The Conde de Olivares agreed to all that has been said; and he thinks it well that the ship which the report mentions should be sent at once to Nueva Espana, informing the Marques de Montesclaros of the importance of the expedition, and ordering him to supply Don Pedro de Cuniga [sic] with all that he needs for the proper execution of it, in such manner that he shall have no excuse for evading such requisition. He also would command the archbishop and the Audiencia not to meddle in matters of war, and to order Don Pedro to keep the friendship and good understanding which he has with the king of Japon, and to hang all the rebels that he shall capture. Your Majesty will ordain, in all matters, what shall be most to your service.
Decree Establishing a Way-Station for Philippine Vessels on the California Coast
The King: To Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the Order of St. John, my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia therein: You have already heard that Don Luis de Velasco, former viceroy of Nueva Espana—in view of the long navigation from the port of Acapulco to those islands, and the great hardship and danger of navigation in that voyage because of having no station wherein to repair the ships, and to supply them with water, wood, masts, and other requisite and necessary things—determined to explore and mark out the ports of the coasts from the said Nueva Espana to those islands. He ordered that this effort should be made by a vessel called "San Agustin;" but, as that vessel was lost, the said exploration was not then effected. You know that afterward the Conde de Monterrei, who succeeded him in that government, finding the same inconveniences in the said navigation, and thinking it advantageous to remedy them by making anew the exploration that Don Luis de Velasco had attempted, wrote me in regard to it. He said that, in his opinion, it could be made by small vessels sailing from the port of Acapulco; and that the reconnoitering of the coasts and ports of the bay of the Californias might be included in it, as well as the fisheries. In reply I ordered, on the twenty-seventh of September of five hundred and ninety-nine, that letters be written to him in my name that I considered the demarcation and exploration of that coast and its ports very desirable, and that he should accordingly set about it immediately; but advising him not to undertake the exploration of the Californias except in passing. In pursuance thereof, I appointed Sebastian Vizcayno for that purpose as he was a man experienced in maritime matters, and careful and skilled in those of that route, and as he was one with whom I was thoroughly satisfied. Having given him for the voyage two vessels, a lancha and a barcoluengo,  with the sailors and soldiers, ammunition and provisions, necessary for a year, and a cosmographer, skilful and versed in geometrical tables, in order that he might very minutely and accurately place and set down what should be discovered on a map and chart. After having received his orders and instructions, he set sail on the fifth of May, in the year 602, from the port of Acapulco to make the above mentioned exploration; as I was advised by the said Conde de Monterrei and Sebastian Vizcaino.  These afterward wrote me by several letters (the most recent of which were dated on the last of April, 604) that Sebastian Vizcaino spent eleven months in that voyage; and that he began, from the same port, to delineate and sound the coast, ports, bays, and indentations up to the thirty-seventh degree, with all the precision and exactness needful and required; and that from the thirty-seventh degree to the forty-second he accomplished nothing beyond sighting the land. He had been unable to take so particular care there as he had done up to the thirty-seventh degree, because many of the crew fell sick, and the weather there was very contrary. He said that that whole coast, as far as the fortieth degree, extends northwest and southeast; that the other two degrees remaining in the forty-two degrees extend practically north and south; and that from the mouth of the Californias up to the thirty-seventh degree, he found three very excellent ports on the mainland—namely, San Diego in thirty-three degrees, and the second, of less excellence, near it. That of San Diego is very large and capable of holding many vessels; and it has water and wood. The third is better and more suitable for the Chinese vessels, and as a station for the ships of the line from those islands. It is called Monterrei, and lies in thirty-seven degrees. It has water and wood, better and in greater quantity than the other port. It is excellently sheltered from all winds, and abounds in pines along the coast, of whatever size one may wish, for use us masts. That port is very suitable so that the vessels on returning from those Filipinas Islands may go there without there being any necessity of going to Japon by reason of storms, as vessels have done several times, losing thereby a very great amount of property. The vessels from China generally run along in sight of this place, for which purpose it is also very suitable. For, if that port be known, then vessels will not port until reaching it, when necessity would otherwise compel them to go to Japon and to those islands, since the work and trouble necessary to reach those places would take them to the said port. Besides, they report that the country is of a mild climate and very fertile (as is seen by its numerous trees), and very thickly inhabited with people of very mild and docile disposition, and whose reduction to the holy gospel and to my royal crown will be very easy. It maintains itself, and the food is of many different kinds of grain and of flesh of game, with which the country is exceedingly well supplied. The dress of the Indians of the coast is made of the skins of sea-wolves, which the Indians tan and dress very well. They have abundance of thread made from Castilian flax, hemp, and cotton. By these Indians and by many others whom the said Sebastian Vizcaino discovered along the coast in the more than eight hundred leguas of his voyage, he was everywhere informed that there were great settlements inland, and silver and gold. This is considered to be true, because veins of metals were discovered in some parts of the mountains of the mainland. If the seasons of the summer were known, one could enter the interior through this place and locate those metals, for it promises great wealth. Also the rest of the coast might be explored from that port, for it extends past the forty-second degree where the said Sebastian Vizcayno went, and which was named as his limit in his instructions. The coast extends even to Japon and the Chinese coast. He said that he could not enter the mouth of the [gulf of the] Californias, on his return and while passing, as I had sent him orders, because many of his crew had fallen ill and were dying rapidly, and because his provisions had suddenly become bad, which obliged him to hasten his return. After examination of this in my royal Council of the Indias, together with the surveys and relations that were sent with the description of each port, singly, of those discovered by the said Sebastian Vizcaino, and after having listened to the cosmographer Andres Garcia de Cespedes, they advised me; and after considering the great importance, for the safety and security of the ships coming from those islands—a navigation of more than two thousand leguas of open water—of their having a port on the voyage, wherein to be repaired and to take in water, wood, and provisions, and that the said port of Monterrei, lying on the thirty-seventh degree, will be a half-way station, and that it has all the good qualities that may be desired, I have deemed it advisable that all the vessels from those islands, since they approach that coast, shall enter that port, and there be repaired and reprovisioned. In order to initiate this and establish it as a fixed and well-known practice, I have ordered Marques de Montesclaros,  my present viceroy of the said provinces of Nueva Espana, by another decree of the date of this present, to have the said Sebastian Vizcaino, if now alive, sought with all care and diligence, since he has made the said exploration, and has coasted from Acapulco to Cape Mendocino; and, as soon as he shall have been found, to order him to go to those islands. Sebastian Vizcaino is to take with him his own chief pilot, or the chief pilot of the admiral; and in order that his voyage may have the effect intended, and be accomplished with all possible promptness, as is desirable, I have ordered the said marques to despatch the ships that are to sail to those islands in the coming year, 607. He shall despatch them in the usual manner, and as has been done hitherto, as you probably can not have any vessels constructed there of the two hundred tons capacity which is necessary for the trade, in accordance with the new decree that I had issued in this regard, because of the short time since it was given. The marques is to appoint the said Sebastian Vizcayno commander of the said fleet; and, as his admiral, the one whom he had in the discovery of the said port —if both are living. If either of them is dead, then he shall send as commander the one of them still living. As chief pilot, he shall send the said Sebastian Vizcayno's pilot or that of his admiral, so that, having the vessels in charge on the return voyage, they may ascertain in what manner the said port of Monterrey can be colonized and made permanent; and can show its bay, and the manner of making that navigation,  to the pilots and crews of the said vessels, and especially to two men whom I order you to send with the said commander Sebastian Vizcayno from those islands. These men are to be possessed of all the good qualities, knowledge, and experience necessary, so that they may reconnoiter the said port, and may be given commands as commander and admiral of the vessels that are to sail from Acapulco to those islands in the year 608, since the said Sebastian Vizcayno has to go to colonize the said port. It is my will that these two men and the said Sebastian Vizcayno and his admiral—and I shall consider myself as served if you favor and honor them in every way possible—have and be paid the usual salary that the other commanders and admirals of the said line have had; and that it be paid to the former in the same form and manner as it is paid to the latter. In order that all the above commands may have the end and effect intended, as is necessary, I strictly charge you that you assist on your part, in whatever pertains to you, with the care and diligence that I expect from your prudence and great zeal; and you shall advise me of what is done, so that I may have full information thereof. Given in San Lorenzo el Real, August 19, 1606.
I The King
Countersigned by Juan de Sivicay; signed by the members of the Council.
Chinese Immigration in the Philippines
Official report of the ships from China which came this year 1606 and of the men in them.
I, Pedro Munoz de Herrera, official receiver of testimony for the royal Audiencia and Chancilleria of these Philipinas Islands, and notary of the commission on the Sangleys, give my certificate and testimony, based upon a memorandum of the inspection of the ships which have come this year from China to this city, made before me, the said notary, and the ensign Pedro Gra. Prieto, deputy of the said commission, as to the number of the ships which have come, and the men in them, in the form and manner following:
The ship of Captain Pinyon brought three hundred and twenty-two Sangleys 322 The ship of Captains Bincan and Quinten brought two hundred and ninety-four 294 The ship of Captain Yantin brought three hundred and forty-five 345 The ship of Captain Onsan brought three hundred Sangleys 300 The ship of Captain Sanagu brought three hundred and twenty-four 324 The ship of Captain Cuheran brought two hundred and eighty-four 284 The ship of Captain Selhuan brought three hundred and sixty-seven 367 The ship of Captain Nohu brought two hundred and forty Sangleys 240 The ship of Captain Sousan brought four hundred and twenty-three Sangleys 423 The ship of Captain Guarquico brought three hundred and twenty-three Sangleys 323 The ship of Captain Unican brought two hundred and thirty Sangleys 230 The ship of Captain Ay Pagu brought two hundred and four Sangleys 204 The ship of Captain Onray brought two hundred and sixty-five 265 The ship of Captain Cime two hundred and fifty 250 The ship of Captain Yansan two hundred and ten 210 The ship of Captain Ciggan one hundred and forty-one Sangleys 141 The ship of Captain Zuan one hundred and sixty-three Sangleys 163 The ship of Captain Ciray four hundred and ninety-two Sangleys 492 The ship of Captain Ciquey brought two hundred and sixty-one Sangleys 261 The ship of Captain Tzutian brought one hundred and sixty-three 163 The ship of Captain Tongon two hundred and fifty-nine 259 The ship of Captain Tzontzan two hundred and twenty Sangleys 220 The ship of Captain Bican brought seventy-five Sangleys 75 The ship of Captain Buyan brought three hundred and one Sangleys 301 The ship of Captain Licbeu brought seventy-seven Sangleys 77 2,011 
as appears and is stated at greater length in the said memorandum of inspection, to which I refer. That the same might be officially verified, at the request of his Majesty's fiscal the royal Audiencia, and at the direction of the president and auditors thereof, I have made this report, Manila, July 4, 1606, before Geronimo de Peralta and Miguel de Vemaga as witnesses.
In witness of the accuracy hereof:
Pedro Munoz de Herrera, notary and official receiver of testimony.
Felipe III to Pedro de Acuna
Don Pedro de Acuna, my governor and captain-general of the Philipinas Islands: I received your letter of July 10 of last year, in which you inform me of the coming to these realms of some religious, among them Hernando de los Rios Coronel and Fray Pedro de San Francisco and others, who are acquainted with many details and circumstances of the uprising of the Sangleys in the year 1603. From them, as you suggest, I can command full information to be given me concerning the whole matter, since they are persons of approved reputation and entitled to credit. I am pleased that you have sent me this information, since in due time I shall command the proper proceedings to be taken with reference to these persons. Ventosilla, November 4, 1606.
I The King Certified to by Juan de Civica, and signed by the Council.
Don Pedro de Acuna, my governor and captain-general of the Philipinas Islands and president of my royal Audiencia thereof: By various letters and reports which have been received in my royal Council of the Yndias, I have learned that there have entered and are living in the city of Manila three or four thousand Sangleys. It has seemed to me that although, for the convenience of supplying necessary things for the country, it is well that as many should remain as are needed, still the most careful attention must be given to the evil results which have previously been perceived, and to the very great injuries which have followed from the permission that so many should enter and remain in the country. I accordingly charge you that you pay heed to this matter, and that you permit to remain no more than are absolutely necessary, having respect to no other consideration; since nothing can be so profitable as to compensate for the damage which may follow from the contrary course. Bentosilla, November 4, 1606.
I The King Certified to by Juan de Civica, and signed by the members of the Council.
Letter from Felipe III to Acuna
The King: To Don Pedro de Acuna, my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia there. Your letter of the fifteenth of July of 604, which is in reply to and in satisfaction of some points in another of mine dated the sixteenth of February of 602, has been received and considered in my royal Council of the Indias. I am glad to see the care with which you say that you are trying to avoid all the expenses that are possible to my royal exchequer; and, since all your care is necessary on account of the present and future occasions for necessary expense in those islands, I charge you to keep before you what I entrust to you.
I was also pleased to hear of the importance of the voyage of Francisco Rodriguez de Avila and his men to the island of Camar, in order to pacify the natives for the harm which they received from the people of Mindanao, and to defend them if they should come again; and the care which you took in this matter and in all the rest which you advised concerning this uprising in Mindanao. I thank you, and charge you that, on occasions which may arise in the future, you do the same.
You say that you have consulted with the Audiencia there, and with the archbishop and the religious, to see if it is proper that the Indians pay their tributes, or part of them, in kind; and that you would try to have them reach a decision, in order that you may inform me of it on the earliest occasion. I charge you to do so, fulfilling what I have commanded you in regard to this matter.
You have done well, during your administration, in not paying false musters, as you informed me; and in not allowing gratuities or salaries to be paid to the captains, ensigns and other war officers who were appointed by Don Francisco Tello, your predecessor, for the people of the villages.
I have seen what you say concerning the lading and despatching of vessels for Nueva Espana and the care which you take that in this matter, and in the allotment of the amount allowed [by law] there should be the equity, accurate account, and method which is proper; and although I am satisfied with this, nevertheless I have thought it well to charge you, as I do charge you now, that you should use the greatest care in this matter, informing me of all that occurs; and I am grateful for the matters which are in your care.
You have done well in ordering my royal officials not to give wine at the expense of my royal exchequer for celebrating mass in the encomiendas of private persons, but rather to oblige the encomenderos themselves to provide it; and you will try to have them do so, since it is just that this should be at their expense and to their account.
You say that you did not find sufficient evidence that there were illegal methods in the election of the twelve regidors that are in that city, and that you feared that, if you investigated the matter, there would have arisen uneasiness which might have been followed by trouble, and so you resolved to let it be; and also because, as they are being vacated, the four offices can be done away with which are in excess of the number which I have ordered that there should be. As it has appeared that this was a good decision, I have chosen to refer to you what concerns this particular case, in order that you may do what seems best to you—provided, as I have said, that you observe and fulfil what I have commanded, whenever occasion arises.
Regarding what you said, that it did not seem best to you that an auditor should go to visit the country, for the reasons and causes which you mentioned, you will try to see that what has been provided for in regard to this be followed and executed.
I have seen the trouble which has been caused you in carrying out the order that no more money should be taken to those islands than that which is allowed, although you promptly executed the order; and all that you say in regard to its being better not to press this matter very much for the present, not only for the population of this land, which is of so much importance, but also for the increase of trade. Nevertheless it has seemed best to me to command you to follow what I have ordered, without deviating from it in any way.
I have seen what you say regarding the business of the three royal officials of those islands, and that the office of treasurer cannot be dispensed with because it is so necessary on this account; all that you have told me in this regard is satisfactory to me, and I am informed in regard to it. You will inform me (if, as you say, you have not done so), of anything that you may observe in regard to the persons whom my aforesaid royal officials are stationing in the warehouses, according to what I have commanded you.
I have been pleased to hear of the improvement in the orders regarding the good treatment of the natives, and the very great care which you exercise in looking after them, and in seeing that they be relieved from all hardships which can be avoided; and I command you to continue to do so. I charge you also not to relax in the efforts which you say that you are making that the work on the great church may be urged on; and that you gather materials and begin to rebuild the hospital for the Spaniards, which was burned in the fire in the year 1603—although difficulties will not fail to arise therein, in accordance with the poverty which you say exists in that country.
I thank you for the care which you have taken of the seminary of Santa Potenciana, and that its inmates should live in due seclusion; and I have been pleased to hear that you should make efforts to have me send orders to the viceroy of Nueva Espana to send some religious women thither for the improvement of the seminary.
It will be well if you have my royal arms placed on the houses of the cabildo of that city, as you say that you will do. Ventosilla, November 4, 1606.
I The King By order of the king our sovereign: Juan de Ziviza
DOCUMENTS OF 1607
Petition for a grant to the Jesuit seminary in Leyte. January 18. Artillery at Manila in 1607. Alonso de Biebengud; July 6. Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III, on the Confraternity of La Misericordia. Pedro Hurtado de Esquivel; July 11. Trade of the Philippines with Mexico. December 18. Passage of missionaries via the Philippines to Japan. Conde de Lemos, and others; 1606-07.
Sources: The first three of these documents are obtained from the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla; the last two, from the Archivo general at Simancas.
Translations: The first document, and the third paper in the fifth, are translated by James A. Robertson; the second and third, by Henry B. Lathrop, of the University of Wisconsin; the second paper of the fifth, by Norman F. Hall, of Harvard University; the remainder, by Robert W. Haight.
Petition for Grant to the Jesuit Seminary in Leyte
The religious of the Society of Jesus of the Philipinas Islands, considering that that country was so new, and that it was advisable that the Indians be reared from its beginning in good customs and Christian civilization, founded a seminary in the island of Leyte, located in the province of Pintados. There they instruct the native children of the island in good customs and in the matters of our holy Catholic faith, and teach them to speak Spanish, and other things which conduce to virtue. Inasmuch as the governor of the said islands was made cognizant of the above, he ordered in the year 601 that one hundred pesos of common gold and two hundred fanegas of unwinnowed rice be given the said religious annually for four years, for the support of the said seminary, to be taken from the fund of the fourths [i.e., fourths of the tributes] of the city of Manila—provided that the Jesuits could obtain a decree in which your Majesty should give your consent to this grant. On behalf of the said religious it has been represented that excellent results have been attained from the foundation of the said seminary, which still continue; and that it is advisable that it be maintained. They entreat your Majesty to consider the matter, and have the above-mentioned gift approved, and the said alms continued to them for ten years more; for otherwise it cannot take effect. Having examined this in the Council, we think that, because of the great need for the said seminary in that country, the provision of the governor for a grant to them for four years may be confirmed; and, in order that the seminary be preserved and continued, that the concession of the said one hundred pesos of common gold and the two hundred fanegas of rice, taken from the fund of the fourths, may be made for ten years more, as they petition. The governor should be ordered to have it all very carefully distributed for the said purpose, and give advice thereof. Your Majesty will order as suits your pleasure. Madrid, January 18, 1607.
[Four signatures follow.]
Artillery at Manila in 1607
Memorandum of All the Artillery in the Fortifications of Manila, June 20, 1607
Fort of Santiago
One half-culverin, old casting of Manila, choke-bored, caliber fourteen libras, twenty calibers in length.
One full-sized saker of the same casting, caliber ten libras, length thirteen calibers.
Another of the same casting, a paterero,  caliber eleven libras, length fourteen calibers.
Another paterero of the same casting, caliber ten libras, and thirteen calibers in length.
Two bastards, casting Mexican—one of twenty-seven calibers, and the other choke-bored—of twenty-four calibers, caliber ten libras.
One saker, old Manila casting, caliber six libras, length thirty calibers.
One culverin, caliber nineteen libras, old Manila casting, choke-bored, twenty-nine calibers in length.
One demi-saker, Mexican casting, caliber three and a half libras, length thirty-two calibers.
One bastard saker, Genoese casting, caliber six libras, length twenty-four calibers.
One paterero, Portuguese casting, caliber eleven libras, length fourteen calibers.
One demi-saker, cast in Piru, caliber three and a half libras, length twenty-nine calibers.
One saker, caliber six libras, cast in Flandes, thirty calibers in length.
Another saker, cast in Mexico, caliber six libras, thirty-four calibers in length.
One paterero, old Manila casting, caliber eight libras, length fourteen diameters.
Another similar paterero.
Two catapults, new Manila casting, caliber twenty libras.
One paterero of the same casting, caliber fifteen libras, length fourteen diameters.
One saker, cast in Mexico, caliber five and a half libras, length thirty calibers.
One cannon, old Manila casting, caliber thirty-seven libras, length twenty calibers.
One demi-saker, cast in Flandes, caliber four libras, length thirty calibers.
One demi-saker, cast in Flandes, caliber four libras, length thirty calibers.
One demi-saker, cast in Piru, caliber three libras and a half, length twenty-nine calibers.
One demi-saker, old Manila casting, caliber four libras, length thirty-one diameters.
One paterero, cast in Portugal, caliber thirty-one libras, fourteen calibers in length.
In all, there are in the said fort twenty-six pieces.
Breastwork of S. Gabriel in Parian of the Sangleys
One paterero of Portuguese casting, caliber fourteen libras, length thirteen calibers.
One demi-cannon cast in Manila, old style, caliber sixteen libras, length twenty-two calibers.
One passe-volante, cast in Flandes, caliber five libras, length four calibers.
One paterero, cast in Manila, caliber thirteen libras, length thirteen calibers.
One demi-saker, old Manila casting, caliber three and a half libras, length thirty-two calibers.
One saker cast in Mexico, caliber five libras, length thirty calibers.
In the said breastwork there are six pieces.
Breastwork of Dilao
One demi-saker of three libras caliber, old casting of Manila, length thirty-three calibers.
One saker, old casting of Manila, caliber seven libras, length twenty-nine calibers.
Another saker, cast in Mexico, caliber one libra, length thirty-two calibers.
One paterero, cast in Portugal, caliber thirteen libras, length thirteen calibers.
In the said breastwork there are four pieces.
Breastwork of S. Andres near the Foundry
Two patereroes, new casting of Manila, caliber eight libras, length thirteen calibers.
One demi-saker of the same casting, caliber three and a half libras, length thirty diameters.
Another demi-saker, old casting of Manila, caliber three and a half libras, length thirty calibers.
One passavolante [i.e., small culverin], cast in Flandes, caliber five libras, length forty calibers.
One saker, cast in Mexico, caliber seven libras, length twenty-eight calibers.
In the said fort there are six pieces.
Breastwork of S. Pedro near the New Port
One saker cast in Mexico, caliber five libras, length thirty-two calibers.
One demi-saker cast in Manila by Sangleys, caliber three libras, length thirty calibers.
Two patereroes, new casting of Manila, caliber eight libras, length thirteen calibers.
One demi-saker, new casting of Manila, caliber three and a half libras, length thirty-one calibers.
One demi-saker of the same casting, caliber two libras, length thirty diameters.
In the said fort are six pieces.
Fort of Nuestra Senora de Guia
One demi-cannon, old casting of Manila, caliber sixteen libras, length twenty-two calibers.
Two sakers, old casting of Manila, caliber six libras, length twenty-eight calibers.
One paterero of the same casting, caliber twelve libras, length eleven calibers.
Another paterero, new casting of Manila, caliber eight libras, length thirteen diameters.
One bell-mouthed piece, caliber six libras, length twelve calibers.
One demi-cannon, old casting of Manila, caliber sixteen libras, length twenty-two calibers.
In the said fort there are seven pieces.
Curtain on the Water-front
One paterero, new casting of Manila, caliber eight libras, length thirteen calibers, in front of the palace.
One saker, cast in Mexico, caliber six libras, length thirty-one calibers, in the middle of the curtain.
There are on the water-front two pieces.
Plaza de Armas
One demi-saker, cast in Acapulco, caliber three libras, length thirty calibers.
One saker, cast in Acapulco, caliber three libras, length thirty calibers.
One saker, cast in Yngalaterra, caliber eight libras, length twenty-eight calibers.
One demi-saker cast in Flandes, caliber four libras, length thirty calibers.
Another demi-saker, of the same casting and the same style.
Another demi-saker, old casting of Manila, caliber four libras, length twenty-eight calibers.
Another demi-saker of the same casting, caliber four libras, length thirty calibers.
There are in the said plaza six pieces.
There are two sakers which came from Terrenate—one cast in Manila, caliber six libras; and the other in Flandes, caliber seven libras.
There are also four falcons, large patereroes, which were brought in the said ship.
In the magazines there are two or three falcon patereroes.
Flag-Ship of the Galleys
One piece, one-third cannon caliber, cast in Acapulco, caliber eleven libras, length twenty-two calibers.
Two small culverins [moyanas]—cast one in Ynglaterra, caliber three libras; the other in Manila, caliber two libras.
Four catapults, two discharging stone balls of twenty-five libras, and the other two of thirteen libras, new casting of Manila.
On the said galley there are seven pieces.
Second Galley, "San Lorenco"
One piece, one-third cannon caliber, cast in Acapulco, caliber eleven libras, length twenty-two calibers.
Two catapults, new casting of Manila, caliber seventy-three libras.
Two small culverins [moyanas] of the said casting, caliber one libra.
On the said galley are five pieces.
Recapitulation of the Artillery
Fort of Santhiago 26 pieces Breastwork of S. Gabriel 6 ,, Breastwork of Dilao 4 ,, Breastwork of S. Andres 6 ,, Breastwork of S. Pedro 6 ,, Fort of Nuestra Senora de Guia 7 ,, Curtain of the Water-front 2 ,, Plaza des Armas 6 ,, Cavite 2 ,, In the said Cavite, falcon patereroes 4 ,, Magazines, falcons 2 ,, Flag-ship Galley 7 ,, Second Galley 5 ,,
I, Alonso de Bienbengud, commander of the artillery of our lord the king in this his royal military station of Manila in the Philipinas Islands, certify that the artillery declared in this list and memorandum is placed and distributed in the forts, breastworks, traverses, and other places named therein, and that it is of the character described; in witness whereof these presents are signed with my name. Manila, the sixth of July, one thousand six hundred and seven.
Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III
On the Confraternity of la Misericordia
Your Majesty gives commands in a letter dated the seventeenth of April, 1606, for information to be sent regarding the nature of the Confraternity of La Misericordia of this city, when and with what official license it was organized, its constitution, the amount of its income and the manner in which the income is distributed, the good results which have followed from the establishment of the Confraternity, and what are its constitutions [i.e., rules of organization]. Your Majesty also asks that a copy of these constitutions be sent, and information as to whether the present income of the Confraternity is sufficient for its purposes, and whether some grant may properly be made to it; and, if so, the amount and form of grant that would be suitable—so that your Majesty may be furnished with full information on the whole matter. Since, as has been stated, the departure of these vessels is so near at hand, a copy of the constitutions of the Confraternity is not sent, but a summary of them, which is enclosed. Your Majesty will see by this abstract that the works to which this Confraternity is dedicated are those of great charity and of service to God our Lord. To all such works it attends with great fervor, using the charitable gifts which are bestowed for this purpose. Although this Audiencia asked the brethren of the Confraternity to make a statement of the manner in which your Majesty might make them a grant, and as to the amount thereof, they were unable to discover any way in which the grant could be made; nor could this Audiencia perceive any, so much exhausted and indebted is the treasury of your Majesty. Accordingly, your Majesty may make such grant as shall please your Majesty, which will be well employed by them, and much to the service of God and your Majesty. [In the margin: "There is no answer. Let a copy of this section be given to the secretary, Senor Contreras, that he may know the deliberations and decree."]
The activity of the Confraternity of La Misericordia in this city began fourteen years ago. At that time the governor associated with himself some twelve of the chief persons here, and they gave every week from their own households what was necessary for the support of widows, the poor, persons in secret distress, and others in pressing need. This they continued to do until they received the rules governing the Confraternity in the city of Lisboa, where it was first established. By these rules they have been governed ever since, the number of brethren being now a hundred and fifty.
1. In the first place, knowing that women, both Spanish and mestizas, suffered greatly in case of sickness, for lack of a hospital in which to be treated, the Confraternity determined to establish one, which is still called the hospital of La Misericordia. They bought land and erected a building with the money given in alms; and they pay the expense of keeping a physician and a surgeon, of medicines, and of the maintenance of two Franciscan religious, who administer the sacraments and care for the welfare of the souls of the patients. In addition, the Confraternity has made up for the lack of a hospital for slaves by setting apart some rooms where slaves go to be cared for, and are attended to with special care of both their bodies and their souls.
2. The principal matter to which the Confraternity gave its attention from the first was the succor of needy persons who committed themselves to its protection—as widows, married persons, orphans, cripples, and deserted persons of good life. To them the Confraternity give what is necessary for their daily support. This matter is attended to once a week by two brethren who give them aid in their own houses, within and without the walls of the city, doing the work with all the secrecy in the world. Upon this are spent weekly sixty or seventy pesos, more or less, according to the amount of contributions received.
3. The Confraternity has always attended to the support of the poor in the prison. A brother is assigned to this duty, who causes food for the poor prisoners to be prepared daily at his own house, and takes care to have it sent to them with great regularity. He also provides the said prison with water sufficient for the prisoners, which is their greatest want.  Thus they alleviate the misery of the prisoners. The said prison is always attended by one of the brethren of high station, that he may attend to the care and prompt decision of the cases of poor prisoners.
4. This Confraternity attends to providing a shelter for the daughters of poor conquistadors and colonists, and for other women whom they consider thus in need; and has placed them in a seminary in this city, supporting them there until they enter the married state, and then it gives them assistance according to their rank.
5. The Confraternity takes great care to place orphan boys where they may be cared for, and to protect them. Those who desire to give themselves to exercises of virtue and learning it places in a college of the Society of Jesus, paying for each one a hundred pesos for his board.
6. The Confraternity also aids with clothing, which it collects from charitable persons, which the said brethren give to both men and women, who would suffer greatly without this assistance and care, from lack of clothes. Many women would not go to mass for lack of cloaks and other things needed, if this alms were not given them.
7. It gives aid to many sick persons who, as incurable and beyond remedy, are discharged from the royal hospital—the physicians directing them, if they wish to recover, to go to certain baths about twelve leguas from the city.  They are assisted to do this, that they may recover their health.
8. Every week when they hold their meeting and assembly they give assistance to many persons who do not receive continued assistance, and they also aid many who are on their way to Nueva Espana—discharged ensigns, sergeants, and soldiers. These are assisted in proportion to their rank, as their need and their service to your Majesty are known.
9. The Confraternity has also given aid outside of this city, by sending to the provinces of Pintados much aid to the Portuguese, of both the higher and the lower classes, who by the destruction of Maluco and Ambueno by the Dutch have been obliged to come to these regions with their families and households. Without this assistance they would have suffered severer privations.
10. It has undertaken to provide persons to go [i.e., to the scaffold] with those who suffer under the law, and to bury them; and it takes up the dismembered bodies of those who have suffered, and the bodies of the drowned, burying them in consecrated ground with much care, and showing honor to their bodies and bones, thus greatly edifying the natives.
11. It attends with the necessary secrecy to securing reconciliations between persons at enmity—sometimes of husbands with their wives, and sometimes between other persons; and thus the brethren bring to an end many evils and prevent injuries. They likewise correct many persons of vices of which they have secret knowledge, which without doubt greatly redounds to the service of God our Lord.
12. It attends to the execution of many wills, which are entrusted to it by persons who leave their property to be distributed for pious works and for chaplaincies. Leaving the matter in the care of this Confraternity, they feel certain that their trusts will be executed forever. It is a great consolation to them to know that the execution has been accepted by the Confraternity. In particular, the execution of the wills of poor persons who leave heirs in Nueva Espana and Espana, and in Yndia, is accepted by the Confraternity.
13. All of these works of charity are performed by the said Confraternity from the alms which are received from the citizens, from the brethren, and from persons who at death leave them bequests because they see how well is allotted and spent that which is collected. The income is obtained with much pains, because of the smallness of the population. Should your Majesty make a grant to the Confraternity, it could accomplish more in caring for cases of need which every day occur, requiring aid and claiming pity.
Pedro Hurtado Desquivel, clerk of court.
This is an accurate copy of the original section:
Juan Lopez de Hernani
Trade of the Philippines with Mexico
Report from the Council of State
Your Majesty was pleased to order that the enclosed reports from the Council of the Indias and that of Portugal be examined in the Council, and that they should make such recommendations as they deemed proper; and having examined them, the members gave their opinions as follows:
The chief comendador  of Leon, in a meeting held at Valladolid, insisted that it was not desirable that there should be trade from Nueva Espana to the Filipinas on account of the great drain of silver thus caused; it is occasioned by the large profits obtained by investing the silver in the merchandise which comes to those islands from China—partly through the cheapness of these goods, and partly through the great value of silver. He also stated the difficulties which are presented, in that, through this trade, the need for the merchandise from these regions would cease, and with it the dependence of those colonies, which it is so important to preserve. It should be considered that, although the trade of Nueva Espana with China should be prohibited, this would be of no use if trade with the Philipinas were left open; for by that means the Chinese will have an outlet for their merchandise. Accordingly it seemed best that this should be prohibited, so that there would be no trade from Nueva Espana with the Philipinas. But, as it must also be considered that the total prohibition thereof would cause a hindrance to conversion and would put an end to settlement, he thought it best, in order to maintain both the one and the other, that two merchant ships should be permitted to go each year from Nueva Espana to the Philipinas, of the capacity and under the conditions which are at present in use there. Since, if the people of the Philipinas are able to trade with Macan, there will be the risk of their introducing through that channel a trade with China, and consequently a drain of silver from Nueva Espana, it seems best not to give an opportunity for this. On the contrary, the decree should be observed which was despatched in the time of the king our lord (who rests in glory), prohibiting the trade between Macan and the Philipinas, for it is to be believed that this was issued after mature deliberation and reflection; for that conduct would be greatly to the satisfaction of the Portuguese, and we would avoid the difficulties of opening that port to the trade from China, as it is so important for these kingdoms to maintain what they hold in Peru and Nueva Espana. But it would be very desirable to order that there shall be considerable understanding and correspondence between the governors, so that in case the ships from one region make port at the other, driven by the weather, they may be well received and treated; and also that they may help each other in times of need, with money and whatever shall be necessary of provisions, munitions, and other supplies pertaining to the defense of the land and operations against the enemy.
The Marques de Velada said that if the trade of Nueva Espana with the Philipinas could be kept within moderate bounds, and if nothing came from China to the Philipinas except what was needed there, he would consider it good; but he regards this as difficult, and therefore supports the chief comendador of Leon.
The Conde de Chinchon said that the preservation of the Indias consisted in this, that, through their need of articles which are not produced there, they always depend upon this country; and it would be the means of losing them if their wants could be supplied elsewhere. To think that if there were trade between Nueva Espana and the Philipinas there would cease to be any with China would be an evident mistake, and therefore it should be closed. In so far as concerns Macan, order should be given that the decree which has been issued be observed, as the chief comendador of Leon has said. In this state of affairs it has seemed best to him to advise your Majesty that it ought to be carefully considered whether it is expedient that each year there should be carried to Eastern India a million eight-real pieces for articles of so little importance as are those which are brought thence; and what plan could be made to obviate this drain of silver, as we are in such need of it here.
The constable of Castilla said that the reports [from the other councils] discussed only the trade of the Philipinas with Macan; and it seemed to him that the plan which had been followed should be maintained, as it ought to be changed only after having examined and considered well the pros and cons, and there should be very urgent reasons for making such change.
Your Majesty will order this to be examined and such measures to be taken as shall be most satisfactory. Madrid, December 18, 1607.
[Endorsed, in the king's hand: "All has been carefully considered, but the remedy is not easy."]
Passage of Missionaries Via the Philippines to Japan
Report from the Council of the Indias
The Duke de Lerma has written to me, the Conde de Lemos, that your Majesty orders to be immediately examined in this Council the enclosed report from the Council of Portugal concerning the question whether religious from the Philipinas should pass to Japon; and that, with the consideration which the matter demanded, you be advised of his opinion. Complying with what your Majesty orders, it has appeared to us that, in order that the fundamental facts might be understood, it is proper to answer the reasons advanced by the Council of Portugal as a basis for their report, which is in conformity with the decrees issued by their Holinesses Gregory XIII and Clement VIII, and by his Majesty who is in heaven, and by your Majesty: these are to the effect that no religious shall pass to the provinces of Japon from these kingdoms, or from the Western Indias or from the Philipinas, except as they go by way of Yndia, and commanding that if any had passed they should return immediately, and that the governor of the Philipinas should be immediately notified to put this into execution.
The Council of Portugal states—conformably to what the bishop of Japon writes, who is one of the Society [of Jesus]—that Dayfusama, universal lord of those realms, continues in the same suspicion that his predecessor Taycosama had of the Spaniards from the Philipinas Islands, and those who go from Nueva Espana, that they ate people looking for conquests. He thinks that their principal aim is directed to making themselves lords of the country, as they have done in the Philipinas themselves and in Nueva Espana; and that what they call preaching the gospel is an artifice, and a means of conquering, as Taicosama wrote to the city of Manila. On this account, also, he had caused the Franciscan religious to be crucified as spies, whose intention was to conquer kingdoms; and therefore no more should be sent there. To make this the stronger, they add an example, in the entrance made there in the year 1602 by sixteen Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian religious, who say that they were not well received by the heathens and Christians who were there.
The second reason is, to cut off the communication of Nueva Espana with Japon and China, which results in the diversion of a great part of the silver from Nueva Espana into those kingdoms, on account of the great profit which there is in that trade, to the great prejudice of these kingdoms.
Reply is to be made, presupposing as a certain thing that discalced [i.e. Franciscan], Augustinian, and Dominican friars have at various times been readily admitted into Japon, obtaining great results in conversion; and that in the year 1594 there had come a well-known Japanese named Faranda to the city of Manila, who asked for friars. Moreover, Gomez Perez de las Marinas, governor of the Philipinas, sent in the capacity of ambassador father Fray Pedro Baptista, a discalced Franciscan, with several religious of his order, to whom Dayfusama, universal lord of the Japanese, extended many favors, and whom he permitted to build a convent in Usaca—a very large city near that of Miaco, where his court is—so that he might preach the holy gospel. Afterward, in October of the year 1597, when the Japanese undertook to destroy, in a province of Japon, the galleon "San Phelipe"—which was going from the Philipinas lo Nueva Espana, laden with merchandise from China of great value, and having more than a hundred Spaniards and other men in the crew—the said Taycosama, to have some excuse for appropriating to himself the contents of the said ship (as he did), gave us to understand that he was suspicious, as has been said, of those Spaniards. It has been learned, however, that a seaman from the said galleon gave occasion for this feeling, when he was asked how the Spaniards had conquered so many countries. Thus far we have not been able to learn with certainty in regard to this, except that it is said that some Portuguese spread this news through the kingdoms of Yndia, for the sake of their own private interests. In confirmation of the suspicion or fear which the tyrant has shown, he has ordered the publication of an edict, in which it is provided that no one should be a Christian; and has crucified the six discalced friars (whom, as before stated, he had treated with favors) and twenty converted Japanese, in the neighborhood of Nangasaqui, to which place the galleon resorts, which ordinarily goes each year from Macao for the Japanese trade. It was there, with one hundred and fifty Portuguese; and the bishop of Japon then officiated publicly, and there were more than twenty thousand Christian Japanese and a principal college of the Society—whence it is supposed that the reason was greed, under color of a reason of state. For if the intention of the tyrant was to exclude at all points Christianity and its ministers from Japon, he would not have permitted so great a number of fathers of the Society as were residing in that country, with their prelate (several of whom were known to him), and hundreds of thousands of Christian Japanese, contenting himself with the persecution of these few. This is especially so as, in the year following this martyrdom, the conversion of more than 60,000 Japanese was affirmed, a greater number than for many years past taken together. It may be believed that God worked this miracle through the blood shed by those martyrs and their intercession. Since that event, on various occasions religious have entered Japon in the ships of the Japanese themselves, who go to the Philipinas to trade, and express a desire that some religious from the orders there should go. The same Dayfusama, who is now reigning, sent an embassy to the Philipinas seeking friars in order that one of the ports of his island, called Quanto, might be settled by Spaniards. To further this claim, he sent later Fray Jeronimo de Jesus,—a discalced friar who had survived his companions the martyrs, for the consolation of the converted, and who had been hidden; accordingly the Audiencia of your Majesty which resides in Manila ordered religious to be sent.
To the second reason, it is answered that thus far it is not known in the Council that there has been any trade from Nueva Espana or from the Philipinas to Japon, nor does it even appear that those who are occupied in trade have any need thereof; for to the Philipinas Islands themselves there come so great a number of junks and ships belonging to the Chinese from Chincheo, that there is always a superabundance of merchandise, and to limit this trade your Majesty has already decreed what appears most expedient for his service.
What is known is that the fathers of the Society do not desire other orders than their own to enter into Japon, giving as a reason that others would not know the method which must be followed in preaching to those heathen, whose perversity has need of cunning to overcome it. This the fathers say they know, as they have been occupied in this conversion for fifty years; and they say that there would be great occasion for weakening the belief of the natives in the doctrine which is preached to them, if they saw a diversity in the vestments, rules, and ceremonies. Accordingly, with these arguments they obtained by entreaty the above-mentioned briefs; and, having been opposed by the Dominicans and Franciscans before his Holiness, they finally obtained a brief that in case religious of other orders were to go, it must be by way of Yndia. This is the same as prohibiting it altogether; for in the domains of Portugal the missionaries are not supplied with maintenance, including everything that they need on the journey, as they are in Castilian lands. The road, too, is much longer, and strewn with difficulties; and in it care is taken to embarrass them, and not let them pass—as has been seen several times when religious have gone by way of Yndia, several Dominicans and Augustinians having been stopped at Goa, even after part of their sea-stores had been placed on the ship. In the year 1602 the Franciscan friars of Yndia said in response to Fray Pablo de los Martires, who came to seek friars, that they could not send them to Japon. This is answered by saying that the Catholic faith is already old and widely spread in Japon, and it would be a dangerous thing to exclude from its preaching the method which Christ our Lord has left in His gospel, which the mendicant orders observe, and through which have been converted the nations of the greatest power, genius, and learning in the world—among them the Romans, who held dominion over it. And it appears that not without much harm to conscience can obstacles be put in the way of ministers who preach in 66 countries, disposed to receive them, where it is impossible that the fathers of the Society should be sufficient, even to maintain the faithful who are there; for it is understood that [in Japan] they number more than 600,000, and they have not had in past years even 150 fathers, for which reason it was necessary for them to say daily three masses each, and then fail in the service of the sacraments on account of the great number of the faithful and the distance between the places. As for the difference in vestments and rules of the orders, this is answered by the fact that the Japanese have already seen them many times, and now see these in their own country, yet with especial profit. Moreover, those who are continually going to the Philipinas are, it is understood, not only not scandalized by this, but even—considering that in the diversity of religious orders and multitude of religious there is but one confession of faith, one set of sacraments, and one law alone, all submitting to the Supreme Pontiff as the universal head of the Church—draw therefrom a very strong argument for the truth of the gospel law which is preached to them, especially by people of such ability and understanding as the very fathers who direct the Japanese certify that they are. The emulation of holiness and virtues among the religious orders is of great importance for their benefit and that of the public; and this will cease where there is only one order. The persecution against the faithful could not have taken place, if religious from the other orders had gone there; for it is certain that there would have been other and very severe persecutions before this, if the fathers of the Society alone had been preaching in Japon.
The Portuguese of Yndia have great interests at stake, according to their opinion, in this measure; for it seems to them that, as the presence of the fathers has been a means for their trade with Japon (which amounts each year to more than a million and a half), and the religious from Castilla must be favorable to Nueva Espana and the Philipinas, and as the traders of those provinces pay for the merchandise, on account of the abundance of silver which they have, a third more than is paid by those from India, they must either be shut out from this trade, or buy so dearly that the profit would be very little. Thus far, as has been said to your Majesty, it is not known that this has happened; but in order to provide for this, and at the same time for the principal aim which your Majesty has, the spread of the holy gospel in regions so remote, and where experience has shown that there is so great a disposition to receive it, and for the preservation of the states which your Majesty holds in the Western and Eastern Yndias, it has appeared best to the Council that your Majesty should be pleased to order his ambassador who is present in Rome to represent to his Holiness the reasons which exist for opening the way for preaching in Japon, for such religious as may be approved by their superiors and the Council; and therefore he should ask for the revocation of the briefs which oppose this object, leaving it to the general disposal of all the provinces of the world. They also suggest that your Majesty should order that from no part of his kingdom should religious go to Japon without first making port at the city of Manila in the Philipinas Islands, where the governor of the islands and the superiors of the orders, as those who manage this business, shall ascertain at what time and opportunity, and what religious, it is expedient to send over to preach in Japon; and these and no others shall go. The said governor should command that the religious who are to go to Japon shall go in ships belonging to the Japanese themselves, as it is understood that those who have gone up to the present time have done, without permitting that other ships than those of the crown of Castilla should go, under this pretext, to the provinces and realms of Japon—severely punishing those who violate this order.
Your Majesty will order what shall be most for the royal service. Valladolid, May 30, 1606.
Report from the Council of the Indias
The Duke de Lerma has written to me, the Conde de Lemos, that your Majesty orders that the enclosed report from the Council of Portugal be examined in this Council, in regard to the order that there should be no passing to Japon by way of the Philipinas, and that your Majesty be advised of what seems best. In this report the principal purpose seems to be that commerce should be prohibited, by your Majesty's command, in order that the Philipinas may not maintain it with China or Japon. This matter depends very much on what the same Council of Portugal has claimed, and now brings forward as foundation for its claim, which is the prohibition of the entrance of Castilian religious into Japon to preach. At your Majesty's command, the Council replied, in the past year, to another report from the Council of Portugal, in which it proposed in detail the arguments on which it founds its claim. Therefore it seemed best to return the report to your Majesty, together with a letter written to your Majesty by Francisco Pena, auditor of Rota, from which it is apparent how this matter is considered in Rome, and how much that opinion is in conformity with what this Council has advised your Majesty, adding what we have learned since the aforesaid report was sent, from letters from the governor and Audiencia, and investigations made before the aforesaid Audiencia and the archbishop of Manila, and other trustworthy papers which came from the Philipinas and Japon. The emperor of Japon sent to the governor of the islands, asking him very earnestly to send religious to settle in the land of Quanto; and some were therefore sent, and they were very kindly received. Land was given them for houses and hospitals; so they have founded two residences, where they are making great headway in the conversion of the Japanese, and the religious are very well treated. As the emperor himself has for three years desired and insisted upon the commerce of the Philipinas with his realms, a ship has accordingly been sent each year from the islands to those of Quanto, with merchandise from China, and various articles of which they have more than enough in the aforesaid [Philippine] islands; and it brought back in return much silver (with which the land of Japon abounds), wheaten flour, dried beef, hemp for cordage, iron, steel, powder, and hafted weapons and other things of great value for the provision and preservation of the aforesaid Philipinas Islands. In those islands it appears of the greatest importance that this commerce be introduced and preserved; because, besides the provision of the aforesaid goods, it is well to keep the king of Japon friendly by this means. For if he were not so he would be the greatest enemy that could be feared, on account of the number and size of his realms, and the valor of the people therein, who are, beyond comparison, the bravest in all India—as has been experienced in the aforesaid islands sometimes, with pirates who have overrun those coasts, doing great harm and hindering the commerce of the other nations. Japon is so anxious to assure and facilitate friendly relations with the said islands that, the king having heard that some Japanese were molesting them with their vessels, he ordered them all to be crucified; and he gave chapas, or decrees, to some religious, in order that with these the ships which went from the islands to Japon might be safe.
Also it was understood that when the bishop of Japon (who belongs to the Society) desired to make known to the religious who were in those lands the last brief of his Holiness, in order for them to depart from the country in fulfilment of it, it was represented what great difficulties would result from the publication and execution of it, in order that he might wait for an appeal to be taken to his Holiness. For the orders of St. Francis, St. Dominic, and St. Augustine have nine convents and four hospitals, where they have achieved great results in the conversion; moreover, they were admitted and called thither by the emperor. They find a great number of people disposed to receive the gospel law, and it would be impossible for the fathers of the Society (who are in some kingdoms of Japon) to be sufficient as workmen in so broad and fertile a vineyard. On this account, it would cause great scandal among the converted and those to be converted, to see the opposition of one order to the others, since previously they held them all to be uniform in the purpose of the spreading of the gospel, and the religious to be vassals of one king and subjects of the one and only head of the church. But in spite of the statements of the friars, the bishop ordered the said brief to be published and made known, with its penalties and censures. Councils were held by the orders in the Philipinas and Japon, and they thought that they ought to appeal from the said brief to his Holiness; this was done before the said bishop, in order that his Holiness might understand the state in which affairs were in those lands, and, being better informed, revoke the brief. It seems important, for the decision of this matter, that it be understood, from the description of Japon and from trustworthy accounts, that the preaching of the fathers of the Society, in the more than fifty years since they entered Japon, has not reached to within a hundred miles of the kingdoms of Quanto, where there are some convents of discalced Franciscan friars, nor has the merchandise of the Portuguese done so; but on the contrary the emperor—having a particular fondness for those kingdoms, as being a patrimony of his—at great cost has caused to be carried by land some of the merchandise which the Portuguese brought from China to Japon. So then, neither is the Society limited in the bounds of its preaching, nor is the crown of Portugal in those of its trade; for even if six ships went there, instead of the single one that now goes from Macao each year, all that they should carry would still easily be consumed in the lands which are more than a hundred leguas distant from those of Quanto. For from the island where Nangacaqui is, until the ship reaches Quanto, there are more than two hundred and twenty leguas of very thickly settled mainland. Granting the prohibition which your Majesty has made that no merchandise beyond a certain stated amount should go from the Philipinas to Nueva Spana, on account of the great difficulties which result otherwise, it seems well worthy of consideration that goods bought from China in those islands of your Majesty should be diverted to Japon, from which so much silver is and may be obtained for the benefit of your vassals and the increase of their wealth and of your Majesty's exchequer—at least making unnecessary in the Philipinas that which is and may be brought from the lands of Piru and Nueva Spana, with benefit to both those colonies and the islands. For the ships which go from the Philipinas to Nueva Spana it is of the greatest importance to have a safe harbor in Japon, in which to repair and supply themselves with the necessities for so long and dangerous a voyage—because, for not having had it hitherto, great losses have been suffered; and some, such as that of the galleon "San Phelipe," amounted to more than a million. It is more fitting for this purpose and for others that our ships should go to Japon than that theirs should come to the Philipinas, because when they come to those islands they buy from the Chinese, who come there to sell, the merchandise which the Castilians would have bought, enhancing the prices of it, and giving the Chinese for it the silver which they would have given to the subjects of your Majesty; nor is there any remedy therefor, although it has been sought.
As for the entrance of religious, the Council persists in the opinion of their last report, a copy of which is subjoined; but in regard to the prohibition of commerce it changes the opinion which it had reached, on account of the new information. It thinks that for the present your Majesty ought to allow one or two ships to go each year from the Philipinas to the kingdoms of Quanto, at the same time warning the governor that he should manage this matter with the care and prudence necessary, so that your Majesty's purpose may be attained in facilitating and spreading the law of the gospel, and keeping your vassals and realms in peace and quietness, in order that thus they may serve God and your Majesty. Since the Council of Portugal, in its last report, begs your Majesty to discuss this matter jointly with it, that might be done, if it please your Majesty, in order that, the arguments for and against being presented by persons whom your Majesty would choose from both Councils, the decision might be made with greater satisfaction and understanding of the situation, as the magnitude and importance of the matter demand. Your Majesty will command what may serve you best. Madrid, 31st of March, 1607. [Ten signatures follow.]
Report from the Council of State
Your Majesty was pleased to order the Council to examine a report from the Council of Yndia resident in Lisboa, dated December 4, 1605, and another from the Council of Portugal, dated January 31, 1606, which treat of the inadvisability of religious going to the kingdoms of Xapon from the Philipinas, for the reasons advanced; and two others dated May 30, 1606, and March 31, 1607, from the Council of the Yndias, which allege the contrary. The Council after examining these, and calling to mind what was advised on the occasion of other reports from the Council of Portugal and of certain briefs of the Pope, which were laid before them, advised your Majesty of its opinion in this matter—namely, to examine the report and what your Majesty was pleased to decide. And inasmuch as the said advice was given November 2, 1604, in Valladolid, and your Majesty was pleased to answer the Council of Portugal in regard to it, and decreed what was resolved thereon; and now since we have come to advise your Majesty: we advise that, in order to express our opinion, as your Majesty orders, it would be advisable to examine what your Majesty resolved then. Accordingly if your Majesty please, you might order the Conde de Salinas to send your Majesty the resolution taken upon the report of that Council of the year 1604, which was accompanied by the briefs of his Holiness, so that after examination in this Council, we may more reasonably advise your Majesty of our opinion. Madrid, September 7, 1607. [Six signatures follow].
[Endorsed: "+ Officially; September 7, 1607. The Council of State in regard to certain reports from the Councils of Portugal and of the Yndias, of Castilla, as to whether or not religious are to go to Japon by way of the Philipinas." In a different hand: "The accompanying report from the Council of Portugal will give information on what is asked here. Also other reports from the same Council, and from that of the Yndias, in regard to matters of the Filipinas, and of Macan, are enclosed. They should be examined together in the Council, and the Council should advise me of their opinion regarding the whole matter."]
[One signature, evidently that of the king, follows].
Report from the Council of State
Conformably to what your Majesty was pleased to order, there were examined in the Council the reports and papers which are returned with this, and opinions were expressed as follows:
The chief comendador of Leon said that from the accounts and investigations which the reports from the Council of Portugal disclose, it is gathered that in the preaching of the gospel which is being carried on by those of the Society who reside in Japon, they practice, contrary to its spirit, worldly artifice; for it is said, on the one hand, that they are preaching in secret, and, on the other, that they maintain a ship in trade and traffic for their support. He considers it very unsuitable that the gospel should go in disguise, and believes that those who preach it should emulate the poverty of the apostles, and should carry on no manner of trade or profit, so that they may attract and convert by the example of the purity of their lives, with no worldly ostentation. This is very fitting for the reputation of the faith and those who preach it, that those who oppose it may not say that they trade. If they adopt this plan, and are so numerous that they can attend to all parts of the country where it is necessary, the going of other orders thither might be dispensed with. But if they are not sufficient to attend to all parts, and that king begs that Franciscan friars should go, the comendador knows no reason why they should not be sent; and the bishops of the Filipinas should be charged to send such religious as are fit for the ministry of preaching. The governor of those islands should be ordered to send them in small vessels, which should only take sufficient provisions for their support, expressly prohibiting that they carry any kind of merchandise, and the trade of the Filipinas with Japon should cease entirely; for in this way would be obviated the difficulties which are represented on the part of the Portuguese, and the desired end of the conversion of souls would be better attained. It would be an easy thing to obtain from the Pope that he should revoke the restriction that none could go except by way of Portuguese Yndia, leaving to the choice of your Majesty all that concerns this affair; for his Holiness may be sure that your Majesty, as the best informed of all, will do what is most fitting for the propagation of our holy faith. What the Portuguese allege in regard to the religious who went to Japon being missed in the Filipinas is not sufficient; for there will certainly be some who, without being missed there, could go to Japon. Thus, if personal interests and differences would cease, those religious might attend solely to the conversion of those heathen, with the discretion and moderation which is fitting, so as to relieve that king from the suspicion he has, that in that way they are trying to take away his kingdom. For if he is assured of that, and sees that no other than religious come, and that these are engaged in no other business than that of conversion, it is to be hoped in our Lord that he will not hinder it; since by those same documents it is evident that the reason for his having made martyrs of the Franciscan friars was the suspicion which he had that they had other objects to the prejudice of his state. It is likewise fitting that all the religious maintain friendly relations with one another, and be united, and that their duties be not ill performed. For quarrels between them will be of much greater injury and less edification for the heathen than is the diversity of their garb; and, when it is seen that they are all working toward the same end, it will be recognized that all profess the same faith, and that religion is one.
The Marques de Velada said that the reports from the Council of Portugal are at variance with those from the Council of the Yndias; for the former say that in Japon they do not desire Franciscan friars, and the others that they are asking for them. It therefore appears best to him that your Majesty should secure from the Pope a revocation of the clause in the brief which prohibits other religious from going to Japon unless it be by way of Yndia; and that his Holiness leave it to the choice of your Majesty to send them by the way which shall seem most fitting, as, in regard to the principal point—which is that they should go, whether it be by Yndia or otherwise—they are in accord. Whether they are to go by that or some other route is such a minor consideration that it ought not to depend on that. Accordingly he would order Don Juan de Silva  to investigate whether it be true that the king of Japon is asking for Franciscan friars; and if this be so he should not fail to send some, in the manner which has been stated by the chief comendador of Leon. And even if the king does not seek them, let it be known that he will permit them. Moreover, all kinds of trade should be totally prohibited, and the passing of any other people from the Filipinas to Japon, except such religious friars as are not only holy, but judicious and discreet—although these qualities were not displayed by those friars who told the king of Japon that by means of them the Western Yndias had been conquered, because that was sufficient reason for causing their martyrdom, fearing that by the same means his kingdom would be taken away from him. Accordingly it is fitting that those who go should be fully warned not to speak of this, before assuring that king of the amity and kind feeling of your Majesty, and that you will never attempt anything to his injury. The members of the Society will have an advantage over the friars, in having been so many years in that country, but the latter will have an advantage in not having ships for trade; and it is very fitting that this should be remedied, since the purity with which the gospel ought to be preached will not allow of such sources of profit.
The Conde de Chinchon said that the ill-feeling in those regions between the Castilians and the Portuguese has lasted many years, because the Portuguese have been and are suspicious that the profit of the trade will be taken away from them; and if the fathers of the Society who are in Japon proceed with the caution that they use in England, it is no wonder that they are troubled by the fact that others go [to Japon] who, without underhand measures, endeavor to establish the faith as it should be done, and not in private, or with any mixture of worldly interests. The first thing which it appears to him ought to be done is to procure the revocation of the brief, as has been said, so that it will remain at the free disposition of your Majesty to send religious to Japon when and by such route as your Majesty may judge expedient; and, having procured the revocation, there should be no prohibition of certain Franciscan friars from the Filipinas going there, in the manner in which the chief comendador of Leon has suggested—totally prohibiting commerce, and the passing of people other than religious. In this manner he believes that the Portuguese will be satisfied, and that the fathers of the Society will agree to it, if influence be brought to bear upon the superiors of both orders, so that they may secure agreement between the orders.
The constable of Castilla said that for the present he would not change the order which was given that religious friars should not go from the Filipinas to Japon, and he would only consider the revocation of the brief in which they were prohibited from going by any other route than that by Yndia; because that was nothing else than an attempt of the Council of Portugal to tie your Majesty's hands with the authority of the Pope, and tacitly to exclude the Castilian religious from going there. It is expedient that your Majesty should have this matter at your own disposal, to send them when and by what route is expedient. This would serve as a check, so that those of the Society would take great care as to what they do. It would also be desirable to urge, through the Council of Portugal, that those fathers should enjoy no trade or profit; and to prohibit totally the trade of the Filipinas with Japon. In this way the suspicions and apprehensions of both parties would cease, and by this means your Majesty might be better informed, and by impartial persons, and time would show what was most expedient. Your Majesty will have this examined, and take measures according to your pleasure. Madrid, December 20, 1607.
[Endorsed, in the hand of the king: "I am advised concerning all this that I may decree, by one way or another, what is most suitable. Write today secretly to the Marques de Aytona that he shall ask the Pope in my name for the revocation of the order of which mention is here made; and that he shall order another one despatched, leaving to my choice to send the religious who are to go to preach, by the route which appears best to me according to the state of affairs; and charge the Marques to have this despatch sent immediately, as secretly as possible."]
DOCUMENTS OF 1608-09
Annual receipts and expenditures of the Philippine government. Pedro de Caldierva de Mariaca; August 18, 1608. Decrees regarding way-station for Philippine vessels. Felipe III; September 27, 1608, and May 13, 1609. Letters to Juan de Silva. Felipe III; May 26 and July 29, 1609. Expeditions to the province of Tuy. Juan Manuel de la Vega; July 3, 1609. Petition of a Filipino chief for redress. Miguel Banal; July 25, 1609. Despatch of missionaries to the Philippines. Diego Aduarte. and others; [1608-09?].
Source: All these documents are obtained from the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla.
Translations: The first, fourth, and fifth documents are translated by James A. Robertson; the first decree in the second, by Henry B. Lathrop, of the University of Wisconsin; the rest, by Robert W. Haight.
Annual Receipts and Expenditures of the Philippine Government
Statement of the Annual Incomes and Sources of Profit of His Majesty in These Philipinas Islands
Tributes from his Majesty's encomiendas
Tributes Common gold
3U359 In the encomienda of the coast of this city of Manila, his Majesty has three thousand three hundred and fifty-nine tributes. The tributes are each one peso, besides the two reals for the situado, and amount to the same number of pesos. 3U359 pesos, — tomins.
U533 In the encomienda of the villages of Capa, Santa Ana, and Caruya, there are five hundred and thirty-three tributes. U533 pesos, — tomins.
U100 From the wandering Indians of the said coast and of this city of Manila, a greater or less sum is collected annually, which accordingly approximates to one hundred tributes annually U100 pesos, — tomins.
805 In the encomienda of the villages of San Miguel and San Francisco, in Laguna de Bay, there are eight hundred and five tributes, or a like number of pesos. U805 pesos, — tomins.
U894 In the encomienda of Lumban, Pacte, and Longos in the said Laguna, there are eight hundred and ninety-four tributes. U894 pesos, — tomins.
1U364 1/2 In the encomienda of Nayun and Tayavas there are one thousand three hundred and sixty-four and one-half tributes, or one thousand three hundred and sixty-four pesos and four tomins. 1U364 pesos, 4 tomins.
U275 In the encomienda of Calilaya there are two hundred and seventy-five tributes, or a like number of pesos. U275 pesos, — tomins.
U711 In the encomienda of Tuley and Maragondon there are seven hundred and eleven tributes, or a like number of pesos. U711 pesos, — tomins.
2U091 In the encomienda of Mindoro, there are two thousand and ninety-one tributes. 2U091 peso, — tomins.
4U307 1/2 In the encomienda of La Panpanga there are four thousand three hundred and seven and one-half tributes, or four thousand three hundred and seven pesos and four tomins. 4U307 pesos, 4 tomins.
U824 In the encomienda of the villages of Agoo and Alingayen, in the province of Pangasinan, there are eight hundred and twenty-four tributes. In this province the tributes amount each to ten reals, thus making a total of one thousand and thirty pesos. 1U030 pesos, — tomins.
U431 In the encomienda of Binalatonga, in the said province of Pangasinan, there are four hundred and thirty-one tributes, which, at ten reals, amount to five hundred and thirty-eight pesos and six tomins. U538 pesos, 6 tomins.
4U785 1/2 In his Majesty's encomiendas in the province of Ylocos, where the tributes are also ten reals, there are four thousand seven hundred and eighty-five and one-half tributes, which amount to five thousand nine hundred and eighty-one pesos and seven tomins. 5U981 pesos, 7 tomins.
2U668 In the encomiendas of Camarines there are two thousand six hundred and sixty-eight tributes at one peso. 2U668 pesos, — tomins.
In the province of Cibu, his Majesty owns the encomienda of the island of Compot and Cagayan, the tribute of which has not been collected for three years, as it is in revolt.
2U400 In the encomienda of Bohol and Bantayan in the said province of Cebu—which was apportioned to the royal crown this year, one thousand six hundred and eight, because of the death of Don Pedro de Gamboa, its former owner; and which his Majesty enjoys since the twenty-second of January of this said year—there are two thousand tour hundred tributes at one peso. 2U400 pesos, — tomins.
3U624 In the encomienda of Panay and Oton there are three thousand six hundred and twenty-four tributes at one peso. 3U624 pesos, — tomins.
U382 In the village of Baybay, on the river of this city, three hundred and eighty-two tributes are collected from Christian Sangleys. U382 pesos, — tomins.
1U500 There are always a varying number of infidel Sangleys living in the Parian of this city; as for the last collections, they amount to one thousand five hundred tributes. 1U500 pesos, — tomins.
——— ——————————— 32U395 1/2 33U906 pesos, 5 tomins.
Situados of all the encomiendas in these islands
The situado  of his Majesty's encomiendas above mentioned amounts to eight thousand and ninety-eight pesos and seven tomins, at the rate of two reals for each tribute—the tributes amounting to thirty-two thousand three hundred and ninety-five and one-half 8U098 pesos, 7 tomins.
The situados of the encomiendas of individuals in these islands amount to twenty-three thousand two hundred pesos. 23U200 pesos.
——————————— 31U298 pesos, 7 tomins.
Tithes of gold
The tithes of gold (of which the tenth is taken in these islands) are worth on an average, considering former years, eight hundred pesos. U800 pesos, — tomins.
Of the ecclesiastical tithes of this archbishopric of Manila and of the three bishoprics of the islands, there are collected annually, on an average, one thousand pesos; for, although they have been worth one thousand one hundred pesos or one thousand two hundred pesos, in certain years, they approximate to the said sum, according to the present. 1U000 pesos, — tomins.
Import and export duties
The import duties on the Chinese merchandise entering this city, amounted, this said year of six hundred and eight, to thirty-eight thousand, two hundred and eighty-eight pesos, four tomins, and two granos. In this matter no exact figures can be given, because it is more or less, according to the amount of merchandise brought annually by the Sangleys. 38U288 pesos, 4 tomins, 2 granos.
The import duties and freight-charges on the goods brought from Nueva Espana, and entering this city are usually worth five hundred pesos, or thereabout, because the citizens of these islands to whom the goods are consigned have received the concession of not paying duties on goods to the value of three hundred pesos for the married person, and one hundred and fifty pesos for the single person; and because the bulk of these said goods is to be used for their households and comfort. U500 pesos, — tomins.
The duties on the goods exported from this city to the said Nueva Espana are usually worth fourteen thousand pesos. In this matter no exact figures can be given, for it varies according to the value of the merchandise. 14U000 pesos.
52U788 [pesos], 4 [tomins], 2 [granos].
Fines forfeited to the royal treasury
Seven hundred and eight pesos have been paid into the royal treasury this year from fines forfeited to the royal treasury. U708 pesos, — tomins.
Expenses of justice and courts
From the expenses of justice and courts, sixty pesos have been paid into the royal treasury this year. U060 pesos, — tomins.
Amount of the tributes. 33U905 pesos, 5 tomins.
The situados. 31U298 pesos, 7 tomins.
The tithes of gold. U800 pesos.
Ecclesiastical tithes. 1U000 pesos.
Import and export duties. 52U788 [pesos], 4 [tomins], 2 [granos].
Fines forfeited to the royal treasury. U708 pesos.
Expenses of justice and the courts. U060 pesos.
————————————————— 120U561 pesos, — tomins, 2 granos.
All the above incomes total one hundred and twenty thousand five hundred and sixty-one pesos and two granos of common gold.
Statement of the Ordinary Expense Incurred By His Majesty in These Islands
The president, governor, and captain-general of these islands receives an annual salary of eight thousand pesos de minas, or thirteen thousand two hundred and thirty-five pesos and two tomins. 13U235 pesos, 2 tomins.
Four auditors and one fiscal receive each two thousand pesos de minas, which total sixteen thousand five hundred and forty-nine pesos and six granos. 16U549 pesos, 6 granos.
One chaplain of the royal Audiencia, three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
Three royal officials with five hundred and ten thousand maravedis apiece, which amounts to five thousand six hundred and twenty-five pesos. 5U625 pesos.
One chief clerk with a salary of three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
Another clerk, for military affairs, with a salary of two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
Another clerk, for matters of trade, with the same salary. U200 pesos.
One executioner, with one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
One notary, with two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
One galley-purser, with one hundred pesos. U100 pesos.
Alcaldes-mayor and corregidors
The alcalde-mayor of Tondo, with a salary of three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
Of Bulacan, with another three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
Of La Panpanga, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Laguna de Bay, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Calilaya, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Balayan, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Pangasinan, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Ylocos, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Carmarines, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Arevalo, the same. U300 pesos.
Of Cibu, the same. U300 pesos.
Corregidor of Calamianes, with two hundred and fifty pesos. U250 pesos.
Of Maribeles, with one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
Of Mindoro, one hundred pesos. U100 pesos.
Of Catanduanes, one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
Of Ybalon, two hundred pesos, because it serves also as the outpost of Capul. U200 pesos.
Of Panay, another two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
Leyte, one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
Butuan, two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
Alcalde-mayor of Cagayan, three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
One assayer and appraiser, with four hundred pesos. U400 pesos.
One navy storekeeper, two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
One clerk, for the warehouses of this city, with one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
One shore master, with a salary of six hundred pesos. U600 pesos.
One clerk, for the warehouses of Cavite, with one hundred and forty pesos. U140 pesos.
One chief of galley construction, with five hundred pesos. U500 pesos.
Another carpenter, with two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
One hundred and sixty Indian carpenters at one-half real and their board daily; their wages amount annually to three thousand six hundred and fifty pesos. 3U650 pesos.
One master blacksmith, with five hundred pesos. U500 pesos.
The Indian smiths who serve in the smithies for various wages, now more and now less, which amount to one thousand one hundred pesos. 1U100 pesos.
The charcoal used in the smithies and in the founding of artillery will amount to one thousand pesos. 1U000 pesos.
One artillery and bell-founder, with a salary of one thousand pesos. 1U000 pesos.
In the said founding eight hundred pesos will be spent yearly in paying the Indians who work at it, and in other petty expenses. U800 pesos.
One master powder-maker, with six hundred pesos. U600 pesos.
In the manufacture of powder, twenty or twenty-five mortars are used, which are manipulated by slaves of private persons, who place them there for evil conduct; and nothing but their board is given them.
Four coopers and one workman—the former with wages of three hundred pesos apiece, besides their rations of rice; and the workman, with forty-eight pesos: All together amounting to one thousand two hundred and forty-eight pesos. 1U248 pesos.
Six calkers, with wages of three hundred pesos apiece, besides their rations of rice, which amount to one thousand eight hundred pesos. 1U800 pesos.
At the time of careening and repairing the ships, and for other extraordinary matters in this trade of the calkers, some receive daily wages of two pesos and two and one-half pesos apiece, which will amount to one thousand five hundred pesos annually. 1U500 pesos.
There are sixty sailors, or two more or less, who are kept here. As for those who come in vessels from Nueva Espana, they serve in the port of Cavite, and in the warehouses; and sail in fragatas used to carry rice, rigging, pitch, and other articles which are offered and taken to the said warehouses. They receive wages of one hundred and fifty pesos, besides the rations of rice, which amount to nine thousand pesos. 9U000 pesos.
There are also other sailors and other workmen who come in the ships from Nueva Espana, and take from here a certification of their services here, by virtue of which they are paid in Mexico; while nothing more than their rations of rice are paid them here, which amount to three fanegas of unwinnowed rice apiece per month, and some additional aid from year to year, and between the departure of the vessels. The total will amount to eight thousand pesos. 8U000 pesos.
There are three pilots, who are experienced in the navigation between these islands and the mainland, for some voyages that are usually made to the mainland near these islands, and who receive six hundred pesos apiece, or one thousand eight hundred pesos. 1U800 pesos.
In the royal warehouses of this city, ten Indians generally serve from month to month. They receive apiece one peso per month, and their board, which amounts to one hundred and twenty pesos. U120 pesos.
In the fragatas and other vessels of his Majesty which ply amid these islands eighty Indians are employed from month to month, each receiving one peso per month and their board, which amounts to nine hundred and sixty pesos. U960 pesos.
For the service of the port of Cavite and its vessels, sixty Indians are generally drafted each month. They are paid six reals per month and their board, a total of five hundred and forty pesos. U540 pesos.
To three Indian rope-makers who assist in the rope-factory at Manila, where the hemp rigging is made, are paid total annual wages of one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos
Each month thirty Indians work month by month in this rope factory, to whom are paid six reals per month and their rations of rice, a total of two hundred and seventy pesos. U270 pesos.
The black rigging and that made from abaca in Balayan for the ships and galleys will amount to four thousand pesos. 4U000 pesos.
Every year hemp brought from Japon is bought for rigging, which from year to year will amount to one thousand five hundred pesos. 1U500 pesos.
One thousand six hundred quintals of pitch, at ten reals per quintal, are also used annually, which amounts to two thousand one hundred and twenty-five pesos 2U125 pesos.
The saltpeter purchased for this camp will average from year to year one thousand eight hundred pesos. Some years it will amount to more or less. 1U800 pesos.
The bonote  purchased to calk the vessels [going to New Spain?] and other ships will amount to two hundred and seventy pesos U270 pesos.
Arquebus fuses, one hundred and fifty pesos. U150 pesos.
The cocoa-oil purchased for the churches where the sacraments are administered amounts to two hundred and fifty pesos. U250 pesos.
The fish-oil and galagal for the careening and repairing of the ships amounts to nine hundred pesos. U900 pesos.
Six hundred picos of iron, at various prices are used in addition to that brought by sail from Nueva Espana, which will amount to two thousand pesos. 2U000 pesos.
Item: Four hundred picos of nails, which, at the least price, is seven pesos [per pico], amount to two thousand eight hundred pesos. 2U800 pesos.