The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898—Volume 39 of 55
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[86] Diaz states (ut supra) that the archbishop's provisor, Juan Gonzalez, took refuge in the Dominican convent, which was soon surrounded with armed soldiers. At the advice of friends, Gonzalez gave himself up, and was kept a close prisoner in his own house—"guards being placed there at his cost; and penalty was imposed of major excommunication and 500 pesos, if he should talk with any person outside." As soon as Santo Domingo was blockaded, a decree of the Audiencia was made known to all the convents that they must not ring the bells for an interdict. To prevent this being done at Santo Domingo, "they scaled the convent through the hall of the Inquisition, which is above the main entrance, and ten soldiers went up to the bell-tower." Next day, the friars rang a small bell to call the people to mass, but the guards would not allow any person to enter the church.

[87] Salazar gives, a detailed account of Villalba's imprisonment (Hist. Sant. Rosario, pp. 233, 234), and claims that he was hurried from his convent at Binondoc, without cloak or hat, or bed, although he was in poor health; and that, when the ship was compelled to put back to Manila, the Audiencia would not allow him to remain there, but at once despatched him to the Franciscan infirmary at Nueva Caceres, where he remained until the next galleon sailed for Acapulco.

[88] This document, as being written by Sanchez, the secretary of the Audiencia of Manila, was probably addressed to the president of the royal Council of the Indias.

Sandin (Respuesta, fol. 3 b) asserts that this relation by Sanchez was printed at the Jesuit college in Manila, with the date here given; that it had not been published there when the Acapulco galleon sailed; but that in Mexico City many copies of it were already in circulation before the royal mails reached that city from Acapulco.

[89] Apparently referring to Francisco de Arcocha; but Diaz calls him (p. 775) equerry (caballerizo) of the new governor.

[90] Bartolome Marron, a native of Asturias, made his profession in the Dominican convent at Valladolid, July 8, 1667, and came to the Philippines in 1671, at the age of twenty-five. Having studied two years at Santo Tomas, he was a lecturer in that college until 1680, and in 1684 was appointed its rector. In 1686 he became provincial, and afterward was in charge of a mission in Pangasinan, and of the church in Binondoc; and was again (1696-1700) rector of Santo Tomas. He filled many other important offices in his order, at various times; and finally died in Manila, January 22, 1717. See sketch of his life in Resena biografica, ii, pp. 145-155—including an account of a notable lawsuit brought against him, and the regulations made by him for the inmates of Dominican convents in and near Manila.

[91] Cristobal Pedroche made his profession at Toledo, January 22, 1659, and arrived in the Philippines in 1667. He spent many years in labors among the Chinese, in the Parian and San Gabriel; and at various times filled high offices in his order—among them, that of provincial. In June, 1684, he was imprisoned at Cavite, and afterward sent to Mexico; but the viceroy permitted him to return to the Philippines. He died at Manila on August 20, 1715, at the age of seventy. See sketch of his life in Resena biografica, ii, pp. 82-100—which includes a letter by him (June 20, 1684) on the ecclesiastical disturbances of that time.

[92] Juan de (Ibanez) Santo Domingo was born (about 1640) near Calatayud. His early education was obtained in a Dominican convent at Zaragoza, and he was afterward a member of the household of Bishop Palafox y Mendoza. Later, he entered the Dominican convent at Ocana, where he made profession in 1661. At the age of twenty-six he came to the Philippines, and spent eighteen years in the missions of Pangasinan. After 1686, he lived at Manila, being twice provincial (1690 and 1706), and occupying other important posts. He died there January 15, 1726. (Resena biografica, ii, pp. 26-34.)

[93] Francisco Antonio de Bargas, a native of Madrid, professed in the Dominican convent at Salamanca, in 1673, at the age of nineteen. Six years later, he arrived at the Philippines. The first nine years he spent in Manila, mainly as a teacher in Santo Tomas; from 1688 to 1696, he labored in the missions of Bataan, and afterward in those of Zambales—except 1698-1702, which he spent at Manila. He died there, on October 7, 1708. (Resena biografica, ii, pp. 219, 220.)

[94] Antonio Calderon professed in the Dominican convent at Salamanca (in 1664, erroneously says Resena), and came to the Philippines in 1658. He labored in the Cagayan missions until 1682, when he was elected provincial. He, with Fray Pedroche was arrested on June 3, 1684, and sent to Mexico. Thence he returned to Spain, and died at Mombeltran, at the end of December, 1685.

[95] Alluding to General Marcos Quintero, a friend of the Dominicans, who at his death (1703) appointed Fray Bartolome Marron (note 90, ante) executor of his estate. This led to a notable lawsuit, brought against Marron by the heirs of Quintero, which was appealed to Mexico and even to Rome; the proceedings continued for many years, the suit coming to an end only in 1726, nine years after Marron's death. (See Resena biografica, ii, pp. 151-154.)

"Barangay," as used here, is evidently a bit of slang meaning "gang" or "clique," in modern phrase.

[96] From the context, esto here seems to designate the former governor, Vargas.

[97] Gines de Barrientos, titular bishop of Troya, who was assistant to the archbishop. Juan Duran, titular bishop of Sinopolis, was assistant to the bishop of Cebu (then Diego de Aguilar). Andres Gonzalez was bishop of Nueva Caceres (or Camarines); and Francisco Pizarro, of Nueva Segovia. These were Dominicans, save Duran, who belonged to the Order of Our Lady of Mercy; and Pizarro, who in 1681 was a member of the cabildo of Manila cathedral.

[98] Spanish, se le picaba sobradissimamente la retaguardia—literally, "its rearguard was entirely cut to pieces."

[99] i.e., "Hurrah for [the bishops of] Troya!"

[100] Elio Antonio de Nebrija (or Lebrija) was a celebrated linguist and great Latinist, who wrote various works. He was born about the year 1444, and died in 1522. (Dominguez, Diccionario nacional.)

[101] Apparently a play on words, mingled with a sarcastic comment on Fray Gaspar. One may hazard the conjecture that the latter (who was a noted grammarian) is here mentioned in contempt as knowing more of grammar than of current affairs, and being able only to understand events actually completed and past, without the foresight to perceive how these affect the future.

[102] i.e., no more than two—referring to the "dual" number in Greek declension.

[103] A copy of this act may be found in Ventura del Arco MSS., iii, pp. 513-515; it is dated "at our house on the river of Manila, October 22, 1684."

[104] An allusion to the well-known quotation, Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus (line 139 of the Ars poetica of Horatius).

[105] The decree of the Audiencia which ordered the restoration of the archbishop to his see was dated October 24, 1684. He returned to Manila on November 16.

[106] This man was delegated by the city of Manila, being one of its regidors, according to Diaz (Conquistas, pp. 776, 777).

[107] Diaz states (Conquistas, p. 777) that Curuzelaegui declared on this occasion that if the home government should be offended at his restoring the archbishop, he would consider punishment by them for this cause "a great honor, even if it be capital." Diaz praises him as "one of the best governors that these islands have had; affable, pious, magnanimous, wholly disinterested, and very liberal. He also said that he had come to Filipinas to be poor, where other governors had come to be rich. This he said very truly, for in Espana and Indias he had possessed much wealth—gained in the many voyages that he had made as commander of the fleet and galleons to Peru and Nueva Espana—which his ostentation and liberality had consumed."

[108] Diaz gives (ut supra, pp. 778, 779) the list of these: the auditors and Governor Vargas; the preceding alcalde-mayor of Manila (either Morales, Camacho or Pimentel), and that of Camarines (Juan de Verastein); Juan Sanchez, secretary of the Audiencia; Juan Gallardo, castellan of Cavite; Sargento-mayor Alonso de Aponte y Andrade, and Captains Jose de Somonte, Francisco de Urrutia, Diego del Pozo y Gatica, and Miguel Machuca; Admiral Pedro de la Pena; and Captain Baltasar de Lerma, notary-public. The military officers were readily absolved, as not having been free to act, when ordered to proceed against the ecclesiastics.

[109] Diaz says (p. 779) that the archbishop at this time "absolved the auditors ad reincidentiam, within the palace, with no other witnesses than the governor, and embraced them and gave them the kiss of peace."

[110] Spanish, irregular. In this usage irregularidad means, according to Dominguez, "a canonical impedimenta for receiving or exercising holy orders, on account of certain natural defects which produce incapacity, or of crimes or illegal acts which are committed."

[111] See copy of this edict in Ventura del Arco MSS., iii, pp. 517-521. The statement in our text regarding penalties is inaccurate. The edict required that all confessions made to members of the cabildo be made anew; all persons married by them must appear before the archbishop within three days (or ten days for those without the jurisdiction of the city), under penalty of excommunication for European Christians, and for all others fifty lashes and three months in jail; and the same penalties for those on whom the cabildo had conferred holy orders, licenses to preach, chaplaincies, etc. This act was dated November 29, 1684.

[112] Diaz says (p. 779): "But this caused so many dissensions, and opinions from the theologians, that it was found necessary to issue another act (January 8, 1685) in which the archbishop declared the former act null, and ordered that those [married persons] should again appear in court for the revalidation of their marriages."

[113] i.e., "they are exulting, as do the victors when they have seized their prey."

[114] "An image of a monstrous serpent which is displayed in front of the procession on Corpus Christi Day—doubtless alluding to the eternal humiliation of the demon, conquered for ever by Jesus Christ" (Dominguez, Diccionario nacional).

[115] Among these were the Franciscan provincial, Francisco de Santa Ines, and the Augustinian writer Casimiro Diaz (as the latter states in his Conquistas, p. 782).

[116] "Vargas then alleged his being exempt, as a knight of Santiago; but even then the archbishop did not revoke the excommunication, the ex-governor-general of the islands being required to live alone in a solitary house on the islet of the Pasig River, without dealings or communication with any person" (Montero y Vidal, Hist. de Filipinas, i, p. 372).

[117] This affair had been initiated by Vargas. "The sultan of Borneo sent an ambassador, soliciting the establishment of commercial dealings with Filipinas. Vargas responded with another and distinguished embassy, his agent being Don Juan Morales de Valenzuela, who [later] brought about the cession of the island of Paragua which that sovereign made in 1705." (Montero y Vidal, ut supra, p. 364.)

[118] A metrical composition which is measured in three verses, of which two form a rhyme (Dominguez).

[119] Spanish, en calxas y en jubon: literally, "in breeches and jacket."

[120] Tomas de Andrade was born in Toledo, December 2, 1619, and entered the Jesuit order at the age of seventeen. In 1643 he departed for the Philippines, where he professed in 1654. He was connected with San Jose college some twenty years, twice as rector; acted as provincial during six months; and rector at Antipolo and Cavite, and minister among the Tagals. He died at Manila on May 15, 1689. (Murillo Velarde, Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 356 b.)

[121] Alejo Lopez was born July 16, 1645, at Albalate, Spain, and at the age of seventeen became a Jesuit novice. Four years later, he came to Manila, and spent three years in the Visayan missions, being afterward connected with the college in Manila in various capacities. Finally going to Europe on business of the order, he died while on the return journey, September 18, 1693 (Murillo Velarde, fol. 369).

[122] Isidro Clarete was born in 1627, and came to the islands in 1662, where he completed his studies, and became a teacher in the college at Manila (Murillo Velarde, ut supra).

[123] Pedro Lopez a native of Malvenda, Spain, was born on November 21, 1613. When nineteen years old, he entered the Jesuit order, and in 1643 came to the Philippines. He spent most of his life in ministering to the Tagalog Indians, and translated into their language (in which he was remarkably proficient) the Roman catechism and other writings. He died at Indang on February 13, 1689. (Murillo Velarde, ut supra, fol. 356 b.)

[124] Spanish, con la risa del conejo; literally, "with the smile of a rabbit." Dominguez describes it as "the apparent smile which comes to some creatures at death, as the rabbit; and, by extension, the phrase is applied to a person who smiles when he has cause for sorrow or resentment."

[125] Diaz (p. 781) expresses pity for Vargas as thus situated, "unable to have conversation or dealings with any one except the officials of his residencia, and mostly through an agent; deserted by every one, for his servants, as being also under residencia, had enough to do in attending each to his own defense. His only consolation was the companionship of his spirited wife, Dona Isabel de Ardila, who inspired him with courage and strength. It is certain that Don Juan de Vargas was not the worst governor of Filipinas; but he was unfortunate in his disagreeable and harsh manner," and his friend Francisco Guerrero, "a very astute and sagacious man," whose aid would have been invaluable, was then in Nueva Espana, having deserted his patron to save himself.

[126] Apparently referring to the "ordinary," or usual ecclesiastical court.

[127] Spanish, auto de legos; a decree issued by a superior tribunal, prohibiting to an ecclesiastical judge the cognizance of a suit that is purely civil, and between laymen, referring it to a competent judge.

[128] Diaz says (Conquistas, pp. 781, 782) that this residencia, taken by Juan de Zalaeta, was the most bitter and obstinate ever known in the islands, for it lasted four years, and its records occupied twenty large volumes.

[129] Salazar (Hist. Sant. Rosario, pp. 131-133) gives an account of this assignment. He asserts that the Zambals had formerly been under the charge of the Recollects, who in more than seventy years had been unable to convert that tribe. In 1676 the natives themselves asked for Dominican teachers; some were sent, at which the Recollects complained, as an intrusion on their field, and the Dominicans withdrew. In 1678 Juan de Vargas came as governor, and, the Zambals again asking for Dominicans, the governor induced the Recollects to accept Mindoro in lieu of Zambales, making over the latter to the Dominican order. The latter gave up these missions in 1712. (See Resena biografica, i, pp. 486-504.)

Concepcion (Hist. Philipinas, viii, pp. 47) declares that the Recollects were unwilling to surrender their Zambal missions, yielding to the compulsion and threats of the archbishop and the governor; and that the natives themselves were angry at the proposed change, but were pacified by their Spanish alcalde-mayor.

[130] A loose note in Ventura del Arco MSS. (iii, p. 555), evidently made by that compiler from some writing of 1685, states that the citizens complained of the lack of vessels every year for their trade, and for this blamed his henchmen. Two of these, whom he employed in business affairs, were arrested, Fabra and Gallardo.

[131] Spanish, dijo tijeratas; literally, "talked scissors."

[132] Spanish, que vuelvan las nueces al cantaro; literally, "the nuts will roll back into the jar."

[133] A dish composed of various kinds of meat and vegetables boiled together—used figuratively for any medley or miscellaneous collection.

[134] i.e., "From the anger and hatred and ill-will of a Dominican friar, deliver us, O Lord."

[135] Some account of Palu's coming to Manila will be found in VOL. XLII, in Diaz's history of the Augustinian missions.

[136] In the text, deposicion, an obvious error of the transcriber.

[137] Spanish, sentian no haber materia sobre que cayesse dicha dispensacion. That is, the prebends had not deserved censure, and therefore ought not to need dispensation.

[138] This was Jose de Nava y Albis.

[139] That is, on the route by the "Northern Sea," the Atlantic Ocean.

[140] The Spanish phrase inverts this order of thought, hacer lo que habia deshecho.

[141] Referring to the exile of Archbishop Guerrero in 1636.

[142] Thus in the text, indicating some omission, probably by the transcriber.

[143] The verses do not appear in our text. Diaz states (p. 787) that Zalaeta gave the pasquinades to Captain Jose de Toledo to distribute among the soldiers; but instead of doing so Toledo gave them to Endaya, who handed them to the governor. It was afterward proved that the author of the lampoons was the cantor Herrera, who was thereupon imprisoned; later, he was sent to the fort of Paynauen in the Zambal country, where Zalaeta had been sent after his arrest for conspiracy.

The Jesuit Father Pedro de Salazar wrote from (Manila) Taitay, on the nineteenth [sic] of 1687, to the procurator-general at Madrid, Luis de Morales, that he was warned from Manila to be careful of what he wrote, since they feared that there would be an inspection of the letters [in the mails]. He said that since the return of Archbishop Pardo from banishment many arrests were made: of the auditors, to whom they attributed a pasquinade which had been posted; of negroes and Indians, servants and slaves, who were put to the torture, in order that they might say what suited the convenience [of the authorities]; and of ecclesiastics. Also, that a pasquinade had been published, in which was represented the king, stretched upon the ground, with the archbishop drawing off his breeches; the governor was stabbing him with a dagger, or else cutting off his head; Father Verart held him by the legs; and Andaya, who was the minion, was helping them. It concluded with the verses:

"A Catalan and a Frenchman, A foolish governor, A pastor who is no pastor— These hold me as you see."

Finally, the Dominican friars have entire sway over the archbishops, and are talking of finding out who are the authors of the papers that were published against them. (Ventura del Arco MSS., iii, pp. 639, 640.)

[144] Diaz says (p. 787) that the governor himself, concealed in a window of his palace, watched Viga's house, and saw Bolivar's servant enter it; this man was arrested on leaving the house, and searched, a letter from Viga to Bolivar being found in his shoe. Thereupon the auditors and Zalaeta were promptly arrested.

[145] Diaz says (pp. 786, 788) that Dona Josefa "ruled her husband more than was desirable," and that "she uttered such contemptuous reproaches against the governor and the archbishop, as she was a very resolute and spirited woman, and extremely haughty and fearless," that the governor felt obliged to send her into banishment.

[146] Regarding Herrera's arrest, see note 63, ante, p. 159.

[147] This and several other documents that are unsigned are presented here—accepting them as credible, on account of their evident authenticity—in order to fill out the relation of the Pardo controversy with relations made at the time, and by participants in those events. All except the final extract from Salazar are obtained from Ventura del Arco's transcripts from MSS. in the collection of Jesuit papers that was seized by the Spanish government when it expelled that order from Spain and her colonies.

[148] Spanish, missas de Aguinaldo means "a Christmas or New Year's present;" the word is derived, according to Echegaray's Diccionario general etimologico (Madrid, 1887), from the Celtic word eguinand, of the above meaning. Evidently these masses were made the vehicle for heathen allusions or symbols, if not for actual rites.

[149] This was the treasurer (and afterward cantor) of the cathedral, Jeronimo de Herrera y Figueroa.

[150] This was the Dominican friar Francisco Villalba.

[151] Pardo was sent to Lingayen, "certainly not to give him the consolation of residing among his brethren of the order, but to keep him under the authority of the notorious Don Francisco Pizarro, bishop of Vigan [i.e., of Nueva Segovia], with whom he had just had an annoying controversy" (Resena biografica, i, p. 476).

[152] "Under penalty of 4,000 pesos; on the ground that his spiritual jurisdiction was suspended and barred, by virtue of his banishment" (Diaz, Conquistas, p. 762).

[153] "The dean opened all the prisons of his tribunal, liberating all the prisoners therein—although among these there were several bigamists; and one who was not only a heretic but a leader of heretics. For, among other heresies which he taught, one was that God had a beginning, [a doctrine] which only very learned men understood. Another was a prebend whom his illustrious Lordship held as a recluse in our college, for heinous and atrocious crimes, whose final end was a sentence of degradation, and delivery to the secular arm; the dean settled this case, without examining the documents in the case (which they did not find), by condemning him to six months of banishment to a country house of recreation." (Salazar, Hist. Sant. Rosario, p. 242.)

[154] "They say, peace, peace: when there was no peace" (Jeremias 6: 14).

[155] Salazar gives some instances of this (p. 245): in the Dominican churches the minister refused to say mass until certain persons who had injured or offended ecclesiastics should go out of the consecrated walls.

[156] Salazar states (pp. 246-249) that the provincial Calderon was making his visitation in Cagayan at the time of Pardo's banishment; that on his return to Manila (September, 1683) he called a council of the most prominent Dominicans, and asked their opinions as to Pardo's exile, the government by the cabildo, and their own duty toward those concerned in these events; and that, in accordance with their decision, he ordered all his friars to remain in their convents, and hold no intercourse with those persons.

[157] Salazar here alludes to the relation of all these ecclesiastical affairs in the first part of his history, pp. 224-268. As it is so long and detailed, we have preferred to use here the account which he gives in his biography of Pardo; but have preserved, in our annotations, the most important and interesting matter found in the former one.

[158] Thus in the text, but it should read "forty-eighth." Salazar there relates how Vargas, "in the same year in which he banished the archbishop," suffered the confiscation at Acapulco of all the goods that he had shipped, "with little credit to his reputation and notable expense to his estate;" and, as excommunicated by the Church, Vargas had much to atone for and to suffer until his death. The auditor Grimaldos died, soon after Pardo's banishment, "from a painful disease, in which the tongue with which he had spoken so much evil of his illustrious Lordship became rotten, and the arm with which he had seized the anointed of the Lord was withered." The auditor Viga, who went to seize the Dominican provincial, Calderon, died in exile, in Cagayan, without having consented to make his confession. He and his colleague Bolivar had been sent there "for a certain sedition which they were plotting" against Cruzalaegui. [Murillo Velarde says (fol. 344) that they were plotting to put Zalaeta in the governor's place.] The wife of Bolivar "died at Orion, impenitent, unwilling to confess; when her husband heard of this, he performed condign penitence for his sins, and publicly professed his detestation of his transgressions, and thus he gained absolution from the censures—but, returning from his exile, he died on the way." Calderon "also died very suddenly, although at the hour of death he acknowledged his errors, and, to secure absolution from the censures, made the usual profession of detestation." The fiscal Alanis, "the only one who experienced, while living, the punishment from the king our sovereign which deprived of their offices all the members of the royal Audiencia, died in Mexico in great poverty and humiliation. The same fate befell the usurping dean," Miguel Ortiz de Covarrubias. The cantor Figueroa was sentenced to degradation, and to be delivered to the secular powers, "which was afterward commuted, for valid reasons, to perpetual banishment to the Marianas Islands, where he ended his days in a thousand miseries." The bishop of Cagayan died so suddenly that he could not be confessed or absolved. The Jesuit Ortega died at sea, while en route to Madrid to complain of Pardo; and although he received the viaticum, his mind was so occupied, first and last, with accusations against the archbishop, that he scandalized all the people in the ship. He died practically an excommunicate, not having rendered his accounts for the executorship to the archbishop, and having been absolved only by "the usurping Dean, who had no jurisdiction." "The two soldiers who carried out the father provincial died suddenly," being stabbed to death, one by an infidel Chinese, the other on leaving the house of his mistress. A man who wounded the provisor—in trying to murder him; his name was Manuel Ortafan, and his wife had brought suit against him for divorce, before the ecclesiastical tribunal (Diaz, Conquistas, p. 766)—was sentenced to a short exile; "but God was not satisfied with that light punishment, and accordingly took upon Himself vengeance against that man, afflicting him with leprosy. This made him blind, and he finally reached the utmost poverty, begging alms, with a boy to guide him, before the gates of the convents."

The spirit of this account is echoed—rather curiously, for so late a date as 1891—in Resena biografica, i, pp. 478-480.

[159] Pardo offered to his Dominican province the sum of thirteen thousand pesos, to be used as endowment for three chairs—law, medicine, and pharmacy—and for some scholarships in Santo Tomas; but the gift was declined, as the province was neither able nor willing to take the responsibility of administering in (Resena biografica, i, pp. 477, 478.)

[160] In the Ventura del Arco MSS. (iii, p. 761) is an extract from a letter by the Jesuit Pedro Cano, dated May 26, 1690, which says: "On December 31, 1689, they found Archbishop Pardo dead in his bed, sine cruce et sine luce, without any sacrament, through the negligence of the people of his household and his own confidence that he was to live a long time. For some days all his body had been swollen, and he said that, thanks to the Lord, he was gaining flesh. In the agonies of death, he called to his servants, who were buried in sleep; no one heard him except Don Juan de Cazorla, a cleric whom the archbishop kept a prisoner under his own apartment, in fetters—who did not dare to go upstairs, lest the archbishop should learn that his fetters were removed at night. The prelate's body, wrapped in a loose gown, was carried to the house where Auditor Grimaldos died; and from there to Santo Domingo, where four days later it was buried."

[161] He came with commission to bring suit against the auditors who had banished the archbishop.

[162] He had died toward the end of the year 1683, aged more than seventy years.

[163] Nicolas Cani was born in 1611, a Sardinian by nation; and became a Jesuit novice March 27, 1628. In 1653 he entered the Philippine missions, and labored in the Visayan Islands. Murillo Velarde states (fol. 367 b) that he was unable to learn further particulars as to Cani's life and ministries, except vague statements as to his admirable character and some few incidents in which he figured. The date of his death is not recorded, but signatures by him existed that were made in 1671.

[164] The letter following this says that the visitor and Audiencia reached Manila in 1687; Montero y Vidal says 1688; and Diaz's editor, 1689. It seems more probable that 1688 is the correct date, from various allusions made in these letters and by Diaz.

[165] Referring to the dispute between the two universities of San Jose and Santo Tomas; and the placing, by the latter, of the royal arms over its entrance.

[166] That is, October 19. This saint was Pedro Garavito, born at Alcantara in 1499; at the age of fifteen he entered the Franciscan order, and was ordained in 1524. In 1554 he instituted a reform, exceedingly austere and rigorous, in his order, and erected the first convent for these discalced Franciscans at Pedroso. Other houses adopted this rule, and in 1562 these reformed convents were freed by papal orders from the jurisdiction of the general of the Franciscan order. Garavito died on October 18 of that same year; he was canonized in 1669 as St. Peter of Alcantara. (Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints, xii, pp. 487-494.)

[167] Spanish buen; but obviously used with satirical meaning.

[168] When Bolivar was arrested, he was sent to "a small fortified post in the province of Cagayan, called Tuao, where he remained until the investigating judge who came to Manila in 1688 ordered him to return [to that city], but he died on the way" (Diaz, p. 788).

[169] Andaye, a fortified town at the mouth of the Bidassoa River, which forms part of the boundary between Spain and France and empties into the Bay of Biscay. Andaye is directly opposite Fontarabia in Spain.

[170] These jars are still highly valued by the Malays; see Furness's mention of this, with photographic illustration, in his Borneo Head-Hunters, pp. 125, 126.


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