The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XXXVI, 1649-1666
Author: Various
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[34] Apparently this comparison of financial statements was inserted by Fray Pedro de San Francisco de Assis, the editor of Santa Theresa's work.

[35] Agutaya is the principal island of the northern Cuyos group, and contains a town of the same name.

[36] There are several places of this name in the islands; the reference in the text is probably Taytay, the chief town of northern Palawan.

[37] Baler is capital of the subprovince of Principe, in Luzon; its latitude is 15 deg. 40' 6" North.

[38] The following statement by Dr. David P. Barrows—who is chief of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes, Manila, and is probably our best authority on this subject—presents the latest view regarding the origin of the Filipinos, adopted after much patient and enthusiastic research in that field by him and other American ethnologists. It may be found in the recently-published Census of the Philippine Islands, i, pp. 411-417.

"Ethnologically, no less than geographically, the Philippines belong to the Malay archipelago. With the exception of the aboriginal dwarf blacks, the Negritos, who are still found inhabiting the forests in a great number of localities, all the tribes of the islands, whether Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan, are, in my belief, derived from the Malayan race. We probably have in these tribes two types which represent an earlier and a later wave of immigration; but all came from the south, all speak languages belonging to one common stock, and all are closely related in physical type and qualities of mind. As representative of the first migratory movement may be named the Igorot, the mountain head-hunter of Northern Luzon; and of the latter almost any of the present Christian or Mohammedan tribes. The migratory period of this latter type, which constitutes the great bulk of the present population of the islands, is almost covered by the early historical accounts of the exploration and settlement of the Far East.

"Four hundred years ago, when the Portuguese discoverers and conquerors reached southeastern Asia, they found the long peninsula in which the continent ends, and the islands stretching south and east in this greatest and most famous of archipelagoes, inhabited by a race which called itself Malayu. On the island of Java this race had some ten centuries before been conquered by Brahmin Hindus from India, whose great monuments and temples still exist in the ruins of Boro Budor. Through the influence and power of the Hindus the Malay culture made a considerable advance, and a Sanskrit element, amounting in some cases to twenty per cent of the words, entered the Malayan languages. How far the Hindu actually extended his conquests and settlements is a most interesting study, but can hardly yet be settled. He may have colonized the shores of Manila Bay and the coast of Luzon, where the names of numerous ancient places show a Sanskrit origin. The Sanskrit element is most pronounced in the Tagalog and Moro tongues. (Pardo de Tavera, El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagala.)

"Following the Hindus into the Malay archipelago came the Arabs. They came first as voyagers and merchants, and here as always the Arab was a proselyter, and his faith spread rapidly. Long before the Portuguese arrival Islamism had succeeded Brahminism and the Arab had supplanted the Hindu.... Mohammedanism gradually made its way until, on the arrival of the Europeans, its frontiers were almost the same as those of the Malay race itself.

"The people who carried this faith, and who still rank as the type of the race, were the seafaring population, living in boats as well us on the shore, who control the islands of the straits between Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and Borneo. These people received from the Portuguese the name of Cellates, a corruption of Orang Salat (Sea Folk). Under the influence of Mohammedanism this race, which seems to have originated in Sumatra, improved in culture, formed many settlements and principalities, and because of their seagoing habits, their enjoyment of trade, and their lust for piracy, carried their name (Malayu), their language, and their adopted Mohammedan religion throughout the Malay archipelago. Probably as early as 1300 these adventurers established a colony on northwest Borneo, opposite the island of Labuan, which colony received the name of Brunei, from which has been derived the name of the whole island, Borneo. The island was already inhabited by Malayan tribes of more primitive culture, of which the Dyak is the best known. From this settlement of Borneo the Mohammedanized Malay extended his influence and his settlements to the Sulu archipelago, to Mindanao, to Mindoro, and to Manila Bay." The people of Suluan, whom Magellan encountered near Samar, "were almost certainly of the same stock from which the present great Visayan people are in the main descended. Many things incline me to believe that these natives had come, in successively extending settlements, up the west coast of Mindanao from the Sulu archipelago.... To the present day the physical type and the language, persisting unchanged in spite of changes of culture, closely relate the Visayan to the Moro. In addition to these arrivals from the archipelago of Sulu there was probably a more primitive Malayan population, whom the later arrivals already had more or less in subjection, as the Moros even now control the pagans on the mainland of Mindanao.... Thus we may infer that at the time of the discovery there were on these central islands of the archipelago, a primitive, tattooed Malayan people, related on the one hand to the still primitive and pagan tribes of the Philippines, and on the other hand to the wild head-hunting tribes of Borneo; and in addition intruding and dominating later arrivals, who were the seafaring Malays."

Interesting in this connection is the following remark on the Negritos by Taw Sein Ko, in his "Origin of the Burmese Race," published in the magazine Buddhism, (Rangoon, Burma), in March, 1904: "There remains the question as to the autochthonous races which were displaced by the Burmese, Talaings, Shans, Chins, and Karens in Burma. Before the advent of these nations, the Negrito race appears to have occupied southeastern Asia, including Burma. Remnants of it are still found in the Andaman Islands, Philippines, Borneo, and Malaya."

[39] Apparently a reference to Manuel Estacio Venegas, a favorite of Fajardo's, whose downfall Letona relates in sect. 59.

[40] Vascongado: a term applied to the people or products of the Spanish provinces of Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya (or Biscay).

[41] A phonetic rendering of one of the numerous names of a noted Chinese corsair—generally known as Kue-sing or Ko-xinga; La Concepcion also gives, as his original Chinese name, Tching-tching-cong, and Coseng and Punpuan (in Diaz, Cogsin and Pompoan) as other appellations. He also says that Kue-sing (the name meaning "adopted son of a king") was adopted by the emperor Congun, who had no sons. The accounts of various writers do not agree regarding the early history of this adventurer; but that given by our text is apparently corroborated by other accounts of Kue-sing's achievements and exploits during his later years. Detailed relations of his career, and of his attempt upon the Philippines, may be found in Diaz's Conquistas, pp. 461, 551-555, 616-637; Santa Cruz's Hist. de Filipinas, pp. 271-278, etc.; Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 270b-275; La Concepcion's Hist. de Philipinas, vi, pp. 345 (sc. 355)-359, and vii, pp. 38-56; Ferrando's Hist. PP. Dominicos, iii, pp. 12-17, 29-41, 47-67, 78-98; Montero y Vidal's Hist. de Filipinas, i, pp. 313-322, 329. Ferrando calls Kue-sing the "Attila of the East."

[42] Vittorio Ricci (Spanish Riccio) was a relative of the noted Jesuit, Mateo Ricci. He made profession as a Dominican in 1635, and was a student and afterward a teacher in the Dominican college at Rome. Meeting there (1643) the noted Fray J. B. Morales, Ricci decided to return with him to the East, and arrived at Manila in 1648. There he ministered to the Chinese for seven years, when he was sent to the China mission. He was much favored by the noted Kue-sing (or Ko-xinga), who obliged him to become his ambassador to Manila (1662). Returning to China, Ricci found that Kue-sing was dead, and persuaded the latter's officers that it was to their interest to maintain peace and commerce with the Spaniards—for which purpose they sent him again to Manila, as here narrated. In 1664 a persecution arose in China, and the missionaries were summoned to Peking. Fearing to obey, as he had been on Kue-sing's side, Ricci fled to Formosa, and afterward (March, 1666) returned to Manila—where he was imprisoned for some time. Afterward he held various important offices in his order, and aided in the compilation of Santa Cruz's continuation of Aduarte's history. He died at the Parian, February 17, 1685. See Resena biografica, ii, pp. 461-464.

[43] The letter of Kue-sing, and the governor's reply, may be found in Diaz's Conquistas, pp. 625, 626, 629-631; and Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 271, 274.

[44] The order to abandon Zamboanga arrived there on June 19, 1662; but this was not accomplished until April, 1663. The commandant of this fort at that time was Fernando de Bobadilla. Paquian Bactial, king of Jolo, as soon as he heard of the proposed abandonment, plotted to kill all the Spaniards in Zamboanga, and make it his own capital; he asked Corralat to aid in this enterprise, but the latter refused to break his peace with the Spaniards. Royal decrees at various times ordered that fort to be again occupied; but this was not done until 1718, under the rule of Governor Bustamente. (See Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 275, 276.)

[45] Probably thus named from the tree called talisay (Terminalia catappa), as perhaps constructed from its wood. Its bark is used for dyeing; and its seeds are edible, resembling almonds. See Blanco's Flora (ed. 1845), p. 264; and Official Handbook of Philippines, pp. 309, 356.

[46] Referring to the Dominican Riccio, who with the title of mandarin had brought Kue-sing's message.

[47] "From the cattle-herds on the ranches, and other men who were skilful in managing horses, he formed a cavalry troop of 400 men, in command of Don Francisco de Figueroa" (Murillo Velarde, Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 273).

[48] Jose de Madrid, a native of Cebu, was a student and later a teacher, in the college of Santo Tomas at Manila, having entered the Dominican order in 1646. He went to China, but, fearing to lose his life, returned to Manila, only to die, as here related, at the hands of the Chinese (May 25, 1662).

[49] These were Malays who had accompanied the Spaniards from Ternate, where they formed a village, their name meaning "free people" (Pastells's ed. of Colin's Labor evangelica, iii, pp. 266, 812). La Concepcion (Hist. de Philipinas, vii, p. 102) says: "Under this name [i.e., Mardicas, or Merdicas] are included natives of Ternate, Tidore, and Siao; of Manados, Cauripa, Celebes, and Macasar. They were allotted a dwelling-place at Marigondon, on the great bay of Manila ... and theirs is the island of Corregidor, from which they give warning of the ships that they descry, by signal-fires." He says that they speak three languages—Spanish, Tagalog, and their own dialect; and "regard themselves as the spiritual sons of St. Francis Xavier, to whom they are singularly devoted—a feeling inspired by their forefathers, who had known him and witnessed his marvelous works." Ferrando says (Hist. PP. Dominicos, iii, p. 94) that these people have preserved their own dialect, usages, and customs; and up to recent times had not intermarried with the Filipinos of neighboring villages.

[50] La Estacada (literally "the stockade") was on the same side of the Pasig River as Binondoc, but separated from that village by the little estuary which leads to the village of Tondo. See Munoz's map of Manila and its suburbs (1671) in Pastells's edition of Colin's Labor evangelica, iii, p. 824; this map will be reproduced in the present series.

[51] Spanish falsabraga: "a parapet constructed at a lower elevation than the main parapet, and between the parapet and the edge of the ditch. It was used only in permanent fortification, and has long been obsolete;" see Wilhelm's Military Dictionary (Phila., 1881), p. 158.

[52] Cf. with this description the fortifications indicated on Munoz's map, mentioned ante, p. 243, note 50.

In order to prevent the enemy from fortifying large buildings outside the walls, "orders were issued to demolish the churches of Santiago, Bagumbaya, Hermita, Malate, Paranaque, Dilao, San Lazaro, the Parian, and Santa Cruz—besides various country houses which the Spaniards own in those environs." (Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 272.)

[53] This son was called Kin-sie, also known as Tching King-may and Sipuan; La Concepcion says (vii, p. 55) that he, "who had been reared in the study, among books, did nothing to cultivate the country which his father had acquired with so many dangers and fatigues, and the troops therefore became, in his service, lax and cowardly."

[54] The references in this document to the rulers of China can hardly be satisfactorily identified; the various names given to the same person, the conflicting claims of various usurpers or temporary rulers, and the struggle between the dying Ming dynasty and the Manchu conquerors, cause great confusion and uncertainty in the history of that period. The actual ruler of China was then the Manchu Chuntche (1646-61); he was succeeded by his second son, Kanghi.

[55] Nanking was, under some early Chinese dynasties, the capital of the empire. This name signifies merely "Southern Court;" the proper appellation of the city is Kianningfu. Odoric of Pordenone, who visited it near the year 1325, says that its walls had a circuit of forty miles, and in it were three hundred and sixty stone bridges, the finest in the world (Yule's Cathay, i, pp. 120, 121).

[56] This was Hia-mun, or Emuy (known by the English as Amoy); it lies off the province of Fuh-kien, at the mouth of the Lung-kiang ("Dragon") River. On it lies the city of Amoy, a large and important commercial port; it has one of the best harbors on the coast. (Williams's Middle Kingdom, i, pp. 114, 115.)

[57] Diaz relates this (Conquistas, p. 619) in greater detail. "The Tartar [i.e., Chuntche], seeing himself reduced to so great straits ... resolved to command that all the [inhabited places on the] maritime coasts should be laid waste and dismantled, for a distance of three or four leguas inland, throughout the more than eight hundred leguas of coasts which that empire possesses. This, to the great injury of the empire, left demolished and razed to the ground innumerable settlements and cities, enough to compose several kingdoms. This was the greatest conflagration and havoc that the world has seen, ... and only populous China could be the fit theater for such a tragedy, and only the cruel barbarity of the Tartars [could make them the] inventors and executors of such destruction. The upheaval which the execution of this so unexampled cruelty caused cannot be described; the loss of property is incalculable; and human thought cannot conceive the horror produced by the sight of so many thousands of towns and cities burning. At last this general conflagration was completed, the fire lasting many days—the clouds of smoke reaching as far as Hia-muen, more than twenty leguas, and the sun not being visible in all that broad expanse. Stations were established at suitable distances for easily rendering aid, well garrisoned with soldiers; and watch-towers were erected a legua apart, to keep a lookout over the sea-coasts. A public proclamation forbade any person to pass the bounds assigned, four leguas distant from the seashore. With these precautions, if Kue-sing's ships landed there, a great number of soldiers were quickly assembled to dispute his entrance into the country—thus keeping within bounds Kue-sing, who now did not encounter sleeping men."

[58] Referring to the bay whereon was situated the chief settlement and fort of the Dutch in Formosa, that of Tai-wan, in the southwestern part of the island.

[59] Apparently referring to the usual despatch of several copies of a letter, to ensure its safe receipt. The form of this summary would indicate that it is made by Ventura del Arco; and it is followed by a tracing of Salcedo's autograph.

[60] Either this date or the date 1665 (see post, p. 266) is doubtless a transcriber's error.

[61] I Corinthians, vii, 20.

[62] Alcalde de monterilla: An ironical and descriptive qualification of petty judges (Dominguez's Diccionario).

[63] As appears from a note by Mas, the alcaldes paid a certain sum for the privilege of trading. Their salaries in 1840 were variously for the sums of 300, 600, and 1,000 (one instance) pesos. The trading privilege cost from 40 to 300 pesos.

[64] This is the famous philosophical treatise on political science, which was published by Charles de Secondat, baron de la Brede de Montesquieu, in 1748, and was the product of twenty years' work.

[65] Jeremy Bentham, the English jurist and philosopher who lived in the years 1748-1832.

[66] Probably referring to La scienza della legislazione of Gaetano Filangieri, the Italian jurist, who lived 1752-88. He was influenced somewhat by Montesquieu.

[67] i.e., Of the Leyes de Indias.


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