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The Schoolmaster
by Roger Ascham
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common scholes, by the scholemasters, in tossing and trobling yong wittes (as I sayd in the beginning) with that boocherlie feare in making of Latins. Therefore, in place, of Latines for yong scholers, and of Paraphrasis for the masters, I wold haue double translation specially vsed. For, in double translating a perfite peece of Tullie or Csar, neyther the scholer in learning, nor y^e Master in teaching can erre. A true tochstone, a sure metwand lieth before both their eyes. For, all right congruitie: proprietie of wordes: order in sentences: the right imitation, to inuent good matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirme it with good reason, to expresse any purpose fitlie and orderlie, is learned thus, both easelie & perfitlie: Yea, to misse somtyme in this kinde of translation, bringeth more proffet, than to hit right, either in Paraphrasi or making of Latins. For though ye say well, in a latin making, or in a Paraphrasis, yet you being but in doute, and vncertayne whether ye saie well or no, ye gather and lay vp in memorie, no sure frute of learning thereby: But if ye fault in translation, ye ar easelie taught, how perfitlie to amende it, and so well warned, how after to exchew, all soch faultes againe. Paraphrasis therefore, by myne opinion, is not meete for Grammer scholes: nor yet verie fitte for yong men in the vniuersitie, vntill studie and tyme, haue bred in them, perfite learning, and stedfast iudgement. There is a kinde of Paraphrasis, which may be vsed, without all hurt, to moch proffet: but it serueth onely the Greke and not the latin, nor no other tong, as to alter linguam Ionicam aut Doricam into meram Atticam: A notable example there is left vnto vs by a notable learned man Diony: Halicarn: who, in his booke, peri syntaxeos, doth translate the goodlie storie of Candaules and Gyges in 1. Herodoti, out of Ionica lingua, into Atticam. Read the place, and ye shall take, both pleasure and proffet, in conference of it. A man, that is exercised in reading, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes, in vsing to turne, like places of Herodotus, after like sorte, shold shortlie cum to soch a knowledge, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the Greeke tong, as fewe or none hath yet atteyned in England. The like exercise out of Dorica lingua may be also vsed, if a man take that litle booke of Plato, Timus Locrus, de Animo et

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natura, which is written Dorice, and turne it into soch Greeke, as Plato vseth in other workes. The booke, is but two leaues: and the labor wold be, but two weekes: but surelie the proffet, for easie vnderstanding, and trewe writing the Greeke tonge, wold conteruaile wyth the toile, that som men taketh, in otherwise coldlie reading that tonge, two yeares. And yet, for the latin tonge, and for the exercise of Para- phrasis, in those places of latin, that can not be bettered, if some yong man, excellent of witte, corragious in will, lustie of nature, and desirous to contend euen with the best latin, to better it, if he can, surelie I commend his forwardnesse, and for his better instruction therein, I will set before him, as notable an example of Paraphrasis, as is in Record of learning. Cicero him selfe, doth contend, in two sondrie places, to expresse one matter, with diuerse wordes: and that is Paraphrasis, saith Quintillian. The matter I suppose is taken out of Pantius: and therefore being translated out of Greeke at diuers times, is vttered for his purpose, with diuers wordes and formes: which kinde of exercise, for perfite learned men, is verie profitable.

2. De Finib.

a. Homo enim Rationem habet natura menti datam qu, & causas rerum et consecutiones videt, & similitudines, transfert, & disiuncta coniungit, & cum prsentibus futura copulat, omnemque complectitur vit consequentis statum. b. Eademque ratio facit hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his, natura, & sermone in vsu congruentem: vt profectus caritate domesticorum ac suorum, currat longius, & se implicet, prim Ciuium, deinde omnium mortalium societati: vtque non sibi soli se natum meminerit, sed patri, sed suis, vt exigua pars ipsi relinquatur. c. Et quoniam eadem natura cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inueniendi, quod facillim apparet, cum vacui curis, etiam quid in coelo fiat, scire auemus, &c.

1. Officiorum.

a. Homo autem, qui rationis est particeps, per quam conse- quentia cernit, & causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines, comparat, rebusque prsentibus adiungit, atque annectit futuras, facile totius vit cursum videt, ad

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eamque degendam prparat res necessarias. b. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini, & ad Orationis, & ad vit societatem: ingeneratque imprimis prcipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque vt hominum coetus & celebrari inter se, & sibi obediri velit, ob easque causas studeat parare ea, qu suppeditent ad cultum & ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis, cterisque quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat. c. Qu cura exsuscitat etiam animos, & maiores ad rem gerendam facit: impri- misque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque inuestigatio: ita cum sumus necessarijs negocijs curisque vacui, tum auemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere, cognitionemque rerum mirabilium. &c.

The conference of these two places, conteinyng so excellent a peece of learning, as this is, expressed by so worthy a witte, as Tullies was, must needes bring great pleasure and proffit to him, that maketh trew counte, of learning and honestie. But if we had the Greke Author, the first Patterne of all, and therby to see, how Tullies witte did worke at diuerse tymes, how, out of one excellent Image, might be framed two other, one in face and fauor, but somwhat differing in forme, figure, and color, surelie, such a peece of workemanship compared with the Paterne it selfe, would better please the ease of honest, wise, and learned myndes, than two of the fairest Venusses, that euer Apelles made. And thus moch, for all kinde of Paraphrasis, fitte or vnfit, for Scholers or other, as I am led to thinke, not onelie, by mine owne experience, but chiefly by the authoritie & iudgement of those, whom I my selfe would gladliest folow, and do counsell all myne to do the same: not contendyng with any other, that will otherwise either thinke or do.

Metaphrasis.

This kinde of exercise is all one with Paraphrasis, saue it is out of verse, either into prose, or into some other kinde of meter: or els, out of prose into verse, which was // Plato in Socrates exercise and pastime ( as Plato reporteth) // Phdone. when he was in prison, to translate sopes Fabules into verse. Quintilian doth greatlie praise also this exercise: but bicause Tullie doth disalow it in yong men, by myne opinion, it were not well to vse it in Grammer Scholes, euen

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for the selfe same causes, that be recited against Paraphrasis. And therfore, for the vse, or misuse of it, the same is to be thought, that is spoken of Paraphrasis before. This was Sulpitius exercise: and he gathering vp therby, a Poeticall kinde of talke, is iustlie named of Cicero, grandis et Tragicus Orator: which I think is spoken, not for his praise, but for other mens warning, to exchew the like faulte. Yet neuertheles, if our Scholemaster for his owne instruction, is desirous, to see a perfite example hereof, I will recite one, which I thinke, no man is so bold, will say, that he can amend it: & that is Hom. 1. Il. // Chrises the Priestes Oration to the Grekes, in the Pla. 3. Rep. // beginnyng of Homers Ilias, turned excellentlie into prose by Socrates him selfe, and that aduised- lie and purposelie for other to folow: and therfore he calleth this exercise, in the same place, mimesis, that is, Imitatio, which is most trew: but, in this booke, for teachyng sake, I will name it Metaphrasis, reteinyng the word, that all teachers, in this case, do vse.

Homerus. I. Iliad.

o gar elthe thoas epi neas Achaion, lysomenos te thygatra, pheron t apereisi apoina, stemmat echon en chersin ekebolou Apollonos, chryseo ana skeptro kai elisseto pantas Achaious, Atreida de malista duo, kosmetore laon. Atreidai te, kai alloi euknemides Achaioi, ymin men theoi doien, Olympia domat echontes, ekpersai Priamoio polin eu d oikad ikesthai paida d emoi lysai te philen, ta t apoina dechesthai, azomenoi Dios uion ekebolon Apollona. enth alloi men pantes epeuphemesan Achaioi aideisthai th ierea, kai aglaa dechthai apoina all ouk Atreide Agamemnoni endane thymo, alla kakos aphiei, krateron d epi mython etellen. me se, geron, koilesin ego para neusi kicheio, e nyn dethynont, e ysteron autis ionta, me ny toi ou chraisme skeptron, kai stemma theoio ten d ego ou lyso, prin min kai geras epeisin, emetero eni oiko, en Argei telothi patres

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iston epoichomenen, kai emon lechos antioosan. all ithi, me m erethize saoteros os ke neeai. os ephat eddeisen d o geron, kai epeitheto mytho be d akeon para thina polyphloisboio thalasses, polla d epeit apaneuthe kion erath o geraios Apolloni anakti, ton eukomos teke Leto. klythi meu, argyrotox, os Chrysen amphibebekas, killan te zatheen, Tenedoio te iphi anasseis, smintheu, ei pote toi Charient epi neon erepsa, e ei de pote toi kata piona meri ekea tauron, ed aigon, tode moi kreenon eeldor tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.

Socrates in 3. de Rep. saith thus,

Phraso gar aneu metrou, ou gar eimi poietikos.

elthen o Chryses tes te thygatros lytra pheron, kai iketes ton Achaion, malista de ton basileon: kai eucheto, ekeinois men tous theous dounai elontas ten Troian, autous de sothenai, ten de thygatera oi auto lysai, dexamenous apoina, kai ton theon aidesthentas. Toiauta de eipontos autou, oi men alloi esebonto kai synenoun, o de Agamemnon egriainen, entel- lomenos nyn te apienai, kai authis me elthein, me auto to te skeptron, kai ta tou theou stemmata ouk eparkesoi. prin de lythenai autou thygatera, en Argei ephe gerasein meta ou. apienai de ekeleue, kai me erethizein, ina sos oikade elthoi. o de presbytes akousas edeise te kai apeei sige, apocho- resas d ek tou stratopedou polla to Apolloni eucheto, tas te eponymias tou theou anakalon kai ypomimneskon kai apaiton, ei ti popote e en naon oikodomesesin, e en ieron thysiais kecharismenon doresaito. on de charin kateucheto tisai tous Achaious ta a dakrua tois ekeinon belesin.

To compare Homer and Plato together, two wonders of nature and arte for witte and eloquence, is most pleasant and profitable, for a man of ripe iudgement. Platos turning of Homer in this place, doth not ride a loft in Poeticall termes, but goeth low and soft on foote, as prose and Pedestris oratio should do. If Sulpitius had had Platos consideration, in right

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vsing this exercise, he had not deserued the name of Tragicus Orator, who should rather haue studied to expresse vim Demos- thenis, than furorem Pot, how good so euer he was, whom he did folow. And therfore would I haue our Scholemaster wey well together Homer and Plato, and marke diligentlie these foure pointes, what is kept: what is added: what is left out: what is changed, either, in choise of wordes, or forme of sentences: which foure pointes, be the right tooles, to handle like a worke- man, this kinde of worke: as our Scholer shall better vnder- stand, when he hath bene a good while in the Vniuersitie: to which tyme and place, I chiefly remitte this kinde of exercise. And bicause I euer thought examples to be the best kinde of teaching, I will recite a golden sentence out of that Poete, which is next vnto Homer, not onelie in tyme, but also in worthines: which hath bene a paterne for many worthie wittes to follow, by this kind of Metaphrasis, but I will content my selfe, with foure workemen, two in Greke, and two in Latin, soch, as in both the tonges, wiser & worthier, can not be looked for. Surelie, no stone set in gold by most cunning workemen, is in deed, if right counte be made, more worthie the looking on, than this golden sentence, diuerslie wrought vpon, by soch foure excellent Masters.

Hesiodus. 2.

1. outos men panariotos, os auto panta noese, phrassamenos ta k epeita kai es telos esin ameino: 2. esthlos d au kakeinos, os eu eiponti pithetai, 3. os de ke met autos noee, met allou akouon en thymo balletai, o d aut achreios aner.

Thus rudelie turned into base English.

1. That man in wisedome passeth all, to know the best who hath a head: 2. And meetlie wise eeke counted shall, who yeildes him selfe to wise mens read: 3. Who hath no witte, nor none will heare, amongest all fooles the bell may beare.

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Sophocles in Antigone.

1. Phem egoge presbeuein poly, Phynai ton andra pant epiotemes pleon: 2. Ei d oun (philei gar touto me taute repein), Kai ton legonton eu kalon to manthanein.

Marke the wisedome of Sophocles, in leauyng out the last sentence, because it was not cumlie for the sonne to vse it to his father.

D. Basileus in his Exhortation to youth.

Memnesthe tou Esiodou, os phesi, ariston men einai ton par eautou ta deonta xynoronta. 2. Esthlon de kakei- non, ton tois, par eteron ypodeicheisin epomenon. 3. ton de pros oudeteron epitedeion achreion einai pros apanta.

M. Cic. Pro A. Cluentio.

1. Sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui, quod opus sit, ipsi veniat in mentem: 2. Proxime accedere illum, qui alterius bene inuentis obtemperet. 3. In stulticia contra est: minus enim stultus est is, cui nihil in mentem venit, quam ille, qui, quod stult alteri venit in mentem comprobat.

Cicero doth not plainlie expresse the last sentence, but doth inuent it fitlie for his purpose, to taunt the folie and simplicitie in his aduersarie Actius, not weying wiselie, the sutle doynges of Chrysogonus and Staienus.

Tit. Liuius in Orat. Minutij. Lib. 22.

1. Spe ego audiui milites; eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat, quid in rem sit: 2. Secundum eum, qui bene monenti obediat: 3. Qui, nec ipse consulere, nec alteri parere scit, eum extremi esse ingenij.

Now, which of all these foure, Sophocles, S. Basil, Cicero, or Liuie, hath expressed Hesiodus best, the iudgement is as hard, as the workemanship of euerie one is most excellent in deede. An other example out of the Latin tong also I will recite, for the worthines of the workeman therof, and that is Horace, who hath

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so turned the begynning of Terence Eunuchus, as doth worke in me, a pleasant admiration, as oft so euer, as I compare those two places togither. And though euerie Master, and euerie good Scholer to, do know the places, both in Terence and Horace, yet I will set them heare, in one place togither, that with more pleasure, they may be compared together.

Terentius in Eunucho.

Quid igitur faciam? non eam? ne nunc quidem cum accersor ultr? an potius ita me comparem, non perpeti meretricum con- tumelias? exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non, si me obsecret. PAR- MENO a little after. Here, qu res in se neque consilium neque modum habet vllum, eam consilio regere non potes. In Amore hc omnia insunt vitia, iniuri, suspiciones, inimiciti, induci, bellum, pax rursum. Incerta hc si tu postules ratione certa facere, nihilo plus agas, quem si des operam, vt cum ratione insanias.

Horatius, lib. Ser. 2. Saty. 3.

Nec nunc cum me vocet vltro, Accedam? an potius mediter finire dolores? Exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non si obsecret. Ecce Seruus non Paulo sapientior: Here, qu res Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modque Tractari non vult. In amore, hc sunt mala, bellum, Pax rursum: hc si quis tempestatis prop ritu Mobilia, et cca fluitantia sorte, laboret Reddere certa, sibi nihil plus explicet, ac si Insanire paret certa ratione, modque.

This exercise may bring moch profite to ripe heads, and stayd iudgementes: bicause, in traueling in it, the mynde must nedes be verie attentiue, and busilie occupide, in turning and tossing it selfe many wayes: and conferryng with great pleasure, the varietie of worthie wittes and iudgementes togither: But this harme may sone cum therby, and namelie to yong Scholers, lesse, in seeking other wordes, and new forme of sentences, they chance vpon the worse: for the which onelie cause, Cicero thinketh this exercise not to be fit for yong men.

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Epitome.

This is a way of studie, belonging, rather to matter, than to wordes: to memorie, than to vtterance: to those that be learned alreadie, and hath small place at all amonges yong scholers in Grammer scholes. It may proffet priuately some learned men, but it hath hurt generallie learning it selfe, very moch. For by it haue we lost whole Trogus, the best part of T. Liuius, the goodlie Dictionarie of Pompeius festus, a great deale of the Ciuill lawe, and other many notable bookes, for the which cause, I do the more mislike this exercise, both in old and yong. Epitome, is good priuatelie for himselfe that doth worke it, but ill commonlie for all other that vse other mens labor therein: a silie poore kinde of studie, not vnlike to the doing of those poore folke, which neyther till, nor sowe, nor reape themselues, but gleane by stelth, vpon other mens growndes. Soch, haue emptie barnes, for deare yeares. Grammer scholes haue fewe Epitomes to hurt them, except Epitheta Textoris, and such beggarlie gatheringes, as Horman, whittington, and other like vulgares for making of latines: yea I do wishe, that all rules for yong scholers, were shorter than they be. For without doute, Grammatica it selfe, is sooner and surer learned by examples of good authors, than by the naked rewles of Grammarians. Epitome hurteth more, in the vni- uersities and studie of Philosophie: but most of all, in diuinitie it selfe. In deede bookes of common places be verie necessarie, to induce a man, into an orderlie generall knowledge, how to referre orderlie all that he readeth, ad certa rerum Capita, and not wander in studie. And to that end did P. Lombardus the master of sentences and Ph. Melancthon in our daies, write two notable bookes of common places. But to dwell in Epitomes and bookes of common places, and not to binde himselfe dailie by orderlie studie, to reade with all diligence, principallie the holyest scripture and withall, the best Doctors, and so to learne to make trewe difference betwixt, the authoritie of the one, and the Counsell of the other, maketh so many seeming, and sonburnt ministers as we haue, whose

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learning is gotten in a sommer heat, and washed away, with a Christmas snow againe: who neuerthelesse, are lesse to be blamed, than those blind bussardes, who in late yeares, of wilfull maliciousnes, would neyther learne themselues, nor could teach others, any thing at all. Paraphrasis hath done lesse hurt to learning, than Epitome: for no Paraphrasis, though there be many, shall neuer take away Dauids Psalter. Erasmus Paraphrasis being neuer so good, shall neuer banishe the new Testament. And in an other schole, the Paraphrasis of Brocardus, or Sambucus, shal neuer take Aristotles Rhetoricke, nor Horace de Arte Poetica, out of learned mens handes. But, as concerning a schole Epitome, he that wold haue an example of it, let him read Lucian peri kallous which is the verie Epitome of Isocrates oration de laudibus Helen, whereby he may learne, at the least, this wise lesson, that a man ought to beware, to be ouer bold, in altering an excellent mans worke. Neuertheles, some kinde of Epitome may be vsed, by men of skilful iudgement, to the great proffet also of others. As if a wise man would take Halles Cronicle, where moch good matter is quite marde with Indenture Englishe, and first change, strange and inkhorne tearmes into proper, and commonlie vsed wordes: next, specially to wede out that, that is superfluous and idle, not onelie where wordes be vainlie heaped one vpon an other, but also where many sentences, of one meaning, be clowted vp together as though M. Hall had bene, not writing the storie of England, but varying a sentence in Hitching schole: surelie a wise learned man, by this way of Epitome, in cutting away wordes and sentences, and diminishing nothing at all of the matter, shold leaue to mens vse, a storie, halfe as moch as it was in quantitie, but twise as good as it was, both for pleasure and also commoditie. An other kinde of Epitome may be vsed likewise very well, to moch proffet. Som man either by lustines of nature, or brought by ill teaching, to a wrong iudgement, is ouer full of words, sentences, & matter, & yet all his words be proper, apt & well chosen: all his sentences be rownd and trimlie framed: his whole matter grownded vpon good reason, & stuffed with full arguments, for his intent & purpose. Yet when his talke

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shalbe heard, or his writing be red, of soch one, as is, either of my two dearest frendes, M. Haddon at home, or Iohn Sturmius in Germanie, that Nimium in him, which fooles and vnlearned will most commend, shall eyther of thies two, bite his lippe, or shake his heade at it. This fulnes as it is not to be misliked in a yong man, so in farder aige, in greater skill, and weightier affaires, it is to be temperated, or else discretion and iudgement shall seeme to be wanting in him. But if his stile be still ouer rancke and lustie, as some men being neuer so old and spent by yeares, will still be full of youthfull conditions as was Syr F. Bryan, and euer- more wold haue bene: soch a rancke and full writer, must vse, if he will do wiselie the exercise of a verie good kinde of Epitome, and do, as certaine wise men do, that be ouer fat and fleshie: who leauing their owne full and plentifull table, go to soiorne abrode from home for a while, at the temperate diet of some sober man: and so by litle and litle, cut away the grosnesse that is in them. As for an example: If Osorius would leaue of his lustines in striuing against S. Austen, and his ouer rancke rayling against poore Luther, and the troth of Gods doctrine, and giue his whole studie, not to write any thing of his owne for a while, but to translate Demosthenes, with so straite, fast, & temperate a style in latine, as he is in Greeke, he would becume so perfit & pure a writer, I beleue, as hath bene fewe or none sence Ciceroes dayes: And so, by doing himself and all learned moch good, do others lesse harme, & Christes doctrine lesse iniury, than he doth: & with all, wyn vnto himselfe many worthy frends, who agreing with him gladly, in y^e loue & liking of excellent learning, are sorie to see so worthie a witte, so rare eloquence, wholie spent and consumed, in striuing with God and good men. Emonges the rest, no man doth lament him more than I, not onelie for the excellent learning that I see in him, but also bicause there hath passed priuatelie betwixt him and me, sure tokens of moch good will, and frendlie opinion, the one toward the other. And surelie the distance betwixt London and Lysbon, should not stoppe, any kinde of frendlie dewtie, that I could, eyther shew to him, or do to his, if the greatest matter of all did not in certeyne pointes, separate our myndes. And yet for my parte, both toward him, and diuerse others

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here at home, for like cause of excellent learning, great wisdome, and gentle humanitie, which I haue seene in them, and felt at their handes my selfe, where the matter of indifference is mere conscience in a quiet minde inwardlie, and not contentious malice with spitefull rayling openlie, I can be content to followe this rewle, in misliking some one thing, not to hate for anie thing els. But as for all the bloodie beastes, as that fat Boore of the Psal. 80. // wood: or those brauling Bulles of Basan: or any lurking Dormus, blinde, not by nature, but by malice, & as may be gathered of their owne testimonie, giuen ouer to blindnes, for giuing ouer God & his word; or soch as be so lustie runnegates, as first, runne from God & his trew doctrine, than, from their Lordes, Masters, & all dewtie, next, from them selues & out of their wittes, lastly from their Prince, contrey, & all dew allegeance, whether they ought rather to be pitied of good men, for their miserie, or contemned of wise men, for their malicious folie, let good and wise men deter- mine. And to returne to Epitome agayne, some will iudge moch boldnes in me, thus to iudge of Osorius style: but wise men do know, that meane lookers on, may trewelie say, for a well made Picture: This face had bene more cumlie, if that hie redde in the cheeke, were somwhat more pure sanguin than it is: and yet the stander by, can not amend it himselfe by any way. And this is not written to the dispraise but to the great commendation of Osorius, because Tullie himselfe had the same fulnes in him: and therefore went to Rodes to cut it away: and saith himselfe, recepi me domum prope mutatus, nam quasi referuerat iam oratio. Which was brought to passe I beleue, not onelie by the teaching of Molo Appollonius but also by a good way of Epitome, in binding him selfe to translate meros Atticos Oratores, and so to bring his style, from all lowse grosnesse, to soch firme fastnes in latin, as is in Demosthenes in Greeke. And this to be most trew, may easelie be gathered, not onelie of L. Crassus talke in 1. de Or. but speciallie of Ciceroes owne deede in translating Demosthenes and schines orations peri steph. to that verie ende and purpose. And although a man growndlie learned all readie, may take moch proffet him selfe in vsing, by Epitome, to draw other mens

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workes for his owne memorie sake, into shorter rowme, as Conterus hath done verie well the whole Metamorphosis of Ouid, & Dauid Cythrus a great deale better, the ix. Muses of Hero- dotus, and Melanchthon in myne opinion, far best of all, the whole storie of Time, not onelie to his own vse, but to other mens proffet and hys great prayse, yet, Epitome is most necessarie of all in a mans owne writing, as we learne of that noble Poet Virgill, who, if Donatus say trewe, in writing that perfite worke of the Georgickes, vsed dailie, when he had written 40. or 50. verses, not to cease cutting, paring, and pollishing of them, till he had brought them to the nomber of x. or xij. And this exercise, is not more nedefullie done in a great worke, than wiselie done, in your common dailie writing, either of letter, or other thing else, that is to say, to peruse diligentlie, and see and spie wiselie, what is alwaies more than nedeth: For, twenty to one, offend more, in writing to moch, than to litle: euen as twentie to one, fall into sicknesse, rather by ouer moch fulnes, than by anie lacke or emptinesse. And therefore is he alwaies the best English Physition, that best can geue a purgation, that is, by way of Epitome, to cut all ouer much away. And surelie mens bodies, be not more full of ill humors, than commonlie mens myndes (if they be yong, lustie, proude, like and loue them selues well, as most men do) be full of fansies, opinions, errors, and faultes, not onelie in inward inuention, but also in all their vtterance, either by pen or taulke. And of all other men, euen those that haue y^e inuentiuest heades, for all purposes, and roundest tonges in all matters and places (except they learne and vse this good lesson of Epitome) commit commonlie greater faultes, than dull, staying silent men do. For, quicke inuentors, and faire readie speakers, being boldned with their present habilitie to say more, and perchance better to, at the soden for that present, than any other can do, vse lesse helpe of diligence and studie than they ought to do: and so haue in them commonlie, lesse learning, and weaker iudgement, for all deepe considerations, than some duller heades, and slower tonges haue. And therefore, readie speakers, generallie be not the best, playnest, and wisest writers, nor yet the deepest iudgers in weightie affaires, bicause they do not tarry to weye and iudge all thinges, as they should: but hauing their heades ouer full of

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matter, be like pennes ouer full of incke, which will soner blotte, than make any faire letter at all. Tyme was, whan I had experience of two Ambassadors in one place, the one of a hote head to inuent, and of a hastie hand to write, the other, colde and stayd in both: but what difference of their doinges was made by wise men, is not vnknowne to some persons. The Bishop of Winchester Steph: Gardiner had a quicke head, and a readie tong, and yet was not the best writer in England. Cicero in Brutus doth wiselie note the same in Serg: Galbo, and Q. Hortentius, who were both, hote, lustie, and plaine speakers, but colde, lowse, and rough writers: And Tullie telleth the cause why, saying, whan they spake, their tong was naturally caried with full tyde & wynde of their witte: whan they wrote their head was solitarie, dull, and caulme, and so their style was blonte, and their writing colde: Quod vitium, sayth Cicero, peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque accidit. And therfore all quick inuentors, & readie faire speakers, must be carefull, that, to their goodnes of nature, they adde also in any wise, studie, labor, leasure, learning, and iudgement, and than they shall in deede, passe all other, as I know some do, in whome all those qualities are fullie planted, or else if they giue ouer moch to their witte, and ouer litle to their labor and learning, they will sonest ouer reach in taulke, and fardest cum behinde in writing whatsoeuer they take in hand. The methode of Epitome is most necessarie for soch kinde of men. And thus much concerning the vse or misuse of all kinde of Epitomes in matters of learning.

[dingbat omitted] Imitatio.

Imitation, is a facultie to expresse liuelie and perfitelie that example: which ye go about to folow. And of it selfe, it is large and wide: for all the workes of nature, in a maner be examples for arte to folow. But to our purpose, all languages, both learned and mother tonges, be gotten, and gotten onelie by Imitation. For as ye vse to heare, so ye learne to speake: if ye heare no other, ye speake not your selfe: and whome ye onelie heare, of them ye onelie learne. And therefore, if ye would speake as the best and wisest do,

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ye must be conuersant, where the best and wisest are: but if yow be borne or brought vp in a rude contrie, ye shall not chose but speake rudelie: the rudest man of all knoweth this to be trewe. Yet neuerthelesse, the rudenes of common and mother tonges, is no bar for wise speaking. For in the rudest contrie, and most barbarous mother language, many be found can speake verie wiselie: but in the Greeke and latin tong, the two onelie learned tonges, which be kept, not in common taulke, but in priuate bookes, we finde alwayes, wisdome and eloquence, good matter and good vtterance, neuer or seldom a sonder. For all soch Authors, as be fullest of good matter and right iudgement in doctrine, be likewise alwayes, most proper in wordes, most apte in sentence, most plaine and pure in vttering the same. And contrariwise, in those two tonges, all writers, either in Religion, or any sect of Philosophie, who so euer be founde fonde in iudgement of matter, be commonlie found as rude in vttering their mynde. For Stoickes, Anabaptistes, and Friers: with Epicures, Libertines and Monkes, being most like in learning and life, are no fonder and pernicious in their opinions, than they be rude and barbarous in their writinges. They be not wise, therefore that say, what care I for a mans wordes and vtterance, if his matter and reasons be good. Soch men, say so, not so moch of ignorance, as eyther of some singular pride in themselues, or some speciall malice or other, or for some priuate & perciall matter, either in Religion or other kinde of learning. For good and choice meates, be no more requisite for helthie bodies, than proper and apte wordes be for good matters, and also plaine and sensible vtterance for the best and depest reasons: in which two pointes standeth perfite eloquence, one of the fairest and rarest giftes that God doth geue to man. Ye know not, what hurt ye do to learning, that care not for wordes, but for matter, and so make a deuorse betwixt the tong and the hart. For marke all aiges: looke vpon the whole course of both the Greeke and Latin tonge, and ye shall surelie finde, that, whan apte and good wordes began to be neglected, and properties of those two tonges to be confounded, than also began, ill deedes to spring: strange maners to oppresse good orders, newe and fond opinions to striue with olde and trewe doctrine, first in Philosophie: and after in Religion: right

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iudgement of all thinges to be peruerted, and so vertue with learning is contemned, and studie left of: of ill thoughtes cummeth peruerse iudgement: of ill deedes springeth lewde taulke. Which fower misorders, as they mar mans life, so destroy they good learning withall. But behold the goodnesse of Gods prouidence for learning: all olde authors and sectes of Philosophy, which were fondest in opinion, and rudest in vtterance, as Stoickes and Epicures, first contemned of wise men, and after forgotten of all men, be so consumed by tymes, as they be now, not onelie out of vse, but also out of memorie of man: which thing, I surelie thinke, will shortlie chance, to the whole doctrine and all the bookes of phantasticall Anabaptistes and Friers, and of the beastlie Libertines and Monkes. Againe behold on the other side, how Gods wisdome hath wrought, that of Academici and Peripatetici, those that were wisest in iudgement of matters, and purest in vttering their myndes, the first and chiefest, that wrote most and best, in either tong, as Plato and Aristotle in Greeke, Tullie in Latin, be so either wholie, or sufficiently left vnto vs, as I neuer knew yet scholer, that gaue himselfe to like, and loue, and folow chieflie those three Authors but he proued, both learned, wise, and also an honest man, if he ioyned with all the trewe doctrine of Gods holie Bible, without the which, the other three, be but fine edge tooles in a fole or mad mans hand. But to returne to Imitation agayne: There be three kindes of it in matters of learning. The whole doctrine of Comedies and Tragedies, is a perfite imitation, or faire liuelie painted picture of the life of euerie degree of man. Of this Imitation writeth Plato at large in 3. de Rep. but it doth not moch belong at this time to our purpose. The second kind of Imitation, is to folow for learning of tonges and sciences, the best authors. Here riseth, emonges proude and enuious wittes, a great controuersie, whether, one or many are to be folowed: and if one, who is that one: Seneca, or Cicero: Salust or Csar, and so forth in Greeke and Latin. The third kinde of Imitation, belongeth to the second: as when you be determined, whether ye will folow one or mo, to know perfitlie, and which way to folow that one: in what

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place: by what meane and order: by what tooles and instru- mentes ye shall do it, by what skill and iudgement, ye shall trewelie discerne, whether ye folow rightlie or no. This Imitatio, is dissimilis materiei similis tractatio: and also, similis materiei dissimilis tractatio, as Virgill folowed Homer: but the Argument to the one was Vlysses, to the other neas. Tullie persecuted Antonie with the same wepons of eloquence, that Demosthenes vsed before against Philippe. Horace foloweth Pindar, but either of them his owne Argument and Person: as the one, Hiero king of Sicilie, the other Augustus the Emperor: and yet both for like respectes, that is, for their coragious stoutnes in warre, and iust gouern- ment in peace. One of the best examples, for right Imitation we lacke, and that is Menander, whom our Terence, (as the matter required) in like argument, in the same Persons, with equall eloquence, foote by foote did folow. Som peeces remaine, like broken Iewelles, whereby men may rightlie esteme, and iustlie lament, the losse of the whole. Erasmus, the ornament of learning, in our tyme, doth wish that som man of learning and diligence, would take the like paines in Demosthenes and Tullie, that Macrobius hath done in Homer and Virgill, that is, to write out and ioyne together, where the one doth imitate the other. Erasmus wishe is good, but surelie, it is not good enough: for Macrobius gatherings for the neidos out of Homer, and Eobanus Hessus more diligent gatherings for the Bucolikes out of Theocritus, as they be not fullie taken out of the whole heape, as they should be, but euen as though they had not sought for them of purpose, but fownd them scatered here and there by chance in their way, euen so, onelie to point out, and nakedlie to ioyne togither their sentences, with no farder declaring the maner and way, how the one doth folow the other, were but a colde helpe, to the encrease of learning. But if a man would take this paine also, whan he hath layd two places, of Homer and Virgill, or of Demosthenes and Tullie togither, to teach plainlie withall, after this sort. 1. Tullie reteyneth thus moch of the matter, thies sentences, thies wordes:

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2. This and that he leaueth out, which he doth wittelie to this end and purpose. 3. This he addeth here. 4. This he diminisheth there. 5. This he ordereth thus, with placing that here, not there. 6. This he altereth and changeth, either, in propertie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in substance of the matter, or in one, or other conuenient circumstance of the authors present purpose. In thies fewe rude English wordes, are wrapt vp all the necessarie tooles and instrumentes, wherewith trewe Imita- tion is rightlie wrought withall in any tonge. Which tooles, I openlie confesse, be not of myne owne forging, but partlie left vnto me by the cunningest Master, and one of the worthiest Ientlemen that euer England bred, Syr Iohn Cheke: partelie borowed by me out of the shoppe of the dearest frende I haue out of England, Io. St. And therefore I am the bolder to borow of him, and here to leaue them to other, and namelie to my Children: which tooles, if it please God, that an other day, they may be able to vse rightlie, as I do wish and daylie pray, they may do, I shal be more glad, than if I were able to leaue them a great quantitie of land. This foresaide order and doctrine of Imitation, would bring forth more learning, and breed vp trewer iudgement, than any other exercise that can be vsed, but not for yong beginners, bicause they shall not be able to consider dulie therof. And trewelie, it may be a shame to good studentes who hauing so faire examples to follow, as Plato and Tullie, do not vse so wise wayes in folowing them for the obteyning of wisdome and learning, as rude ignorant Artificers do, for gayning a small commoditie. For surelie the meanest painter vseth more witte, better arte, greater diligence, in hys shoppe, in folowing the Picture of any meane mans face, than commonlie the best studentes do, euen in the vniuersitie, for the atteining of learning it selfe. Some ignorant, vnlearned, and idle student: or some busie looker vpon this litle poore booke, that hath neither will to do good him selfe, nor skill to iudge right of others, but can lustelie contemne, by pride and ignorance, all painfull diligence and right order in study, will perchance say, that I am to precise, to

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curious, in marking and piteling thus about the imitation of others: and that the olde worthie Authors did neuer busie their heades and wittes, in folowyng so preciselie, either the matter what other men wrote, or els the maner how other men wrote. They will say, it were a plaine slauerie, & inurie to, to shakkle and tye a good witte, and hinder the course of a mans good nature with such bondes of seruitude, in folowyng other. Except soch men thinke them selues wiser then Cicero for teaching of eloquence, they must be content to turne a new leafe. The best booke that euer Tullie wrote, by all mens iudge- ment, and by his owne testimonie to, in writyng wherof, he employed most care, studie, learnyng and iudgement, is his book de Orat. ad Q. F. Now let vs see, what he did for the matter, and also for the maner of writing therof. For the whole booke consisteth in these two pointes onelie: In good matter, and good handling of the matter. And first, for the matter, it is whole Aristotles, what so euer Antonie in the second, and Crassus in the third doth teach. Trust not me, but beleue Tullie him selfe, who writeth so, first, in that goodlie long Epistle ad P. Lentulum, and after in diuerse places ad Atticum. And in the verie booke it selfe, Tullie will not haue it hidden, but both Catulus and Crassus do oft and pleasantly lay that stelth to Antonius charge. Now, for the handling of the matter, was Tullie so precise and curious rather to follow an other mans Paterne, than to inuent some newe shape him selfe, namelie in that booke, wherin he purposed, to leaue to posteritie, the glorie of his witte? yea forsoth, that he did. And this is not my gessing and gathering, nor onelie performed by Tullie in verie deed, but vttered also by Tullie in plaine wordes: to teach other men thereby, what they should do, in taking like matter in hand. And that which is specially to be marked, Tullie doth vtter plainlie his conceit and purpose therein, by the mouth of the wisest man in all that companie: for sayth Scuola him selfe, Cur non imitamur, Crasse, Socratem illum, qui est in Phdro Platonis &c. And furder to vnderstand, that Tullie did not obiter and bichance, but purposelie and mindfullie bend him selfe to a precise and curious Imitation of Plato, concernyng the shape

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and forme of those bookes, marke I pray you, how curious Tullie is to vtter his purpose and doyng therein, writing thus to Atticus. Quod in his Oratorijs libris, quos tantopere laudas, personam desideras Scuol, non eam temer dimoui: Sed feci idem, quod in politeia Deus ille noster Plato, cum in Pireum Socrates venisset ad Cephalum locupletem & festiuum Senem, quoad primus ille sermo haberetur, adest in disputando senex: Deinde, cum ipse quoque commodissim locutus esset, ad rem diuinam dicit se velle discedere, neque postea reuertitur. Credo Platonem vix putasse satis consonum fore, si hominem id tatis in tam longo sermone diutius retinuisset: Multo ego satius hoc mihi cauendum putaui in Scuola, qui & tate et valetudine erat ea qua meministi, & his honoribus, vt vix satis decorum videretur eum plures dies esse in Crassi Tusculano. Et erat primi libri sermo non alienus Scuol studijs: reliqui libri technologian habent, vt scis. Huic ioculatori disputationi senem illum vt noras, interesse san nolui. If Cicero had not opened him selfe, and declared hys owne thought and doynges herein, men that be idle, and ignorant, and enuious of other mens diligence and well doinges, would haue sworne that Tullie had neuer mynded any soch thing, but that of a precise curiositie, we fayne and forge and father soch thinges of Tullie, as he neuer ment in deed. I write this, not for nought: for I haue heard some both well learned, and otherwayes verie wise, that by their lustie misliking of soch diligence, haue drawen back the forwardnes of verie good wittes. But euen as such men them selues, do sometymes stumble vpon doyng well by chance and benefite of good witte, so would I haue our scholer alwayes able to do well by order of learnyng and right skill of iudgement. Concernyng Imitation, many learned men haue written, with moch diuersitie for the matter, and therfore with great contrarietie and some stomacke amongest them selues. I haue read as many as I could get diligentlie, and what I thinke of euerie one of them, I will freelie say my mynde. With which freedome I trust good men will beare, bicause it shall tend to neither spitefull nor harmefull controuersie. In Tullie, it is well touched, shortlie taught, not fullie Cicero. // declared by Ant. in 2. de Orat: and afterward in Orat. ad Brutum, for the liking and misliking

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of Isocrates: and the contrarie iudgement of Tullie against Caluus, Brutus, and Calidius, de genere dicendi Attico & Asiatico. Dionis. Halic. peri mimeseos. I feare is lost: which Author, next Aristotle, Plato, and Tullie, of all // Dio. Hali- other, that write of eloquence, by the iudgement // car. of them that be best learned, deserueth the next prayse and place. Quintilian writeth of it, shortly and coldlie for the matter, yet hotelie and spitefullie enough, agaynst the // Quintil. Imitation of Tullie. Erasmus, beyng more occupied in spying other mens faultes, than declaryng his own aduise, is mistaken of // Erasmus. many, to the great hurt of studie, for his authoritie sake. For he writeth rightlie, rightlie vnderstanded: he and Longolius onelie differing in this, that the one seemeth to giue ouermoch, the other ouer litle, to him, whom they both, best loued, and chiefly allowed of all other. Budus in his Commentaries roughlie and obscurelie, after his kinde of writyng: and for the matter, // Budus. caryed somwhat out of the way in ouermuch misliking the Imitation of Tullie. // Ph. Me- Phil. Melancthon, learnedlie and trewlie. // lanch. Camerarius largely with a learned iudgement, // Ioa. Cam- but somewhat confusedly, and with ouer rough // mer. a stile. Sambucus, largely, with a right iudgement but somewhat a crooked stile. // Sambucus. Other haue written also, as Cortesius to // Cortesius. Politian, and that verie well: Bembus ad Picum // P. Bembus. a great deale better, but Ioan. Sturmius de // Ioan. Stur- Nobilitate literata, & de Amissa dicendi ratione, // mius. farre best of all, in myne opinion, that euer tooke this matter in hand. For all the rest, declare chiefly this point, whether one, or many, or all, are to be followed: but Sturmius onelie hath most learnedlie declared, who is to be followed, what is to be followed, and the best point of all, by what way & order, trew Imitation is rightlie to be exercised. And although Sturmius herein doth farre passe all other, yet hath he not so fullie and perfitelie done it, as I do wishe he had, and as I know he could. For though he hath done it perfitelie for precept, yet hath he

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not done it perfitelie enough for example: which he did, neither for lacke of skill, nor by negligence, but of purpose, contented with one or two examples bicause he was mynded in those two bookes, to write of it both shortlie, and also had to touch other matters. Barthol. Riccius Ferrariensis also hath written learnedlie, diligentlie and verie largelie of this matter euen as hee did before verie well de Apparatu lingu Lat. He writeth the better in myne opinion, bicause his whole doctrine, iudgement, and order, semeth to be borowed out of Io. Stur. bookes. He addeth also examples, the best kinde of teaching: wherein he doth well, but not well enough: in deede, he committeth no faulte, but yet, deserueth small praise. He is content with the meane, and followeth not the best: as a man, that would feede vpon Acornes, whan he may eate, as good cheape, the finest wheat bread. He teacheth for example, where and how, two or three late Italian Poetes do follow Virgil: and how Virgil him selfe in the storie of Dido, doth wholie Imitate Catullus in the like matter of Ariadna: Wherein I like better his diligence and order of teaching, than his iudgement in choice of examples for Imitation. But, if he had done thus: if he had declared where and how, how oft and how many wayes Virgil doth folow Homer, as for example the comming of Vlysses to Alcynous and Calypso, with the comming of neas to Cartage and Dido: Like- wise the games running, wrestling, and shoting, that Achilles maketh in Homer, with the selfe same games, that neas maketh in Virgil: The harnesse of Achilles, with the harnesse of neas, and the maner of making of them both by Vulcane: The notable combate betwixt Achilles and Hector, with as notable a combate betwixt neas and Turnus. The going downe to hell of Vlysses in Homer, with the going downe to hell of neas in Virgil: and other places infinite mo, as similitudes, narrations, messages, discriptions of persones, places, battels, tempestes, shipwrackes, and common places for diuerse purposes, which be as precisely taken out of Homer, as euer did Painter in London follow the picture of any faire personage. And when thies places had bene gathered together by this way of diligence than to haue conferred them together by this order of teaching as, diligently to marke what is kept and vsed in either author, in wordes, in sentences, in matter: what is added: what is left

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out: what ordered otherwise, either prponendo, interponendo, or postponendo: And what is altered for any respect, in word, phrase, sentence, figure, reason, argument, or by any way of circumstance: If Riccius had done this, he had not onely bene well liked, for his diligence in teaching, but also iustlie com- mended for his right iudgement in right choice of examples for the best Imitation. Riccius also for Imitation of prose declareth where and how Longolius doth folow Tullie, but as for Longolius, I would not haue him the patern of our Imitation. In deede: in Longolius shoppe, be proper and faire shewing colers, but as for shape, figure, and naturall cumlines, by the iudgement of best iudging artificers, he is rather allowed as one to be borne withall, than especially commended, as one chieflie to be folowed. If Riccius had taken for his examples, where Tullie him selfe foloweth either Plato or Demosthenes, he had shot than at the right marke. But to excuse Riccius, somwhat, though I can not fullie defend him, it may be sayd, his purpose was, to teach onelie the Latin tong, when thys way that I do wish, to ioyne Virgil with Homer, to read Tullie with Demosthenes and Plato, requireth a cunning and perfite Master in both the tonges. It is my wish in deede, and that by good reason: For who so euer will write well of any matter, must labor to expresse that, that is perfite, and not to stay and content himselfe with the meane: yea, I say farder, though it be not vnposible, yet it is verie rare, and meruelous hard, to proue excellent in the Latin tong, for him that is not also well seene in the Greeke tong. Tullie him selfe, most excellent of nature, most diligent in labor, brought vp from his cradle, in that place, and in that tyme, where and whan the Latin tong most florished naturallie in euery mans mouth, yet was not his owne tong able it selfe to make him so cunning in his owne tong, as he was in deede: but the knowledge and Imitation of the Greeke tong withall. This he confesseth himselfe: this he vttereth in many places, as those can tell best, that vse to read him most. Therefore thou, that shotest at perfection in the Latin tong, thinke not thy selfe wiser than Tullie was, in choice of the way, that leadeth rightlie to the same: thinke not thy witte better than Tullies was, as though that may serue thee that was not sufficient for him. For euen as a hauke flieth not hie with one

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wing: euen so a man reacheth not to excellency with one tong. I haue bene a looker on in the Cokpit of learning thies many yeares: And one Cock onelie haue I knowne, which with one wing, euen at this day, doth passe all other, in myne opinion, that euer I saw in any pitte in England, though they had two winges. Yet neuerthelesse, to flie well with one wing, to runne fast with one leg, be rather, rare Maistreis moch to be merueled at, than sure examples safelie to be folowed. A Bushop that now liueth, a good man, whose iudgement in Religion I better like, than his opinion in per- fitnes in other learning, said once vnto me: we haue no nede now of the Greeke tong, when all thinges be translated into Latin. But the good man vnderstood not, that euen the best translation, is, for mere necessitie, but an euill imped wing to flie withall, or a heuie stompe leg of wood to go withall: soch, the hier they flie, the sooner they falter and faill: the faster they runne, the ofter they stumble, and sorer they fall. Soch as will nedes so flie, may flie at a Pye, and catch a Dawe: And soch runners, as commonlie, they shoue and sholder to stand formost, yet in the end they cum behind others & deserue but the hopshakles, if the Masters of the game be right iudgers. Therefore in perusing thus, so many diuerse bookes for Optima // Imitation, it came into my head that a verie pro- ratio Imi- // fitable booke might be made de Imitatione, after tationis. // an other sort, than euer yet was attempted of that matter, conteyning a certaine fewe fitte preceptes, vnto the which should be gathered and applied plentie of examples, out of the choisest authors of both the tonges. This worke would stand, rather in good diligence, for the gathering, and right iudgement for the apte applying of those examples: than any great learning or vtterance at all. The doing thereof, would be more pleasant, than painfull, & would bring also moch proffet to all that should read it, and great praise to him would take it in hand, with iust desert of thankes. Erasmus, giuyng him selfe to read ouer all Authors Greke Erasmus // and Latin, seemeth to haue prescribed to him order in his // selfe this order of readyng: that is, to note out studie. // by the way, three speciall pointes: All Adagies,

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all similitudes, and all wittie sayinges of most notable person- ages: And so, by one labour, he left to posteritie, three notable bookes, & namelie two his Chiliades, Apophthegmata and Similia. Likewise, if a good student would bend him selfe to read diligently ouer Tullie, and with him also at // {Plato. the same tyme, as diligently Plato, & Xenophon, // {Xenophon. with his bookes of Philosophie, Isocrates, & // Cicero. {Isocrates. Demosthenes with his orations, & Aristotle with // {Demosth. his Rhetorickes: which fiue of all other, be // {Aristotles. those, whom Tullie best loued, & specially followed: & would marke diligently in Tullie where he doth exprimere or effingere (which be the verie propre wordes of Imitation) either, Copiam Platonis or venustatem Xenophontis, suauitatem Isocratis, or vim Demosthenis, propriam & puram subtilitatem Aristotelis, and not onelie write out the places diligentlie, and lay them together orderlie, but also to conferre them with skilfull iudgement by those few rules, which I haue expressed now twise before: if that diligence were taken, if that order were vsed, what perfite knowledge of both the tonges, what readie and pithie vtterance in all matters, what right and deepe iudgement in all kinde of learnyng would follow, is scarse credible to be beleued. These bookes, be not many, nor long, nor rude in speach, nor meane in matter, but next the Maiestie of Gods holie word, most worthie for a man, the louer of learning and honestie, to spend his life in. Yea, I haue heard worthie M. Cheke many tymes say: I would haue a good student passe and iorney through all Authors both Greke and Latin: but he that will dwell in these few bookes onelie: first, in Gods holie Bible, and than ioyne with it, Tullie in Latin, Plato, Aristotle: Xenophon: Isocrates: and Demosthenes in Greke: must nedes proue an excel- lent man. Some men alreadie in our dayes, haue put to their helping handes, to this worke of Imitation. As Peri- // Perionius. onius, Henr. Stephanus in dictionario Ciceroniano, // H. Steph. and P. Victorius most praiseworthelie of all, in // P. Victor- that his learned worke conteyning xxv. bookes de // ius. varia lectione: in which bookes be ioyned diligentlie together the best Authors of both the tonges where one doth seeme to imitate an other. But all these, with Macrobius, Hessus, and other, be no

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more but common porters, caryers, and bringers of matter and stuffe togither. They order nothing: They lay before you, what is done: they do not teach you, how it is done: They busie not them selues with forme of buildyng: They do not declare, this stuffe is thus framed by Demosthenes, and thus and thus by Tullie, and so likewise in Xenophon, Plato and Isocrates and Aristotle. For ioyning Virgil with Homer I haue suf- ficientlie declared before. The like diligence I would wish to be taken in Pindar and Pindarus. // Horace an equall match for all respectes. Horatius. // In Tragedies, (the goodliest Argument of all, and for the vse, either of a learned preacher, or a Ciuill Ientleman, more profitable than Homer, Pindar, Virgill, and Horace: yea comparable in myne opinion, with the doctrine Sophocles. // of Aristotle, Plato, and Xenophon,) the Grecians, Euripides. // Sophocles and Euripides far ouer match our Seneca, Seneca. // in Latin, namely in oikonomia et Decoro, although Senacaes elocution and verse be verie commendable for his tyme. And for the matters of Hercules, Thebes, Hippolytus, and Troie, his Imitation is to be gathered into the same booke, and to be tryed by the same touchstone, as is spoken before. In histories, and namelie in Liuie, the like diligence of Imitation, could bring excellent learning, and breede stayde iudgement, in taking any like matter in hand. Onely Liuie were a sufficient taske for one mans studie, Tit. Liuius. // to compare him, first with his fellow for all re- Dion. Hali- // spectes, Dion. Halicarnassus: who both, liued in carn. // one tyme: tooke both one historie in hande to write: deserued both like prayse of learnyng and eloquence. Polibius. // Than with Polybius that wise writer, whom Liuie professeth to follow: & if he would denie it, yet it is plaine, that the best part of the thyrd Decade in Liuie, is in Thucidides. // a maner translated out of the thyrd and rest of Polibius: Lastlie with Thucydides, to whose Imita- tion Liuie is curiouslie bent, as may well appeare by that one 1 Decad. // Oration of those of Campania, asking aide of the Lib. 7. // Romanes agaynst the Samnites, which is wholie taken, Sentence, Reason, Argument, and order, Thucid. 1. // out of the Oration of Corcyra, asking like aide of the Athenienses against them of Corinth. If some

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diligent student would take paynes to compare them togither, he should easelie perceiue, that I do say trew. A booke, thus wholie filled with examples of Imitation, first out of Tullie, compared with Plato, Xenophon, Isocrates, Demosthenes and Aristotle: than out of Virgil and Horace, with Homer and Pindar: next out of Seneca with Sophocles and Euripides: Lastlie out of Liuie, with Thucydides, Polibius and Halicarnassus, gathered with good diligence, and compared with right order, as I haue expressed before, were an other maner of worke for all kinde of learning, & namely for eloquence, than be those cold gatheringes of Macrobius, Hessus, Perionius, Stephanus, and Victorius, which may be vsed, as I sayd before, in this case, as porters and caryers, deseruing like prayse, as soch men do wages; but onely Sturmius is he, out of whom, the trew suruey and whole workemanship is speciallie to be learned. I trust, this my writyng shall giue some good student occasion, to take some peece in hand of this worke of Imitation. And as I had rather haue any do it, than my // Opus de selfe, yet surelie my selfe rather than none at all. // recta imi- And by Gods grace, if God do lend me life, with // tandi ratione. health, free laysure and libertie, with good likyng and a merie heart, I will turne the best part of my studie and tyme, to toyle in one or other peece of this worke of Imitation. This diligence to gather examples, to giue light and vnder- standyng to good preceptes, is no new inuention, but speciallie vsed of the best Authors and oldest writers. For Aristotle // Aristoteles. him selfe, (as Diog. Laertius declareth) when he had written that goodlie booke of the Topickes, did gather out of stories and Orators, so many examples as filled xv. bookes, onelie to expresse the rules of his Topickes. These were the Commentaries, that Aristotle thought fit for hys // Commen- Topickes: And therfore to speake as I thinke, I // tarij Gr- neuer saw yet any Commentarie vpon Aristotles // ci et Lati- Logicke, either in Greke or Latin, that euer I // ni in Dia- lyked, bicause they be rather spent in declaryng // lect. Ari- scholepoynt rules, than in gathering fit examples // stotelis. for vse and vtterance, either by pen or talke. For preceptes in all Authors, and namelie in Aristotle, without applying vnto them, the Imitation of examples, be hard, drie, and cold, and therfore barrayn, vnfruitfull and vnpleasant. But Aristotle,

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namelie in his Topicks and Elenches, should be, not onelie fruitfull, but also pleasant to, if examples out of Plato, and other good Authors, were diligentlie gathered, and aptlie Precepta // applied vnto his most perfit preceptes there. in Aristot. // And it is notable, that my frende Sturmius writeth Exempla // herein, that there is no precept in Aristotles in Platone. // Topickes wherof plentie of examples be not manifest in Platos workes. And I heare say, that an excellent learned man, Tomitanus in Italie, hath expressed euerie fallacion in Aristotle, with diuerse examples out of Plato. Would to God, I might once see, some worthie student of Aristotle and Plato in Cambrige, that would ioyne in one booke the preceptes of the one, with the examples of the other. For such a labor, were one speciall peece of that worke of Imitation, which I do wishe were gathered together in one Volume. Cambrige, at my first comming thither, but not at my going away, committed this fault in reading the preceptes of Aristotle without the examples of other Authors: But herein, in my time thies men of worthie memorie, M. Redman, M. Cheke, M. Smith, M. Haddon, M. Watson, put so to their helping handes, as that vniuersitie, and all studentes there, as long as learning shall last, shall be bounde vnto them, if that trade in studie be trewlie folowed, which those men left behinde them there. By this small mention of Cambridge, I am caryed into three imaginations: first, into a sweete remembrance of my tyme spent there: than, into som carefull thoughts, for the greuous alteration that folowed sone after: lastlie, into much ioy to heare tell, of the good recouerie and earnest forwardnes in all good learning there agayne. To vtter theis my thoughts somwhat more largelie, were somwhat beside my matter, yet not very farre out of the way, bycause it shall wholy tend to the good encoragement and right consideration of learning, which is my full purpose in writing this litle booke: whereby also shall well appeare this sentence to be most trewe, that onely good men, by their gouernment & example, make happie times, in euery degree and state. Doctor Nico. Medcalfe, that honorable father, was Master D. Nic. // of S. Iohnes Colledge, when I came thether: A Medcalf. // man meanelie learned himselfe, but not meanely

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affectioned to set forward learning in others. He found that Colledge spending scarse two hundred markes by yeare: he left it spending a thousand markes and more. Which he procured, not with his mony, but by his wisdome; not chargeablie bought by him, but liberallie geuen by others by his meane, for the zeale & honor they bare to learning. And that which is worthy of memorie, all thies giuers were almost Northenmen: who being liberallie rewarded in the seruice of their Prince, bestowed it as liberallie for the good of their Contrie. Som men thought therefore, that D. Medcalfe was parciall to Northrenmen, but sure I am of this, that North- renmen were parciall, in doing more good, and geuing more landes to y^e forderance of learning, than any other // The parci- contrie men, in those dayes, did: which deede // alitie of should haue bene, rather an example of goodnes, // Northren for other to folowe, than matter of malice, for any // men in to enuie, as some there were that did. Trewly, // S. Iohnes D. Medcalfe was parciall to none: but indifferent // College. to all: a master for the whole, a father to euery one, in that Colledge. There was none so poore, if he had, either wil to goodnes, or wit to learning, that could lacke being there, or should depart from thence for any need. I am witnes my selfe, that mony many times was brought into yong mens studies by strangers whom they knew not. In which doing, this worthy Nicolaus folowed the steppes of good olde S. Nicolaus, that learned Bishop. He was a Papist in deede, but would to God, amonges all vs Protestants I might once see but one, that would winne like praise, in doing like good, for the aduauncement of learning and vertue. And yet, though he were a Papist, if any yong man, geuen to new learning (as they termed it) went beyond his fellowes, in witte, labor, and towardnes, euen the same, neyther lacked, open praise to encorage him, nor priuate exhibition to mainteyne hym, as worthy Syr I. Cheke, if he were aliue would beare good witnes and so can many mo. I my selfe one of the meanest of a great number, in that Colledge, because there appeared in me som small shew of towardnes and diligence, lacked not his fauor to forder me in learning. And being a boy, new Bacheler of arte, I chanced amonges my companions to speake against the Pope: which matter was

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than in euery mans mouth, bycause D. Haines and D. Skippe were cum from the Court, to debate the same matter, by preaching and disputation in the vniuersitie. This hapned the same tyme, when I stoode to be felow there: my taulke came to D. Medcalfes eare: I was called before him and the Seniores: and after greuous rebuke, and some punishment, open warning was geuen to all the felowes, none to be so hardie to geue me his voice at that election. And yet for all those open threates, the good father himselfe priuilie procured, that I should euen than be chosen felow. But, the election being done, he made countinance of great discontentation thereat. This good mans goodnes, and fatherlie discretion, vsed towardes me that one day, shall neuer out of my remembrance all the dayes of my life. And for the same cause, haue I put it here, in this small record of learning. For next Gods prouidence, surely that day, was by that good fathers meanes, Dies natalis, to me, for the whole foundation of the poore learning I haue, and of all the furderance, that hetherto else where I haue obteyned. This his goodnes stood not still in one or two, but flowed aboundantlie ouer all that Colledge, and brake out also to norishe good wittes in euery part of that vniuersitie: whereby, at this departing thence, he left soch a companie of fellowes and scholers in S. Iohnes Colledge, as can scarse be found now in some whole vniuersitie: which, either for diuinitie, on the one side or other, or for Ciuill seruice to their Prince and contrie, haue bene, and are yet to this day, notable ornaments to this whole Realme: Yea S. Iohnes did then so florish, as Trinitie college, that Princely house now, at the first erection, was but Colonia deducta out of S. Iohnes, not onelie for their Master, fellowes, and scholers, but also, which is more, for their whole, both order of learning, and discipline of maners: & yet to this day, it neuer tooke Master but such as was bred vp before in S. Iohnes: doing the dewtie of a good Colonia to her Metropolis, as the auncient Cities in Greice and some yet in Italie, at this day, are accustomed to do. S. Iohnes stoode in this state, vntill those heuie tymes, and that greuous change that chanced. An. 1553. whan mo perfite scholers were dispersed from thence in one moneth, than many Psal. 80. // yeares can reare vp againe. For, whan Aper de Sylua had passed the seas, and fastned his foote

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againe in England, not onely the two faire groues of learning in England were eyther cut vp, by the roote, or troden downe to the ground and wholie went to wracke, but the yong spring there, and euerie where else, was pitifullie nipt and ouertroden by very beastes, and also the fairest standers of all, were rooted vp, and cast into the fire, to the great weakning euen at this day of Christes Chirch in England, both for Religion and learning. And what good could chance than to the vniuersities, whan som of the greatest, though not of the wisest nor best learned, nor best men neither of that side, did labor to perswade, that ignorance was better than knowledge, which they ment, not for the laitie onelie, but also for the greatest rable of their spiritu- altie, what other pretense openlie so euer they made: and therefore did som of them at Cambrige (whom I will not name openlie,) cause hedge priestes fette oute of the contrie, to be made fellowes in the vniuersitie: saying, in their talke priuilie, and declaring by their deedes openlie, that he was, felow good enough for their tyme, if he could were a gowne and a tipet cumlie, and haue hys crowne shorne faire and roundlie, and could turne his Portesse and pie readilie: whiche I speake not to reproue any order either of apparell, or other dewtie, that may be well and indifferentlie vsed, but to note the miserie of that time, whan the benefites prouided for learning were so fowlie misused. And what was the frute of this seade? Verely, iudgement in doctrine was wholy altered: order in discipline very sore changed: the loue of good learning, began sodenly to wax cold: the knowledge of the tonges (in spite of some that therein had florished) was manifestly contemned: and so, y^e way of right studie purposely peruerted: the choice of good authors of mallice confownded. Olde sophistrie (I say not well) not olde, but that new rotten sophistrie began to beard and sholder logicke in her owne tong: yea, I know, that heades were cast together, and counsell deuised, that Duns, with all the rable of barbarous questionistes, should haue dispossessed of their place and rowmes, Aristotle, Plato, Tullie, // Aristoteles. and Demosthenes, when good M. Redman, and // Plato. those two worthy starres of that vniuersitie, // Cicero. M. Cheke, and M. Smith, with their scholers, had // Demost. brought to florishe as notable in Cambrige, as

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euer they did in Grece and in Italie: and for the doctrine of those fowre, the fowre pillers of learning, Cambrige than geuing place to no vniuersitie, neither in France, Spaine, Germanie, nor Italie. Also in outward behauiour, than began simplicitie in apparell, to be layd aside: Courtlie galantnes to be taken vp: frugalitie in diet was priuately misliked: Towne going to good Shoting. // cheare openly vsed: honest pastimes, ioyned with labor, left of in the fieldes: vnthrifty and idle games, haunted corners, and occupied the nightes: contention in youth, no where for learning: factions in the elders euery where for trifles. All which miseries at length, by Gods prouidence, had their end 16. Nouemb. 1558. Since which tyme, the yong spring hath shot vp so faire, as now there be in Cambrige againe, many goodly plantes (as did well appeare at the Queenes Maiesties late being there) which are like to grow to mightie great timber, to the honor of learning, and great good of their contrie, if they may stand their tyme, as the best plantes there were wont to do: and if som old dotterell trees, with standing ouer nie them, and dropping vpon them, do not either hinder, or crooke their growing, wherein my feare is y^e lesse, seing so worthie a Iustice of an Oyre hath the present ouersight of that whole chace, who was himselfe somtym, in the fairest spring that euer was there of learning, one of the forwardest yong plantes, in all that worthy College of S. Iohnes: who now by grace is growne to soch greatnesse, as, in the temperate and quiet shade of his wisdome, next the prouidence of God, and goodnes of one, in theis our daies, Religio for sinceritie, liter for order and aduauncement, Respub. for happie and quiet gouernment, haue to great rejoysing of all good men, speciallie reposed them selues. Now to returne to that Question, whether one, a few, many or all, are to be folowed, my aunswere shalbe short: All, for him that is desirous to know all: yea, the worst of all, as Questionistes, and all the barbarous nation of scholemen, helpe for one or other consideration: But in euerie separate kinde of learning and studie, by it selfe, ye must follow, choiselie a few, and chieflie some one, and that namelie in our schole of eloquence, either for penne or talke. And as in portraicture and paintyng wise men chose not that workman, that can onelie make a faire hand, or a well facioned legge but soch one, as can

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furnish vp fullie, all the fetures of the whole body, of a man, woman and child: and with all is able to, by good skill, to giue to euerie one of these three, in their proper kinde, the right forme, the trew figure, the naturall color, that is fit and dew, to the dignitie of a man, to the bewtie of a woman, to the sweetnes of a yong babe: euen likewise, do we seeke soch one in our schole to folow, who is able alwayes, in all matters, to teach plainlie, to delite pleasantlie, and to cary away by force of wise talke, all that shall heare or read him: and is so excellent in deed, as witte is able, or wishe can hope, to attaine vnto: And this not onelie to serue in the Latin or Greke tong, but also in our own English language. But yet, bicause the prouid- ence of God hath left vnto vs in no other tong, saue onelie in the Greke and Latin tong, the trew preceptes, and perfite examples of eloquence, therefore must we seeke in the Authors onelie of those two tonges, the trewe Paterne of Eloquence, if in any other mother tongue we looke to attaine, either to perfit vtterance of it our selues, or skilfull iudgement of it in others. And now to know, what Author doth medle onelie with some one peece and member of eloquence, and who doth perfitelie make vp the whole bodie, I will declare, as I can call to remembrance the goodlie talke, that I haue had oftentymes, of the trew difference of Authors, with that Ientleman of worthie memorie, my dearest frend, and teacher of all the litle poore learning I haue, Syr Iohn Cheke. The trew difference of Authors is best knowne, per diuersa genera dicendi, that euerie one vsed. And therfore here I will deuide genus dicendi, not into these three, Tenu, mediocr, & grande, but as the matter of euerie Author requireth, as

{Poeticum. {Historicum. in Genus{Philosophicum. {Oratorium.

These differre one from an other, in choice of wordes, in framyng of Sentences, in handling of Argumentes, and vse of right forme, figure, and number, proper and fitte for euerie matter, and euerie one of these is diuerse also in it selfe, as the first.

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{Comicum. {Tragicum. Poeticum, in {Epicum. {Melicum.

And here, who soeuer hath bene diligent to read aduisedlie ouer, Terence, Seneca, Virgil, Horace, or els Aristophanes, Sophocles, Homer, and Pindar, and shall diligently marke the difference they vse, in proprietie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in handlyng of their matter, he shall easelie perceiue, what is fitte and decorum in euerie one, to the trew vse of perfite Imitation. Whan M. Watson in S. Iohns College at Cambrige wrote his excellent Tragedie of Absalon, M. Cheke, he and I, for that part of trew Imitation, had many pleasant talkes togither, in com- paring the preceptes of Aristotle and Horace de Arte Poetica, with the examples of Euripides, Sophocles, and Seneca. Few men, in writyng of Tragedies in our dayes, haue shot at this marke. Some in England, moe in France, Germanie, and Italie, also haue written Tragedies in our tyme: of the which, not one I am sure is able to abyde the trew touch of Aristotles preceptes, and Euripides examples, saue only two, that euer I saw, M. Watsons Absalon, and Georgius Buckananus Iephthe. One man in Cambrige, well liked of many, but best liked of him selfe, was many tymes bold and busie, to bryng matters vpon stages, which he called Tragedies. In one, wherby he looked to wynne his spurres, and whereat many ignorant felowes fast clapped their handes, he began the Protasis with Trochijs Octonarijs: which kinde of verse, as it is but seldome and rare in Tragedies, so is it neuer vsed, saue onelie in Epitasi: whan the Tragedie is hiest and hotest, and full of greatest troubles. I remember ful well what M. Watson merelie sayd vnto me of his blindnesse and boldnes in that behalfe although otherwise, there passed much frendship betwene them. M. Watson had an other maner care of perfection, with a feare and reuerence of the iudgement of the best learned: Who to this day would neuer suffer, yet his Absalon to go abroad, and that onelie, bicause, in locis paribus, Anapestus is twise or thrise vsed in stede of Iambus. A smal faulte, and such one, as perchance would neuer be marked, no neither in Italie nor France. This I write, not so much, to note the first, or praise the last, as to leaue in

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memorie of writing, for good example to posteritie, what perfection, in any tyme, was, most diligentlie sought for in like maner, in all kinde of learnyng, in that most worthie College of S. Iohns in Cambrige.

{Diaria. {Annales. Historicum in {Commentarios. {Iustam Historiam.

For what proprietie in wordes, simplicitie in sentences, plainnesse and light, is cumelie for these kindes, Csar and Liuie, for the two last, are perfite examples of Imitation: And for the two first, the old paternes be lost, and as for some that be present and of late tyme, they be fitter to be read once for some pleasure, than oft to be perused, for any good Imitation of them.

Philosophicum in {Sermonem, as officia Cic. et Eth. Arist. {Contentionem.

As, the Dialoges of Plato, Xenophon, and Cicero: of which kinde of learnyng, and right Imitation therof, Carolus Sigonius hath written of late, both learnedlie and eloquentlie: but best of all my frende Ioan. Sturmius in hys Commentaries vpon Gorgias Platonis, which booke I haue in writyng, and is not yet set out in Print.

{Humile. Oratorium in {Mediocre. {Sublime.

Examples of these three, in the Greke tong, be plentifull & perfite, as Lycias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes: and // Lisias. all three, in onelie Demosthenes, in diuerse orations // Isocrates. as contra Olimpiodorum, in leptinem, & pro Ctesi- // Demost. phonte. And trew it is, that Hermogines writeth of Demosthenes, that all formes of Eloquence be perfite in him. In Ciceroes Orations, Medium & sublime be most // Cicero. excellentlie handled, but Humile in his Orations, is seldome sene: yet neuerthelesse in other bookes, as in some part of his offices, & specially in Partitionibus, he is comparable in hoc humili & disciplinabili genere, euen with the best that euer

286 The second booke teachyng

wrote in Greke. But of Cicero more fullie in fitter place. And thus, the trew difference of stiles, in euerie Author, and euerie kinde of learnyng may easelie be knowne by this diuision.

{Poeticum. {Historicum. in Genus {Philosophicum. {Oratorium.

Which I thought in this place to touch onelie, not to prosecute at large, bicause, God willyng, in the Latin tong, I will fullie handle it, in my booke de Imitatione. Now, to touch more particularlie, which of those Authors, that be now most commonlie in mens handes, will sone affourd you some peece of Eloquence, and what maner a peece of eloquence, and what is to be liked and folowed, and what to be misliked and eschewed in them: and how some agayne will furnish you fully withall, rightly, and wisely considered, som- what I will write as I haue heard Syr Ihon Cheke many tymes say. The Latin tong, concerning any part of purenesse of it, from the spring, to the decay of the same, did not endure moch longer, than is the life of a well aged man, scarse one hundred yeares from the tyme of the last Scipio Africanus and Llius, to the Empire of Augustus. And it is notable, that Velleius Pater- culus writeth of Tullie, how that the perfection of eloquence did so remayne onelie in him and in his time, as before him, were few, which might moch delight a man, or after him any, worthy admiration, but soch as Tullie might haue seene, and such as might haue seene Tullie. And good cause why: for no perfec- tion is durable. Encrease hath a time, & decay likewise, but all perfit ripenesse remaineth but a moment: as is plainly seen in fruits, plummes and cherries: but more sensibly in flowers, as Roses & such like, and yet as trewlie in all greater matters. For what naturallie, can go no hier, must naturallie yeld & stoup againe. Of this short tyme of any purenesse of the Latin tong, for the first fortie yeare of it, and all the tyme before, we haue no peece of learning left, saue Plautus and Terence, with a litle rude vnperfit pamflet of the elder Cato. And as for Plautus, except the scholemaster be able to make wise and ware choice,

the ready way to the Latin tong. 287

first in proprietie of wordes, than in framing of Phrases and sentences, and chieflie in choice of honestie of matter, your scholer were better to play, then learne all that is in him. But surelie, if iudgement for the tong, and direction for the maners, be wisely ioyned with the diligent reading of Plautus, than trewlie Plautus, for that purenesse of the Latin tong in Rome, whan Rome did most florish in wel doing, and so thereby, in well speaking also, is soch a plentifull storehouse, for common eloquence, in meane matters, and all priuate mens affaires, as the Latin tong, for that respect, hath not the like agayne. Whan I remember the worthy tyme of Rome, wherein Plautus did liue, I must nedes honor the talke of that tyme, which we see Plautus doth vse. Terence is also a storehouse of the same tong, for an other tyme, following soone after, & although he be not so full & plentiful as Plautus is, for multitude of matters, & diuersitie of wordes, yet his wordes, be chosen so purelie, placed so orderly, and all his stuffe so neetlie packed vp, and wittely compassed in euerie place, as, by all wise mens iudgement, he is counted the cunninger workeman, and to haue his shop, for the rowme that is in it, more finely appointed, and trimlier ordered, than Plautus is. Three thinges chiefly, both in Plautus and Terence, are to be specially considered. The matter, the vtterance, the words, the meter. The matter in both, is altogether within the compasse of the meanest mens maners, and doth not stretch to any thing of any great weight at all, but standeth chiefly in vtteryng the thoughtes and conditions of hard fathers, foolish mothers, vnthrifty yong men, craftie seruantes, sotle bawdes, and wilie harlots, and so, is moch spent, in finding out fine fetches, and packing vp pelting matters, soch as in London commonlie cum to the hearing of the Masters of Bridewell. Here is base stuffe for that scholer, that should becum hereafter, either a good minister in Religion, or a Ciuill Ientleman in seruice of his Prince and contrie: except the preacher do know soch matters to confute them, whan ignorance surelie in all soch thinges were better for a Ciuill Ientleman, than knowledge. And thus, for matter, both Plautus and Terence, be like meane painters, that worke by halfes, and be cunning onelie, in making the worst part of the picture, as if one were skilfull in painting

288 The second booke teachyng

the bodie of a naked person, from the nauell downward, but nothing else. For word and speach, Plautus is more plentifull, and Terence more pure and proper: And for one respect, Terence is to be embraced aboue all that euer wrote in hys kinde of argument: Bicause it is well known, by good recorde of learning, and that by Ciceroes owne witnes that some Comedies bearyng Terence name, were written by worthy Scipio, and wise Llius, and namely Heauton: and Adelphi. And therefore as oft as I reade those Comedies, so oft doth sound in myne eare, the pure fine talke of Rome, which was vsed by the floure of the worthiest nobilitie that euer Rome bred. Let the wisest man, and best learned that liueth, read aduisedlie ouer, the first scene of Heauton, and the first scene of Adelphi, and let him consideratlie iudge, whether it is the talke of a seruile stranger borne, or rather euen that milde eloquent wise speach, which Cicero in Brutus doth so liuely expresse in Llius. And yet neuerthelesse, in all this good proprietie of wordes, and purenesse of phrases which be in Terence, ye must not follow him alwayes in placing of them, bicause for the meter sake, some wordes in him, somtyme, be driuen awrie, which require a straighter placing in plaine prose, if ye will forme, as I would ye should do, your speach and writing, to that excellent perfitnesse, which was onely in Tullie, or onelie in Tullies tyme. The meter and verse of Plautus and Terence be verie meane, Meter in // and not to be followed: which is not their reproch, Plautus & // but the fault of the tyme, wherein they wrote, whan Terence. // no kinde of Poetrie, in the Latin tong, was brought to perfection, as doth well appeare in the fragmentes of Ennius, Ccilius, and others, and euidentlie in Plautus & Terence, if thies in Latin be compared with right skil, with Homer, Euripides, Aristophanes, and other in Greeke of like sort. Cicero him selfe doth complaine of this vnperfitnes, but more plainly Quintilian, saying, in Comoedia maxim claudicamus, et vix leuem consequimur vmbram: and most earnestly of all Horace in Arte Poetica, which he doth namely propter carmen Iambicum, and referreth all good studentes herein to the Imitation of the Greeke tong, saying. Exemplaria Grca nocturna versate manu, versate diurna.

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