Everything else being equal the army that possesses the most accurate information about the enemy will win. Military history recites the fact that almost every important battle has been either lost or won because of information or lack of information that one side had or did not have of the other side. It is by the use of patrols that the most valuable information of the enemy is usually obtained.
There are many kinds of patrols, but it is with reconnoitering or information seeking patrols that this chapter deals.
DUTIES OF A PATROL
Each reconnoitering patrol is given a certain mission (duty) to perform. The name, "reconnoitering," meaning to survey, to view, indicates that its first duty is to get information, and information is always greatly increased in value if the enemy does not know it has been obtained. Having obtained valuable information, its next duty is to send this information to the officer sending out the patrol.
The strength of the patrol will generally depend on its mission and on the number of messages that it will probably send back. The larger the patrol the greater the probability of the enemy seeing it. On the other hand, if it is too small, it will not have sufficient members to send in important information and continue operations. Captain Waldron in his book, "Scouting and Patrolling," recommends a patrol of a leader and six selected men for ordinary reconnaissance. This number makes it possible for the patrol leader to place a man out on each flank, a man in advance, two to remain with him and one to remain in the rear as the get-away man. The officer who sends out the patrol determines its strength.
The leader should be an officer or a noncommissioned officer. He must have good judgment, be cool, be quick in making a decision, be strong in physique, have initiative, and be brave, but not to the extent of rashness. Besides his regular equipment he should have a good pair of field glasses, a compass, a watch, wire cutters, pencils, a message book, and a map of the country.
The officer sending out a patrol should give it instructions on the following points:
1. Information of the enemy and of friendly supporting troops.
2. The mission of the patrol. This will include the general direction in which it is to go.
3. How long the patrol is to remain out.
4. Where messages are to be sent.
Before going out the patrol commander will make a careful inspection of the members of his patrol in order to see:
1. That the members are in a suitable condition for the duty to be performed. (Not drunk, sick, lame, having a bad cough, etc.)
2. That each man is properly armed and has the requisite amount of ammunition.
3. That the accoutrement is so arranged that it will not rattle or glisten in the sunlight.
4. That no man has anything about him that will afford the enemy valuable information in the event of capture.
At the conclusion of this inspection he will, in the presence of the officer sending out the patrol, go over his orders, giving his men all the information that he has of the enemy and his own troops; state the duty (mission) of the patrol so that all may know what they are going to accomplish, and he will follow this with a statement of his general plan for carrying it out. He will designate an assembly point should the patrol be dispersed. He will designate a second in command should he be disabled.
It is impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule governing the formation and conduct of the operations of a patrol. Each situation will have to be worked out by itself. The patrol should assume the general formation of a column of troops on the march; that is, it will have an advance guard, a main body, flankers and a rear guard. These several elements may each be represented by only one man.
CONDUCT OF THE PATROL
In communicating with each other for ordinary purposes the members of the patrol use signals agreed upon before the start. For this purpose each man must constantly keep within sight and hearing distance of the leader. A patrol moves cautiously, taking advantage of all available cover, seeking in every way to see without being seen. It halts frequently to listen and make careful observations of its surroundings. Except at night a patrol should not move on roads. Villages and inhabited places should not as a rule be entered. During the daytime it seeks high ground from which it can scan the country and at night it seeks a position from which the sky line can be observed.
ENCOUNTERING THE ENEMY
If a small hostile patrol is encountered it is generally better to remain in concealment and let it pass than to attack. The noise of a fight may be heard by the enemy, the presence of the patrol therefore indicated, and the enemy will take further precautions to oppose its operations. If the patrol is suddenly attacked or surprised by a superior force, the patrol should at once scatter in all directions and the members make their way back to the last place designated as a meeting place and then after reuniting continue the reconnaissance. When a patrol fights it does so resolutely. Courage and coolness may bring about success when adverse conditions are encountered.
A patrol can never be certain that the enemy's patrols are not operating in its rear. Hence in returning, it is necessary to observe the usual precautions. If the patrol has eluded the enemy, it is best to return over a route other than that over which the start was made. If a patrol, after having accomplished its mission, is being pursued, it is well, especially when near its own lines, to engage the pursuing troops so as to give warning of its approach to the outpost line. Under the conditions just mentioned, except the patrol is a great distance from its outpost line, it may be necessary as a last resort to have the patrol scatter and each man return individually.
Military shooting or target practice is very different from shotgun shooting, or even the kind of shooting required of a large-game hunter; therefore we should begin with the most elementary instruction and drills, if proficiency is to be obtained. Our "Small Arms Firing Regulations" says, "The sole purpose of rifle training for the soldier is to make of him a good shot under war conditions."
Proficient shots are made off the range and not on it. By this we mean that the preliminary instruction you will receive before you go on the range will be of more benefit to you than the actual firing for record. Indeed, firing on the range will only test your ability to put into use the many points covered by your preliminary instruction. Therefore, if you are to become a proficient shot, maintain your interest and enthusiasm at its highest pitch during the preliminary instruction.
Your preliminary instructions will probably become so tedious and tiresome that you will lose sight of their objects. Each preliminary instruction has its own and different purpose, and you will not receive the maximum benefit from them unless you realize this.
This chapter will first explain briefly the purpose of each preliminary drill, and then give the essential things to be remembered when actually firing on the range.
Your preliminary instructions and their purposes are as follows:
1. Nomenclature of the Rifle. The word nomenclature means the vocabulary of names or technical terms which are appropriate to any particular topic. In this case the topic is the rifle. This instruction will be a few lectures or talks by your company officers on the rifle. You should become familiar with the parts of the rifle indicated in the following illustration:
2. Sighting Drills.
(a) To explain the different kinds of sight.
(b) To show how to align the sights properly on the bull's-eye.
(c) To discover and demonstrate errors in sighting.
(d) To teach uniformity in sighting.
There are two kinds of sights on the rear sight leaf, the open and peep sight. The open sight is the semi-circular notch a-b-c shown in the diagram below; the peep sight is the small hold "d" just below the open sight.
The sighting drills will visually illustrate the following kinds of sights.
a—Normal Sight. This is the sight most frequently used. The following illustration is the normal sight when the open sight notch is used.
When the open sight is used the above diagram shows the correct alignments of the rear sight notch, front sight and the bull's-eye. The following features should be noticed:
1st. The front.sight (i-k-l-m) is exactly in the center of the rear sight notch (B-L-M-C), if it is in the right or left part of this notch the rifle will shoot to the right or left of the point aimed at.
2d. There is a thin strip of white seen between the top of the front sight and the bull's-eye. (The Marine Corps and many army officers do not see this strip of white. The method of aiming given and illustrated in this book is the same as found in the Firing Regulations for the Army.)
3d. The top of the front sight should just touch an imaginary line connecting the shoulder at C with that at B. (This is most important.)
4th. The aim is taken at the bottom of the bull's-eye and not at the top or center.
b—Fine Sight. The following illustration shows a fine sight which should never be used:
This sight causes the rifle to shoot too low because not enough front sight is seen. Correspondingly, if more front sight is seen than illustrated in the normal sights, the rifle shoots high.
c—Normal Sight. The following illustration shows the normal sight when the peep sight is used.
The above illustration shows the correct alignment of the peep sight, front sight, and the bull's-eye. The following features should be noticed:
1st. The top of the front sight and not the bull's-eye is focused in the center of the peep sight.
2d. There is a thin strip of white between the top of the front sight and the bottom of the bull's-eye.
3. Position and Aiming Drills.
Purpose: To so educate the muscles of the arms and body that the gun, during the act of aiming, shall be held without restraint and during the operation of firing shall not be deflected from the target by any convulsion or improper movement of the trigger finger or of the body, arms or hands. These drills must be taken daily, if they are to be of the maximum benefit. If you are enthusiastic about rifle shooting, and these drills are not give[C] to you, ask your company commander to show them to you, as they can be executed to advantage at odd times.
4. Deflection and Elevation Correction Drills.
Purpose. To show you how to raise or lower your rear sight, change your windage to the right or left, and note the effect on the striking point of the bullet in each case. In general terms these drills teach you:
(1) What to do when you are firing too high or low. (Elevation Drill.)
(2) What to do when you are firing to the right or left of the target. (Deflection Drill.)
The assumption is in each case that the gun is properly aimed the instant it is fired.
Thoroughly to grasp every phase of the Elevation and Deflection Drills, it is best that you become familiarized with the dimensions of the following targets and the ranges at which each is used. It is not intended that you shall retain all these figures in your mind.
SLOW FIRE TARGETS
This target is used during slow fire at 200 and 300 yards.
This target is used during slow fire at 500 and 600 yards.
RAPID FIRE TARGET
This target is always used with the battle sight at 200, 300, and 500 yards rapid fire. Battle sight is the position of the rear sight when the leaf is laid down, which is the habitual position of the rear sight leaf at drill. It is an open sight, and corresponds to an elevation of 547 yards.
The rear sight is set on a movable base so that it can be moved to the right or left and the aiming point shifted accordingly in order to counteract the effect of the wind on the bullet.
General Rule. To shift the striking point of the bullet to the left move the rear sight to the left. And, of course, the reverse holds true when it is moved to the right.
A Specific Rule. One point of windage moves the striking point of the bullet 4 inches for every 100 yards you are distant from the target. (One point of windage at 200 yards causes the bullet to strike 8 inches to the right or left of the line of aim; one point at 300 yards causes a 12-inch deflection of the bullet; one point at 500 yards a 20-inch deflection, and so on.)
General rule for changing the elevation after hitting the target: A change of elevation either up or down, of 100 yards on your rear sight, will raise or lower your bullet in inches on the target equal to the square of your distance in yards from the target. I.e., a change of 100 yards in elevation on the rear sight leaf while firing at the 200-yard range raises or lowers the striking point of the bullet at the target 4 inches. A similar change while firing at the 300-yard range raises or lowers the striking point of the bullet 9 inches, at the 400-yard range it would be 16 inches, at the 500-yard range 25 inches, and so on.
The following illustrations are self-explanatory in regard to windage and elevation changes and should be diligently studied during preliminary instruction. The effect of windage changes (given in points) will be found at the bottom of each target, while the effect of elevation changes (given in yards) will be found to the left of each target.
The above system of indicating the windage and elevation on each target is used in the United States Marine Corps score book. Each man at Plattsburg, in 1916, was supplied with one of these score books. If used at the firing point they greatly simplify sight adjustments, besides containing other very useful information on shooting.
5. Gallery Practise. Purpose
1. To note errors in the position of the man while he is in the act of firing and call his attention to them after he has fired.
2. To give instruction in squeezing the trigger properly.
3. To stimulate and maintain interest.
4. Offers a check on what the man has absorbed from the other preliminary drills.
Fire just as much on the gallery range as you company commander will permit. You cannot fire too much. Every shot you fire should teach you a lesson on some point connected with the art of shooting.
Following satisfactory gallery practise scores the men go on the range for known distance practice. Here the army rifle is fired with service charges at known ranges; first, for instruction if time permits, and then for record. To obtain satisfactory results the firer must perform correctly five essential things, namely:
1. Hold the rifle on the mark.
2. Aim properly.
3. Squeeze the trigger properly.
4. Call the shot.
5. Make the proper sight adjustment.
They will be briefly and separately discussed:
1. Holding. Unless the rifle is held steadily the bullet will not hit the desired mark. The firer must be able to hold the rifle steadily in the three positions, kneeling, sitting. lying down. Holding is a question of the proper body position, use of the sling, and practice.
Body Position. The position of the firer must be comfortable. You may, at first, feel constrained or cramped in the different positions but by continued practice the muscles and joints will become so supple and pliable that you can easily assume the correct position. Each man who is trying for a high score should utilize all available time to this end. The following photographs illustrate the correct and incorrect positions:
No. 1. Notice the position of the elbows. They are advanced past the knees so that the flat muscles on the back of the arms, above the elbows, rest against the legs. Notice the position of the right thumb and aiming eye; also sling. To assume this position correctly, it is necessary that you lean well forward. Avoid the tendency of getting the feet too far apart.
No. 2. Notice The proper manner of working the bolt during rapid fire. Keep your gun at the shoulder while loading. Turn the gun to right and down a little. Don't make any unnecessary motions'
No. 1. Left elbow is resting on knee cap. No support to steady right arm. Eye too far from rear sight. Lip is against stock. (This causes sore lips.) Thumb around stock. Sling on outside of arm.
No. 2. This shows the common error of lowering the gun from the shoulder to load it during rapid fire.
No. 1. Correct kneeling position. Notice that the back of the left arm (not elbow) is resting on knee.
Notice that the firer is sitting well down on the right leg. This is essential.
No. 1. Thumb is around small of stock. Eye too far from rear sight. The gun is turned (canted) to the right. The sharp point of the elbow is resting on the knee which has a tendency to make the position an unsteady one.
No. 2. The improper manner of loading the gun during rapid fire. He has lowered the gun from his shoulder to load it, which is "a time-killing" proposition.
No. 1. Notice the right eye. Notice that the left arm is well under the gun. Notice where the gun is pressed against the shoulder. Notice position of right thumb.
No. 2 Notice position of left arm. Notice the pressure of the sling against the left arm.
No. 3 Notice the correct position of the legs and feet. Notice that the toes are turned out.
No. 1. Gun is canted to the right. Sling is on the outside of the arm. Right thumb is across small of stock which is the cause of bruises and sore lips. Left elbow not well under. Eye too far from rear sight piece.
No. 2. Legs not straight. Gun canted to right. Left elbow not well under gun.
No. 3. Legs are in an improper position. Body is twisted to the left.
Sling. Your ability to hold the rifle steadily in any required position will be greatly increased by the proper adjustment and use of the sling. Indeed, you cannot hope to hold the rifle steadily unless the sling is properly used. The following photographs illustrate the correct way to get into the sling.
No. 1. Notice that the left arm is slipped in between the sling and the gun from the left side. It is then run through the sling from the right side of same. Notice how gun is held against leg. Notice that the muzzle of the gun is pointing up, not down. The bolt should be drawn back while you get into the sling. This is to avoid accidents. Notice that the sight leaf is down.
No. 2. Notice that the sling has been slipped up and over the large muscles of the upper arm. Also the left hand after being run through the sling is grasping the gun to that the sling is to the right.
By turning back now to the photographs illustrating the correct body positions you will see how the sling is used.
2. Aiming. An error of one one-hundredth of an inch in the amount of front sight seen, at the instant the gun is fired, will cause you to completely miss a man 500 yards away. Hence, the eye must be trained unless the firer has at all times a mental picture of how the sights and the bull's-eye look when properly aligned. You should acquire this mental picture during your aiming exercises and by the time you go on the range you should have the eye so trained that you will focus it properly on your sights and target without mental effort.
3. Trigger Squeeze. If you convulsively jerk the trigger to discharge the rifle, you disturb your hold and aim and the mark is missed; this is the recruit's most common error. To properly squeeze trigger observe the following suggestions:
(a) As you place your rifle to the shoulder, take up the loose play in the trigger (called the creep).
(b) When the gun is properly aimed, don't endeavor at that particular moment to fire it but be content to apply additional pressure to the trigger and then hold this pressure until the gun is again steady and properly aimed when a little more pressure is added and so on until the gun is discharged. By using this system, the firer does not know the exact instant the gun is to go off and the common faults, namely, flinching and jerking the trigger are unconsciously avoided.
(c) Fill lungs full, that is take a deep breath, let a little out, and then stop breathing to fire.
4. Calling the Shot. If the aiming eye is open when the gun is discharged, the firer should know at what part of the target the gun was aimed at that instant, and he should announce this fact to his coach or in the absence of a coach make a mental note of it. If the bullet struck the target at the point where the gun was aimed the instant of discharge, no sight correction is necessary; on the other hand, if the bullet did not strike the target at the point where the gun was aimed the instant of discharge, the sights are probably improperly adjusted and should be changed as indicated in the following paragraph on sight adjustment.
5. Sight Adjustment. If, after firing two or more shots, you find that, in each case, there is a constant error between where the bullet hits the target and the place where you called the shot, your sights should be readjusted in accordance with your preliminary elevation and deflection drills. When you decide to change your sight adjustment don't be timid and deal in half measures but apply a sufficient correction so that the rifle will hit where the shot is called. The inexperienced man has a tendency to change his sights after each shot. Avoid this tendency.
In rapid fire the battle sight is always used; the firing is against time and at a field target (Target D), and from ranges 200, 300, and sometimes 500 yards.
The battle sight corresponds to an elevation of 547 yards, which makes it necessary for the firer at the 200 and 300 yard ranges to aim at a point about 2-1/2 feet below the part of the target that it is desired to hit. Prior to record firing each man should determine these aiming points by slow fire, at ranges 200 and 300 yards, using the battle sight.
There is one golden rule that must be followed if you are to get a good score at rapid fire: You must use the minimum time possible in loading and the maximum time possible for aiming and squeezing the trigger. To be more specific, this means work your bolt quickly but aim and squeeze your trigger slowly.
HINTS ON RAPID FIRE
1. When you go to the firing point get two clips of cartridges, one to be used at the command load and the extra one is placed in the belt.
2. See that your cut-off is up.
3. When the target first appears drop quickly into the required position for firing. A great deal of time is usually lost by the firer squirming around trying to get into a comfortable position.
4. Don't hurry your first or last shot. These are the two shots that are usually bad.
5. If your second clip jams or breaks, turn the cut-off up, load and fire each cartridge separately.
6. Leave the gun at your shoulder while working the bolt.
7. Be careful to fire on your own target.
8. If a cartridge fails to fire, it is very probably because the bolt is not all the way down; therefore recock the gun (pull the firing pin back), make certain the bolt is down, and fire again.
9. As soon as the targets disappear cease firing, come to Inspection Arms, examine your rifle for unfired cartridges.
GENERAL HINTS AND CAUTIONS
1. Don't be afraid of the kick; it is more imaginary than real when the sling is properly used, your shoulder properly padded, and the gun properly held.
2. Rest your cheek, not your jaw bone, lightly against the small of the stock.
3. Rest your right thumb along the right side of the stock and not on top of it.
4. Blacken both front and rear sights, adjust and place your arm in the sling, and if possible set your sights while you are waiting your turn to go to the firing point.
5. Approach and leave the firing point with your bolt drawn back. This is to prevent accidents.
6. When not actually aiming, have your bolt drawn back.
7. Never attempt to force the bolt into the gun in case of a jam, but ask a coach to fix it for you.
8. Don't allow the muzzle to touch the ground.
9. Don't rub your eyes while at the firing point.
10. When not actually aiming, rest the eyes by shading them or looking at something green.
11. Clean the bore of your rifle before and after firing. After firing it should be cleaned daily, until a rag run through it will not be soiled.
12. Clean the rifle from the breech.
13. Zero of rifle. Every rifle, owing to slight inequalities of boring, sights, and the personal errors of the firer, shoots differently. When you have ascertained its (rifle) and your own peculiar errors and you know where to set your sights to counteract these constant errors, you have determined what is commonly termed the zero of your rifle. To illustrate, if you were shooting on a perfectly calm day (which is essential) at the target from the 500-yard range, and you found that you required one half a point left windage in order to hit the bull's-eye when no wind is blowing, the zero of your rifle for that range would be one half a point left windage.
CARE OF THE RIFLE
Keep the metal part of your rifle covered with a thin coating of light oil; "3-in-1" oil is ordinarily used. This is especially important in damp weather.
Always clean the bore from the breech. This avoids injuring the muzzle. The pull through (a string found in the oiler and thong case) is only used in the field.
After the rifle is fired the bore is covered with an acid which, if left in the bore, will eat into the metal and pit it. To avoid this, swab out the barrel as soon as possible after firing with Hoppe's "Powder Solvent, No. 9" which can be purchased at the camp stores. If this powder solvent is not available, dissolve some soda in water and use it. When the barrel is clean, dry it out thoroughly by running several dry rags through it. Next run several rags, saturated in oil, through the barrel, this for the purpose of oiling the bore and preventing rust. This process of cleaning should be repeated for at least three successive days following the firing of the rifle.
The metal fouling, caused by the pealing off in the bore of the jacket of the bullet, can only be removed by an application of an ammonia solution which should not be used by an inexperienced man.
The Bayonet. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of three principal parts, viz., the blade, the guard, and the grip. The weight of a bayonet is 1 pound.
Captain B. A. Dixon, retired, has compiled the following interesting data about our military rifle and ammunition:
"Name. United States Rifle (commonly known as the Springfield).
"Cost. $14.40 without the bayonet.
"Barrel. 24.006 inches in length. The muzzle is rounded to protect the rifling. Any injury here would allow gases to escape around the sides of the bullet and destroy its accuracy.
"On the top in rear of the front sight is stamped the Ordnance escutcheon, the initials of the place of manufacture, and the month and year.
"Caliber. .30-thirty hundredths of an inch. Caliber is the interior diameter of the barrel measured between the lands.
"Grooves. The four spiral channels within the bore of the rifle sometimes called rifling. They are .004 inches deep and are three times as wide as the lands.
"Lands. The four raised spaces in the bore of the rifle between the grooves. These lands grip the bullet as it passes through the bore and rotate it to the right about the longer axis. This rotation serves to prevent tumbling and keeps the bullet accurately on its course. This spinning of the bullet also causes it to drift slightly to the right as it passes through the air. The same effect is produced by throwing a baseball with a twist.
"Twist. The spiral formed by the grooves in the barrel of the piece. The twist is uniform and to the right, one turn in ten inches.
"Length. The rifle without bayonet is 43.212 inches long. With bayonet it is 59.212 inches long.
"Manufacture. The United States Rifle is manufactured by the Government at Springfield Armory, Massachusetts, and Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois.
"Rear Sight Leaf. Graduated from 100 to 2850 yards. The odd range is on the right branch of the leaf, the even on the left. Note that the line corresponding to a range is below a numeral.
"Battle sight is the position of the rear sight in which the leaf is laid down. The slide should be drawn all the way hack to secure full advantage of the windage. It corresponds to a range of 547 yards.
"Rounds. The rifle will hold six cartridges. Five are carried in the magazine and one in the chamber.
"Stock. Made of walnut wood.
"Oiler and Thong Case. Furnished for every alternate rifle and is carried in butt of the stock. In one section is a supply of oil, in the other a thong and brush for cleaning the bore. In cleaning by this method draw the brush or rag from the muzzle toward the breech.
"Weight. 8.69 pounds without bayonet. Bayonet weighs 1 pound.
"Cost. About three and one-half cents per cartridge.
"Bullet. Has a core of lead and tin composition inclosed in a jacket of cupro-nickel. The jacket being tough enables the lands in the bore to grip the bullet without rupturing and to rotate it while passing through the barrel. A lead bullet unjacketed would strip and pass through without rotating. It weighs 150 grains and is pointed to offer less resistance to the air.
"Case. Made of brass. The government ammunition is manufactured at Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania.
"Powder. Pyrocellulose. The grains are cylindrical, single, perforated, and graphited. Normal charge is 47-50 grains. Pressure developed in the chamber is 51,000 pounds per square inch.
"Penetration. This bullet will penetrate the following materials to depth stated at range of 100 yards: Moist sand, 14.02 inches; loam, 17.46 inches; oak, 31.18 inches; brick wall, 5.5 inches; steel plate, .4 inch. Dry sand is the best stop. The bullet will penetrate 6.88 inches of it at 100 yards and 13.12 inches at 500 yards.
"Range. Maximum range, 4891.6 yards, about 2-3/4 miles) with the muzzle elevated 45 degrees. The time of flight 38.058 seconds.
"Velocity. About 2700 feet per second at 70 degrees F.
"Weight. A complete cartridge weighs 395.5 grains depending on amount of water. It is waterproof."
Suppose you are out hunting, and that you see a big buck on a distant hill. Suppose that it is exactly 600 yards distant from you, that you are an expert shot, and that you set your sights at 400 yards and fire. Will you hit the deer or not? You must know how to guess accurately the distance to a deer, or a man, or anything else, if you propose to have any reasonable hope of hitting it.
The art of estimating distances with the eye can be improved by practice. When you are in ranks, observe continually your surroundings. Call attention to and make estimates of the distances to all the prominent objects in view. Others near you will become interested, and the interest will soon spread to the entire company. It will be necessary for the objects to be pointed out to those interested. This in itself is a difficult thing to do. To be able quickly to see distant objects that are being pointed out is a military accomplishment which all soldiers should possess and which comes only with practice.
METHODS OF ESTIMATING DISTANCES BY THE EYE
1. Decide that the object cannot be more than a certain distance away, or less than a certain distance. Keep the estimate within the closest possible limits and take the mean of the two estimates as the range. For instance, that deer cannot be over 800 yards away and not less than 400 yards. Your estimated distance is 600 yards.
2. Select a point which you think is the middle point of the distance, estimate the distance to this middle point, and double your estimate to get your range. Do the same thing with half the distance, if the object is very far away.
3. Estimate the distance along a parallel line, such as a telephone line or a railroad having on it a well-defined length with which you are familiar.
4. Take the mean of several estimates made by several well-instructed men. This method is used in battle, but is not applicable to instruction or during tests.
1. Preliminary Instruction
To estimate distances by the eye with accuracy, it is first necessary that you become familiar with the appearance of the most convenient unit of length, namely 100 yards. Stake off a distance of 100 yards. Subdivide this 100 yards into four 25-yard divisions. Pace off the entire distance several times, and you will soon become familiar with the appearance of 100 yards. Next, take a distance more than 100 yards and compare it mentally with your unit of measure (100 yards) and make your estimate. Verify this estimate by pacing the distance. Do this once a day for several months, and you may become highly skilled in the art of estimating distances.
2. Preliminary Instruction
If you know how a soldier, or group of soldiers, looks at the different ranges, it will often assist you in quickly making an accurate estimate of the distance. In order to acquire skill in estimating distances by this method one must have special exercises designated to demonstrate the clearness with which details of clothing, movement of the limbs, etc., can be observed at the different ranges. Have a squad march away from you to a distance of 1,200 yards. Then have it approach you and halt every 100 yards. Each time the squad halts make a mental note of the distance, and then observe carefully its appearance, the clearness with which you can see the clothing, movements of the limbs, etc.
APPEARANCE OF OBJECTS
Become familiar with the effect which the varying conditions of light, background, etc., have upon the apparent distance of the object. Don't be content to memorize the following data, but go after the underlying reason in each case.
Objects seem nearer than they actually are:
1. When the object is seen in a bright light.
2. When the color of the object contrasts sharply with the color of the background.
3. When looking over water, snow, or a uniform surface like a wheat field.
4. When looking from a height downward.
5. In clear atmosphere of high altitudes, as in Arizona and New Mexico.
Objects seem more distant than they actually are:
1. When looking over a depression in the ground (across a canyon).
2. When there is a poor light (very cloudy day) or a fog.
3. When only a part of the object can be seen.
4. When looking from low ground upward toward higher ground.
ESTIMATING DISTANCES BY SOUND
Sound travels at the rate of about 366 yards a second. Therefore, multiply the number of seconds intervening between the flash of the gun and the report of the same by 366, and the product will be the distance in yards to the gun.
Each company is equipped with a range-finding instrument. All company officers and sergeants should be proficient in using it. The accuracy of this instrument will greatly depend upon the skill of the user, and the visibility of the objective.
TRIAL SHOTS OR VOLLEYS
"If the ground is so dry and dusty that the fall of the bullets is visible through a glass or with the naked eye, a method of determining the distance is afforded by using a number of trial shots or volleys. The method of using trial volleys is as follows: The sights are raised for the estimated range and one volley is fired. If this appears to hit but little short of the mark, an increase of elevation of 100 yards will be used for the next volley. When the object is enclosed between two volleys, a mean of the elevation will be adopted as the correct range. The range may be obtained from a near-by battery or machine gun. This is the best method when available."—Small Arms Firing Manual.
ESTIMATING DISTANCE TEST
This test is usually held after the record firing on the range has been completed. No distance used in this test will be less than 547 yards (battle sight range) or more than 1200 yards, which is considered the extreme range for effective fire of individuals or a small command. Should a soldier fail three times to make the necessary percentage in these tests, his rifle qualification will be reduced one grade. For the specific conditions governing this test, see Small Arms Firing Manual.
Five or six enlisted men, selected by the company
To hit the target squarely when it is 200 yards away, the Line of Aim must be under it, as shown in the diagram.]
commander from those most skilled, will be designated as "Range Finders." These men are practised in estimating distance throughout the year. Their practice will be on varied ground and at distances up to 2000 yards. These men assist the company commander when the company is on the defensive, in estimating the distances to the prominent objects in view before the action commences; and at other times when the company commander needs their assistance.
On the hike the camp will be laid out daily in advance by a staff officer. The company being halted and in line, the company commander gives the order: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.
The first sergeant and right guide fall in on the right of the company. The blank files in the squads have to be filled by men from the file closers, and the remaining guides and file closers form on the left flank or at such places as may be designated by the company commander. The company commander next gives the order: 1. Take interval, 2. To the left, 3. MARCH, 4. Company, 5. HALT.
At the second command (to the left) the rear rank men march backward four steps of fifteen inches each and then halt.
At the command MARCH, all face to the left and the leading man of each rank steps off. The remaining men step off in succession, each following the preceding man at four paces. The rear rank men march abreast of their file leaders.
The company commander gives the command HALT when all have gained their intervals. At this command all halt and face to the front, dressing to the right. The more quickly you dress and establish the line of tents, the more quickly you will be relieved of those heavy packs. This is the time to brace up and give the company commander your support by giving him your attention. If you cover in file accurately as you take interval you will often be accurately aligned upon halting.
The next command is: PITCH TENTS. At this command each man steps off obliquely to the right with the right foot (about thirty inches) and lays his rifle on the ground, butt to the rear and near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front, barrel to the left. He then steps back to his original position. During this process of "grounding" the rifle, the front rank man must keep his left foot strictly in its position. Each front rank man then draws his bayonet from the scabbard and sticks it in the ground by the outside of his right heel. Now in order to insure the bayonet being properly aligned, thus producing a straight line of tents, the company officers (first and second lieutenants), sometimes are required to align the line of bayonets while the men are unslinging and opening their equipment. The equipment is then unslung and laid on the ground. The packs are opened and the shelter half and pins removed therefrom. Each man spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the rear, on the ground that the tent is to occupy, the rear-rank man's shelter half being on the right. Then the front-and rear-rank men button the halves together, the rear-rank man's half on top. The guy loops at each end of the lower half are then passed through the button holes provided in the lower and upper halves; next the whipped end of the guy rope is passed through both guy loops and secured; this is done at both ends of the tent, the rear-rank man working at the rear and the front-rank man at the front.
Each front-rank man then inserts the muzzle of his rifle under the front end of the tent and holds the rifle upright, sling to the front, heel of the butt on the ground beside the bayonet. The rear-rank man comes to the front of the tent and pins down the two front corners on the line of bayonets, stretching the sides of the tent taut. He then inserts a pin in the loop of the front guy rope and drives it in the ground at such a distance in front of the rifle as to hold the rope taut. Then both men proceeding to the rear of the tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear of the tent taut before driving the pin in. The rear-rank man next inserts an intrenching tool or a bayonet, in its scabbard, under the rear end of the tent, the front rank man pegging down the end of the guy rope. The rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the right.
The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown back on the tent.
In pitching the tent, it is absolutely necessary that the front-and rear-rank men work together. Team work is essential.
When the camp site is small, it is necessary that each
company pitch its tents in two lines facing each other.
The following illustration shows the arrangement of the articles of the equipment when they are laid out for inspection. During the inspection, each man stands at attention in front of the corner pin of his own shelter half on a line with the front guy rope pin, unless ordered to the contrary.
SIGNALS AND CODES
1. GENERAL SERVICE CODE. (INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE.)
Used for visual (except semaphore) and sound signaling, radio telegraphy, on cables using siphon recorders, in communication with the Navy, and in intra-field artillery buzzer communication.
A . - B - . . . C - . - . D - . . E . F . . - . G - - . H . . . . I . . J . - - - K - . - L . - . . M - - N - . O - - - P . - - . Q - - . - R . - . S . . . T - U . . - V . . . - W . - - X - . . - Y - . - - Z - - . .
1 . - - - - 2 . . - - - 3 . . . - - 4 . . . . - 5 . . . . . 6 - . . . . 7 - - . . . 8 - - - . . 9 - - - - . 0 - - - - -
Period . . . . . . Comma . - . - . - Interrogation . . - - . . Hyphen or dash - . . . . - Parentheses (before and after the words) - . - - . - Quotation mark (beginning and ending) . - . . - . Exclamation - - . . - - Apostrophe . - - - - . Semicolon - . - . - . Colon - - - . . . Bar indicating fraction - . . - . Underline (before and after the word or words it is wished to underline) . . - - . - Double dash (between preamble and address, between address and body of message, between body of message and signature, and immediately before a fraction) - . . . - Cross . - . - .
Note.—Numerals and punctuations must be spelled out in the ardois, as they require more than four elements, which is the limit of the ardois keyboard.
The position is with the flag or other appliance held vertically, the signalman directly facing station with which it is desired to communicate. The "dot" is to the right of sender, embracing an arc of 90 deg., starting with the vertical and returning to it. The "dash" is a similar motion to left. "Front" is downward directly in front and instantly returned to vertical; it indicates a pause or conclusion.
For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander in rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of signal flags, the head dress or other substitute may be used.
Letter of If signaled from the If signaled from the Alphabet rear to the firing line firing line to the rear
A M Ammunition going forward Ammunition required
C C C Charge (mandatory at all Am about to charge if no times) instructions to the contrary
C F Cease firing Cease firing
D T Double time or "rush" Double time or "rush" or hurry
F Commence firing Commence firing
F L Artillery fire is causing Artillery fire is causing us losses us losses
G Move forward Preparing to move forward
H H H Halt Halt
K Negative Negative
L T Left Left
O What is the (R. N., etc.?) What is the (R. N., etc.?)
(Ardois and Interrogatory Interrogatory semaphore only)
. . - - . . What is the (R. N., etc.?) What is the (R. N., etc.?)
(All methods Interrogatory Interrogatory but ardois and semaphore)
P Affirmative Affirmative
R Acknowledgment Acknowledgment
R N Range Range
R T Right Right
S S S Support going forward Support needed
T Target Target
The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.
Forward, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of march.
This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.
HALT. Carry the hand to the shoulder. Thrust the hand upward and hold the arm vertically.
Double time, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.
Squads right, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical and horizontal positions.
Squads left, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal positions.
Squads right about, MARCH (if in close order) or, To the rear, MARCH (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the head; carry it laterally downward to the side, and swing it several times between the vertical and downward positions.
Change direction or Column right (left), MARCH. The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.
As skirmishers, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.
As skirmishers, guide center, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical, and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.
As skirmishers, guide right (left), MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical, and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.
Assemble, MARCH. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles.
Range or Change Elevation. To announce range, extend the arm toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated;
by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number equal to the hundreds of yards;
to add 50 yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger.
To change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.
What range are you using? or What is the range? Extend the arms toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on the other hand, fist closed.
Are you ready? or I am ready. Raise the hand, fingers extended and joined, palm toward the person addressed.
Commence firing. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.
Fire faster. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."
Fire slower. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."
Swing the cone of fire to the right, or left. Extend the arm in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.
Fix bayonet. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix bayonet."
Suspend firing. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.
Cease firing. Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up and down several times in front of the face.
Platoon. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; describe small circles with the hand.
Squad. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing the hand up and down from the wrist.
Rush. Same as double time.
Use of the platoon and squad signals. The signals platoon and squad are intended primarily for communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal platoon or squad indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.
You will observe that in no case is the right hand or the left hand specified. The officer may either face the company or have his back toward it.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
In the army, as in civilian life, you are very often your brother's keeper, as well as your own. Doctors cannot accompany a scout, a patrol, or the firing line. They are seldom present when a man falls overboard. When a soldier on the firing line is wounded, he may remain for several hours where he falls. He, or his comrade, bandages the wound. Suppose you are wounded, bitten by a snake, etc., what would you do? You may have to give a practical answer to these questions at some time during your life.
This chapter tells you what to do and what not to do in case of the most frequent disabling accidents that may befall a soldier or a civilian. Ask your mother, father, older brothers, and sisters to read it. Part of it is for them.
Each soldier carries on his belt a first-aid packet. This packet contains two perfectly pure bandages and a couple of safety pins. It should be air tight. Examine yours every week and if the seal is defective, ask your captain for a new packet.
1. Act quickly but quietly. Be calm and quiet. Don't lose your head.
2. Make the injured party sit or lie down.
3. See the injury clearly before treating it. Send for a doctor if the wound is serious.
4. Do not remove more clothing than is necessary to examine the injury. Always rip, or, if you cannot rip, cut the clothes from the injured part. Don't pull the clothes off.
5. Give alcoholic stimulants cautiously and slowly, and only when the patient feels weak or drowsy. Hot coffee or tea will often suffice when obtainable.
6. Keep from the patient all persons not actually needed to assist you.
7. Do not touch a wound with your fingers. If the wound is dirty, remove the dirt as well as possible, with the first-aid bandage.
8. Don't pour into the wound any water from your canteen for the purpose of washing it out or washing the blood from around the wound. Water often contains germs and the skin around the wound may be dirty. If water is poured into the wound it carries or washes into the same these germs and dirt, and the wound will become infected.
9. Heat and moisture increases the activity of the germ of infection. Therefore keep the wound cool and dry.
10. If the blood is scarlet in color and appears in spurts, send at once for a doctor and then take the necessary measures (apply a tourniquet) to stop the flow of blood.
11. If the patient loses consciousness, it will probably be because insufficient blood is reaching the brain. Lower your patient's head and give all your attention to stopping the bleeding.
If you receive a bullet wound, don't get excited or lose your head. A bullet wound in the muscle or soft parts of the body causes little pain and, if properly dressed, heals in about two to three weeks. Protect the openings where the bullet entered and came out with the bandages found in the first-aid packet. Don't touch the wound with your fingers. Remove sufficient clothing to see the wounds. Then, and not before, open the first-aid packet and carefully unfold (open) the compress (pad found in the middle of each bandage) and place it over the wound and wrap the ends of the bandage fairly tight around the limb and fasten with the safety pin. If one compress is not large enough to cover the entire wound, use the second bandage. This bandaging will stop ordinary bleeding. Such a dressing may be all that is needed for several days. It is better to leave a wound undressed than to dress it carelessly or ignorantly, so that the dressing must be removed.
If the blood is dark blue and the stream is continuous, a vein has been punctured which, in itself, is not ordinarily dangerous. The bandaging of such a wound will usually stop the flow of blood. Bandage firmly. Remember all wounds bleed a little, but that, as a rule, this bleeding will stop in a few minutes if the patient remains quiet.
If the blood is bright red and appears in spurts, an artery has been punctured, and the flow of blood must be stopped or the patient will bleed to death. To do this, apply a pressure to the artery at some point between the wound and the heart. Press the artery against the bone. This can usually be done for a short time with the fingers. However it will usually he necessary to use an improvised tourniquet. Tie the bandage of the first-aid packet around the limb so that the compress (pad) will press the artery against the bone. Slip under the compress and over the artery a small stone. Pass a stick under the bandage and turn the stick around slowly until the slack is taken up and the bleeding stops. Then tie the stick as shown in the illustration.
After the tourniquet has been in place for an hour, loosen it and if no blood flows allow it to remain loose. If it again bleeds tighten it quickly and loosen again at the end of an hour.
The following illustrations, show the usual places where tourniquets are applied or where pressure can be applied to the arteries with the thumb:
BROKEN BONE (FRACTURE)
The next injury you must know is a broken bone. You will usually know when an arm or leg is broken by the way the arm or leg is held, for the wounded man loses control over the limb. Suppose your comrade breaks his leg or arm. What would you do? Straighten the limb gently, pulling upon the end of it quietly and firmly so that the two ends of the broken bone will not overlap. Next, retain the limb in its straightened position by such splints and other material as the boot of a carbine, a piece of board, a piece of tin gutter. Pad the material you use. Tie it to the broken limb as shown in the following illustrations. Never place a bandage over the fracture. See Illustration.
Being under water for over four or five minutes is generally fatal, but, unless you know the body has been submerged a long time, make an attempt to restore life. Don't get disheartened and give up, if you see no signs of life after a few minutes' work. Work on the body for at least an hour.
Your comrade's lifeless body has just been pulled out of the water. What do you do? You are alone.
1. Don't waste time in removing his clothes.
2. Reach your finger in his mouth and straighten out his tongue.
3. Lay him on his stomach; then straddle him; reach both arms under his stomach; raise his hips two feet from the ground and jostle him. This drains the water from the stomach and lungs.
4. Lay him on his stomach; turn his head to one side so his nose and mouth do not touch the ground; extend his arms beyond his head (see illustration); locate his lowest (12th) rib; place hand, finger, and thumb closed (see illustration) on body so that the little finger curls over the 12th rib; hold your arms and wrists straight and lean forward slowly so the weight of the upper part of your body will be brought to bear gradually upon your comrade's ribs (see illustration); let this pressure continue for about three seconds; then remove it suddenly by removing the hands. Apply this pressure at the rate of from 12 to 15 times a minute.
5. Do not attempt to give him any kind of liquids while he is unconscious.
6. Apply warm blankets as soon as possible.
7. Never say "He is dead"—Work on his body for at least an hour.
SUNSTROKE—(THE SKIN IS HOT)
A sunstroke is accompanied by the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, sense of oppression, nausea, colored vision, and often the patient becomes insensible. The muscles are relaxed, face flushed, skin hot, pulse rapid, and the temperature rises. The breathing is labored.
Treatment: Reduce the temperature as rapidly as possible, with ice or cold water; get the patient in the shade. Loosen clothing.
HEAT EXHAUSTION—(THE SKIN IS COOL)
Symptoms: Nausea, a staggering gait, pulse is weak, and the patient may quickly become unconscious. The skin is cool. This condition is dangerous.
Treatment: Rub the limbs vigorously. Give stimulants; apply heat.
Do not pull the clothing from the burnt part, but rip or cut it off. Do not break the blisters or prick them even if large.
Treatment: Protect it quickly with a mixture of equal parts of linseed or olive oil and water.
FREEZING AND FROSTBITE
Symptom: The part frozen appears white or bluish and is cold.
Treatment: Raise the temperature of the frozen member slowly by rubbing it with snow or ice and water, in a cool place. Don't go near a fire.
Symptom: Loss of consciousness. It is usually the result of severe bleeding or exhaustion from fatigue. This condition is rarely dangerous.
Treatment: Lay the patient on his back, head a little lower than rest of body, arms by side, feet extended. Rub the limbs. Sprinkle water on the face and give stimulants if necessary.
Treatment: Send for a doctor at once. Empty the stomach and bowels. Give two tablespoons full of mustard and warm water or a tablespoon full of salt in a glass of water to produce vomiting. Then give a purgative. Tickle throat with finger or feather in case mustard or salt are not procurable. After the poison has been evacuated, give stimulants and apply heat and rubbing externally.
In snake bites the poison acts quickly.
Treatment: Apply a tourniquet between the wound and the heart so as to stop the circulation and prevent the system from absorbing the poison. Get out your knife and make a couple of cross cuts through the wound so it will bleed freely. Then suck the poison from the wound and spit the poison out. If your lips are lacerated there is danger in this method but it is your duty to take this chance in order to save your comrade's life. After sucking out the wound, heat your knife and burn it out.
Send for a doctor. Lie perfectly quiet. Don't lose your head and don't attempt to crawl to help or to stir around. Place a clean piece of cloth over the wound and keep it constantly wet with a solution of salt water. If the wound is in the stomach, it is better to lie perfectly quiet on the battle field for a day or two until found than to crawl to assistance.
Treatment: Keep parts dry, use talcum powders and keep parts separated by a layer of absorbent cotton.
EXTINGUISHING BURNING CLOTHES
Treatment: Lie down on the floor and roll up as tightly as possible in a rug blanket, etc., leaving only the head out. If nothing can be obtained in which to wrap yourself, lie down and roll over slowly and at the same time beat out the fire with your hands. Flames shoot upward. In order to get them away from the head, lie down. Don't run, it only fans the flames.
If another person's clothing catches fire, throw him to the ground and smother the fire as just described.
Most of the gas used on the battlefield today is deadly. When a gas shell explodes there are two kinds of men: Quick men and Dead men. The quick men put on their gas masks, which contain chemicals that neutralize the poisonous air.
Treatment: When a man is slightly gassed don't allow him to move around or to remove his mask. Have him lie down and rest. Loosen his clothes around his neck and chest so he can breathe freely. Keep him warm. When the gas has been removed from the trench, take off his mask and give spirits of ammonia.
TABLES OF ORGANIZATION
(For Reference Only)
Captain. 1 1st Lieutenant. 1 2nd Lieutenant. 1 — Total 3
1st Sergeant. 1 Mess Sergeant. 1 Supply Sergeant. 1 Sergeants. 8 Corporals. 17 Cooks. 3 Buglers. 2 Mechanics. 2 Privates, 1st class. 28 Privates. 87 —- Total 150
Four companies of infantry. (There are three battalions in a regiment of infantry.)
INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911
FOR USE WITH THE
UNITED STATES RIFLE, MODEL, 1917 (ENFIELD)
For troops armed with the United States rifle, Model 1917 (Enfield), the alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.
By order of the Security of War:
HUGH L. SCOTT, Major General, Chief of Staff.
Official: H. P. McCAIN, The Adjutant General.
The following rules govern the carrying of the piece
First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or the magazine except when specially odered. When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "Safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.
Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately inspected at the commands: 1. INSPECTION, 2. ARMS, 3. ORDER (Right shoulder, port), 4. ARMS.
A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.
If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and placed in the belt.
Third. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for combat.
Fourth. Fall in is executed with the piece at order arms. Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming attention the position of order arms is taken.
Fifth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder at the command MARCH, the three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at trail; as 1. AT TRAIL, FORWARD, 2. MARCH. The trail is taken at the command MARCH.
When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.
Sixth. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt is completed.
Seventh. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.
Being at order arms: 1. UNFIX, 2. BAYONET.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the spring with the forefinger of the left hand; raise the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.
If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.
Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but not in cadence.
Being at inspection arms; 1. ORDER (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.
At the preparatory command press the follower down with the fingers of the left hand, then push the bolt forward just enough to engage the follower, raise the fingers of the left hand, push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command ARMS, complete the movement ordered.
Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. WITH DUMMY (Blank or ball) CARTRIDGES, 2. LOAD.
At the command load each front rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock and the muzzle at the height of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the ends in the clip slots, places the thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "Safe" and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.
A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly as practicable in the position of load.
If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.
For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are designated as that of load.
For purposes of simulated firing, 1. SIMULATE, 2. LOAD, raise the bolt handle as in the preceding paragraph, draw the bolt back until the cocking piece engages, then close the bole, and turn the bolt handle down.
The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; after a few lessons dummy cartridges are used. Later blank cartridges may be used.
Unload: Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move the bolt alternately backward and forward until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by pressing the follower down with the fingers of the left hand, to engage it under the bolt, and then thrusting the bolt home. The trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the order.
To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. SQUAD, 3. FIRE.
Each command is executed as previously explained. Load is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "Ready."
Cease firing: Firing stops; pieces are loaded and locked; the sights are laid down and the piece is brought to the order. Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the men.
Being in line at a halt: 1. OPEN RANKS, 2. MARCH.
At the command march the front rank executes right dress; the rear rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of their respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear rank, and file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right guide, facing to the left, and commands:
3. FRONT, 4. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION.
At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber, face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to accompany or assist hint, in which case they return saber and, at the close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company, draw and carry saber.
Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him, executes inspection arms.
The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just below the lower band, the man dropping his hands; the captain inspects the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in receiving it, handsit back to the man, who takes it with the left hand at the balance and executes order arms.
As the captain returns the piece the next man executes inspection arms, and so on through the company.
Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes order arms as soon as the captain passes to the next man.
The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right in rear of each rank and of the line of file closers.
When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes inspection saber. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute inspection pistol by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol is returned to the holster as soon as the captain passes.
Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing to the left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants and commands: 1. CLOSE RANKS, 2. MARCH.
At the command march the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.
INFORMATION FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ARMED WITH RIFLES, MODEL 1898.
War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, December 2, 1911.
The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for the use of troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1903. For the guidance of organizations armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1898, the following alternative paragraphs are published and will be considered as substitute paragraphs for the corresponding paragraphs in the text.
By order of the Secretary of War:
Leonard Wood, Major General, Chief of Staff.
RULES GOVERNING THE CARRYING OF THE PIECE.
Third. The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the magazine.
Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, BAYONET.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the position of parade rest, grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, press the spring with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the bayonet until the handle is about 6 inches above the muzzle of the piece, drop the point to the left, back of hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.
If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.
Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but not in cadence.
Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.
At the second command, take the position of port arms (TWO). With the right hand open the magazine gate, turn the bolt handle up, draw the bolt back and glance at the magazine and chamber. Having found them empty, or having emptied them, raise the head and eyes to the front.
Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.
At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command arms, complete the movement ordered.
Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to execute other movements with the pieces loaded: 1. Lock, 2. PIECES.
At the command Pieces turn the safety lock fully to the right.
The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to the left, and at the "safe" when turned to the right.
The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" when turned down.
Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.
At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a cartridge between the thumb and first two fingers and places it in the receiver; places palm of the hand against the back of the bolt handle; thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down the handle, and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear-rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.
A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly as practicable in the position of load.
If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.
For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are designated as that of load.
Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box or belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in the magazine, turning the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion of the cartridges; close the gate and carry the right hand to the small of the stock.
To load from the magazine the command From magazine will be given preceding that of LOAD; the cut-off will be turned up on coming to the position of load.
To resume loading from the belt the command From belt will be given preceding the command LOAD; the cut-off will be turned down on coming to the position of load.
The commands from magazine and from belt, indicating the change in the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subsequent commands.
The words from belt apply to cartridge box as well as belt.
In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push the bolt fully forward and turn the handle down before drawing the bolt back, as otherwise the extractor will not catch the cartridge in the chamber, and jamming will occur with the cartridge following.
To fire from the magazine, the command MAGAZINE FIRE may be given at any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased rate of fire is executed. After the magazine is exhausted the cut-off is turned down and the firing continued, loading from the belt.
Magazine fire is employed only when, in the opinion of the platoon leader or company commander, the maximum rate of fire becomes necessary.
All take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and close the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trigger pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the box or belt, and the piece brought to the order.
Turn the cut-off up: fire at will (reloading from the magazine) until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off down; fill magazine; reload and take the position of suspend firing.
Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.
Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the men.
About face, 34
Advance, company, 121, 122 during attack, 148, 245, 246 methods of, 126-129 rear guard during, 231 under cover, 245
Advance cavalry, 226
Advance guard, 142, 221 communication with, 228, 229 distance from main body of, 224 distribution of, 226 duties of, 143, 223, 224 strength of, 224 supports to, 226, 227
Age limits for reserve officers, 169, 170
Aiming rifle, 277
Air planes, military value of, 213
Alignments, 66, 67 in company movements, 88, 106, 112 in skirmish drill, 119
Ammunition, 191 data on U. S. Army, 285, 286
Appointments to officers' reserve corps, 169, 170, 175, 176
Arm signals, 302-308
Arms, manual of, 40-62
Arms of the service, cooeperation of, 182
Army departments, 178, 323, 324
Army organization tables, 321-324
Army slang, 19, 20
Articles of War, 179
Artillery, 183, 232, 322, 323 organization of, 322, 323
Assembling, position of guides and file-closers in, 111
Assembly of company, 88, 120, 125 of platoons, 120, 121 of squad, 75
At ease, 32, 33 march, 106
Attack, advantages of, 145, 242, 243 deployment for, 244 enveloping, 243, 244 fire superiority in, 148, 207, 246 frontal, 243 initiative in, 145, 206 night, 185, 186 patrols in, 244, 252 plan of, 147 progress of, 147, 148, 149, 207, 246, 247 rules for, 208, 209 turning movement in, 243, 244
Attention, 29 from route step, 106 under arms, 40
Back step, 37
Backward march, 37
Bandaging, first-aid, 310-313
Barbwire, use of, 151, 186
Base squad in extended order drills, 112-119
Battle-field conditions, 130, 131, 207
Bayonet, 283 importance of, 190
Bed-making on practice marches, 161
Blanket roll, 167, 168
Bleeding, treatment for, 311-313
Blisters, treatment for, 163
Bombs, 184, 185
Broken bone, treatment for, 313, 314
Bullet wound, treatment for, 311
Burning clothes, extinguishing, 319, 320
Burns, treatment for, 317
Camp, arrival at, 11-13 conduct in, 13-15 equipment in, 11 inspection of, 296 guard duty in, 192-194 habits in, 15, 16, 17 security in, 137-139 mail regulations in, 10 sanitation, 164, 165
Camping ground, selection of, 215, 216
Camping on practice marches, 161, 292
Camps, Federal training, 10
Captain, responsibility of, 110, 133
Cavalry, 183, 184 advance, 226, 212 ammunition for, 191
Cavalry division, composition of, 211 squadron, organization of, 323 troop organization of, 321, 322
Chafing, treatment for, 319
Change step, 39
Charge during attack, 247
Clip fire, 211
Close order drills, 63, 88
Coast artillery, 178
Colors, saluting, 195
Column, diminishing front of, 108, 109 of platoons, change of direction for, 102, 103 formation from column of squads, 105, 106 from line of, 100-102 of route, 106 of squads, change of direction for, 94, 103 formation from line of, 93, 94, 102, 103
Combat patrols, 244, 252 train, 191
Commands, 28 in company skirmish drill, 114 to company, 86, 96-100
Communicating trenches, 188
Company, advance of, 121-129 alignment in, 88, 106, 112 assembly of, 88, 120 dismissing the, 111, 112 dressing, 92, 97, 99, 112 facing, 105 file closers in, 108 file formation in, 108, 109 formation into columns, 100-102 front into line, 99, 100, 106 guide in, 106, 107, 108 in line, from line of platoons, 105, 106 inspection arms in, 88, 89 march at ease, 106 to rear, 105 movement on fixed pivot in, 89-93 on moving pivot in, 93-96 intervals in, 93 platoons in, 110 position of men in, 87 roll call in, 87 route step, 106 skirmish drills in, 114-120 squads in, 86
Conduct, rules of, 13-15
Cooeperation of arms of the service, 182
Corporals, duties on firing line of, 134, 135 in company movement, 96, 97, 99, 100 in skirmish drill, 77, 78, 115-117
Cossack posts, 141, 235
Counter attack, 248, 253
Counting off, 64, 86
Cover, advance under, 245 detachments, duties of, 221, 222 strength of, 223 trenches, 188
Day patrol, 236, 237
Defense, advantages of, 150, 249 fire superiority in, 252 orders for, 251 passive and active, 149, 247, 248 position for, 130, 249, 250 preparations for, 150-152, 250-252 use of obstacles in, 186 Deflection in rifle drill, 263, 267, 268
Deployment for attack, 244 rules for, 118-120
Diminishing the front of column of squads, 108, 109
Discipline, value of, 17, 63, 216, 217
Distances, taking, 64, 111
Division commander, 212
Divisional cavalry, 211
Double time march, 36
Dress, 17, 18
Drills, close order, 63, 88 extended order, 112 rifle, 261-269 value of, 17, 63, 180
Drowning, treatment for, 314-316
Duties of advance and rear guards, 143 of captain in battle, 133 of corporals in battle, 134, 135 of platoon leaders in battle, 134 of reserve officers, 171
Elevation, in rifle drill, 263, 268, 269
Emergency ration, 192
Equipment for first-aid, 309 inspection of, 295, 296 on arrival at camp, 11 on practice marches, 166-168
Estimating distance, 286-291
Estimating the situation, 146, 203, 204
Examination to enter Officers' Reserve Corps, 170, 172
Exercises, preparatory, 23, 27
Extended order drills, 112
Eyes front, 33 right, 33
Facing, company, 105 on skirmish line, 190
Fainting, treatment for, 318
Fall in, 33
Fall out, 32
Feet, care of the, 14, 162
Federal training camps, 10
Field artillery, organization of, 322, 323 exercises, 127 orders, 147, 196-199, 204-206 ration, 192 train, 191
File, in squad, 63 formation from column, 108, 109
File-closer, sergeant as, 111 in close order, 88 position in column of, 102, 107 position in company of, 92, 108 position in company facing of, 105 regulation of intervals by, 111
Filipino ration, 192
Fire attack, 127-129, 246 at will, 211 control, 134 direction, 132-134 discipline, 135 kinds of, 211 superiority in attack, 246 in defense, 252 trenches, 188
Firing, conditions for effective, 131, 132, 134, 207 positions for, 271-275 line, advance of, 148, 245, 246 practice, advice on, 271-282
First-aid packet, 309
Fix bayonet, from order, 58
Flag signals, 299-301
Flank guard, 221 march, 38
Following corporal, 77, 78, 115, 116, 117, 119
Forward march, 35
Fracture, treatment for, 313, 314
Freezing and frost-bite, treatment for, 317, 318
Gallery practice, 155, 270, 328
Garrison ration, 192
Guard duty, 192-194
Guide, distance regulation by, 92, 111 duties of, 106, 107 in column formation, 107 in company assembly, 88, 111 in company facing, 105 in company pivot movements, 91-94, 101 in line or column formation, 101, 106 in skirmish drill, 114-116 in squad movements, 107, 108 of deployed line, 107
Guides, execution of manual arms by, 111 officers as, 106, 110, 111
Habits, 15, 16, 17
Half step march, 36, 37
Halt, 38 during practice marches, 160 in company movement, 97, 99
Hand grenades, 184, 185 salute, 31, 32
Hardships of practice marches, 159
Hasty cover trenches, 188
Heat exhaustion, treatment for, 317
Independent cavalry, 212
Infantry, 182 ammunition for, 191 battalion, organization of, 323 company, organization of, 321 division, composition of, 211
Information concerning enemy, 146, 207, 209, 210, 254
Initiative, value of, 145, 206
Injuries, first-aid treatment for, 310, 311
Inspection arms, from order, 59 in company, 88, 89
Inspection of camp equipment, 296 of outpost, 239, 240 of patrol, 256
Instruction to officers, 172, 173, 176
Intelligence Section, 210
Intervals, in company movements, 93 in skirmish line, 78, 79 in squad, 63, 65, 79, 80 taking, 111
Intrenchments, 187, 251
Kneeling, 80, 81 position for firing, 273
Left shoulder arms, from port, 51, 53
Lieutenant, appointment from Officers' Reserve of, 176 assignments of, 110
Light artillery battalion, organization of, 323
Line formation to front, from column, company, 99, 100 to right, from column, company, 96-9
Line of observation, 140, 236 of out guards, 140 of platoons, from column of squads, 103 from line, 103, 104 of resistance, 140 of reserves, 138, 140
List of Reserve officers, 176, 177
Loading and firing in squad, 81, 82, 83
Lying down, 80
Machine guns, 184, 229, 232
Mail, in camp, 10
Manoeuver maps, 190
Manual of arms, 40, 62
Maps, military use of, 189, 190, 210
March to rear, company, 105
Marches, conditions for successful, 213-215
Marches, practice, 159 see also, Practice marches
Marching rules, 160
Marchings, 35-39 in squad, 68, 77
Mark time, 36
Meeting engagements, 186, 187
Military correspondence, 180-182 information, collection of, 146, 207, 209, 210, 213, 254 maps, 189, 190, 210
Military problems, 199-202 training in colleges, 173-176
Mobile Army, 177, 178
Movements in column, in company, 102-105 in line, in company, 96-100 on pivot, in company, 89-96
Musicians, position in column of, 111
Napoleon as military leader, 199, 201, 206
Nervousness in firing, 153, 157
Night operations, 185, 186 patrol, 236
Non commissioned officers, 106, 110, 111, 179
Observation, line of, 140, 236
Oblique march, 76, 77
Obstacles, removal of, for defense, 151 use of, in defense, 186
Officers, advice to, 216-218 grades and commands of, 179
Officers' Reserve Corps, see also Reserve officers,
Officers' Reserve Corps, eligibility for, 169-172, 175, 176 pay in, 171, 174, 176 purpose of, 169 sections of, 72, 173
Order arms, from inspection, 59 from port, 45 from present, 45 from right shoulder, 50 from trail, 55
Out guards, precautions for, 240 line of, 140, 234, 235 posting of, 240
Outpost, composition of, 232 distance from main body of, 233 distribution of troops of, 232-237 formation of, 138, 237-240 importance of, 187, 221 inspection of, 239, 240 placing of, 138, 141, 234, 239 relieving the, 241 strength of, 140, 231 supports to, 138, 140, 234 orders, 238 reserves, 234 sentinels, 235, 236, 237, 239 sketches, 190
Outposts, inter-communication between, 237
Packs on practice marches, 162, 167
Parade rest, 30 from order, 54
Patrol, 228, 229 combat, 244, 252 duties of, 237, 240, 254 formation for, 257, 258 instructions to, 255, 256 meeting enemy, 258, 259 posting of, 240 preparation for, 256, 257 return of, 259 strength of, 255 cautions, 258, 259 commander of, 255
Pay in Officers' Reserve Corps, 171, 174, 176
Picket sentinel, 240
Pickets, 141, 235 posting of, 240
Platoon columns, advance by, 122, 124 leaders, duties on firing line of, 134
Platoons, assembly of, 120, 121 commands to, 96-100 squads in, 110
Poisoning, treatment for, 318
Port arms, from left shoulder, 54 from order, 43, 44 from present, 45 from right shoulder, 50
Positions for rifle practice, 271-275
Practice marches, camping on, 161, 164, 165, 292 care of feet on, 162-164 equipment for, 166-168 hardships of, 159, 160 value of, 159 water drinking on, 162
Present arms, from order, 41, 42 from port, 45 from right shoulder, 51
Prone position for firing, 274, 275
Property for Reserve officers, 192
Quick time march, 36
Range finders, 151, 289, 290, 291
Rapid fire practice, 157, 158, 279, 280, 328, 329 target, 267
Ration, 191, 192
Reading list for Reserve officers, 195, 196
Rear, march to the, 39
Rear guard, 142, 221 composition of, 229, 230 distance from main force of, 230 distribution of, 230 duties of, 143, 229 strength of, 229 of advancing force, 231
Reconnaissance, 228, 229, 254, 213
Reconnoitering patrols, duties of, 210, 254
Relations between officers and men, 216-218
Reserve officers, see also Officers' Reserve Corps
Reserve officers, active service of, 171 appointment of, 169, 170, 172, 175, 176 department report on, 176, 177 instruction to, 172, 173-175 pay of, 171, 174, 176 promotion of, 171 property of, 192 reading list for, 195, 196 Training Camps, 173-175
Reserve ration, 192
Reserves, during advance, 142 line of, 138, 140 placing of, 239 to support party, 227, 228
Resistance, line of, 140
Rests, 32, 33, 54 during marches, 160, 161
Rifle, care of, 20, 282 control of, 135 data on U. S. Army, 283-285 drills, 261-269 holding, 270, 271 knowledge of, 153, 154 nomenclature of, 261 recoil of, 156, 157 rules for carrying, 60-62 salute, from order, 57 from right shoulder, 55, 56 from trail, 57 sights, 154-156, 261-264 sling of, 276 practice, 271-282
Right dress, 66, 67 face, 34 step march, 37 turn in company movement, 97, 99
Right shoulder arms, from order, 46-49 from port, 50 from present, 51
Road sketches, 190
Roll call in company, 89
Route step, company, 106
Salutes, 31, 32, 56
Saluting, 18, 19, 194, 195 at retreat, 194, 195 colors, 195
Security, during advance, 141 in camp, 137-139 on march, 221-223
Semaphore signals, 301
Sentinel posts, 235, 236
Sentinels, duties of, 193, 194 posting of, 240
Sentry squads, 141, 235
Sergeants in company movements, 88, 89, 111
Shelter, for troops on march, 215 tents, 292
Shoes, walking, 16, 21, 22, 164
Shot, calling, 278
Side step, 37
Sighting, 261-264, 278, 279
Signal Corps code, 299-301
Signals, arm, 302-308 flag, 299-301 general service code for, 297, 298 semaphore, 301
Sitting position for firing, 271, 272
Skirmish drill, base squad in, 112-119 guide in, 114-116 in squad, 78-83 line, advance of, 126, 127 from column, 116-118 from company line, 114-116 on oblique, 120 to the flank, 120 to the rear, 120
Skirmishes in advance, 124
Slow fire practice, 270, 271, 328, 329 targets, 266
Small pox inoculation, 11
Snake bite, treatment for, 318, 319
Squad, alignment of, 66, 67 formation of, 64 assembly of, 75 deploy of, 63 dismissal of, 59, 60 distance in, 64 halt, 69 number of men in, 110 right, 68 right about, 70 right turn, 71, 72 skirmish drill in, 78-83 blanket roll, 168 columns, 124 file, 63 intervals, 63, 65, 79, 80 leaders in company movements, 88 marchings, 68-77
Squads, in column movements, 102-105 in company, 86 commands to, 96-100
Stack arms, 84
Stomach wounds, treatment for, 319
Strategical maps, 190 reconnaissance, 213
Sunstroke, treatment for, 317
Supports, posting of, 239 during advance, 142 in attack, 149 to advance guard, 226, 227 to outposts, 138, 140, 234
Surplus kit bag, 167
Tactical reconnaissance, 213
Take arms, 85
Taking intervals and distances, 111
Target practice, 156, 157, 328, 329
Team work in firing, 133
Tent pitching, 161, 293, 294
Tents, shelter, 292
Term of service for Reserve officers, 170, 171, 175
Tourniquet, use of, 312, 313, 318
Trail arms, from order, 55
Training camps, Federal, 10 Corps for officers, 173-175
Travel ration, 192
Trenches, 151, 187-189, 251 occupation of, 251, 252
Trigger squeeze, 277, 278
Turn on fixed pivot from line, company, 89-93 on moving pivot to change direction, company, 93-96
Turning movement in attack, 243, 244
Typhoid inoculation, 10, 11
Unfix bayonet, from order, 58
Uniforms, 17, 18
U. S. Army, ammunition, data on, 285, 286 organization tables for, 321-323 rifle, data on, 283-285 land forces, 177, 178 military departments, 9, 10, 180, 181, 323, 324, 325
Volley fire, 211
Walking, importance of, 21, 22
War strength tables, 326, 327
Water drinking on practice marches, 162
War game maps, 190
Whistle signals, 121
Windage, 267, 269
Withdrawal from action, 187, 253
Wounds, first-aid treatment for, 310, 311, 319
 These exercises are selected from those commonly given by Major H. J. Koehler, United States Army.
 The line of supports and the line of resistance need not necessarily be the same.
 Some government publications can be obtained at no cost from the Superintendent of Public Documents, Washington, D. C.
[A] Changed "familar" to "familiar".
[B] Changed "gage" to "guage".
[C] Changed "give" to "given".