond is the H.Chteaux-Durrieux. Below the last, the H.Folliet and Italie. The pension price in the above second-class houses varies from 7 to 11 frs. On road to station, the H. des Bergues.

On an eminence overlooking the park is the *Splendide Htel, areally splendid first-class house. Below it is the H.Beau-Site, also a new but a smaller first-class house.

The Port is nearly 2 m. from Aix by the R. de Genve, and then to the left. At the pier is the inn Beau-Rivage, "Poissons frais."

Abundance of furnished lodgings. English chapel, Rue du Temple, behind the H.Venat. Presbyterian chapel in the park.

Cabs or Fiacres.—One-horse cab—3 frs. for the first hour; every succeeding hour, 2frs.; per day, 20 frs. Two-horse cab—for first hour, 4frs.; every succeeding hour, 3 frs.; per day, 20 frs. Riding horses—two hours, 4frs. Donkeys—one hour, 1fr.; half-day, 4frs.

[Headnote: SPRINGS.]

The bathing establishment is a very large edifice, especially fitted up for the external application of the water, very little being drunk. Mineral water flows from the fountain in front of the building. Behind the establishment are the caverns whence the springs issue. To visit, fr. There are three different springs, their temperatures being 112, 114, and 115 Fahrenheit, and their contents carbonates of lime, magnesia, and iron, sulphate of soda, and some phosphates. Ordinary bath with linen, 1 fr. Opposite the establishment is a Roman arch, 3d cent., with the inscription "Lucius Pompeius, Campanus, Vius fecit." Behind the arch is the chateau of the Marquis of Aix, now occupied by the Htel de Ville and the post and telegraph offices. Ahandsome stone stair of fifty-eight steps, under a quadripartite roof on round columns, leads up to the various offices. At the top is the museum. On the ground-floor, just beyond the foot of the stair, adoor opens into what is called the Temple of Diana, alarge rectangular hall of coarse masonry, recently restored. Adjoining are the Hotel de l'Arc Romain, 9-12 frs., the parish church, and the park. The waters used for drinking are the cold sulphur springs, situated a little way out of town.

The most powerful and peculiar is the spring at Challes, 900 ft. above the sea, and 45 min. distant by omnibus from Chambery. Hotels: Chteau de Challes; Terrason; Ferret. It, like the others, is used for indigestion and liver complaints, but especially for laryngeal affections.

Nearly a mile from Aix by the Chambery road is the Marlioz mineral water establishment, with hotel, furnished apartments, and villas, all within a large park. The water is cold, sulphurous, and alkaline, with bromine and iodine, and costs 10 c. the glass. About 20 min. walk from the town by the Geneva road, near the village of St. Simon, is the Raphy spring, frequently taken at meal-time and prescribed in certain gastric diseases, dyspepsia, and nervous disorders of the stomach.

[Headnote: EXCURSIONS.]

Excursions from Aix-les-Bains.—The steamer on certain days makes the tour of the lake, stopping at the principal places, of which the chief is the Abbey of Hautecombe; fare there and back, with small boat and two men, 9frs. To Bordeaux and back, 5frs.; Bonport, 4frs.; Chtillon, 14 frs. Arrange price beforehand. No boat permitted to carry more than six passengers. An hour on shore allowed. Drive round the lake—one horse, 11 frs.; two horses, 15 frs.

The Abbey of Hautecombe was founded in the 12th cent., but rebuilt in 1745. The church, containing 300 statues and many frescoes, is 215 ft. long, the transept 85 ft., and the height of the roof 34 ft. The interior, as well as most of the mausoleums, is of a soft white fine-grained magnesian limestone, from the quarries of Seyssel, near Culoz. The best of the statues are those of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia (died 1821), and of Marie Christine, his spouse (died 1849), on the right and left hands of the nave at the entrance. They are of Carrara marble. In the chapel of Notre Dame de Compassion, in the right-hand transept, is another beautiful group in Carrara marble; in the left transept is a wood figure of St. Joseph, well executed.

About half a mile from the convent by a road following the shore of the lake is an intermittent fountain, very irregular in its action. To reach it continue the road till arriving at a clump of chestnut and horse-chestnut trees, some having stone seats round the trunks. The fountain is in the corner under the fourth tree. Near Hautecombe are the village and castle of Bordeaux, founded in the 9th cent., over which rises the Dent du Mont Chat (see p.282).

Other Excursions.—To the S.W. the Colline de Tresserve, 1109 ft., good views, chestnut trees, and the castle of Bonport. To the S.E. the Roche du Roi, with quarries, which were worked by the Romans. The Rocher de St. Victor, by the chestnut forest of Mouxy; there and back, 5 hours. The mountains of the Grand-Revard and the Cluse, 5154 ft., by mule-path; there and back, 6 hours. To the N. the cascade of Gresy, 45 minutes, 3m. Gresy, with its keep, 12th cent. 5m., the defile of the Combes and the Prime rocks. To the N.N.W. the Montagne de Gigot, 2680 and 2762ft.

[Headnote: GROTTO OF BANGES. LE CHTELARD.]

Aix to the Grotto of Banges, by Gresy and Cusy.— Seat in car there and back, 5frs. About 3m. from Aix is Gresy, with its pretty waterfall. Beyond the village the road ascends by the stream Sierroz to an undulating plain, on which is Cusy, 3 hours from Aix. To the N., on a rock rising from the Chran, are the extensive ruins of a castle. On the opposite bank are seen the hamlet of Aiguebellette and the castle of St. Jacques, and, rising abruptly from the valley, three singular obelisks of rock. 2 hours from Cusy the Chran is crossed by the Pont de Banges, and not far from this bridge, where the road is hemmed in between the rocks and the stream, is the entrance to the Grotte de Banges, containing a lake, 216 ft. below the level of the entrance, approached by a gallery 270 yards long, hung with stalactites.

This road may be continued to Le Chtelard, 1 hour from the bridge, 2500 ft. above the sea; Inns: Des Beauges; De la Poste; pop. 950. This is the capital of the "Pays des Beauges," occupying a plateau 13m. long and 8m. wide, traversed from S.E. to N.W. by the Chran, and surrounded by steep rocks. Cheese-making, the rearing of cattle, and the manufacture of articles in wood form the industries of the inhabitants, of whom there are 10,000. Chtelard, in its social and geographical position, resembles Le Beage (p.84).

The road from Aix to Chambery is through the broad valley which separates the mountains of the Grande Chartreuse from those of the Beauges. Belonging to the former are Mont Grelle, 4649 ft., to the S.W., and Mont Granier, 6348 ft, due S.; while to the N.E. is the Dent de Nivolet, 4597 ft, an advanced bastion of the Beauges.

At Aix-les-Bains, junction with branch to Annecy, 26m. N., whence a diligence starts daily for Geneva, 27m. farther N. by Brogny, Cruseilles, and St. Julien (see map, p.27).

Aix-les-Bains to Geneva by Annecy and Annemasse, by rail.

21 m. by rail N. from Aix-les-Bains, and 3m. from Annecy, is Lovagny, the station to alight at to visit the "Galeries des Gorges" of the torrent Fier, about 10 minutes distant. From the station take the road to the left, cross a bridge, and walk on to the chlet, where refreshments are sold, and tickets, 1 fr. each, to visit the gorge, which is of the same nature, though much superior, to the galleries of Pfffers. The gallery, or rather balcony, is 1162 ft. long, and on an average 72 ft. above the torrent. It rests on iron brackets driven into the face of vertical cliffs 310 ft. high, and on an average 8 ft. apart.

3 m. farther by rail is

Annecy, pop. 11,000. Hotels: Angleterre, opposite the post office; Verdun, at the head of the town, near the public gardens and the lake, and not far from the steamboat-pier; Aigle; Savoie.

The steamboat sails from the side of the public gardens opposite the Convent of St. Joseph. It makes the tour of the lake three times daily. Diligence daily to Bonneville, 23 m. N., passing the villages of Plot and La Roche; also to Albertville, 28m. N., on the road to Italy by the Little St. Bernard (see page 320).

This ancient town, with narrow arcaded streets, is situated on the north-west end of Lake Annecy. The two most prominent buildings in Annecy, as seen from the lake, are the Barracks, and the Castle of Tresun, in which St. Franois de Sales, the founder of the Order of the Visitation, was born August 21, 1567. Opposite the steamboat-pier is another prominent edifice, the Church and Convent of St. Joseph, both modern, but containing, in the garden behind, the first chapel erected by St. Francis, dating from 1610. The house Madame Chantale, his friend, inhabited adjoins this chapel.

The mortal remains of St. Francis are in a shrine above the high altar in the Church of the Visitation, at the western side of the Rue Royale. The house in which he resided is in No. 18 Rue St. Claire, entrance at the left-hand corner within the court. The house in which Madame de Warrens first received Rousseau stood in the parallel street, behind the Rue de l'vch, on the site of that house next the Episcopal palace, with railings in front. The best promenade is the garden around the Htel de Ville at the head of the lake. It contains a statue by Marochetti of the great French chemist, Claude Louis Berthollet, born at Talloires in 1748.

The Lake of Annecy is 9 m. long, 2 broad, and 1455 ft. above the sea-level. It is surrounded by vine-clad and wooded mountains, of which the highest is La Tournette, on the eastern shore, 6260 ft. above the lake. To ascend it land at the village of Talloires, where there are a comfortable inn, the Htel de l'Abbaye, and guides.

Near the shore of the lake, on the side of a hill about 2m. east from Annecy, is the house in which Eugene Su spent the last years of his life. It is one-storied, with garret-windows, and behind a small square tower. On the morning of August 1, 1857, he took his last walk on the hill, returning from which fatigued he went to bed, and died two days afterwards. The remains of Rousseau's house are seen a little farther south, above the village of Veyrier.

[Headnote: LESCHAUX.]

South from Veyrier, also on the lake, is the village of Menthon, the birthplace of St. Bernard, the founder, in the 10th cent., of the hospices of the Great and the Little St. Bernard. He is buried on the right-hand side of the choir in the cathedral of Lausanne. At the south extremity of the lake is the village of Doussard, at the entrance into the dark gorge of the Combe Noire. Here a coach awaits passengers for Faverges and Albertville, 18 miles south from Doussard. In this neighbourhood the best mountain to ascend for the view is Semnoz, 4148 ft. above the lake. The ascent is made from the straggling village of Leschaux, 1590 ft. above the lake, 10m. S. from Annecy, and 14 m. N.E. from Aix-les-Bains. Donkeys can be hired at the village. The ascent takes about 2 hrs. On the top is a comfortable inn. Duingt, at the S.W. end, is the most picturesquely situated village on the lake. (See map of Mt. Cenis, p.291.)

3 m. N. from Annecy and 24 m. S. from Geneva is the village of Brogny, where, in 1342, Jean Allarmet the swineherd was born, who became successively Bishop of Geneva, Viviers, and Ostia, Archbishop of Arles, and then a Cardinal. From Brogny the road passes the Pont de la Caille, 18m. from Geneva, a small village near the suspension bridge, 212 yds. long, across Les Usses, and 665 ft. above the bed of the torrent. Higher up, in a ravine, are the baths of Caille.

[Headnote: CRUSEILLES.]

16 m. from Geneva is Cruseilles, pop. 2000, and 2576 ft. above the sea. The road from Cruseilles passes over the top of Mont Zion, 2586 ft., and then descends to Chable. 10 m. farther is St. Julien, 1535 ft., pop. 2500. French custom-house station, 6m. from Geneva.

[Headnote: CHAMBERY.]

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{370}{60} CHAMBERY, pop. 20,000, and 815 ft. above the sea. Passengers arriving late should spend the night at Chambery, and next morning proceed to Turin. Hotels.—Princes, in the Rue de Boigne, near the fountain. France, on the Quai Nezin. In the Rue d'Italie, the Poste and Europe, near the theatre. In the Rue de la Banque is the Banque; and opposite it is the Temple Protestant.

Chambery is situated in a plain surrounded by high mountains. The first object that strikes the stranger on arriving from the station is the monumental fountain to General Boigne in the Boulevard du Theatre, opposite the termination of the principal street, the Rue de Boigne. It consists of four bronze elephants supporting a column crowned with a statue of the General. At the other extremity of the Rue de Boigne is the Chteau, formerly the residence of the Dukes of Savoy, built in 1230. The entrance is either by the stair in front or by the road round from behind, which leads also to the Botanic Gardens. Within the precincts of the chteau is the Prfecture, having attached to it one of the old massive round towers, ascended by a most handsome staircase of 160 low broad steps to within a short distance of the top, attained by 36 more steps in two short flights. In the stair is the entrance to the Museum, chiefly archological. The Natural History Museum is in the Botanic Garden. The view from the top of the tower is very pleasing, and overlooks the whole of the town. Fee, fr. Opposite the tower is the Chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, 14th cent. Fee, fr. The three tall windows are filled with beautiful old glass. The roof is covered with stone groining, with cleverly-executed arabesque painting between the nervures. The roof of the cathedral is similarly painted, but on a blue ground. It is situated near the Rue de Boigne, and was built in the 14th, 15th, and 16th cents.

[Headnote: CHURCH OF LEMENC.]

The Rue de Bourgogne, the second street to the right up the Rue de Boigne, leads past the Htel de Ville and the post office to the Palais de Justice, with the Jardin Public behind. In front of the Palais is a bronze statue of the jurist, Antoine Favre, who died 1624. On a hill on the other or eastern side of the railway are the Convent de la Visitation and the Church of Lemenc. The upper church of Lemenc is of the 13th or 14th cent., but the under church or crypt is of the 7th cent. In the centre of the crypt is a curious baptistery, six feet in diameter, under a peristyle. Beside it is an Entombment. In the upper Church are the mausoleum of General Boigne and the relics of Saint Concors, an Irish archbishop from Armagh, who died here 600 years ago. His relics are said to have the power of working miracles on children. In the adjoining cemetery, close to a small chapel, is the grave of Madame de Warrens.

[Headnote: J. J. ROUSSEAU.]

Excursions.—The house which Jean Jacques Rousseau inhabited is on the height called the Charmettes, 395 ft. above and 2m. from Chambery by a pleasant road shaded with walnut and plane trees. It is a mere cottage. The room to the right on entering was the dining-room. It contains in a drawer his watch, opposite the window his bookcase, and hanging on the walls, facing each other, the portraits of himself and of Madame de Warrens. The next room was their sitting-room; here are his card-table and mirror. The room above was madame's bedroom, and the one over the dining-room Rousseau's. From the garden the view extends to the Dent de Nivolet, 4597 ft., ascended from Chambery in between 5 and 6 hrs.; guide advisable. View not equal to that from the Dent du Chat (p. 282). The pretty walk to the Bout du Monde, at the foot of the Dent de Nivolet, by the bank of the Laisse and the gorge of the Doria may be made in little more than an hour. Omnibus in 45 min. to the cold sulphurous iodo-bromuride springs of Challes (p. 284).

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{376}{55} LES MARCHES, a straggling village at the foot of a hill crowned by the chapel and image of Notre Dame de Myans. To the S.W., 4 hrs. there and back, are the Abimes de Myans, lakes between conical hillocks, formed by a partial landslip of Mt. Granier.

{378}{53} MONTMLIAN, pop. 1200. Inn: Voyageurs. Junction with line to Grenoble, for which change carriages (p.338).

[Headnote: ST. PIERRE D'ALBIGNY.]

{358}{45} ST. PIERRE D'ALBIGNY, 971 ft. (map, p. 291), pop. 3300, 1m. from its station. Inns: At station: H. des Voyageurs. In town: Croix-Blanche; Soleil. Junction with line to Albertville, 14m. N.E., whence diligences to Annecy, 28m. N., passing close by Ugine, 1755 ft., and through Faverges; Inn: Poste. Diligence also to Moutiers and Bourg St. Maurice on the road to the Little St. Bernard, one of the easiest of the Alpine passes (see p.321). From St. Pierre take the N. window of the carriage to have a proper view of the immense cones and pinnacles of calcareous rocks, which tower in many places almost vertically above each other. These lofty walls afford protection from the chilling blasts to the pretty villages, vineyards, orchards, and maize fields; which places only at a little distance from these mountains do not enjoy. Vineyards cease a little above St. Michel, 2400 ft., but patches with vines may be seen within 3m. of La Praz. Up to La Praz the mountains are cultivated more or less in terraces. Higher up the valley of the Arc they are too steep and arid.

[Headnote: AIGUEBELLE.]

{332}{39} AIGUEBELLE, pop. 1100. H. de la Poste. Village close to station. Arch to Charles Felix. The valley now begins to widen.

{409}{22} LA CHAMBRE, pop. 800, on the confluence of the Bugion and the Arc. Afterwards, to the right, is the valley of the Glandon.

{414}{16} SAINT-JEAN DE MAURIENNE, pop. 3200. Inns: Europe; Cheval Blanc; Voyageurs. The cathedral, founded in the 15th cent., contains the mausoleum of Count Humbert, and some beautifully carved stalls. The arcades of the cloister are of alabaster, and were constructed in 1452. In the neighbourhood are the argentiferous mines of Rocheray and the saline thermal springs of Echaillon.

{421}{10} ST. MICHEL, pop. 3000. A village on the Arc, 2323 ft. above the sea-level, in a hollow at the foot of high mountains. Inn: Poste, near the post office. From St. Michel the Alpine region commences. The next station is La Praz, 6m. from St. Michel, 3140 ft. above the sea.

[Headnote: MODANE.]

{431}{ } MODANE STATION, 3445 ft. above the sea, and 727m. from London, is really part of the village of Fourneaux. Modane is a little farther up, and the train passes through it on the way to the tunnel. Large refreshment-room at station. Opposite station—Inn: Htel International, where comfortable lodgings can be had, as well as carriages to visit the neighbourhood. The river Arc runs by the back of the house. There are also several restaurants. Luggage from France and Italy is examined here. In Italy every pound of registered luggage is charged. The scenery on both the French and Italian sides is beautiful, and the traveller ought to endeavour to pass through it during the day. The passage through the tunnel is done in 30 minutes. The air is at no part disagreeable. The entrance is 492 ft. above the station, and is reached by a winding railroad of 3-1/10 m., with a gradient of 2 per cent. The highest part of the tunnel is 4380 ft. above the sea, and 5250 ft. below the summit of the ridge perforated.

From Modane the ascent is made of Mont Thabor, 7100 ft. higher than Modane, in 7 hrs., by the Col de la Saume. Descent in 6 hrs., or a little over 5, by Bardonnecchia.

[Headnote: LANS-LE-BOURG. LES TAVERNETTES.]

Modane to Susa by Mont Cenis.

From Modane a carriage-road leads over the Pass of Mont Cenis to Susa, 40 m. distant by Villarodin, pop. 220. On the right bank of the Arc up the valley is Avrieux, where Charles the Bold was poisoned by his doctor. Near this are passed the forts Esseillon or Bramans, connected with the road by a steep winding path. 8m. from Modane is Le Verney, where the road crosses the Arc; 10m. Solliers; to the left, the valley of the Laisse or Doron; 16, Termignon, pop. 1080, and 4251 ft. above the sea, at the confluence of the Laisse with the Arc, church with frescoes and a curious belfry; 18m. Lans-le-Bourg, pop. 1500, consisting principally of inns, situated on the Arc, 4560 ft. above the sea, at the base of Mont Cenis. After crossing the Arc the ascent of the Pass is commenced. From Lans-le-Bourg to Susa are twenty-three houses of refuge. At the culminating point, 6882 ft. above the sea, is the inn Ramasse. The road now descends. 13m. from Susa and 27 from Modane is Les Tavernettes, on a terrace 200 ft. above the lake, which is 1 m. long and 6234 ft. high, and contains good trout. This is one of the best headquarters in the Alps for a naturalist. 10m. from Susa and 29 m. from Modane is the Hospice of Mont Cenis, on the great plateau. 2 m. farther is the hamlet of La Grande Croix, 6069 ft., on the edge of the plateau, and whence the descent becomes more rapid. 4 m. from Susa is the post-house of Molaret, and about 3 m. more, or 1 from Susa, the hamlet of Giaglione, with splendid views and rich vegetation (Susa, see page 291).

[Map: Mont Cenis Railway: St. Pierre to Courmayeur by the Little St. Bernard. Modane to Susa by Lanslebourg.]

PART II.—MODANE TO TURIN.

See Map of Mont Cenis Railway.

miles from MODANE miles to TURIN

{ }{58} MODANE. At Modane passengers enter the carriages of the Alta Italia Railway Company. The Italian time is 47 minutes in advance of the Paris time. The best time-table for Italy is the "Indicatore Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate," 1 fr.; also a smaller edition, 20 c., sold at all the railway stations. Waiting-room is Sala d'Aspetto. W.-C's., Cessi, or Latrine, or Retirate. For ladies, Cessi per le donne. Smoking carriages, Pei fumatori. Non-smoking carriages, Evietato il fumare. Way out, Uscita. Way in, Entrata. Station, Stazione or Fermata.

{5}{53} BARDONNECCHIA, 4127 ft., pop. 1600. At the station the Albergo della Stazione, and in the town the Htel de France. Situated near the Italian end of the tunnel, but in a more fertile country than that above Modane.

{12}{46} OULX, pop. 2000, and 3514 ft. high. Inn: Dell' Alpi Cozzi, at the station. At this pretty little village the road from Brianon, 17m. S.W. by Mont Genvre, joins the rail. The mountains, which extend from Monte Viso to Mont Cenis, were called the Alpes Cottiae, from King Cottius, who, according to Pliny, reigned over this region some years before the beginning of the Christian era (Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. iii. cap. 20). Cottius erected the arch of Susa, and also constructed the road from that town over the Cottian Alps, by Oulx to Ebrodunum, now Embrun, on the Durance (see page 343).

{21}{36} CHIOMONTE, 2526 ft. Beyond are some charming views.

{25}{33} MEANA, 1 m. from Susa, and 325 ft. above it. The train, having traversed beautiful chestnut woods, crosses the Dora and arrives at Bussoleno, 30m. from Modane, whence a loop-line of 5m. extends to Susa, 1625 ft., pop. 5000. Hotels: France; Soleil. This, the ancient Segusium, the chief city of the Segusiani, who inhabited what is now called Savoy, is situated on the Dora, 1625 ft. above the sea. On the W. side of the town is the Roman Triumphal Arch erected about 8 B.C. in honour of Augustus. It is adorned with Corinthian columns and sculptured friezes on the entablature, but all are in a decayed condition. The cathedral, San Giusto, dates from the llth cent.

12 m. from Bussoleno and 16 from Turin is San Ambrogio station, at the foot of Monte Pirchiriano, 3150 ft. above the sea and 1500 above the plain. On the summit is the convent of S.Michele della Chiusa, founded by Ugone Marino in 966, and finished in 1000. It was partially repaired by Carlo Alberto and Vittorio EmanueleII. The government intend to establish a meteorological station here. Agood mule-path leads to the top in about an hour, passing the village of S.Pietro, with a good inn, 2617 ft. above the sea.

TURIN,

pop. 264,000, on the Po and the Dora Riparia, 785 ft. above the sea, and 490m. S.E. from Paris. The city derives its name from the tribe Taurini, who were first the opponents and then the allies of the Romans. When Hannibal descended from the Alps he destroyed the city, that he might have nothing to dread from its hostility. Having risen speedily from its ruins, it received within its walls the army of reserve of Julius Csar when he marched against the Gauls. Under the Lombards it was made the capital of a duchy, and became the favourite residence of Queen Theodolinda, who, in 602, built the church of S.Giovanni Battista, now the cathedral of Turin, reconstructed in 1498. FrancisI. so damaged Turin in 1536 that its entire reconstruction became necessary. The streets are wide, clean, and well paved, and pass through spacious squares ornamented with statues and bordered by handsome arcades. The most aristocratic part of Turin is the western end of the Corso Vittorio EmanueleII. and the streets ramifying southwards from this.

Hotels.—The *Europa, 19 Piazza Castello. In the same square, and less expensive, is the H. di Londra. This piazza is in the neighbourhood of the principal sights, and is the terminus of the most important trams. The other first-class houses are: the *Torino, opposite the arrival side of the station. The *Liguria, 14 Piazza Bodoni, with one end to the Via Carlo Alberto. Their new house is at 9 Via Madama Cristina, near the English chapel and the Vaudois church. The Liguria is patronised by Messrs. Cook. The H.Feder, 8 Via S.Francesco di Paolo. At 31 and 29 Via Roma, the Angleterre; and the Trombetta. The Albergo Centrale, Via delle Finanze; Bonne Femme (Buona Fama), Via Barbaroux. Less expensive: H. *Suisse; H.Bologna, both opposite arrival side of station; *France et Concorde, Via dell' Accademia Albertina, with one side to the Via di Po; Albergo del Campo di Marte, 40 Via della Providencia; the Dogana Vecchia, 4 Via Corte d'Appello; Albergo del Gran Mogol, 41 Via Lagrange.

Cabs.—One horse, from 6 A.M. till midnight, the course, 1fr. First half-hour, 1fr. First hour, 1 fr. Each successive half-hour, 75 c. The course from midnight to 6 A.M., 1 fr. From the central station to any part of the town, 1 fr. Trunks, 20 c. each. Cabs with 2 horses, fr. additional. Porters, for carrying each portmanteau from the station to a cab, 2 sous. Each small article, either to cab or to the railway carriage, 1 sou.

[Map: Turin]

Horse-trams traverse Turin in every direction; while the steam-trams run from the city to the towns and villages not only within but beyond the suburbs. The fare of the horse-trams is universally 2 sous; that of the steam-trams from 12 sous to 3frs. 18 sous. In the horse-trams no more than four may occupy one seat.

[Headnote: STATIONS. POST OFFICE. BOOKSELLERS.]

Stations.—The most important is the Central Station, awell-situated and well-arranged and spacious edifice. On a tablet on the departure side is an inscription to the honour of George and Robert Stephenson. Parallel to the station is the wide and handsome Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which traverses the city from east to west, having at the eastern end the Po and the Giardino Pubblico, and at the western the model prison, the Carcere giudiziario, the artillery barracks, and the cattle-market. In front of the station is a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio, apoet and painter, who died in 1866, one of those who helped to throw off the yoke of Rome. Behind the statue is the garden or Piazza Carlo Felice, and the straight street, the Via Roma, extending to the Piazza Castello, by the Piazza S.Carlo, with, in the centre, abronze equestrian statue, modelled by Marochetti in 1838, of Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Savoy, and son of CarloIII. il Buono. He died in 1580. The attitude is rather theatrical. The station for Rivoli, at the west end of the Piazza dello Statuto, communicates with the P.Castello by the Via Garibaldi. The Ciri Lanzo station is on the Dora, N. side of plan, at the Ponte-Mosca. Opposite the Rivoli station, in the Piazza dello Statuto, is a monument to the engineers of Mt. Cenis tunnel, in the shape of a pyramid, 60 ft. high, composed of huge blocks of unhewn granite, up which scramble discomfited, colossal, naked Titans in white marble. On the pinnacle stands the Genius of Science, of a slighter make, and on a tablet the names of the engineers, Sommeiller, Gratoni, and Grandi.

Post and telegraph offices are in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, by the side of the Palazzo Carignano (p.297). Stamps are sold at all the tobacco shops. This piazza is close to the P.Castello, and connected with the Via di Po by a lofty arcade, covered with glass, and bordered on both sides with well-stocked shops.

Booksellers.—For maps of Italy, Carlo Crespi, 2 Via Lagrange. For guide-books, Loescher and Brero, both in the Via diPo.

Money-changers in the central railway station and in the principal streets. In the main streets are also elegant Cafs, where the charge in all of them for a good cup of coffee with a piece of ice is 6 sous. The same price for an excellent ice cream heaped up in a glass.

Theatres.—See list on plan. A short way east from the central station, in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, is the Vaudois church, built in 1853. Adjoining are the Vaudois schools, and behind, at 15 Via Pio Quinto, the Anglican chapel. Near the chapel is the synagogue, ahandsome edifice with square towers crowned with balloon-like cupolas.

[Headnote: SIGHTS.]

Sights.—The museums and picture gallery (Pinacoteca) in the "Accademia delle Scienze," with one side to the Piazza Carignano and another to the Via dell' Accademia delle Scienze. Nearly opposite is the Palazzo Carignano, containing the zoological and mineralogical collections. The white marble statue in front represents the philosopher, Vincenzo Gioberti, born 5th April 1801 in the house opposite, 5 Via Lagrange, where a white marble tablet states: "II Conte Camillo di Cavour naque in questa casa, addi 10 Agosto 1810. Evi mori il 6 Giugno 1861." The armoury, enter by door headed "Reale Armeria Antica" under corridor, 13 Piazza Castello; adjoining is the Royal Palace. On the other side of the palace is the cathedral, San Giovanni. Awalk down the Via di Po. Several drives in the horsetrams. All the above places are near each other, around the Piazza Castello. The only one that is at a little distance is the Museo Civico, up the side street,V. Rossini, from the Via di Po. The Superga, by steam tram from the Piazza Castello.

[Headnote: PALAZZO DELL' ACCADEMIA. MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES.]

The Museum of Antiquities and the Picture Gallery.

The Palazzo dell' Accademia delle Scienze, designed by Guarini, was built in 1678 as a college for the sons of noblemen. It is a vast earthy-coloured brick edifice, of which the ornaments, mouldings, and cornices are also of dingy brick. On the ground-floor are the more massive, and in the first story the smaller antiquities. In the second story is the picture gallery, containing about 800 paintings in fifteen rooms. Open daily from 9 to 4, 1fr. On Sundays and feast-days free, when it is open from 12 to 4. The large antiquities are contained in two halls. Hall 1. Left. In the centre, against the wall, under an inscription in honour of the Egyptologist Champollion, is the gem of the collection, ablack basalt statue of Sesostris, RamesesII., 1388 B.C. On his right, in rose-coloured granite, is the colossal statue of AmenophisII., 1565 B.C., and on his left a small black basalt statue of AmenophisII., the god Ptah. Opposite are three figures in a sitting posture, representing the Egyptian Trinity, Osiris, Horus, and Isis. At the head of this hall is the colossal red sandstone statue of SetiII., in whose reign the exodus of the Israelites took place. From this a room ramifies at right angles, containing Greek and Roman statues, busts, friezes, vases, etc.

Parallel to Hall 1 is Hall 2. At the head of this hall, in a sitting posture, is the black basalt statue of Thothmes III., 1591 B.C., who was one of the most powerful of the Pharaohs.

Upstairs, first floor, are the smaller antiquities, contained in three large halls and several rooms. Near the centre of the first hall, left, is the oldest of all the articles in the museum, the pedestal of a table covered with hieroglyphics, supposed to have been made about 2654 B.C. Alittle farther down, in the centre of the hall, under a glass case, No. 13, is the Tabula Isiaca, abronze tablet, 4 ft. long by 2 ft. 2 in. wide, inlaid with hieroglyphics in silver, made at Rome in the reign of Hadrian. Exactly opposite this tablet commences the passage that leads to the smaller rooms. In the first room, left, in the corner, is a colossal bust of Juno, hollowed, that the priest might the more easily work the oracle. In the first room, right, is a mosaic pavement, found at Stampacci in Sardinia. The rooms contain besides Phoenician terracotta figures, Etruscan vases, statuettes, urns, reliefs, ancient iron ornaments, lamps, etc.

The Centre Hall contains idols, jewellery, amulets, sarcophagi, mummies, Egyptian heads with the hair on, and bricks made by the Israelites.

In the Third Hall are the Papyri, of which the most important are: No. 4, near centre, against left wall, in second row, The Book of the Dead, 35 ft. long and 8 in. wide, illustrated with plain vignettes. Opposite, in centre of hall, is 126, fragments of the famous annals of Manetho, which contained a list of more than 300 kings of Egypt down to the 19th dynasty.

[Headnote: PICTURE GALLERY.]

In the second story is the Picture Gallery. All the paintings are labelled. In Room 1 are portraits of princes of the house of Savoy, and battles in which they were engaged. Room 2. In this room are excellent specimens of the Turin painter, Gaudenzio Ferrari, No. 49, St. Peter and Donor; 52, Madonna and St. Elizabeth; 53, God; 54, Descent from Cross; 57, Joachim driven from the Temple. Rooms 3 and 4. Italian pictures, Massimo d'Azeglio, another Turin painter, 90, aLandscape. Room 5. Italian paintings of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cents.: Clovio, 127 bis, an Entombment, painted on silk; Bronzino, 127 and 128, Portraits of Eleonora da Toledo and her husband, CosimoI. de Medici. Room 6. J. da Ponte (II Bassano), 148, Portrait; P.Caliari (Paolo Veronese), 157, Queen of Sheba presenting gifts to Solomon; A.Carracci, 158, St. Peter; Caravaggio, 161, Musician; J.Robusti (Il Tintoretto), 162, The Trinity. Room 7. Guido Reni, 163, S. Giovanni; Spagnoletto, 174, St. Jerome. Room 8. Enamels and paintings on porcelain by Constantin of Geneva. Room 9. A small room entirely filled with fruit and flower pieces by Dutch artists. Between rooms 9 and 10 is a dark lobby, hung also with pictures. Room 10. Continuation of the Italian school, 16th, 17th, and 18th cents.: B.Strozzi, 232, Portrait of Prelate; 251, Homer singing his own Songs; Paolo Veronese, 234, Mary Magdalene at our Lord's Feet; Guido Reni, 235, Apollo; 236, Cupids; G.Dughet (Poussin), 237, 238, Tivoli Waterfalls; G.F. Barbieri (Il Guercino), 239, 262, *S. Francesca Romana, and in next room, Return of Prodigal Son. Room 11. A. Canale (Il Canaletto), 257 bis, Ducal Palace, Venice; F.Albani, 260, 264, 271, and 274, The Four Elements; S.Ricci, 272, Hagar sent away; 275, Solomon burns the Idols; C.Dolce, 276, Head of Madonna; B.Bellotto, 283, 288, Royal Palace, Turin; Old Bridge across the Po. Room 12. Flemish and German school: Acken (Bosch), 309, an Adoration; G.Van Eyck, 313, St. Francis; Rogier Van des Weyden, 312, *Madonna; F.Franck, 335, Room with Ladies and Gentlemen; Van Dyck, 338, 351, The three Children of CharlesI. of England; *The Princess Clara Eugenia of Spain; Rubens, 340, Sketch of his apotheosis of Henri IV. in the Uffici of Florence. Room 13. Containing the gems of the collection: A.Mantegna, 355, Virgin, Child, and Saints; L.Credi, 356, *Virgin and Child; G.F. Barbieri (Guercino), 357, *Virgin and Child; Hans Memling, 358, *The Seven Sorrows of the Woman Mary; Saenredam, 361, *Interior of a Protestant Church, the figures by A.Ostade; Van Dyck, 363, *Large equestrian portrait of the Principe Tommaso di Savoia; his finest work is **384, Holy Family; D.Teniers, 364, Tavern; G.Ferrari, 371, Jesus giving up the Ghost; Raphael, 373, *La Madonna della Tenda; Donatello, 375, Virgin and child in relief on marble; Sodoma, 376, *Death of Lucretia; P.Potter, 377, *Cattle grazing in a meadow; H. Holbein, 386, Portrait of Erasmus. Room 14. Dutch and German school: Picture by Jordaens; Sallaert, 398, Procession in Brussels; Floris, 410, Adoration; P.P. Rubens, 416, Resurrection of Lazarus; C.Vos, 417, Portraits of Snyders and his wife; Teniers (the younger), 423, Card Players; Schalcken, 458, Old Woman. Room 15. French school: C. Gle (Claude Lorrain), 478, 483, Landscapes;I. Courtois (Bourguignon), 481, Cavalry Charge. Catalogues sold of the contents of the museums and picture gallery.

[Headnote: PALAZZO CARIGNANO.]

Museum of Zoology and Mineralogy.

Opposite the Palazzo dell' Accademia, but a little to the left, is the Palazzo Carignano, also by Guarini, and also of earthy-coloured brick; but the decorations are superior, more varied, and more pleasing than those of the Palazzo dell' Accademia. In large gilt letters, on the faade fronting the Piazza Carignano and the statue of Gioberti, are the words, "Qui nacque Vittorio EmanueleII." Within is a high and spacious court, surrounded by lofty halls, and at the east end, fronting the Piazza Carlo Alberto, with the beautiful bronze monument to him by Marochetti, cast in London, is the more pretentious stone faade, built in 1871, but not in harmony with the rest of the building. (See also p.293.) In this palace, magnificently housed, are the zoological and mineralogical collections. Open daily, 1fr. Sundays and feast-days free.

[Headnote: ROYAL ARMOURY.]

Royal Armoury.

No. 13 Palazzo Castello, open on feast-days from 11 to 3free. On other days procure admission from the secretary. This collection is of great interest only to the inhabitants of northern Italy, as it is filled chiefly with relics of their kings, dukes, and wars. In the first room is "Favorito," the favourite horse of the magnanimous R, Carlo Alberto. Above it, near the roof, are numerous tattered flags taken in battle. In the large hall are two rows of armed knights and foot-soldiers. At the head of this hall, in a glass case, numbered 301, is an embossed oval shield, inlaid with gilding, and surrounded by a fringe of massive gold thread. On five medallions are represented, in alto-relievo, scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. It belongs to the school of Giulio Romano, was executed probably in the latter half of the 16th cent., and was presented to the university of Turin by the Princess Vittoria di Sassonia Hilburghausen. Among the relics are the sword worn by Napoleon at the battle of Marengo, the saddle of CharlesV., and some beautifully inlaid body-armour of the Dukes of Savoy. The large door at the end of this hall opens into the "Medagliere del R," containing 30,000 Greek, Roman and ancient coins and medals, including a complete series of those struck in the State of Sardinia; and also 5000 medallions, seals and stamps. In this same part is the Biblioteca del R, with 40,000 vols., 1800 MSS., numerous autographs, engravings and drawings by the great masters. To visit these special permission must be obtained. From the windows of the armoury is a view of the palace-gardens. At the N.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the Teatro Regio, considered the finest work of Benedetto Alfieri. It is seated for 2500, and is open only during carnival and on extraordinary occasions. In the absence of the royal family the palace may be visited. It is a plain brick building, commenced in 1646, with the front to the Piazza Castello, plastered to imitate stone. Having passed the main entrance, turn to the left. At the end of this corridor is seen, through a glass door, the equestrian statue of Vittorio AmadeoI. (died 1675) in a niche at the foot of the grand staircase. The rider is in bronze, the horse in marble. Ascend the marble steps, then, to the right, two flights of narrow steps lead to the hall of the palace, where the servants will be found who show the palace. Fee, 1fr.; party, 2frs. After the guardroom succeeds a series of rooms with much gilding, inlaid floors, and rich furniture. The pictures are all modern, and of no great merit. The room called Maria Theresa's contains some fine china vases.

[Headnote: ROYAL PALACE. THE CATHEDRAL.]

The Cathedral.

Adjoining the western end of the palace is the Cathedral San Giovanni Battista. To the left of the altar is the pew of the royal family. Behind the altar, and approached by two staircases of 37 steps each, is the Cappella del Sudario (open till 9 A.M.), acircular chapel, separated from the church by a glass screen. It was built by Guarini in 1694, and is encrusted with the dark grayish-blue marble from Fabrosa, near Mondovi, which brings out in striking relief the pure white of the statues and the rich gilding of the ornaments, cornices, capitals, and eight-limbed stars which spangle the interior. Double monolith columns of the same dark marble, with bronze pedestals and capitals, support six arches ornamented with diaper-work on the soffits. Above them rise six smaller arches containing the windows, while the dome or cupola is composed of an intricate series of interlacing zigzag arched ribs rising from the second tier, and intermingled with loopholes, which throw light in such a manner upon the star at the summit as to give it the appearance of being suspended. The beautiful altar, lighted with gold and silver lamps, has two faces, so that two masses are said before it at the same time. The shrine on this altar is said to contain the shroud (Sudario) in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of our Lord when he laid Him in the tomb. Round the chapel are the beautiful white marble monuments of three kings of the house of Savoy—Em. Filiberto (ob. 1580), by Marchesi; Carlo EmanueleII. (ob. 1675), by Fraccaroli; and Amedeo VIII., first Duke of Savoy (ob. 1451), by Cacciatori. One prince, the Principe Tommaso (ob. 1656), by Gaggini. In a sitting posture is the lovely statue of Queen Maria Adelaide, consort of Vit. Em.II. (ob. 1855), by Revelli. The door behind the altar communicates with the upper corridors of the palace. Outside the palace gates is San Lorenzo, designed by Guarini, and finished in 1687. The interior is gorgeous, but it is chiefly distinguished for the boldness of its arches.

[Headnote: THE CASTELLO.]

The Castello.

The large brick building in the centre of the Piazza Castello was erected in the 13th century, and called the Castello till 1718, when it became the favourite residence of the widow of Carlo EmanueleII., Madama M.G. Battista, who built the stone faade, and in honour of whom it has ever since been called the Palazzo Madama. Before the seat of government was removed to Florence the senators assembled in the great hall of this palace. One of the towers is used as an observatory, and another part of the palace by the "Accademia reale di Medicina," who here hold their meetings, and have also a museum of craniology.

[Headnote: MUSEO CIVICO.]

Museo Civico.

Via Gaudenzio Ferrari, No. 1, near the Via di Po. Open from 12 to 3, 1fr. Sundays and feast-days free. First room, autographs and MSS. of celebrated Piedmontese. 2. Water-colours, representing landscapes and historical scenes in Piedmont. Under glass frame is a solid oblong chased silver vase, 3 ft. and some inches in its greater diameter, and 2 ft. 8 inches in its smaller. At each of the two long ends is a lion's head with a ring in his mouth. Near this vase, and also under a glass frame, and also in solid silver, are two candelabra, avase, and two flower-holders adorned with figures in relief. The first was presented in 1871 by the English Government, and the other by that of the United States to the Count Frederic Sclopis, President of the Geneva arbitration in the Alabama question, and given to this institution by his widow. None of them display much art; as for the English vase, it needs only a lid to turn it into a respectable soup-tureen.

The rooms from 4 to 11 contain modern oil-paintings, some very good, and all labelled. Down the centre are white marble statues; among the best are Eve and the Serpent by Fantacchiotti, and the Crucifixion of Eulalia by E.Franceschi. Second story.—Room 12, Embroidery; 13, Miniatures and illustrated MSS.; 14, Iron work; 15, Carving in wood and ivory—notice 947, Judgment of Solomon; 16, Glass and majolica; 17, Italian porcelain; 18, Busts; 19, Small oil-paintings and uniform of Azeglio; *20, Italian painted glass from 1300; 21, Egyptian pottery; 22, Pottery and stone age.

[Headnote: VIA DI PO. UNIVERSITY. MADRE DI DIO.]

The Via di Po.

The finest of the streets is the Via di Po, which extends from the Piazza Castello to the great rectangular square, the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, on the bank of the Po; and as both of these spacious squares, as well as this magnificent street, are lined throughout with wide and lofty arcades, they form together an excellent and interesting walk in all weathers. The Via di Po is 768 yards long and 19 wide, and the pavement within the arcade 6 yards wide. Good shops are ranged on both sides of the street under the arcades. In the Via di Po is also the University, built in 1713 by Vittorio AmedeoII., but founded in 1404 by the Prince Lodovico di Acaia. It is attended by 2500 students, and directed by 70 professors. The Library, open every day from 9 to 4, contains 200,000 volumes and 3000 MSS. In the court are Roman bas-reliefs, inscriptions, and statues, ancient and modern. Between the Via di Po and the Piazza Carlo Emanuele ramifies the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, containing at No. 6 the Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti. Open daily. Apply to the custodi.

The Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is 394 yards long and 121 wide. In front, on the other side of the Po, is a conspicuous church, the Gran Madre di Dio, built in 1818, in the style of the Pantheon at Rome, by Bansignori, to commemorate the return of Vittorio EmanueleI. to Turin after the fall of Napoleon. Alittle to the right on a hill (Il Monte) is a Capuchin convent, built towards the end of the 16th cent. The road up is very easy, and the view from the terrace admirable. Immediately above the Madre di Dio church is the palace, La Vigna della Regina, built by Prince Maurice of Savoy, which after his time was inhabited by one of the queens of Sardinia, from whom it acquired its present name, "The Queen's Vineyard." It is now a government school for the education of children of military men. Up the river, beyond the suspension bridge, is the Castello del Valentino, distinguished from a distance by its four pavilions with high-pitched roofs. It was built by the widow of Victor AmadeusI., daughter of Henri IV. of France, and is now used as a government school of civil engineering. It contains a good collection of minerals, the larger part of which, obtained from Sardinian provinces, are topographically arranged. The Botanical Garden belonging to the university is also here.

[Headnote: MONUMENT TO CAVOUR.]

Monuments.

In the Piazza Carlo Emanuele II., a short way S. from Piazza Castello, is the monument to Camillo Cavour, by Dupr of Florence, for which he received 1200, contributed by the inhabitants of every part of Italy in 1872. The statues are in white marble, the tablets and friezes in bronze, and the pedestal in granite. The monument is tame and mystic. Cavour, in an upright position, holds in his hand a scroll bearing the words, "libera chiesa in libero stato." (See p.294.) The climate of Turin is more suitable for bronze than for marble statues. To the west is the Piazza S.Carlo, with a bronze monument to Emanuele Filiberto (see p.293). Farther west, in the Piazza Solferino, is the remarkable, almost painful, bronze group representing Ferdinando di Savoia (brother ofV. EmanueleII.) at the battle of Novara in 1848. When about to lead the charge on the Bicocca his horse fell, mortally wounded. The poor animal, on bended knees, with gaping mouth and outstretched neck, seems about to breathe its last in an agony of suffering.

A short way west from the Piazza Castello by the Via Palazzo di Citta is the Piazza del Palazzo di Citta, having on one side the Palazzo di Citta, or the Municipality buildings, designed by Lanfrachi, and erected in 1659. At the entrance to the Palazzo are the marble statues of the celebrated Prince Eugene and the Duke of Genoa, brother of King Victor Emanuel, and under the portico statues of Prince Thomas di Carignano and Victor Emanuel. In the centre of the square is a bronze group representing Count Verde (AmadeusVI.) over a fallen Saracen. Close to this square is the church of Corpus Domini, with the interior encrusted with beautiful marble, and ornamented with frescoes and gilding. From this the Via Milano leads towards the Piazza Em. Filiberto, passing by on the left S.Domenico, and on the right the Basilica. In S.Domenico, in the first chapel to the right of the altar, is a picture of the Virgin by Guercino.

[Headnote: LA CONSOLATA.]

Near the Piazza Em. Filiberto, by the Via Giulio, is the church La Consolata, with an ugly square brick tower. It consists of three churches built at different periods. On the principal altar is a miracle-working image of the Virgin; while a great part of the adjoining walls is hung with pictures illustrating the cures and deliverances effected by it. Two lovely kneeling figures, in the most precious Carrara marble, looking towards the altar, represent respectively Maria Theresa, queen of Carlo Alberto, and Maria Adelaide, queen of Vit. Emanuele, dressed in the same way as they used to be when they attended worship every Sunday in this chapel. They both died in 1855. In the square outside, on a granite column, is a statue of the Virgin, erected in fulfilment of a vow when the cholera raged in 1835.

In the Piazza Savoia, near the Piazza dello Statuto, is an obelisk 72 ft. high, erected in 1854 to commemorate the abolition of the ecclesiastical courts. On the four sides are the names of the towns which contributed to the monument.

[Headnote: CEMETERY.]

Less than a mile from the Ponte delle Benne is the cemetery or Campo Santo of Turin. (See N.E. corner of plan.) It is badly kept and not worth visiting. The inner or new part is a little better.

A little to the W. of the P. Solferino, and parallel to it, is the citadel and the barracks of the Cernaia. In front of the entrance is the monument to Pietro Mico, who, to save the citadel from the enemy, sprang a mine at the cost of his own life.

[Headnote: LA SUPERGA.]

La Superga.

Leave by the steam tram starting from the Piazza Castello; the time-table is in the waiting-room, where the tickets are also sold half an hour before starting. As the train can take only a limited number, the tickets are generally all taken in the first 10 minutes. The tram runs down the Via Po, crosses the Ponte Vit. EmanueleI., passes by the western end of the church, the "Great Mother of God," and descends by the left side of the Po to the Cassale station, whence the ascent commences by the rope and locomotive railway constructed by Agudio, and opened in 1884. The ascent takes 20 minutes, the length is 3500 yards, the average inclination 13%, and the greatest 20%. At the Superga station are waiting-rooms, and a few feet below them a commodious restaurant. On arriving at the station ascend by the road, right hand, for the Superga. The walk down the mountain is very pleasant, and it is probable that the pedestrian will fall in with some tram when on the main road to Turin.

The Superga is situated 4 m. N.E. from Turin, on a mountain 1420 ft. above the Po, or 2146 ft. above the sea, and cost 100,000. It was commenced by Vittorio AmedeoII. in 1717, and finished in 1731, to fulfil a vow made by him on 7th September 1706, for the victory over the French at the battle of Turin, when the house of Savoy regained the duchy. The architect was Filippo Juvara.

Enter by door at the north side of the building, where the men will be found who conduct visitors over the church. Gratuity optional. The first hall shown contains small and indifferent portraits of all the popes. Then down 27 large marble steps to the crypt. At the foot is a white marble group, St. Michael overcoming Satan. None of the monuments are worthy the name of royal mausoleums. The best are: in centre, Carlo Alberto, 1779-1849; at right hand end, Carlo EmanueleIII., 1701-1773; towards left, Duke Ferdinando de Genova, acolossal white marble statue; at left end, Vittorio AmedeoII., the founder, 1666-1732. In an adjoining vault children under seven are buried.

[Headnote: VIEWS.]

From this ascend by 357 steps from floor of church to the gallery outside the lantern. Adoor about 80 steps up opens into the gallery round the interior of the octagonal dome, whence the church is well seen. The top of the lantern is 229 ft. above the pavement of the church.

The chief object for visiting the Superga is the splendid view from the outside gallery of the lantern. In one direction is the plain of Piedmont with the Po wandering across it; everywhere else the horizon is bounded by a vast chain of snowy Alps, with Monte Rosa on one side and Mont Blanc on the other.

[Headnote: LAMPREDE. WINES.]

Among the delicacies of Turin are the lamprede, thin eels from 5 to 8 inches long, caught in the Po. They are killed by being plunged into milk. The white truffles are also celebrated, and when cooked " la Piedmontese" or " la fonduta," and taken with a bottle of Asti wine, make most enjoyable dishes. The vermouth of Turin is an agreeable aperitive, and is taken before sitting down to table. The best wines of Piedmont are the Caluzo, awhite wine; the Barolo, adryish red wine with a taste of the soil; the Barbera, astrong red wine; and the Nebrolo. The Gressini are double baked bread in strips 18 inches long and a quarter of an inch thick. In the Italian houses a handful of them is put down to each cover at the dinner-table. They are made at very many places besides Turin; even at Cannes on the Riviera. Agreat deal of maccheroni (macaroni) is consumed in Italy. In Turin are important silk mills.

Turin to Cuneo, 54 m. S., by Cavallermaggiore (see p.153). Turin to Genoa, 103m. S.E., by Asti, Alessandria, and Novi (see p.279). Turin to Savona, 91m. S.E., by Carmagnola, Bra, Carru, and Ceva (see p.183, and map p.27). Turin to Florence, 291m. S.E., by Asti, Alessandria, Piacenza, Parma, Modena, Bologna, and Pistoja (see p.309, and map p.199).

THE VALLEES VAUDOISES, OR THE VALLEYS OF THE WALDENSES.

(See accompanying Map.)

The Waldensian valleys are very beautiful, are drained by splendid trout-streams, and possess a rich variety of rare plants.

The chief town, Torre-Pllice (formerly called Torre-Luserna) is 34 miles S.W. from Turin by rail, passing by Pinerolo, 23m. S.W. from Turin, and 10m. N.E. from Torre-Pllice. From Pinerolo a steam tram runs 12m. N.W. up the valley of the Chisone to Perosa, the second Waldensian town in importance. Time, 1 hr. 30 min. The tram station is near the railway station.

Pinerolo is connected with Saluzzo by steam tram, 2 hrs. 20 min. S., 2frs. 15 c. and 1fr. 55 c., passing Osasco and Cavour. This tram station is at some distance from the Pinerolo railway station.

The Italian steam trams run on single lines laid on one side only of the highroads. Some towns they traverse, while others they merely skirt. They afford excellent opportunities for seeing the country, but run neither so quickly nor so smoothly as the railway trains.

Rail between Cuneo and Mondov, 11 m. E. and 58m. S. by rail from Turin. Mondov, pop. 17,000, on the Ellero; Inn: Tr Limoni d'Oro. On one side of the Ellero is the railway station, and on the other are the inn and town, built on the lower slopes of a wooded hill rising from the river. The Via San Agostino contains the best shops. On the top of the hill is another town nearly as large as Mondov (see p.184).

The country of the Italian Waldenses consists of parts of the valleys of Pllice, San Martino, and Perosa or Chisone, is about 20m. long from W. to E. by 13 broad, is divided into 15 parishes, exclusive of the isolated parish of Turin, and contains a population of about 25,000. They have besides a thriving colony in Uruguay. Till Cavour in 1848 procured for Italy civil and religious liberty, the Waldenses were confined by law to their valleys; now, however, they have spread themselves over the best parts of Italy, while many emigrate every year to the United States and to Uruguay. Of late mills and manufactories have been established on their rivers, which has caused a large influx of Piedmontese workmen, so that many Waldensian towns and villages which up to 1848 were inhabited almost exclusively by Protestants have now a larger population of Romanists.

[Map: The Waldensian Valleys and the Passes between France and Italy]

These valleys are very fertile, bearing luxuriant crops of maize, wheat, barley, potatoes, French beans, etc., intersected by long rows of vines on high trelliswork, and studded with mulberry, apricot, peach, apple, pear, and cherry trees, while at the base of the densely-wooded mountains which enclose them are walnut and chestnut trees. The only high mountain in the territory is Monte Meidassa, 10,185 ft., between the valleys of the Pllice and the Po, which river has its source 6625 ft. above the sea among the snowy summits of Monte Viso, 12,607 ft., ashort way south from Monte Meidassa by either the Col dell' Agnello or the Col Traversette, 9680ft.

[Headnote: WALDENSIAN DOCTRINES AND PERSECUTIONS.]

The Vaudois inhabited originally not only the valleys on the E. side of the Alps but also those of Louise, Embrun, and Barcelonnette on the French side (pp.344, 345), and, as there was constant communication between them, French became the common language, as it is still in a great measure. They consider themselves a part of the Apostolic Church, which by its isolated position in the then almost inaccessible ravines had escaped the early innovations introduced by the church of Rome; albeit not altogether, for they admitted confession by contrite prayer to God and the mention aloud of their sins to a priest, the power of priests to bind and to loose, that sins were of two classes, mortal and venial, and the efficacy of fasts and penance. At the Reformation all these were swept away, and the doctrines and church polity of Calvin adopted. The independent church of the Waldenses, or valley-people, existed about a century before the arrival of Pierre Valdo from Lyons in 1180. Their name is supposed to be derived from "valle densa," contracted into Vallenses, Valdenses, and finally Vaudois. The first serious persecution of the Italian Vaudois was begun at the instigation of Yolande, sister of Louis XI and wife of Amade IX., Duke of Savoy. By her representation Innocent VIII. in 1487 fulminated against the Waldenses a bull of extermination. Whoever killed any of these heretics were to be absolved from promises they had made, property wrongly obtained by them was to be rendered legal, and they were to have a complete remission of all their sins. Persecution among the French Vaudois commenced in the 13th cent.

[Headnote: TORRE-PLLICE.]

Torre-Pllice, pop. 5200, Inn: H. de l'Ours, good and comfortable, is situated on the Pllice and its affluent the Angrogna, 34m. S.W. by rail from Turin, 10m. from Pinerolo, and 1m. from the station of Luserna-San Giovanni, pop. of both places together, 4200. Luserna is a considerable town to the N. of the station. Inn: Albergo del Belvdre. Opposite is San Giovanni, alarge unfinished-looking village, with barracks, a"Tempio Evangelico," and several elementary Protestant schools.

Torre-Pllice is a thriving town in the midst of a fertile valley enclosed within most picturesque mountains. At the west end are the Waldensian church, the manse, the college, and the higher school for girls. At the other end of the town are the inn, the post and telegraph office, the Romanist church and schools, and up by the Angrogna the Baptist chapel and manse. On the rivers are cotton and flour mills, and dye and calico-printing works. These establishments have attracted many Piedmontese to the town, which, from this and other causes, have made the Romanist population more numerous than the Protestant.

The wine made in the valley of Pllice is principally red, and is drunk in the second year. Abeautiful walk extends up the valley of the Angrogna to Perosa, about 6 hrs. N. by the defile of Pra de Tor, 4360 ft., and the village of Pramollo with Waldensian chapel and schools. Pop. of the district of Pramollo, 1350.

[Headnote: BOBBIO. MIRABOUC. COL DE LA CROIX.]

Torre-Pllice to Mont Dauphin by Bobbio, Mirabouc, Les Granges des Pras, the Col de la Croix, La Monta, and Abris, 47m. W., 16 to 17 hrs. walking. Up to Bobbio, 2838 ft, 7m. and 2 hrs. walking, pop. 1520, Tempio Evangelico, Inns: Camoscio, etc., there is nothing particular. Afterwards the valley gradually contracts till it becomes a mere gorge, having at the entrance the ruins of Fort Mirabouc. At Mirabouc, 4718 ft., the valley turns southward to the inn and custom-house station, 5683 ft., about 3 hrs. from Bobbio, where provisions and accommodation may be had for the night. From this commences the ascent of the Col, 7576 ft., 17m. from Torre-Pllice and 30 from Mont Dauphin, commanding a splendid view of Monte Viso. The top (with an Hospice) is nearly level, and the descent by the French side easy. At La Chalp the track joins the char—banc road leading to Mont Dauphin by La Monta, Ristolas, Abris, and Guillestre. (For Mont Dauphin and Guillestre, see p.344, and map p.304.)

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