The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898—Volume 39 of 55
Author: Various
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Therefore the said province, and the said Fray Francisco de Villalva in its name, have recourse to the kindness and fervent zeal of your Majesty, with which you have always striven for the preservation and propagation of the Catholic faith; and prostrate at your royal feet he entreats that your Majesty will be pleased to take pity on so many souls and the conversions for which the religious of St. Dominic are caring and in which they are laboring in the said Filipinas Islands. They ask that you will grant to the said province forty religious, [31] and a suitable number of lay brethren; and to the petitioner permission to conduct them thither in his company, and the necessary supplies for him and them, so that on the first opportunity when there is a fleet they may embark for their voyage. In this, God our Lord will regard himself as well served; and that poor and remote province will be anew constrained, in return for this favor and grace, to continue its prayers and sacrifices for the life and health of your Majesty, and for the welfare and increase of your entire monarchy.


Diary of new events in Filipinas, from June, 1686 to June in 87

On June 11, 1686, the galleon "Santo Nino" discovered, twenty-two leguas from the island of San Juan, a new island, larger than any of those discovered in Marianas; it is named San Bernabe, because it was discovered on the day of that saint.

On July 11 the bells were rung in Manila for the arrival of the galleon "Santa Rosa."

On the twelfth they hanged five Sangleys, who were found guilty in the mutiny.

On the fourteenth news came that all the people who were in the lancha that lost its course in Marianas had safely reached port in Cagayan.

On the eighteenth the courier [32] arrived with the mail.

On the nineteenth the auditor Don Diego Calderon died.

On the second of August, Licentiate Don Rafael Tome, a student in San Jose, died.

On the twenty-seventh, the sloop for Marianas sailed from Cavite; and Fathers Diego de Zarzosa and Jacinto Garcia, [33] and Brother Melchor de los Reyes, embarked in it.

On the twenty-sixth, our mail reached Manila. On the twenty-eighth, that from Roma was opened, and no [provision for our] government was found.

At the beginning of September, the Augustinians brought suit against us before the archbishop, regarding the administration of Mariquina.

On the sixth of October, Father Jose Lopez died in Palapag.

On the twelfth the father provincial, Francisco Salgado, [34] and the father rector, Luis Pimentel, [35] were notified of the judicial decision by the archbishop—who, declaring himself to be a competent judge, notwithstanding [our] challenge of his cognizance, although he had approved our licenses and our administration of the sacraments, revoked the said licenses, and decreed that no one of the Society should minister in Mariquina, [36] and that the ministry there should devolve upon the Augustinians.

On the same day, the twelfth of October, it was decided in a provincial council that the paths of government should be opened. The first was entered by Father Geronimo de Ortega, and the second by Father Juan Andres de Palavicino; but, on account of the death of both these, Father Luis Pimentel—at the time, rector of the college of San Ignacio—began to govern.

On the thirteenth of October, the armada entered the port of Cavite.

On the fifteenth, Father Antonio Jaramillo [37] began to officiate as rector of the college of Manila.

On the eighteenth of October, a decree was made known to the provisor, who had gone to Mariquina and Pasig, forbidding any official whatever of the archbishopric from taking action in matters pertaining to the lawsuit of Mariquina.

On the twenty-first, a decree was made known to the archbishop strictly charging him that he must refrain from taking action in the lawsuit of Mariquina, and that he must exhibit the records.

On the eighteenth of December, the archbishop was notified and charged not to disturb us in the Mariquina affair. On the nineteenth, a similar charge was laid upon the prior of Pasig; and another, on the twentieth, on the prior-general of the Augustinians.

On the same day, the twentieth of December, the archbishop sent a denunciation of excommunication, with the curse of God—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—and his own, and that of the apostles Peter and Paul, to the governor and to Auditor Bolivar, in order that they should not interfere in the Mariquina affair.

Year of 1687

On the twenty-first of January, 1687, General Don Juan de Zalaeta was arrested by order of the governor, and thrust into the sulphur dungeon [calabozo de azufre]. Item, they also arrested Licentiate Don Miguel de Lozama, and conveyed him, wearing two pairs of fetters, to the fort of San Gabriel. The goods of both were seized, and several of their clerks arrested.

On the twenty-second, Dona Ynes, the wife of the said Don Miguel, sent a petition to the said governor, who answered that the judge of the suit was Don Francisco Velasco, alcalde-in-ordinary. Dona Ynes came before the royal Audiencia, and that body passed an act providing that the said alcalde should, after taking the confession of the accused, present the documents within twenty-four hours. The governor, having seen this decree, issued another, prohibiting further action by the royal Audiencia, and ordering the alcalde to prosecute the case without surrendering the documents. At night the governor summoned the auditors and fiscal to a conference, and made an address to them—from which resulted, as was noticed, great fear in the auditors, who almost decided to forsake the Audiencia, and take refuge in sanctuary.

On the seventh of February, they arrested the auditor Don Diego de Viga, put him on a vessel, and conveyed him to the island of Mariveles. At the same time they made the most careful search, in order to seize the auditor Don Pedro de Bolivar; but by that time he had fled to sanctuary.

On the fourteenth of February, they took from his house, where she had remained with guards, Dona Josefa Moran de la Cueva, the wife of the auditor Don Pedro de Bolivar, and carried her into banishment at Abucay.

On the sixteenth, they also seized Dona Ynes, sister of the said Dona Josefa, and wife of Licentiate Don Miguel de Lezama, and carried her to the same place, Abucay.

On the twenty-sixth of February, the college of the Society of Jesus was surrounded [by soldiers], to remove thence the person of the auditor Don Pedro de Bolivar; and not finding him, the men remained on guard, both within and without the college, for the space of nine days. In that time they searched the house eleven times—four of these with violence, wrenching the locks from doors, and breaking open tables; but they did not find the said Don Pedro. At the end of the nine days, he showed himself, of his own accord, and they arrested him and took him to Mariveles; several days before they had removed from the said island the auditor Don Diego de Viga, and transferred him to that of Lucban.

Just about this time a new Audiencia was formed, which was thus arranged: the governor was its president; the royal fiscal became an auditor, Captain Don Jose Cervantes was judge of Audiencia, and Captain Juan de Agulo attorney-general.

On the fourth of March—the day on which [the college of] the Society was first searched with violence—the English pirate captured a sloop of the king's, which was coming from Pangasinan laden with three thousand cabans of cleaned rice. Item, he also captured a champan belonging to the alcalde of Pangasinan, which came laden with rice and other products. [38]

On the same day, the fourth of March, the archbishop sent to Mariquina to investigate whether Father Diego de Ayala was officiating as cura; the latter prevented the notary from doing so, and, when other people went to make the said investigation, he told them that they need not take that trouble—that he was acting as cura in virtue of the bull of St. Pius V and of his assignment [to that parish] by the [royal] patron.

On the fifth of March there was preaching in the royal chapel by a Recollect friar, against whom the governor issued a royal decree very sharply rebuking him, which he caused to be read to all the religious orders. A few days later, the archbishop sent an act to the prior of Pasig, ordering him to officiate as cura to the people of Cainta. [39]

About Christmas, the royal magazines in Panay were burned, and in them some six thousand cabans of rice. On the first of March, Saturday, the Augustinians set fire to the cottage on the ranch which the college of the Society of Jesus at Yloilo owns in Suaraga. On the following Saturday, March 8, fire visited the Augustinians, destroying a visita, a church and convent, and more than forty houses in the village. Item, and the following Saturday, March 15, the church and house were burned in the village of Dumangas, without their being able to save their valuables, or to prevent the burning of the pious offerings [colectas] of Cebu, which had been stored [in that convent]; and, besides this, more than two thousand cabans of rice.

On the sixteenth of March, Passion Sunday, while Father Diego de Ayala was saying mass in the village, the church was entered by armed men, with Bachelor Teodoro de Aldana, the notary of the archbishop; the prior of Pasig, with two laymen; and other people. After mass was ended, they read to the Indians an act by the archbishop, which commanded them, under penalty of flogging and the galleys, to appear within three days before the prior of Pasig, resorting to the latter for religious ministrations, and to repeat the sacraments.

On the seventeenth of March, the father procurator, Antonio de Borja, [40] presented a petition to the governor that he, as vice-patron, should take measures regarding the violent spoliation which the archbishop had inflicted on the Society. The governor referred the petition to the royal fiscal, as being his Lordship's counselor, but the said fiscal excused himself. Then it was referred to Doctor Cervantes, to Fray Francisco de Santa Ynes, and to many other persons, both ecclesiastics and laymen, but all excused themselves; and in these proceedings much time passed, so that it was the end of May before anything was accomplished.

On the nineteenth of March, in the afternoon, the secretary came to deliver in behalf of the royal court a verbal message to the father procurator [sic] Antonio Jaramillo, advising him of the oversight of the preacher, who that morning in the sermon—at which the governor and the king's fiscal were present—had omitted to use the phrase, "very potent sir." The same message was sent to the superiors of the other religious orders, because, several days before, the prior of St. Augustine and another religious, a Dominican, had fallen into the same offense, when preaching in the royal chapel.

On the twenty-seventh of March, Holy Thursday, the monument [41] of the Tagalogs in the church of Santo Domingo was burned. On the twenty-eighth, Good Friday, there was a fire in Binondo and part of Tondo; and one thousand two hundred and sixty houses were destroyed—two hundred and fifty-eight in the village of Tondo, and one thousand and two in that of Binondo. Thirteen persons were burned to death, and many others escaped only with serious injuries. The fire caught three times in the church of Binondo, but the Indians of San Miguel and Dilao put it out.

On the twelfth of April the archbishop demanded aid from the governor, and with it arrested the cantor Don Geronimo de Herrera, and placed him in the fort of Santiago. Soon afterward, the governor caused the arrest of Don Juan de Cordoba and one Carcano, respectively procurator and receptor in the royal Audiencia; and afterward, on the twentieth of April, of Blas de Armenta, secretary of the court, and of Captain Diego de Vargas and others.

On the twenty-second of April Father Ferragut died in the college.

On the eighteenth of April, Domingo Diaz came to give the father rector, Antonio Jaramillo, a copy of a petition by the Augustinians; the father rector, before he knew that the said Domingo Diaz had come, had made, in scriptis [i.e., in writing], his protest of incompetency of the judge, and of challenge and appeal.

On the twenty-third of April, the father procurator, Antonio de Borja, sent to the archbishop a document in which was set forth in due form the said protest, challenge, and appeal. He also presented to the governor a petition that he would give proper attention to the disturbance which the Society had suffered, and the injury inflicted on the royal patronage.

On the twenty-eighth of April, Domingo Diaz came again to give Father Borja a copy of another petition from the Augustinians, who said that the challenge and appeal which he had interposed were of no force.

On the fourth of May, they brought Captain Mateo Perea under arrest from the Lake [of Bay], and left him in his own house with guards. On the sixth of May, Domingo Diaz came to make known to Father Borja an act of the archbishop—who declaring that there was no occasion for the challenge and appeal interposed, commanded that the parties should make their complaint; and that within six days the documents for the sentence should be brought to his illustrious Lordship. On the tenth of May, Father Antonio Borja presented before the royal Audiencia a plea of fuerza, in order that he might make known the injury which the archbishop had done to the Society and the royal patronage.

On the fourteenth of May, Domingo Diaz came to summon for the sentence of the archbishop the father rector, Pedro de Oriol, [42] who replied that he did not regard himself as summoned, or acknowledge his illustrious Lordship as a competent judge. On the same day, the fourteenth, Licentiate Don Antonio Roberto was brought a prisoner from Marinduque; and they placed him in the provisor's house, with a pair of very heavy fetters.

On the fifteenth of May, the father rector, Pedro de Oriol, presented a petition to the governor, asking him to issue a juridical testimony of his recourse [to the Audiencia] with a plea of fuerza; and that notification be sent to the archbishop that his illustrious Lordship must not take any further action until the royal court should decide what must be done.

On the seventeenth of May, Domingo Diaz came to make known the sentence of the archbishop, which declared that the Augustinians were the lawful parish priests of Mariquina, and that the sacraments administered by the fathers of the Society since October 12, 1686, had no force. The reply to all was, [that such proceeding was] null, and contrary to law. On the nineteenth of May, Father Borja came before the royal court a second time with a plea of fuerza. On the twentieth of May, the royal court resolved to issue a royal decree to the archbishop, commanding him to deliver up the documents in the Mariquina lawsuit.

On the twenty-third of May, they arrested the dean, Don Miguel Ortiz de Cobarrubias, by order of the archbishop; they placed him in the provisor's house, and seized his goods. At the end of May, they carried the two auditors, and soon afterward Don Juan de Zalaeta and Don Miguel de Lezama, to Cagayan, as exiles; and they were placed one in each of the four garrisons that are maintained in the said province.

On the third of June, a notary came from the archbishop with a petition from the Augustinians, who were asking his illustrious Lordship to confirm the sentence that he had pronounced. Father Borja made a reply, more than two sheets in length.

On the fifth of June, a royal decree was made known to the archbishop that he must exhibit the documents in the Mariquina lawsuit, and his illustrious Lordship said that he would reply and would send the papers—which were in regard to the value of the sacraments.

On the eighth of June the archbishop held a consultation with the royal Audiencia, asking its aid to arrest and punish Fathers Diego de Ayala and Pedro Cano. [43] Up to today, June 24, the archbishop has not exhibited the documents in the Mariquina lawsuit.

News of this year of 1688 and part of the last one, with an appendix of other points

1. The ship "Santo Nino" which sailed from Cavite last year, 1687, put back to the port of Bagatao, to the grief of everyone—not only on account of the deterioration of property and the very considerable damages, but also this greatly delayed the remedy which is needed by the public calamities and the oppression under which this colony lies. The ship's return to port is attributed to the excessive lading which it carried, to careless arrangements and lack of proper outfit, and to the undue timidity of those who had charge of the vessel.

2. The Recollect fathers made a raid through the lands of Silang, which they call Alipaopao, Oyaye, Malinta, etc.; and, trying to adjudge them to the ranch of Sarmiento, which they had recently bought through the agency of General Endaya, they committed unheard-of atrocities in the houses and grain-fields of the Indians—burning and ravaging them as furiously and horribly as if an army of Camucones had raided them. The Indians lost, as appears from a juridical statement that was drawn up, more than three thousand pesos.

3. A Dominican friar in Cagayan refused to absolve a Spaniard at the hour of death, in spite of all his entreaties for absolution. Although the friar had begun to hear his confession, the dying man could not proceed with it, being stopped by the nausea which comes at death, and he therefore died without absolution. I do not know all the circumstances in this case.

4. Another friar in the same province refused to absolve Auditor Don Diego de Viga, unless he would first express I know not what protestations and detestations. The auditor replied that, for what concerned the banishment of the archbishop, his conscience had not given him any uneasiness, because he had understood that he acted in regard to it in accordance with the laws and decrees of our king a sovereign so Catholic as is that of Espana; and that in affairs in which he had felt scruples, and had proceeded according to human judgment, there was nothing for which to employ the friar's zeal, and still less occasion for his trying to have him make those detestations and protestations. Nevertheless, the friar persisted [se estuvo en sus trece] in refusing to absolve him; and Don Diego, embracing the holy Christ and uttering fervent acts of contrition, said that he appealed to the mercy of God, and thus he died. He was buried in consecrated ground, although afterward, it is reported, the archbishop sent orders that his bones should be disinterred, and removed from consecrated ground.

5. Dona Josefa de la Cerda, the wife of Auditor Bolivar, died [44] in her exile, from anxiety and grief and despair. She asked for a confessor from the Society, which was not granted to her. The Dominican friar who served as parish priest in the village where she was an exile refused to absolve her unless she would comply with certain conditions, with which those fathers are wont to fetter and hinder souls. She was not minded to comply with these, or to make her confession to a religious of that order; and while a Franciscan who had been granted to her was on his way, she died. They spread the report that she had died impenitent, and buried her on the seashore.

6. The archbishop, since he came back from his exile, has not ceased to wage war on this city. He demanded aid for arresting the religious of the seraphic father St. Francis, who preached in favor of the royal patronage; item, for arresting those who were ministering in Mariquina, the fathers of the Society; item, for seizing Father Cano; and all these acts proceed from the fury and partiality of Father Verart.

7. The bishop of Sinopolis died, and orders were given that he be buried in [the church of] the Society of Jesus. This the archbishop and his friars took so ill that the latter refused to go to his funeral and burial, to the surprise and scandal of the whole city; and the archbishop prevented the cabildo from paying the last honors to the bishop in the church of the said order, declaring that it was polluted by [containing] the remains of Senor Grimaldos, who in the opinion of the said fathers died excommunicate.

8. The archbishop forcibly took from the fathers of the Society the administration of the village of Cainta and Jesus de la Pena, and gave it to the Augustinian fathers—thus revenging himself on those of the Society, whom he regarded as enemies; and for this cause he commanded them to tear down their buildings at Jesus de la Pena, to the foundations—the governor aiding him in this atrocious act, contrary to the laws and privileges of the royal patronage.


1. The goods which the governor shipped as contraband, of which the accountant made a written statement, are two hundred and thirty-five packages.

2. The vessels which Endaya has built, with the authority that he possesses, are two pataches and a champan.

3. The amount which the governor received from the Marques de la Laguna, at Santa Rosa, was one hundred thousand pesos.

4. What the governor did with Blas Rodriguez [45] on account of the quantity of gold taels which he gave him.

5. Of the Dominican friar who went to look at the bulls of Don Fernando, that he might enter as a Franciscan.

6. How not even this gentleman has escaped from the anger of the archbishop and Verart.

7. Of the inundation in Cagayan; of the locusts, famine, earthquakes, and drouths; of disturbances, etc. [46]

8. Of the rosary entirely made of silver coins, [47] one hundred and fifty thousand in number, which, it is said, the blessed Dominican fathers gave to the governor.

9. Of the imprisonment of Roberto; and why and how the provisor went, with great clatter of weapons and constables, to arrest a brother of the Society.

10. How Father Pedroche, who had been banished from these islands, escaped from Acapulco, and came back dressed as a Recollect.

11. Of the Dominican friar who killed another in Cagayan. [48]


Brief relation of events in the city of Manila, in the Filipinas Islands

The fiscal of the royal Audiencia of these islands, Licentiate Don Diego Viga, received two letters and an official report, with many depositions of witnesses, which were sent to him by the alcalde-mayor of the province of Ilocos. [49] These letters and documents were to the effect that by the continued residence of Bachelor Sebastian Arqueros de Robles, ecclesiastical head of the bishopric of Nueva Segovia, in the village of Vigan (which is the capital of the said province of Ilocos)—under the pretext of ministering ad interim to the natives of the village of Bangues, [50] which had for many years remained vacant—the natives were becoming uneasy and disturbed. This was hindering in the exercise of their duties not only the officers of justice, but also Licentiate Diego de Espinosa Maranon, the proprietary beneficed cura of the said village of Vigan, with whom the said acting bishop had notorious disputes. [According to the aforesaid documents], all the trouble arose from the fact that the said ecclesiastical ruler maintained his brothers and relatives in the said village, who with his authority and presence there were causing notable injuries and annoyances; and a decree was asked from the royal Audiencia, providing that the said acting bishop should nominate in the usual form persons for presentation to the benefice of Bangues, and that he should change his residence to the capital of his diocese, [51] and should not live at the village of Vigan, except during the period which is allowed to the ecclesiastical visitors by the holy Council.

This royal decree was accordingly issued, and the said acting bishop replied that his residence in the village of Vigan was by the order and command of the archbishop, and that he had no way in which to fulfil the decree; and he presented the warrant and order which he held for the said residence, and some informal certificates by a few religious. This royal Audiencia, considering the disturbances and troubles which might result from issuing the second royal decree, ordered that it be temporarily suspended; and that meanwhile the president, governor, and captain-general should discuss and confer with the archbishop as to measures for securing peace, and those most expedient for a good example to the community.

This verbal reply [52] which the said archbishop gave to the said governor gave occasion for the issue of a royal decree that the said archbishop should command the ecclesiastical ruler of Nueva Segovia to go to reside at the capital of his bishopric; but the latter would not obey, excusing himself with various pretexts. The said archbishop and his attorney-general [promotor fiscal] repeatedly urged that he be furnished with certified copies of the acts in virtue of which the royal decrees had been issued; and in the last petition, presented by the said attorney-general, he inserted the following clause:

"In order that his Majesty may apply the needed corrective, and remove the violence and oppression experienced by the ecclesiastical jurisdiction; for, if one of its ministers attempts to administer justice to a subordinate, the culprit finds shelter in the royal Audiencia—not only to free himself from ecclesiastical justice, but also that they may begin legal proceedings against, and even exile, his superior and judge, who rightly desires and strives to punish him. And all the above was made evident by the aforesaid acts; and it has come to our knowledge through trustworthy persons that, in the petitions which were presented for the issuance of the said decrees, the respect due to the archbishop and to his high office was forgotten; and that, in the investigations which were made for this purpose, inquiries were directed into the hidden faults of ecclesiastical persons, and attempt had been made to punish them with the first of the said decrees, without punishing the chief authors [of those evil acts], who were laymen. Moreover, decrees had been issued only against the ecclesiastical judge on account of their own hidden faults, or those of other persons, intimidating him therewith in order that he should not administer justice in future; and a satisfactory account ought to be given to the said archbishop of the reasons which had influenced this royal Audiencia to issue the decrees. After [the publication of] the royal and canonical decrees, the archbishop had a right to command the clerk of the court to give him the said copy; but for the sake of the quiet and comfort of this community, he had commanded him first to request the acts from this royal Audiencia, making the proper and necessary requisitions therefor, and asking that the said secretary of the Audiencia be ordered and commanded to give him the said copy."

As it was evident that the motives which existed for the despatch of the first royal decree were still further justified by such writings, the second was issued, which the said archbishop obeyed no better; on the contrary he said, in the reply that he made to this second royal decree, that he entreated the royal Audiencia to give little hope for aid to the ecclesiastics. [53]

The royal Audiencia, influenced by the report made to it by the fiscal, and considering the disrespectful and indecorous character of the attorney-general's communication, and that it was entirely directed against the reputation and equitable procedure of the supreme tribunal and its ministers, issued a royal decree that the archbishop should punish his attorney-general, and should be warned how much he had derogated from his own dignity by having allowed such lack of respect. To this the archbishop replied that the attorney-general did not deserve punishment, because the petition had been presented by his own order and mandate.

At this time the ecclesiastical cabildo presented themselves in recourse to the royal Audiencia, with a paper signed by their dean, [54] the dignitaries, the canons, and the other prebends, imploring the royal aid against the archbishop on account of the acts of fuerza and violence which were suffered by the cabildo, its members, and all the clergy. [55] They declared that the worst of these were due to the fact that the said archbishop had at his side a religious of the Order of St. Dominic, named Fray Raymundo Verart; [56] that the archbishop had retained him, ever since he came from Spain, under the title of counselor [asesor] and director; that he had gained such influence that he directed all the actions of the said archbishop; and that his decisions were so extraordinary that he kept all minds in a state of notable disquiet—to such a degree that he even refused recourse from the acts of fuerza, endeavoring to render the jurisdiction of the archbishop absolute, and to exclude his Majesty (as represented in the Audiencia) from his highest prerogative, that of aid to his oppressed ecclesiastical vassals. They represented that the archbishop acted as an advocate in the very suits in which he was judge; that he lived outside the city, in a hospital of Sangleys [57] which is in charge of the religious of St. Dominic, from which resulted injury and delay in the despatch of business; that he could think of nothing but his friars, and behaved as one of them—for on the day of election of provincial he had rendered obedience to the father who was elected, and in the procession he walked in the fifth rank—regarding himself as first of all a friar, although he was archbishop-elect; and that he treated the cabildo and its members ill, showing aversion to them.

With this petition for relief the dean and cabildo presented a mass of records in proof of their argument, asking that decrees be issued: one for the archbishop, that he should remove from his side the said Fray Raymundo; [58] and another for the father provincial of St. Dominic, that he should send the said religious to the remote parts of the missions in charge of his order, agreeably to the purpose and vocation for which he had come to these islands at the cost of the royal exchequer.

In this matter both first and second decrees were issued for the said archbishop and the father provincial of St. Dominic, neither of whom was willing to render obedience, the archbishop returning some very uncivil answers. [59] Finally, the latter took exception to Doctor Don Diego Calderon, assigning as the cause of this proceeding his remarks about the ecclesiastical jurisdiction; he also challenged Don Diego Antonio de Viga [the fiscal] for the mode of expression which he had used in his writings. By this expedient the proceedings of the Audiencia were suspended, for lack of judges—for at that time it contained only the two gentlemen, Don Francisco de Montemayor and Don Diego Calderon—until Doctors Don Christoval de Grimaldo and Don Pedro Sebastian de Bolivar y Mena, the recently-arrived [auditors], [60] could examine the question of the said challenge. At the petition of Doctor Don Estevan Lorenzo de la Fuente y Alanis, who also had just arrived, they declared that there was no cause for it; and without doubt it would result thus, since the challenge was not sworn to, or presented, in accordance with the regulations of the royal laws. They likewise commanded that the said archbishop be requested and charged to maintain in all things friendly relations with the [royal] ministers, not only in writing to them but in speech. When he was notified of this royal decree, he gave a very sharp answer, and concluded by saying that his own behavior would be governed in accordance with the actions of the ministers, as he thus tells them in all his replies.

This royal Audiencia, considering his insolent replies and disobedience to the royal decrees, and the scandals thus caused, and that the whole arose from the influence of Father Raymundo Verart, determined, for the more thorough justification and proof of the whole matter; that an investigation should be made by the auditor Don Pedro de Bolivar, with regard to the injuries and other pernicious consequences which were being caused to the public welfare, and which gave occasion to the complaint of the ecclesiastical cabildo about the assistance rendered to the archbishop by the said father Fray Raymundo Verart—[all the more] as his illustrious Lordship had, before the said father came to these islands, conducted himself in entire harmony and most friendly intercourse with the royal Audiencia, the ecclesiastical cabildo, and the other courts. The affair being in this condition, the said father provincial, Fray Baltasar de Santa Cruz, was summoned before the royal [court in] session, where they related to him the pernicious consequences to the public welfare which were accruing from the said assistance [of Father Verart], and were steadily increasing on account of his acts of disobedience. The said provincial was admonished to the fulfilment and execution of what was charged upon him in the said two royal decrees, making him responsible for all the difficulties that might result; but he resisted them at every point, repeating his [former] replies. This bold attitude caused the Audiencia, on even more justifiable grounds, to despatch a third decree, which the said father provincial, Fray Baltasar de Santa Cruz, persisted in disobeying.

In the midst of these proceedings, another decree against the said archbishop was claimed and demanded by Bachelor Diego de Espinosa Maranon, saying that his Lordship had denied the just appeal that he had made from an act which entailed [on him] an irreparable hardship; and a royal decree was issued for him that the said archbishop must grant the said appeal; or, even if he were not obliged to grant it, his acts must be sent [to the Audiencia], in order to know whether he committed fuerza in denying the appeal. [61] The said archbishop did not obey this decree; before this, he had not, at the outset, consented to let a receptor of this royal Audiencia enter to make known to him one of its acts; and the matter was not followed up (although in this recourse they went so far as to despatch the second decree), for Bachelor Diego de Espinosa Maranon desisted from it, at the instance of certain persons.

To the above-mentioned changes and indispensable acts of assistance granted by this royal Audiencia, is added that which was secured by the illustrious bishop-elect of Nueva Segovia, Doctor Don Francisco Pizarro de Orellana, who came before the royal Audiencia, saying that the archbishop had, in the credentials which he had given to the bishop, reserved for his own cognizance the case of Bachelor Diego de Espinosa Maranon—although this was a trial in the first instance, and the said bachelor was under the bishop's parochial care and was cura of the benefice of Vigan, one of the parishes belonging to his bishopric. The said bishop requested a royal decree that the papers should be furnished to him by the said archbishop in the customary form, and that the said cases should be referred to him. In this affair they went so far as to issue the fourth royal decree; but the said archbishop did not obey one of them. [62]

The same resistance was encountered by four other royal decrees issued against the said archbishop, at the demand, and appeal from fuerza, interposed by Master Don Geronimo de Herrera y Figueroa, cantor of this holy cathedral church. He was a prisoner of the said archbishop in the college of Santo Tomas of this city, an indictment having been brought against him, charging him with being guilty of disrespect for the archiepiscopal dignity, and having at the session of the cabildo concurred in their demand for relief, [63] of which mention has been made—that the said archbishop should remove from his side Fray Raymundo Verart, and the rest that is stated above. The said Master Don Geronimo had alleged that the said archbishop was not competent to act as judge, of which exception he had notified the prelate; but the latter without settling this question—which, as pre-judicial, [64] ought to have been summarily decided—proceeded in the case. Even if he were a competent judge, he ought to proceed with the adjunct judges, [65] as ordained by the holy Council of Trent; but, [not] heeding these considerations, the said archbishop proceeded with fuerza and violence, which he wreaked on Don Geronimo's person. This case was decidedly within the cognizance of this royal Audiencia, and to its organization and civil jurisdiction belongs the removal of the fuerza with which the prelate had oppressed Don Geronimo. Upon this ground they issued the said four decrees, to attain their object, in order that the said archbishop should send them the acts, so that it might be ascertained whether or not he had committed fuerza, or else should send these with his notary; but he refused to obey the decrees.

The royal Audiencia, striving, in whatever pertained to its side, to avoid inflicting the chastisement which his actions demanded, in order to see whether their tolerance would constrain him to lay aside his arbitrary proceedings, had suspended, with the clause "for the present," the execution of the penalties of banishment which he was declared to have incurred. [66] This suspension had been attributed to negligence of the Audiencia—at which all the people were quite disconsolate; afterward it was known that the court had not acted without very deliberate resolution, which had been influenced no little by the zealous efforts of the governor; when all were hoping for a change in the sentiments of the archbishop, the courage of the auditors was still further strengthened. For the Order of the Society [of Jesus] presented an executory decree, issued by the royal and supreme Council of Indias, in regard to the precedence of the college of San Joseph over that of Santo Tomas, which is in charge of the Dominican religious—in which matter the Society has encountered much opposition from that order; they have even gone so far as to break out in threats, which the Society has seen carried out. But immediately the ecclesiastical attorney-general, with license from the archbishop (who had made legal complaint), demanded in the royal Audiencia aid and the proper documents against the decree, [67] in order that the commander of the capitana "Santa Rosa"—which had just put back through stress of weather, and had not yet reached the port—might be furnished with a warrant for the seizure of the bales [of merchandise] which, he said, were coming in the said ship on the account of the Society of Jesus. At the same time the reverend Father Francisco Salgado, provincial of the said order of the Society, came before the said royal Audiencia with a plea of appeal, on account of which the said archbishop instituted suit against that father's order, opposing the numerous privileges and bulls of exemption which aid it. While these actions were pending, and before anything had been decided in them, the said father provincial made representations that, notwithstanding the said questions were still (as I have said) unsettled, he was informed that a notary of the said archbishop had gone to the said ship on various matters of business, thus showing lack of respect to this royal Audiencia. He urged that documents should be issued, in order that no further proceedings be taken in this matter, and that the commander of the ship should not permit [the seizure of goods] until the points at issue were settled. But, although these decrees were issued, they produced no result; for, as is evident from competent testimony, the agents of the archbishop went to the said ship, on the day following that on which the attorney-general had demanded aid, and, without presenting any warrant to the commander, had undertaken and proceeded to make seizures and deposits of bales. [68] This affair was not finally decided, because it was known outside of court that the archbishop had relinquished his claims therein. [69]

In this royal Audiencia a suit was pending for a long time between Captain Don Pedro de Sarmiento y Leoz, as husband of Dona Michaela de Lisarralde [70]—daughter of Don Juan de Lisarralde, and great-granddaughter of Dona Maria de Roa, deceased, who had been executrix for the said Don Juan de Lisarralde, and guardian of the said Dona Michaela—against Father Geronimo de Ortega of the Society of Jesus (who had been executor [71] for Bachelor Nicolas Cordero, and is executor for the said Dona Maria de Roa), over the guardianship and inheritance which belonged to the said Dona Michaela, and the account which had been demanded for all the above affairs. The said father, in conformity with the acts which had been made known to him in this regard, presented the accounts in the royal Audiencia, after the appointment, acceptance, and oath-taking of auditors therefor. This suit, as stated, lasted a long time, [72] and in it came up revised acts of the said royal Audiencia ordering that all who were interested in the said executorships should prefer their claims in the said royal Audiencia. The affair being in this condition, the said captain Don Pedro Sarmiento—urged on by Licentiate Nicolas de la Vega Caraballo, [73] an ally of the archbishop—demanded before the said archbishop that the said Father Ortega should be commanded, under penalty of censure, to furnish him the said accounts. This command was laid upon him by repeated acts; nevertheless, the said father refused [the ecclesiastical] jurisdiction, since he had [the case] in a competent tribunal, pending judgment, and the said accounts had been presented—in proof of which he presented sworn statements to the said archbishop. Nevertheless, the latter persisted in ordering the said father to give him the said accounts—even going so far as to denounce him as excommunicated. The ground for this action was, that in the ecclesiastical court demand had been made by the said Don Pedro for the surrender of the bequest [74] to the said Archdeacon Cordero. Father Ortega made appeal in the proper quarter from this censure, but the archbishop refused to allow the said appeal; from this arose the recourse to royal aid from the act of fuerza in having denied to the father the said appeal and attempted to compel him to what he had no right to do—the surrender of the said accounts, which had already been presented in the said royal Audiencia. [75] On that account, and because of the very nature of the case, it was wholly within the cognizance of the royal Audiencia, and concerned laymen. For this reason, the usual royal decree was issued, in order that the notary should come to make report. This being made known to the archbishop, he made a very prolix reply, taking the ground, in very disrespectful language, that the appeal was not legitimate, and that he was not obliged to send the documents; but saying that, upon the necessary declarations, and with the stipulation that the acts should not pass into the possession of any official of the Audiencia, but must remain in the hands of his own notary, he would give orders that the latter should go to make the report, whenever the Audiencia should command it, but he must refuse to absolve the said father. The Audiencia, in order to avoid new occasions for controversy with this prelate, overlooked his imposing upon it a condition, and one which was so unusual. Domingo Diaz [76] having made the report, and noted in the course of it two false assertions—which he discovered while inspecting the acts, having read them through—the said notary went away, carrying them with him, without waiting for the opinion and decision of the said royal Audiencia on them to be affirmed. That tribunal declared the said suit, [77] and the cognizance of it, as it concerned laymen, to be altogether secular—as were also questions of guardianship, inheritance, the charge of property, dowries, and other matters of that nature; and that, by virtue of this, all [episcopal] acts regarding these questions be suspended in this royal Audiencia. As for the pious legacies contained in the said testaments, the archbishop was declared to have committed fuerza in not granting to Father Ortega the appeal which he had interposed before the delegate of his Holiness; and the Audiencia resolved that, in consequence of all the above facts, the prelate should absolve the said father, and immediately remove his name from the list of excommunicated persons, and that a royal decree [to this effect] be issued in his behalf. When this was made known to the archbishop, he gave an extremely insolent and uncivil reply, opposing the authority of this royal Audiencia, the royal jurisdiction, the governor, and the auditors. He refused to send the acts [to the Audiencia], or to absolve the said father, and declared in plain terms that he would persist in this opposition, and that the Audiencia might therefore inflict whatever violence they chose on him and his dignity.

Another instance: Sargento-mayor Don Juan Gallardo—who was chief magistrate, castellan, and commander of the seamen and sailors, in the port of Cavite (the most important port in these islands, and its command one of the highest military posts)—had a prisoner, an artillerist named Lorenco Magno. [78] The said archbishop sent him a letter of requisition, demanding that Don Juan hand over to him the said prisoner and the suit that had been brought against him; or that he should declare under oath whether or not that suit was in his hands. In this letter of requisition the archbishop did not state the cause for which his illustrious Lordship said he had accused the aforesaid [prisoner, which was] bigamy. The said castellan, moreover, noticed in it certain imperative expressions and the archbishop addressed him as vos [i.e., "you"], [79] in the manner which is customary in the royal decrees. The said castellan sent the prisoner to the archbishop, who issued another letter of requisition, in the same form as the preceding, at the petition of Francisca Ignacia, wife of the said Lorenco Magno—against whom, it was declared, he was carrying on a suit for divorce—demanding that immediately, without any delay, under penalty of excommunication and a fine of five hundred pesos, the said castellan should within three hours deliver to the notary a certified statement of the suit which he had instituted against the said Lorenco Magno. The castellan came before the royal Audiencia with his deposition regarding these two letters of requisition, demanding that the said archbishop be requested and charged to observe, in the communications that he might send to the judicial officers of his Majesty, the forms ordained by law, treating the magistrates with the courtesy due to their position. These acts having been considered in the Audiencia, a royal decree was despatched requiring that the said archbishop must, in the requisitions which he might send to the royal magistrates, treat them with due politeness, conforming to the forms of law and usage—not using imperative terms, or the word vos. When the archbishop was notified of this royal decree, he gave an answer full of uncivil, improper, and disrespectful expressions against the royal jurisdiction, the governor, and the auditors. The latter had issued an act that Doctor Don Joseph Zervantes and Master Nicolas de la Vega Caravallo should not meddle with the profession of advocate, into which they had thrust themselves—from which resulted consequences pernicious to the public welfare, since they had not taken the courses of study in the school of law. When notified of the act, they replied that the archbishop had already ordered them not to plead in secular tribunals, and the said Caravallo added that he was the only one who could issue such commands. On the following day the archbishop issued an act in opposition to that of the Audiencia, commanding that no petitions should be accepted in his court that were not signed by the said Doctor Zervantes and Master Caravallo. The fiscal, when all the replies had been shown to him, demanded that, without giving opportunity for any further acts of disobedience or disrespect, they should execute upon the person of the reverend archbishop the penalties which he had been declared to have incurred—banishment, and the loss of his secular revenue [temporalidades]; and that, for this purpose, the clause "for the present," contained in the act of October 1 in the past year of 82, be revoked and erased, and the act put into execution on May 1 of the said year [i.e., 1683]. These acts having been considered by the royal Audiencia with the attention and mature deliberation which so grave a matter demanded, it was decided that sentence of banishment should be executed on the archbishop, and that he should be sent to the village of Lingayen, in the province of Pangasinan, a village of Christian Indians in charge of the Dominican religious. This charge was committed to Doctor Don Christoval Grimaldo de Herrera and Sargento-mayor Juan de Veristain, alcalde-in-ordinary, who fulfilled it with the utmost discretion, quietness, and moderation; [80] and the archbishop was embarked in a barcoluengo, in which the forethought of the governor had provided all his kitchen equipment, with everything else that was necessary for his support and the needs of the voyage. [81]

The royal Audiencia had proceeded very cautiously, for, foreseeing the tumults or disturbances that are wont to arise on such occasions, and endeavoring to avoid whatever could serve as an incentive thereto, they recognized that the ringing of the bells in making any demonstrations might act as such incentive; and they asked the governor to command that guards be posted in the bell-tower of the church, and in the house of Master Juan Goncalez de Guzman, the provisor, so that the latter could not order any demonstration to be made while the sentence of banishment was being executed. On the same day when this was done, the royal Audiencia sent a decree to the cabildo, ordering that they should conduct themselves in all respects amicably with the royal Audiencia and the other royal officials, not allowing any acts of violence to be inflicted on the vassals of his Majesty, or hindering them from appealing to the Audiencia in cases of fuerza. The cabildo were also warned not to accept any documents of appointment from the ruler of the archbishopric, or allow him to exercise jurisdiction, until the person appointed should present himself before the royal court, where he must take the customary oath. To this decree the cabildo rendered obedience; and, the very illustrious master Don Fray Ximenez Barrientos, bishop of Troya and assistant bishop of these islands, having presented himself before the cabildo with the appointment of ruler [of the archdiocese]—which the archbishop had conferred upon him on the twenty-seventh of March, when the said archbishop was already declared an exile—he was referred by the cabildo to the Audiencia. Being present there, his appointment was, in consequence of the demand made by the fiscal that license should not be granted to him, suspended in that court, for weighty reasons there presented, and it was referred to the Council, in order that his Majesty might decide according to his pleasure; and [it was declared that] in the interim the cabildo should govern the archdiocese. [82] And here it occurs to me to remark, parenthetically, that, although the secrets and the justifiable motives of the Audiencia are inscrutable, we may regard it as probable that their principal reason for this action was their knowledge of the fact that this bishop, a few days after arriving in this city, had preached in the convent of Santo Domingo, on the day of the naval battle, [83] and the entire tendency of his sermon was to disparage the royal jurisdiction and rebuke those who would appeal to it. He said that this entire city was a university of vices, although of that he could have had no experience; and it was he who had exerted most influence on the actions of the archbishop, over and over again strengthening him in acts of disobedience [to the secular government]. The cabildo, since the Audiencia had not accepted the said bishop as ecclesiastical ruler, declared that the see was vacant by interpretation [of that act]; and the bishop of Troya replied that they could not have sent him better news, as he did not desire to take charge of other men's flocks. Thereupon he immediately went back to the convent of San Juan del Monte, outside the walls of this city; [84] and on the following day a Dominican religious set out to stir up the other religious orders (except the Society), that after sunset prayers they should ring the bells for an interdict. This was done by [the convent of] Santo Domingo. [85] [He also told them] that Master Juan Gonzalez de Guzman, provisor of the said archbishop, would post as excommunicated the dean, Master Don Miguel Ortiz de Cobarrubias, whom the cabildo had appointed ecclesiastical ruler. At this, the dean asked the governor for the aid of some infantry, to go to the convent of Santo Domingo, to which the said master had retreated, to remove him thence. This was granted; but, on going to the said convent, they encountered much opposition to their entrance, on the part of the religious. The dean was so insolently treated by them that he was obliged, in order to prevent greater troubles, to return and inform the governor and the royal Audiencia, then in session. That court issued a royal decree to notify the superiors of the religious orders that in publishing an interdict [86] they must follow the metropolitan church [matriz]; and thus was prevented a great scandal, disturbance, and popular commotion in this city—in which, since the said sentence of banishment was carried out, the utmost peace has been experienced, nor has there occurred the slightest disturbance.

I must not omit, since it is a part of this account, the following information: On Epiphany [dia de Reyes; in 1682] while the royal Audiencia were present in the holy cathedral church, a sermon was preached there by father Fray Francisco de Villalva, a Dominican religious, whose language was insolent in the highest degree. He spoke openly and expressly against the governor, the auditors, and the ecclesiastical cabildo (which he pointed out as the source of disturbances in the community), saying to the archbishop: "Let not your illustrious Lordship concern himself with the secular revenues; look to God [for maintenance]." He tried to disparage the royal jurisdiction, and rebuked appeals to the Audiencia—saying so much that he gave cause for that tribunal to send by its chaplain a message to the archbishop, asking him to order the preacher to cease. His illustrious Lordship replied that the preacher was doing his duty, and the latter, in the face of these demonstrations, went on with the sermon even to the end. Afterward, by order of the court, the auditor Don Pedro de Bolivar put the said father on a ship, to be taken to the province of Cadbalogan—in which he must remain until the opportunity should arrive, by the departure of a ship [from Manila], for him to embark for Madrid, whither the acts were to be sent. This was carried out, and, although the ship was driven back to port, he is now going on board the capitana. [87] May God conduct these affairs for our good, and preserve your Grace [88] for many years. Manila, June 15, 1683.

Juan Sanchez

A curious relation of events in the city of Manila since the arrival of the ships in the year 1684.

On the ninth of July the bells were rung for the [arrival of the] ship "Santa Rosa," with certain news that it was opposite Baco, and had brought the new governor, Admiral Don Gabriel de Curucelaegui y Arriola—who, on account of the fury of the storms, would not be able to make his entrance into this city until August 24. [On that occasion] he was received with loud applause, triumphal arches, and laudatory speeches. On that day occurred some memorable events. At five o'clock in the morning there was a severe earthquake, although it caused but little damage to the city. In the afternoon, while his Lordship, before entering through the Puerta Real, was taking the customary oath in order that the keys might be delivered to him, the horse of his Majesty's fiscal became unruly, and attacked those who were near him with kicks and bites. He who came out worst from this was the secretary whom his Lordship brought over; he was injured in one leg by some kicks, from the effects of which he suffered for several days. [89] When the governor had entered the city, and when he was about two pike-lengths from the gate, the balcony above it, which was full of people, fell; some were killed, others crippled or maimed, and others bruised. Among them were friars and lay-brothers, negroes and whites. With these events, the common people began to indulge in much gossip.

When Don Gabriel had taken possession of his government, his first act was to retire Captain Mateo Lopez Perea, and to make Captain Miguel Sanchez government secretary, quite contrary to their wishes. The second was to appoint as chief chaplain of the royal chapel the canon Master Don Pablo de Aduna, as a reward for having always withdrawn himself from the cabildo, without choosing to acknowledge it as ecclesiastical ruler. The third (and the source of many others) was to bring back our troubles, so that the whole pancake [tortilla] was turned bottom upwards—even going so far as to revoke the sentence of banishment on the archbishop, and bring him to Manila. This, as those say who understand the matter, is the most extraordinary thing that has occurred anywhere in the Spanish domain; for he was exiled for disobeying sixteen royal decrees and I have given an account to his Majesty of these sixteen points of disobedience, or [rather] this disobedience of sixteen points. The preambles of these points, or their history, required much time and no little paper; but they will be summarized as briefly as possible.

After the exile of the archbishop, the actions, conversations, and sermons of the Dominican fathers were so wild and extravagant, against the members of the Audiencia, the ecclesiastical cabildo, and the Theatins [i.e., the Jesuits], that their mildest act was to call all of the latter Pharisees or heretics, and utter other jests of that sort, even from the pulpit. Consequently the royal Audiencia felt obliged to advise its president, then Don Juan de Vargas, that he should apply a corrective to these acts. This was a royal decree, requesting and charging the [Dominican] provincial to send to the port of Cavite the friars Bartolome Marron, [90] Raimundo Verart, and P. Pedroche, [91] and to make them ready, at the cost of the order, for [the journey to] Espana; and to send to Cagayan the two lecturers in theology, Fray Juan de Santo Domingo [92] and Fray Francisco de Vargas, [93] and not allow them to leave that province without a special order from the government. The provincial answered that those religious had not done any of the things that were alleged of them except by his order, and that therefore the blame, if there were any, was his and not theirs; and that all of them were ready to die for the faith. Again he was requested and charged as before, the provincial [94] also being summoned to go to Espana, to give account of his acts. These orders were resisted, whereupon the convent was surrounded with infantry. As the provincial and Fray Pedroche refused to go out afoot, the soldiers took them from the convent, carrying them with the utmost propriety and respect, by order of the provisor, who was summoned for this function. They went away, Father Pedroche hurling excommunications, from which escaped only the alcalde-in-ordinary Pimentel, who conveyed them to Cavite, because he had given them excellent bread and pastries. At this, not only the Dominican fathers and their friends took to flight, but Quintero [95] and his barangay—especially when they saw some embarked for Espana, and others for Cagayan. Then, the news of the change in government having come, was begun the fabrication of a scheme or plot, well covered up, as follows:

They fully persuaded the governor that this [96] one was a schismatic—as it were, another Inglaterra in the time of Henry VIII; and, to forward their schemes—as he had, before all the religious orders, recognized the cabildo as ecclesiastical ruler—they persuaded the father provincial of St. Augustine, Father Jose Duque, to render, and command all his friars to render, obedience to the bishop of Troya [97]—who had been nominated as head of the diocese by the archbishop, but whose appointment the royal Audiencia had suspended. The father provincial did so, in a circular letter sent to all the friars of his order, arousing the resentment that might be expected in the ecclesiastical cabildo, and much more in the royal Audiencia.

As soon as the news of the ship arrived, the Troyan wrote and made public a document with this title: "Advice to those who come as strangers to these islands, that they may not err in their judgment of things pertaining to the banishment of the archbishop." This paper had no solidity, and answer to it was made in another, in which the former was utterly demolished [98] with sharp arguments. The provincial made another reply, over his signature, of the same quality as the former document, but with not slight attacks on the authority and patronage of our king. On the same day when the governor entered the city [i.e., August 24] in the afternoon, on that morning came into Manila Fray Bartolome Marron (who went about secretly), and Fathers Juan de Santo Domingo and Juan de Vargas, who were the lecturers exiled to Cagayan; the latter went publicly through the city, scorning the royal authority by which they were exiled. Immediately began the intrigue—which, according to report, came already planned from Mejico.

The governor questioned the religious orders, requesting and charging them to answer the points that go with this letter, which were set forth by the bishop of Troya. The fathers of St. Francis in their paper declared themselves for the king our sovereign, and approved what had been done by the royal court. The Augustinian fathers said, "Viva Troya!" [99] with a document full of depositions—some made by so evil a brain as that of Fray Raimundo Verart (but signed by the father provincial Duque); some by two stray (that is, recently arrived) lecturers, one of whom confessed that he had never heard of the works of Solorzano; and the last who signed the paper was Fray Gaspar de San Agustin, the procurator-general, who on account of being learned in grammar, thought that, as versed in the art of Nebrija [100] (who was an auditor), it was the same to know how to conjugate past tenses as to comprehend futures. [101] The Recollect fathers followed their brethren, but with so few depositions that I judge the number did not reach the plural of the Greeks. [102] This paper was much commended, and it is something which I admired, knowing that it was the work of their provincial, Fray Ysidro; and when it was seen it was recognized as his by the style and manner of expression—the stamp of the pulpit, which is that [vocation] for which God has given him grace. The Theatins evaded a reply, recognizing the game (or rather flame) [juego, o fuego] that was being started; but they say that in their apology they explained this omission, and expressed their opinions with no little care—saying that they were ignorant of what had passed in the sessions of the royal court; and that, as it was to be inferred that the royal Audiencia had informed his Majesty of everything, they could not pass judgment on those acts.

These papers, or collections of papers, were going about, when the Troyan plunged in medias res and decided the question. One Sunday morning at five o'clock, he went with his notary Caraballo, and fiscals, and an escort of soldiers, and entered all the churches (except the cathedral), where he published himself as ecclesiastical ruler, and commanded that they should not recognize the cabildo as such. To this [he added] the penalty of major excommunication and of being considered schismatics, if they did not go to render obedience within three days; and he left posted in all the churches copies of his act. [103] This was an action so extraordinary that, if this were a town of the common people, a riot would have occurred. All the members of the ecclesiastical cabildo repaired to the governor, who received them with scant welcome, and without giving them the title of "Lordship," [Senoria] which is their due when they appear officially as the cabildo. He told the dean to tell his story; and when the latter replied that that cabildo was not going to tell stories, the governor again told him to go on with his story. They told him in few words what had occurred, and what had just been done; but when they again told him that the bishop of Troya had taken with him an escort of soldiers, he said that he had no knowledge of such a thing. In conclusion, they stated that by three royal decrees they had been charged with the government [of the see]; and that he should give them another decree, commanding them to surrender it to the bishop of Troya, or that he should approve the bishop's appointment, and immediately they would surrender the government to him; and with that they went away. Immediately the governor held a session (or rather sessions) of the Audiencia, which lasted three days; and at the end of that time "the mountain brought forth," [104] by a majority of votes. It resulted that, at ten o'clock at night, there was a peal of bells, as if for a ship from Castilla; and the members of the cabildo, escorted by many personages, went to render obedience to the Troyan. He informed them that he could not absolve them unless they would swear obedience to the archbishop, which they must also render to his provisor, Juan Gonzalez, on their knees, asking his pardon for the injuries that they had done him, and making amends for the losses that he had suffered. When they resisted, laymen came in among them and undertook to surround them (as they did); and after they fell on their knees they placed their hands on the missal, and, as good men who stood in fear of God, they were granted absolution, but ad reincidentiam, until the archbishop should decree what would be most expedient. On another day the Troyan was received in the cathedral, with military display, the long ringing of the bells, etc.

The governor, who had already decided to restore the archbishop to his see [105]—but without showing the least indication of rehabilitating the royal jurisdiction, and establishing obedience to what had been commanded—despatched General Don Tomas de Andaya and Sargento-mayor Don Gonzales Samaniego [106] for his illustrious Lordship; they were accompanied by the Dominican father Fray Baltasar de Santa Cruz.

His illustrious Lordship came here, and was received with military display, a salvo of artillery, etc. He entered the city clad in his pontifical robes, and went to the palace of the governor, who was awaiting him; [107] they remained a short time in conversation, the governor straitly charging him [to maintain] peace. Then he went to his own house, where he found the superiors of the religious orders, who also had gathered in the cathedral with many other religious to welcome him. He remained two days within Manila, and, without visiting the superiors, or returning their visit to him, he contented himself with calling on Generals Tejada, Andaya, and Quintero; and he crossed, near San Gabriel, to the house of Don Francisco de Atienza, who is sargento-mayor of the army.

Everyone promised himself an Octavian peace; but in ten or twelve days war made its appearance, and the more experienced were continually in dread. On the twenty-eighth of November, the eve of the feast of the table of the blessed sacrament, notification was sent to the cabildo, the superiors of the religious orders, and all the curas and missionaries within and without the walls, that no one should admit into any of their churches the auditors, Don Juan de Vargas Hurtado, and many other persons, both citizens and military officers, [108] as having incurred the penalties in the bull De la cena. At this the entire community felt as the pious reader can understand, recognizing that the royal authority had been trampled under foot and outraged—and the more so, that some persons who promptly came to him for absolution were required to swear upon the holy gospels that they would never aid in the banishment, exile, or imprisonment of an ecclesiastic, even though this be ordered by the king himself, in person. Thereupon, they frankly declared that they would not take such an oath, and returned to their homes, scandalized at such a reply. Those who most resented this stroke were the auditors, especially as, on the following day, when their platform was already placed in the cathedral, and all had resolved to go there, the archbishop sent them a message that they should suspend their attendance there for a time, until these affairs were adjusted. Thereupon, coram omni populo [i.e., "in the presence of all the people"] who had gathered to see what was going on, the platform was removed [from the cathedral]. The auditors keenly resented this; but since they are to blame in having done what they could not be forced to do, let them pay the penalty.

The governor astonished at a thing so unexpected, again questioned the religious orders, in the strictest manner, on various points; the principal of these was in regard to the royal ministers [comision], whether or not they had incurred censure by having acted according to the laws of his Majesty—which was the same as inquiring whether the said laws were just or unjust. The Augustinians and Recollects evaded answering this. The Franciscans were doubtful; but, learning that the Jesuits had answered and publicly declared that now was the time to stand by our king and give blood and life for him, and that they all would do so in what was not contrary to the law of God, the fathers of St. Francis were also encouraged, and they came to the same resolution. The Theatins gave notice of their decision to the governor; but they told him that sometimes it was necessary to make the occasion and whet the blade; and, since now they were drawing the sword, they would strike a sure blow and draw blood. Considering the feelings of the Audiencia, and its embarrassed condition, they sent one of their fathers even to its hall of assembly, to make known their resolution to the auditors; those gentlemen were much relieved, and thanked the Jesuits for their courtesy. This was made known throughout the city, and the people expected that this document would be circulated; but it seems that the threat alone was as effectual as the stroke could have been. For, at the instance of the governor, his illustrious Lordship went to the royal court on the sixth day of December, on which was celebrated the fiesta of St. Francis Javier; and, as the result of his visit, the session was closed and all [the auditors] went to the fiesta, to the great joy of the entire city. We do not know what occurred in the session of the Audiencia; [109] only one [writer] mentions that its members were absolved, and others state, more explicitly, that the absolution was only given in the archbishop's mind, and explained by himself with a sort of benediction. It seems that, as a result, they put an end to the lawsuits; but, when the water stopped falling, it rained pebbles.

On Saturday, December 10, the ecclesiastical cabildo, which had governed the see, was notified of all these matters, and that it must be regarded as suspended and under censure [110] for having accepted the government. At the same time, edicts were posted making null all the confessions made to the members of the cabildo or to those persons to whom they had given license [to hear confessions], and all other things that had been effected by their authority—as marriages, [the bestowal of] chaplaincies and curacies, etc. [111] These edicts commanded that, under penalty of major excommunication, latae sententiae, all [persons concerned] should present themselves within six days, with the documents and other papers [in the case]; [112] thereupon many men who were dissatisfied with their wives, and women tired of their husbands, tried to find other spouses who were more congenial. The scruples of people regarding their confessions may well be imagined; and this, too, when Lent was past. But the most astute (although harsh) measure was the command, under the same penalty, that no one should speak, assert, or teach anything contrary to the tenor of the said edict. The Dominican fathers, moreover, even said in the pulpits, when exultant tanquam victores capta preda, [113] that there is no person in these islands, except the Dominican religious, who has the ability or learning to make a decision in a case of morals. Thus the poor prebends are suspended; nor have they any recourse, since the royal Audiencia is now disarmed. The archbishop proceeded to welcome them with much kindness, telling them that now they came to his illustrious Lordship, because they had recourse in no other direction—words which have aroused much comment, as being insulting to the king and inimical to his royal patronage; and he added, that they deserved to be degraded from office and handed over to the secular power. Above all, he tried to deprive them of their prebends, and to thrust into the cathedral that dealer in fireworks, Caraballo, and others of that stamp. The worst is, that he declares that they cannot be dispensed from their irregular administration [of the see]—nor can appeal be taken to the delegate of his Holiness, or to any other—by any bishop of these islands, since all four are Dominicans and follow the lead of the archbishop; and all the four cities and bishoprics of these islands are entirely unsettled with lawsuits and excommunications at every step. No attention is paid to the officials of his Majesty, the more discreet of whom acquiesce. It is necessary to apply a very exemplary corrective; for they [i.e., the ecclesiastical authorities] have gone to such an extreme that to issue royal decrees to them is the same as to throw caps at the tarasca. [114] They act with contempt for the royal authority, which even the most remote barbarians fear and reverence.

On the first of December was published the residencia of Don Juan de Vargas Hurtado; and a fortnight later the city challenged the judge of residencia, by saying that it was conducted with fraud, as the said judge was bribed. The challenge was admitted, and he named for his associate Senor Calderon; as the latter declined, he named Senor de Viga, and then Senor Bolivar, both of whom did the same. The judge continued to nominate other persons, and all excused themselves. [115] As a result, it seems, Don Juan de Vargas was anchored to his island [116] for several years. He himself has caused this, since he has not the dexterity to apply a curb of silver with the royal arms to Captain Quintanilla, the scrivener of the residencia—who still endeavors to urge it on, although he does not lead the plot.

A second embassy came from Borney; and General Don Juan de Morales is going with the title of ambassador, to establish peace at once. [117] They say a Theatin will accompany him, to pave the way for introducing the faith into that kingdom.

The commander [of the galleon] for Castilla is Don Francisco Zorrilla; the sargento-mayor, Don Bernardo de Andaya; the chief pilot, Lazcano. [Here is the list of] alcaldes-mayor: Of Tondo, Don Pedro Lozano; of Pampanga, Samaniego; of Bulacan, Armijo; of Bay, Don Antonio de Ortega; of Balayan, Don Juan Antonio de Tabara; of Tayabas, Captain Conde; of Albay, Captain Ariola; of Pangasinan, Arcega; of Ylocos, the former sargento-mayor of Cavite; of Calamianes, Don Alonso de Leon; of Mindoro, Prada; of Panay, Don Agustin Crespo; of the island of Negros, Captain Adriano; of Caraga, Captain Blas Rodriguez. For accountant of his Majesty, Juan del Pozo y Gatica; for castellan of Cavite, Don Alonso de Aponte; for sargento-mayor of that port, Francisco Sanchez.

Considerable is being done on the galleon in Sorsogon, where the "Santelmo" was wrecked; they say that General Don Tomas de Andaya will go there for its construction, with title of lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief for Mariveles; he is in high favor with the governor.

The bishop of Sinopolis is coming from Cebu, his patience quite exhausted with the follies and impertinences of Don Diego de Aguilar, who has worn out that unfortunate community with his extravagant actions, all originating in his insatiable greed. The ecclesiastical ruler of Cagayan is the bishop of Troya.

On the twenty-third of December the members of the cabildo came again to cast themselves at the feet of the archbishop; and, after a long harangue of misereres and entreaties, he replied to them by asking if they were not ashamed to show their faces, and other things of the like sort, in the tone of a tercerilla, [118] and then left them. It may well be imagined with what joy they must have celebrated the Christmas feasts.

The evil genius of the archbishop at present is Fray Juan Ybanez, otherwise named de San Domingo; he is the lecturer that was exiled to Cagayan. He has made strenuous efforts to deprive the members of the chapter of their prebends—regarding which the archbishop had three times sent advice to the governor; the latter replied, to the third of these communications, that the archbishop should say no more on this point, because he would not do what he asked. It is a great pity that this gentleman should have meddled by recalling the archbishop from banishment, since that act has been the source of the disturbances in this unhappy community, troubles which will exist for many years; for it cannot be doubted that he has in other respects conducted the government well, and with unwearying efforts—especially in what concerns the increase of the royal revenues. But he is thoroughly repentant for his error, at seeing his hopes of peace frustrated, which was the purpose in his decision.


The prebendaries remained suspended until the fourth Sunday in Lent [i.e., March 25], when the [censure for] irregular government was removed from them; but for this purpose a conference was first summoned by the archbishop. It included the bishop of Sinopolis, the superiors and masters of the religious orders—and with them crowded in all the swarm of doctors and masters of Santo Tomas, to the no little annoyance of the bishop and the religious orders. In this conference the question was asked whether the members of the cabildo were worthy of being absolved for their irregular acts. All answered in the affirmative, except little Master Caraballo; and he said that his illustrious Lordship could not grant the dispensation, as these were cases that concerned the faith, specifying his declaration in the document which was drawn up. The Dominican fathers gave the same opinion; but the bishop of Sinopolis replied to them, saying that if this were a matter contrary to the faith, as they seemed to imagine, they could not discuss it, since that pertained to another tribunal; it was finally decided that the absolution should be given to the prebendaries. When we were all expecting that this would be done, as it ought to be, within the body of the ecclesiastical cabildo, the fourth Sunday of Lent having arrived, the archbishop commanded that there should be no preaching in any of the churches of this city, or in those without the walls; and that all the people should repair to the cathedral in the afternoon. He commanded that two seats should be made ready there—one outside the church, in order that the countless multitude who were present might enjoy this so edifying act; and the other at the great altar itself. The altar and the cibary were covered with a canopy.

At ten in the morning, he declared the members of the cabildo to be excommunicated; and, the facts being as I have already stated above, they were now absolved ad reincidentiam, by the bishop of Troya; such relapse [reincidencia] had not occurred in any instance, and therefore the declaration of the canons was without cause, and only directed at a very scandalous paper on the absolution—which was performed with great ostentation, in the following manner.

At four in the afternoon, the archbishop being seated on the chair which stood outside the holy church, assisted by his provisor, Juan Gonzalez, and a racionero, the prebends went to him, and, while they knelt there, a judicial record was read to them of all the offenses committed—that is, all the enactments made—by them while governing the archbishopric; and, while they were there before the public in that embarrassing condition, [en calzas y en jubon] [119] the names of all those who supported the cabildo, and recognized that body as the ecclesiastical ruler, were read. He even published the Theatins, on account of an opinion that they gave to the cabildo at the latter's request, on the question whether the cabildo could release on bail the cantor Herrera from prison—since he did not appear, nor could his case be prosecuted, nor was there hope that he would appear soon, for it was more than a year and a half that he had spent in prison; the Theatins decided this query in the affirmative, saying that the cabildo not only could, but ought to, release him. Those who signed the paper were the past provincials, Javier Riquelme, former rector of San Jose, and Tomas de Andrade, [120] rector of the great college and of their university; Fathers Alejo Lopez [121] and Jaime Vestart, at present masters in theology; Ysidro Clarete [122] and Pedro Lope. [123] Although the matter was so plain, and the paper was signed by so many fathers, the archbishop annulled that act, as if he were the supreme pontiff of the Church. This is a matter at which the Theatins have smiled much, but with a smile that but conceals their annoyance. [124] The members of the chapter expressed their detestation of all that they had done, and took oath upon the holy gospels that they would not again commit such crimes, besides many other oaths that they took, which were required from them—oaths very offensive to the king our sovereign. Finally, they were absolved as if they were heretics—the harshness of the archbishop reaching such a pitch that he wished to flog them, and already held in his hand the rattan for doing this; but, after many entreaties from their relatives, he refrained from carrying out this threat. This inquisitional act being finished, the archbishop entered the church with them, and, seated on his chair while they stood, he delivered a speech in which he treated them, and the religious orders that recognized them as ecclesiastical rulers, as if they were heretics—although the Dominican fathers, who also had thus recognized them, escaped from this. Those who were most offended were the Theatins; and although they are now silent, one may be sure that they are gathering up their stones. Thus ended this act, which grieved the hearts of all; and on the following day the archbishop commanded that they should go to the convent of Santo Domingo to sing a mass, as a thanksgiving for such absurd performances. It was sung by the treasurer Valencia, assisted by his illustrious Lordship; and the sermon was by the father vicar-general, Fray Bartolome Marron—who, carried away by his fervent spirit, emptied his sack of foolish ideas. Among other things, he declared (besides making many threats) that the Order of St. Dominic was the sister of the clergy, and in proof of this alleged that his convent was ruled by the cathedral clock (although this was a matter generally known, and of no great importance).

Don Juan de Vargas was excommunicated, and interdicted from entering the church, but he was not posted as such. The archbishop would not allow them to go to say mass in his house, without heeding the wretched health of his wife, or his having so large a family—and he suffered the more hardship, as he remained in his house on the island. [125] Besides, when he went out of his house he took with him, as always, his trumpeter; this the archbishop could not endure, for it sounded ill to the Dominicans. Accordingly, they notified him of an act that he should not be accompanied with trumpets, because he was scandalizing those who were weak in the faith—although it was a fact that such scandal was not presented before either the weak or the great. With this, Vargas undertook recourse to the royal Audiencia; and, the document being drawn up, he sent it to the governor, with the request that it be considered in the session of that court. His Lordship withheld it, desiring to settle once for all with the archbishop that he should recall the excommunication or interdict; but, this settlement being somewhat delayed, his Lordship returned the petition to Don Juan, with the message that he must have patience for a few days, while he would make every effort (as he did) to secure a settlement; but that, if he should not accomplish it in that time, Don Juan should avail himself of his right. During the four days, various arguments and letters passed between his Lordship and the archbishop; and at the end of that time the latter, urged by the diligent efforts of the governor, consented to yield, but in the wrong direction; for he threatened Don Juan de Vargas with being posted as publicly excommunicated, to the great annoyance of his Lordship. Don Juan de Vargas did not resort a second time to the royal tribunal; but instead he went to the archbishop and demanded absolution. The prelate commanded him to go to Father Marron and Father Verart, and ask their pardon, and to do what they should order him to do. He did so, and they commanded him to go to the provisor on the same errand; and the latter sent him to little Caraballo, the dealer in fireworks. All this he fulfilled, even to signing a letter for the king, in which he retracted all that he had written against the Dominicans; in one word, he signed what they placed before him, already written. We all supposed that he would be quickly absolved, and he himself demanded this; but answer was made to him that his illustrious Lordship would notify him of it, and of the time and manner thereof. All this was to give time for the return from Cagayan of the bishop of Troya, so that Don Juan should ask his pardon and compensate him for the injuries which that prelate judged Don Juan had inflicted on him. He came from Cagayan about Holy Week, and that time passed without any mention of absolution, until, on Holy Saturday, the archbishop going to give the Easter salutations to the governor, the latter addressed him very fittingly—telling him that it seemed very wrong that at a time when Christ our Lord suffered for men, and not only pardoned but even excused those who were tormenting him, his Lordship, who stood in the place of Christ, was incriminating Don Juan de Vargas, and refusing to pardon him even after he had obeyed, in so edifying a manner, all the commands that had been laid upon him, although those commands were unjust, and ought not to be obeyed. This was the substance of the discourse, which lasted more than an hour; and they discussed therein the question of the absolution, with the warmth which will be related.

The archbishop summoned an assembly, by means of the document which I send you with this, full of contemptuous remarks about the royal authority—as the paper itself shows, without further explanation. The good old man is obliged to decide with the Troyan and his friars what he has to do, and then seek the support of the religious orders. For this conference a letter was written to the bishop of Sinopolis, and the latter told the fireworks secretary his poor opinion of such conferences; that if he must do what was there determined by the friars, and if this was to be like the former conference—so many black-gowns [negritos] crowding in, and, when one asked a question, its stirring up fifteen hundred other things—it was best to cease having such assemblies. The bishop remained at home, but sent his written opinion that the archbishop ought to absolve Don Juan de Vargas, and that privately. The Franciscans and Theatins did not attend the conference, nor did they send their opinions—excusing themselves by letter, with various pretexts, which did not taste like honey to him. The archbishop wrote to the guardian of St. Francis an ill-tempered letter, threatening him with vengeance; but the guardian was not asleep, nor did he forget the rule of "interrogation and reply," etc. At the said conference were present the Troyan, the Augustinian and Recollect provincials, and the two Dominicans Marron and Verart, the axletrees of the other cart; these last and the Troyan said that poor Vargas could not be absolved. Father Duque, the Augustinian provincial, declared that he could and ought to be absolved, and that privately, saying: "As for the offences of Vargas, either they are or are not committed against the faith; if they are against the faith, as is being assumed, they do not belong to your illustrious Lordship or to us, and it is not allowable to discuss them here." Verart sprang to his feet like a flash, and began to argue with the Recollect. In such debates the entire afternoon went by, without their reaching any decision. At the end of a week the sentence was uttered, and Vargas was notified that for four months he must do what follows: During the first month, he must go on every feast-day to divine worship in the cathedral, clad in the sackcloth robe of a penitent, and with a halter round his neck; and in this guise, he must listen in public to mass. The second month, he must do the same at the convent of San Domingo; the third month, at San Gabriel; and the fourth, at Binondo—and this, when it had been decided in the conference that he should be "absolved privately," which are the formal terms of the sentence! When he was notified of this, he appealed from that decree to the court where this matter legally belonged; [126] but as all the bishops were Dominicans, where could he go where they would not confirm his sentence? Accordingly, Vargas came before the royal Audiencia, asking a laymen's decree. [127] His petition was considered in the session of that court, and [afterward] shown to the fiscal of his Majesty, who [at the time] was absent, inspecting a Chinese ship. In this state (which is not one of innocence) the affair remains at the time of this writing; but if it shall be decided before the ship sails [for Acapulco] I will write further.

I only omitted to state that the first sentence of the archbishop was, that Vargas might choose between the punishment above described and the following one (which is not to be talked about): He should erect in the plaza, at his own expense, a scaffold or stage, and then give notice that it was there; and the archbishop would go to absolve him thereon. Vargas must go thither naked from the girdle upward, wearing yellow hose, and carrying a green candle; and on the stage he would be flogged. And in truth he deserved the lash, since, by not sending to Espana, as the royal Audiencia decided, the two friars who made war on him, he finds himself today in so great affliction, which also occasions the royal authority to be insulted as never before has been seen in all the [Spanish] realm.

At this same time poor Don Juan de Vargas finds himself in the fray of his residencia. [128] For this investigation the governor named, as associates of the judge, his Majesty's accountant, Captain Don Juan del Pozo Gattica, and Sargento-mayor Lucas Mateo de Urquiza. The secret inquiry ended a week ago, but they have not made known the findings therein, which are said to be favorable. Only the Dominican fathers, in whom he trusted for this emergency, have aided him by contributing [a document of] fifty-three sections, regarding his entire life and character—many of these concerning the Zambals of Playahonda, whom he had assigned to the Dominicans; [129] and the first section goes to show that he "lacked the chief qualifications of a knight"—the way in which they speak of him. The city, through its attorney, made fifty-six charges against him; and among these they demanded from him damages for the losses that this community had suffered from the return to port of the ship or galleon "Santa Rosa"—because instead of ballast they placed in it wax, and for fifteen hundred other articles that were included in the lading of the ship. As soon as the secret inquiry was ended, Admiral Faura was arrested in the fort, and Sargento-mayor Gallardo at the entrance of the bastion; and all their goods were seized—but not much of their property was found; if there had been, it would have showed that they were fools, and certainly they are not of that sort. All agree that six hundred thousand pesos would not suffice Don Juan de Vargas for what they demand from him. [130]

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