HotFreeBooks.com
The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (Vol 28 of 55)
Author: Various
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

[A later part of this law is as follows:]

Further, we order our viceroys, presidents, governors, and corregidors to publish and execute the brief of our holy father, Clement Ninth, dated June seventeen, one thousand six hundred and sixty-nine, ordering that the religious of all the orders and the Society of Jesus, and the secular clerics, shall not be authorized to carry on, personally or through third parties, trade or commerce throughout the territories of the Indias, or the islands or mainland of the Ocean Sea. In that number are included those who go to Japon, as is mentioned in the said brief to which we refer. [Carlos II and the queen mother—Madrid, June 22, 1670.]

[The following laws bearing on ecclesiastical persons in the Philippines are taken from other parts of the Recopilacion:]

Inasmuch as the seculars who go to the Filipinas Islands from Eastern India to engage in their labors are generally expelled and exiled, and remain there, where many are employed in vicariates, curacies, and benefices, to the prejudice of the natives and the patrimonial rights of the islands, we order our governor and captain-general not to allow any of the said seculars from those districts to enter the islands, or admit them to the exercise of duties or allow them to give instruction. [Lib. i, tit. xii, ley xxi; Felipe IV—Madrid, March 27, 1631.]

The treasurer of the Holy Crusade of Nueva Espana has a substitute in the city of Manila, in the Filipinas Islands, who performs the duties of treasurer. That substitute invests the money that proceeds from the bulls and many other sums, under pretext that they belong to the bulls, by which method he deprives the inhabitants of the city of the use and lading-space of four toneladas which he occupies in each cargo. That is contrary to the rulings of various laws, by which favor is granted the said city of the lading-space in the ships that are permitted, and not to any person of Nueva Espana or Peru. We charge and order the viceroys of the said Nueva Espana to cause investigation of the sum resulting from the bulls distributed in the Filipinas, and that, whatever it be, it remain in our royal treasury of the islands, and that so much less be sent to the islands from our royal treasury of Mexico. The amount that is found to have entered into the treasury of the islands is to be given to the treasurer of the Holy Crusade who resides in the City of Mejico. The money that shall be sent to these kingdoms from the proceeds of the bulls shall be registered on account of it. The treasurer and his substitute shall not export or import merchandise to those islands, nor from them to Nueva Espana, the viceroys imposing the penalties that they shall deem fit. We order the officials of our royal treasury of both places to observe, in the execution of this law, the ordinances which the viceroy [of Nueva Espana] and the governor of the islands (each in his own district) shall ordain. We order the governor to cause this law to be so obeyed that the sum resulting from the bulls be given into the possession of the royal officials of those islands; and that they advise those of Mejico, so that the latter may send just so much less a sum of money to the islands than what they are obliged to send there annually. [Lib. i, tit. xx, ley xxiv; Felipe IV—San Martin, December 21, 1634.]



JESUIT MISSIONS IN 1656

[From Colin's Labor evangelica (Madrid, 1663), pp. 811-820.]

List of the number of religious, colleges, houses, and residences of the province of the Society of Jesus; and of the churches, districts, and missions of Indians administered in these Filipinas Islands, this present year, M.DC.LVI.

The following list of the religious, houses, colleges, and residences contained in this province at present, and of the districts, and ministers for Indians and other nations who are under its direction, was made in obedience to an order from his Majesty (may God preserve him). It gives the amount of the incomes and properties that they possess, and the number of Indians instructed. I have deemed it fitting to add it here, so that the readers of this history may thus he informed of the present condition of this province.



Religious

The religious of the Society who have come to these islands from Espana and Nueva Espana at the expense of his Majesty since the year one thousand five hundred and eighty-one, the time of the arrival of the first, are in all two hundred and seventy-two.

One hundred and fifty-one of these were priests, one hundred and ninety-eight, student brothers, and twenty-three, coadjutors. [29]

During the seventy-five years since the Society entered these islands, one hundred and forty-three have been received and have persevered in this province. Only three were priests; twenty-three were student brothers, and the rest coadjutors.

The number at present in the province is one hundred and eight: seventy-four priests, eleven student brothers, and twenty-three coadjutors.



Colleges and houses

The aforesaid one hundred and eight religious are distributed among five colleges, one novitiate house, one seminary-college for secular collegiates, and nine residences, or rectoral houses, with their missions—a total of sixteen.



Churches and villages

The churches and villages in charge of the rectors of the said colleges and rectoral houses, and their missions, are seventy-three in number, besides others which are being temporarily conducted in other parts, where there is no established village, although the minister and instructor in doctrine visits them.

The plan and distribution of these religious, colleges, houses, missions, villages, and churches, is as follows.



The island of Manila and the Tagal province College of San Ignacio of the city of Manila

It has generally about thirty religious—priests, students, coadjutors, and novitiates. It is the seminary of all the branches of learning, where the subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic are taught, the humanities, arts, and theology; and has authority to confer degrees in arts and theology. It is the common infirmary and hospitium for the entire province, especially for those who come new from the kingdoms of Espana, and even from Eastern India, Terrenate, China, and Japon—whence more than forty exiled religious came one year, whom this college received as guests and maintained for a long time. The congregations or chapters of the province are held in it. It has those who take care of the sick and dying; preachers; and confessors to the Spaniards, Indians, negroes, and other nations—who come to those ministers throughout the year, especially during Lent, when some days eight or ten religious go out to preach in various parts. This college recognizes as its founder and patron Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, former governor of Mindanao, who endowed it with one thousand pesos income in certain house-properties and fruit-grounds, most of which have been lost with the lapse of time and the precarious character of incomes in these regions. It is at present maintained by alms, and by other new lands and properties which it has been recently acquiring, from which, although great diligence and care is exercised, the full amount necessary for its maintenance is not derived—a matter of five or six thousand pesos—and consequently debt is incurred every year.

The old church and house fell, and it has been necessary to build another and new one, stronger and more comfortable. For that purpose his Majesty (may God preserve him) gave us an alms, in the year one thousand six hundred and twenty-five, of ten thousand ducados in vacant allotments of Indians. That was carried into effect by Governor Don Juan Nino de Tabora. Later, he ordered that six thousand more be given to us, which is still to be carried into effect. Until the time of Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, this college also enjoyed four hundred pesos and four hundred fanegas of cleaned rice, which his Majesty ordered to be given for the support of four priests, who were to work among the Indians, which was a great help. Although his Majesty in his piety and magnanimity orders it to be continued, the needs of the royal treasury do not allow this to be done in its entirety.



College and seminary of San Joseph

This is for secular collegiates, theologians, artists, seminarists, rhetoricians, and grammarians. Formerly, their number was thirty-five or forty; but now it has diminished to twenty or thereabout, because of the poverty of this country. It has a rector, two professors of the Society, and two brother-coadjutors, who attend to its temporal affairs. Its patron is the same Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa. Its income does not reach one thousand pesos, and that sum is used for the support of the religious, and for repairs in the building and to the properties. The fellowships that the college obtains are maintained with the sum remaining. The rest of the students pay one hundred pesos per year for their tuition. Inasmuch as the country is poor, and most of the inhabitants are supported by the king's pay, the fellowships are very few in number. For that reason, Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera tried to endow some fellowships in the name of his Majesty, for the sons of his officials and for those of worthy citizens. That was not continued, as it was done without order of the royal Council. [30]



Mission village [doctrina] of Santa Cruz

This is a village of Christian Chinese, opposite the Parian or alcaiceria of the heathen of that nation on the other side of the river of this city, and of some free negroes and Indians who work on the farm-lands of the college of Manila, to which the above-mentioned mission village is subordinate. There are one or two priests who are interpreters in it. The number of Chinese gathered in this mission village is five hundred tributarios, or a trifle less, and about one hundred Indians and negroes.



Mission village [doctrina] of San Miguel

This is a village of Tagal Indians, and numbers about one hundred and forty tributarios. It has one priest who gives instruction. It is located outside the walls of the city of Manila, and is subordinate to the rector of that college. A number of Japanese, comprising influential men and women who were exiled from their country for the faith, have gathered in this village since the year fifteen. Among them, the illustrious gentlemen Don Justo Ucondono and Don Juan Tocuan, with some influential women, have died with the lapse of time. The Society has always maintained all those Japanese with its alms, and with the alms given by various persons who aided them generously when this city was in its prosperous condition; but now they are living in penury. This house has been the seminary of martyrs since some of the European and Japanese fathers have gone thence to Japon, who obtained there the glorious crown of martyrdom.



College of the port of Cabite

It generally has four religious, three of whom are priests, who labor among the seamen and soldiers and the inhabitants of that village—Spaniards, Indians, negroes, Chinese, Japanese, and people of other nationalities—and one brother, who attends to temporal matters, and conducts the school for reading and writing. The mission of two small villages of Tagal Indians near there—namely, Cabite el Viejo [i.e., Old Cabite] and Binacaya, which have about one hundred and thirty tributarios—is subordinate to this college. The priests who are generally asked by the governors for the fleets of galleons that oppose the Dutch, and those for the relief of Terrenate, are sent from this college and the one at Manila. Its founder and patron is Licentiate Lucas de Castro, who endowed it with an income of five hundred pesos, the greater part of which was lost on the occasion of the rising of the Chinese in the year 39.



House of San Pedro

This house is located about two leguas upstream from Manila. It was established on a site suitable for the education of the novices of the province—although they generally live in Manila, as they are few in number, and this house contributes to their support. Its founder and patron is Captain Pedro de Brito, [31] who gave a stock-farm and tillable lands for its endowment. Two religious live there. It has sixty tributarios of Tagal Indians, who work on the estate, to whom the religious teach the Christian doctrine and administer the sacraments. Besides that, they exercise the ministries of the Society among those who go to the said church from the lands and places near by—a not considerable number.



Residence of Antipolo

This residence has six villages, with their churches; but it has only two religious and one brother at present, because of the great lack of ministers. There are about five hundred tributarios, all Tagal Indians, now Christians, with the exception of a few heathen who wander in the interior among the mountains. During the first years while the Society had charge of this residence, about seven thousand were baptized. The names of the villages are Antipolo, Taytay, Baras, Cainta, and Santa Catalina.



Residence of Silan

This residence formerly comprised five villages, which are now reduced to three. They have their churches and three ministers. There are about one thousand tributarios, all Tagal Indians and Christians. The villages are Silan, Indan, and Marigondon.



Island of Marinduque

There are two religious in this island, and about four hundred and fifty tributarios. There are still some Indians in the mountains to be subdued. In the year one thousand six hundred and twenty-five, a priest died most gloriously in that mission at the hands of the heathen. [32] The island is about three leguas distant from the shores of the island of Manila, opposite Tayauas. It is about three leguas in diameter, and about eight or nine in circumference. The products in which the tribute is paid are rice, pitch, palm-oil, and abaca—which is a kind of hemp, from which the best rope and some textiles are made. There is a good port in the island where a galleon was built in the time of Governor Don Juan de Silva. [33]



The island of Zebu and its jurisdiction College of Zebu

Formerly it generally had six religious, who labored among the Spaniards, Indians, and people of other nationalities. At present it has but four, one of whom is in charge of the boys' school. On the occasion of the insurrection of the Chinese in Manila in the year thirty-nine, this college had lectures in theology. It was founded by an inhabitant of that city, one Pedro de Aguilar. That college has in charge the mission of the village of Mandaui, which is the family of an influential Indian, in which there are about forty tributarios. It has its own church, where the sacraments are administered to the people at times; they usually come to the church at our college, as it is near. Missionaries have gone from this college several times to certain districts of the lay clergy of that bishopric, and chaplains for the oared fleets which are used against pirates among the islands.



Residence of Bool

This island belongs to the jurisdiction of the city of Zebu, and its mission is in charge of the Society. It had many villages formerly, but now it is reduced to six, the three larger being Loboc, Baclayon, and Malabooch, which have their ministers; the other three, smaller ones, being Plangao, Nabangan, and Caypilan, which are appended to the former, being called visitas here. It has about one thousand two hundred tributarios. Those are warlike Indians, and have made plenty of trouble during the past years. However, they are reduced now, and are conspicuous among the other Indians in the exercises of Christianity. They pay their tribute in lampotes, which are cotton cloths. It is said that the tribute was formerly paid in gold in some part of the island; but gold is not now obtained there in any considerable quantity.



Jurisdiction of Leyte in Pintados

This jurisdiction contains two islands, namely, Leyte and Samar—or, as it is called by another name, Ibabao. The Society has four residences in those islands, two in each one.



Leyte

This island has a circumference of about one hundred leguas, and is long and narrow. A large chain of mountains cuts it almost in the middle. That and the difference of the two general monsoons, the brisas and the vendavals, cause there an inequality and a wonderful variety of weather and climate, so that when it is winter in the north, it is summer in the south, and vice versa during the other half of the year. Consequently, when the sowing is being done in one half of the island, the harvest is being gathered in the other half. Hence they have two harvests per year, both of them plentiful; for ordinarily the seed yields a hundredfold. Leyte is surrounded by many other small islands, both inhabited and desert. The sea and the rivers (which abound, and are of considerable volume) are full of fish; while the land has cattle, tame and wild swine, and many deer and fowls, with fruits, vegetables, and roots of all kinds. The climate is more refreshing than that of Manila. The people are of a brownish color, and plain and simple, but of sufficient understanding. Their instruction and ministry is under charge of two residences or rectoral houses, namely, Carigara and Dagami.



Residence of Carigara

This residence has ten villages with their churches, and about two thousand tributarios. The names of the principal villages are Carigara, Leyte, Xaro, Alangalang, Ogmuc, Bayban, Cabalian, Sogor, Poro, and Panahon, which are adjacent islets. The products of the earth in which the natives pay their tribute are wax, rice, and textiles of abaca, which are here called medrinaques and pinayusas. Six religious are occupied in the instruction of those villages and districts, besides those who have charge of the instruction in the shipyards for the galleons—which are generally built in this island and district on his Majesty's account, and because of the great ease in procuring lumber there, and the convenient ports. Two priests died gloriously in this residence, one at the hands of Moro pirates, [34] and the other at the hands of the natives themselves in the district of Cabalian [35]—who, being the natives farthest from the chief village, are less obedient and pacified than the others.



Residence of Dagami

It has about two thousand tributarios divided among ten villages, each of which has its church. Those villages are Dagami, Malaguicay, Guiguan, Balanguiguan, Palo, Basey, Dulac, Tambuco, and Abuyo. Six religious are occupied in the instruction. They pay their tribute in the same things as those of Carigara, except the inhabitants of the village of Guiguan, whose products consist of palm-oil. Opposite the village of Leyte in this island is another small island called Panamao, which has no people, but wild boars and other kinds of game, besides excellent woods for shipbuilding. Some few years ago a mineral abounding in sulphur was discovered. [36]



The island of Samar or Ibabao

This island is the eastern extension of Leyte, being separated from it by a very narrow strait, into which a ship can scarcely enter with the spring tides. On the eastern part it forms a strait with the island of Manila. The latter is the usual channel by which ships enter these islands when they come from Nueva Espana. The famous cape of Espiritu Santo, [37] the first land of the Filipinas to be sighted, and which is an objective point [for the ships], is located in this strait. The natives, the products of the land, the climate, and other characteristics differ but little from those of the island of Leyte. The residences which the Society own there are also [like those of Leyte].



Residence of Cabatlogan [i.e., Catbalogan]

This residence has about one thousand four hundred tributarios, living in six villages, each of which has its own church. Those villages are Cabatlogan [i.e., Catbalogan] (where the corregidor and commandant of the jurisdiction lives), Paranas, Caluiga, Bangahon, and Batan and Capul—which is an islet located in the same channel, next to a smaller islet called San Bernardino, which gives name to this channel [i.e., the Embocadero of San Bernardino], There are five ministers busied in the instruction of those villages.



Residence of Palapag

It has about one thousand six hundred tributarios, who are instructed by five religious. They are divided among eight principal villages, to wit, Palapag, Catubig, Bobon, Catarman, Tubig, Bacor, Boronga, and Sulat. The natives pay their tributes in the same products as those of Leytey, and, in addition to those, some years ago they produced a quantity of civet. The greater part of this residence was in revolt some years ago, the authors of the revolt and insurrection having apostatized from the faith. Two father rectors of the residence—very important religious—were killed in succession by them, giving up their lives willingly in the exercise of their ministry. [38] Now the war which has been waged to reduce them has been concluded. The relief ships from Nueva Espana have made port several times at Borongan, and, on occasions of encounters with the Dutch and of shipwreck, the ministers of instruction residing there have performed very important services for the king and for the community. The two islands are much infested with pirates and hostile [Moros]—Mindanaos, Joloans, and Camucones—who take a great number of captives nearly every year. For that reason, and because of their labor in the building of galleons, and the epidemics that afflict them at times, although fifty-five years ago, at the beginning of the instruction by the Society, there were more than twenty thousand tributarios, now they do not exceed six or seven thousand. When the Society took charge of these two islands, all their natives were heathen; but now, through the goodness of God, they are all Christians.



College of Oton and the mission village of Ilog in the island of Negros

This college is located in the island of Panay, in the hamlet called formerly Arevalo, and now Iloilo. It was founded by the alms of private persons, and consequently has no patron. There are six religious there and in the mission village of Ilog in the island of Negros, which belongs to it. In their charge is the chaplaincy of the presidio of the Spaniards, and the mission to the natives and those of other nationalities belonging to this presidio. The mission village of Ilog is also located near by, and is in the island called Negros. Between the two of them there are about one thousand tributarios. The Society has had charge of this mission but few years during which time they have baptized about six hundred adults. The tribute is paid in rice.



Island of Mindanao

It is the largest island of the Filipinas, next to that of Manila. A great part of it is still unsubdued. In the portion that is subdued, the Society has charge of the jurisdictions of Iligan and Samboangan. The latter is the principal presidio of the Spaniards, where we are beginning to establish a college.



College of Samboangan

This college has a rector, with five priests as workers. The villages that it instructs are those of the natives and Lutaos of Samboangan itself, who number eight hundred families. Instead of paying tribute, they serve at the oar in our fleets, which are generally out on raids in defense of our coasts and for the purpose of attacking those of the enemy. The island of Basilan, opposite the presidio of Samboangan, and two leguas away, has about one hundred families—most of whom, attracted by the efforts, affection, and solicitude of the missionary fathers, come to receive the sacraments. When the tribute is due, fewer of them appear. The Christian kindness of the Spaniards, which is most concerned with the welfare of souls, passes that by, because those people are not yet completely subdued and domesticated, and because of the risk of losing everything if they oppress them too heavily. The same condition prevails not only in the mission on the island of Basilan, but also in all the other missions of this jurisdiction of Samboangan. In the region of Mindanao these are: La Caldera, a port situated at a distance of two leguas eastward from Samboangan, with about two hundred families; Bocot, two hundred and fifty; Piacan, and Sirauey, one hundred; Siocon, three hundred; Maslo, one hundred; Manican, thirty; Data, twenty-five; Coroan, twenty; Bitale, forty; Tungauan, one hundred; Sanguito, one hundred; all lying south of Samboangan, and all giving a total of three thousand two hundred and fifty-one families.

In this jurisdiction are included also the islands of Pangotaran and Ubian, a three days' journey from Samboangan, whose inhabitants are nearly all Christians. When the fleets pass that way, the natives give them some kind of tribute. Item: the islands of Tapul and Balonaguis, whose natives are still heathen. Item: there are many islets about Basilan, the shelter of fugitive Indians, many of whom are Christians—who come to the fathers, at times, for the administration of the sacraments; and, at the persuasion of the latter, are mustered for service in the fleets. The island of Jolo belongs also to the said jurisdiction of Samboangan. There are many Christians in that island, who remained there when the Spanish presidio was removed. The father missionaries go to visit them at times, and endeavor to bring them back for the administration of the holy sacraments. Reducing all those Indians to families, there are about two hundred or so in Pangotaran and Ubian: one hundred and fifty in Tapul and Balonaguis; two hundred in the islets of Basilan; and five hundred in Jolo and its islets: in all one thousand families.



Jurisdiction of Iligan, with its residence of Dapitan

This jurisdiction extends through the eastern part of the island. Its district extends for sixty leguas, which includes the nation of the Subanos, [39] which is the most numerous in the island, and well disposed toward the evangelical instruction, as they are heathen, and not Mahometans as are the Mindanaos.

The village of Iligan, which is the capital of the jurisdiction, and where its alcalde-mayor and infantry captain of the presidio lives, has about one hundred tributarios on the shore; and in the interior, in another village called Baloy, there are about two hundred families, although only thirty come to pay the tribute. In another village, called Lauayan, which is on the other side of Iligan and on the bay of Panguil, fifty [families pay tribute], although there are twice as many. Then comes Dapitan, which is the seat of the residence and mission, as the people there are the oldest Christians of these islands, who went willingly to meet the first Spaniards who came to conquer them, and guided and served them during the conquest, and have always persevered faithfully in their friendship. For that reason they are exempt from tribute. They number about two hundred families; while there are about two hundred and fifty more families in another and interior village situated on the headwaters of the same river.

The villages situated on the coast in the direction of Samboangan are Dipoloc, with three hundred families; Duyno, with six hundred; Manucan, with one hundred; Tubao, with one hundred; Sindagan, with five hundred; Mucas, with two hundred; Quipit, with three hundred: with a total of one thousand seven hundred and fifty families, who are computed to be included in this residence, whose instruction is generally in charge of five priests.

Within a few years seven priests have given their lives and shed their blood in this island for the administration of the holy gospel, at the hands of the Moros and apostates: two in the residence of Dapitan, [40] and five in the district of Samboangan. Of these, one was in Siao; [41] two in Buayen, [42] a kingdom of the Moros; and two others but recently in this current year of 1656, in the capital of the entire island—namely, the river of Mindanao, in the settlement where King Corralat lives and holds his court. [43] There are, besides, other lathers who have been captives, one of whom died in captivity; [44] and others who have died in the Spanish presidio, at their posts as chaplains.

The products of Mindanao and its islands are in general the same as those of the other islands—namely, rice, palms [sc., cocoanuts], a quantity of wax, vegetables, civet, and wild cinnamon (which is used fresh). In the island of Jolo, a quantity of amber has been found at times, and some large pearls. It alone of all the Filipinas Islands has elephants.



Mission to Borney

With the opportunity of the oared fleets of the presidio of Samboanga, which—accompanied by a number of Indian volunteer vessels from the district of Dapitan, and others of our missions—have sailed during the last few years to this great island, and since our fathers have always accompanied them and acted as their chaplains, a mission has been formed there at the same time; and the ministries of the Society have been exercised in those so remote parts, with not a little gain, and great hopes of numerous Christians, since those baptized number seven hundred—among whom are some of the chiefs of the neighboring islands, who have already offered vassalage to the king our sovereign, and asked for ministers of the gospel. If God be pleased to let our arms in Mindanao be free, and if this undertaking that has been begun in Borney be continued, it will be without doubt to the great exaltation of our holy faith, and the advantage of the Spanish state in these Filipinas Islands. For, besides freeing the islands from the continual invasions, fires, thefts, and captivities by those pirates, they will enjoy the fertility, wealth, and abundance of this island, which is the largest one of these archipelagos, having a circumference of four hundred and fifty leguas. It is the way-station for the commerce of the rich kingdoms of India extra Gangem [i.e., beyond the Ganges], Pegu, Sian, and Camboxa, upon which it borders. In respect to Christianity, great increase can be promised; for the people are, as a rule, docile and of good understanding. Although the faith of Mahomet has made some headway in the maritime parts—but not with the obstinacy experienced in other islands—all the people of the interior are heathen.



College of Terrenate and its missions

The Society maintains a college in the island of Terrenate, which is the head of the missions of that archipelago, which were hitherto subject to the [Jesuit] province of Cochin in Eastern India. Last year they were assigned to this province of Filipinas by virtue of a royal decree despatched by the advice of the royal Audiencia, by the governor and captain-general of these islands, on the occasion of, the revolt of Portugal and India. [45] At present three priests are busied in this labor: one is the rector who lives in the house and college of Terrenate, to look after the ministry of Spanish and Indians in the presidios of that island and that of Tidore, and the village of Mardicas. The other two visit in mission the many stations in their charge, as long as there is no minister belonging to each of these.

The chief and oldest mission is that of the kingdom of Siao, where there was estimated to be at the beginning, eleven thousand seven hundred Christians, while today they do not number four thousand. The king of that place has many subjects, and allies in the islands of Tabuco or Sanguil Bagar, [46] the Talaos, [47] and in Matheo or Macasar. The Talaos number about eleven thousand souls, and their chief is a Christian. So likewise those of Maganita, Moade, Tomaco, and Sabugan in Sanguil Bacar. There are eight hundred native Christians in Calonga, the capital of the same island. A Franciscan priest lives there at present, while the Society, to whom that mission belongs, has no one to send there.

From Siao the mission of the province of Manados, in the island of Matheo or Macasar, is also visited. Formerly it had four thousand Christians, but now Christianity is almost wiped out (even the villages of our faith, and allied to us) by the raids of the Dutch and the Terrenatans, who favor another nation and one allied with the Dutch and Terrenatans. Inasmuch as the land of Manados is unhealthful, five members of the Society have perished in the enterprise of its conversion. A short distance from Manados is Cautipa, a part of the same mainland of Macasar, and subject to the king of Siao, with about four or five thousand heathen families. The fathers lived among them and made some Christians formerly.

The former Christian settlements in Gilolo—Sabugo, Moratay, San Juan de Tolo, and others of Batachina—which before numbered two hundred and fifty thousand Christians, instructed by our fathers, are also destroyed by the same wars with heretics. May the Lord bring it about that that door may be again opened to the cultivation of this vineyard, through the peace of Espana and Olanda. This vineyard is continued, by way of this district of Batachina, by the Papuans and thence by Nueva Guinea—whose farthest bounds are yet unknown, as well as the knowledge of what God has reserved for the evangelical ministers and the Spanish empire in that unknown land. [48]

Father Alonso de Castro, a Portuguese, was an illustrious martyr of Christ in Maluco, for whom, after he had preached the gospel there for the space of eleven years, the Moros wrought the crown of martyrdom; in January, 1559—dragging him first through rough places, where he endured imprisonment, and giving him later many wounds; and, lastly, throwing his dead body to the bottom of the deep sea. At the end of three days the body appeared on the strand surrounded with emanations of light. See his life and martyrdom among the illustrious men of Father Eusebio. [49]



China and Japon

The relationship with the provinces of Japon and China ought also to be included among the ministries of this province, because of the communication that their nearness offers, and the present necessity of those fields of Christianity imposes obligations on us. The ministers there have been assisted from here, these last few years, with some alms for their support—especially in the province of Chincheo, which is the nearest—and wine for the masses, and holy oils, which those missions would not have if they were not furnished from here. They earnestly petition the aid of more ministers, as those who are there are few and aged. If many ministers come from Europa, and we have an order for it, some shall be given to them.



THE RELIGIOUS ESTATE IN THE PHILIPPINES

[This survey of religious affairs in the islands is taken from the Chronicas (Manila, 1738) of the Franciscan chronicler San Antonio, vol. i, pp. 172-175, 190-210, 214-216, 219, 220, 223-226.]



Chapter XLVI

Ecclesiastical theater of the Philipinas Islands

510. Who does not express wonder that the evangelical preaching in these islands (and more especially at Manila) is so eloquent; that the worship in the temples has a veneration as perennial as it is ceremonious; that the holy orders maintain themselves in the most strict observance of their institutes and rules; that the Christian church is so happily increased; that devotion is so well received; and that justice is so uprightly administered? For, if one considers without prejudice, these are certain precious gems, so resplendent and so exquisite, that the crown of Espana can glory in adorning itself with them—even though it he, as is the fact, the Spaniards who shape those gems from justice. All this so ennobles these islands that they are reported as extraordinary among all these lands.

511. This ecclesiastical theater of the city of Manila demands huge tomes from justice for its history, which the limits of my history do not permit; and a very ingenious pen for its praises, which is not united with my lack of eloquence. I have seen some voluminous writings on this subject, which I have no time to follow. I have seen some that are written so meagerly, that my own interest [in the subject] is offended. May it please God that my design, which confesses itself debtor to all, may now find a proper medium.

512. The first church of Manila was erected as a parochial church, under the title of the Immaculate Conception of our Lady, at the end of the year 1571, when the adelantado and conquistador, Legaspi, divided the lands and site of Manila. Although I have read in a certain manuscript that that first erection was made with four clerics, I cannot find in history anything that verifies this statement. For the printed histories of these islands state that when the adelantado Legaspi divided the land, he summoned the natives of Manila and their ruler, Raja Matanda; and, placing the fathers of St. Augustine in their presence, told them that those were their true fathers, and their instructors in the law of the true God, who had come to teach it to them; and there is no mention of any secular.

513. Further, I think that the licentiate Don Juan de Vivero was the first cleric who came to these islands. Although he came hither in the year 1566, in the famous ship "San Geronymo," five years before the conquest of Manila, it is not proved to my satisfaction that he was ever in Manila; and it is more probable that he remained in Zebu, the first land that was conquered. Another cleric was the licentiate Don Juan de Villanueva, of whom the only thing known is that he was a priest, and that he lived but a little time—and that after the erection of the church. Another cleric who came earlier [than the latter] was Don Luis Barruelo, who had been sent to Philipinas by the archbishop of Mexico, as associate of the above-mentioned Don Juan de Vivero, so that they might be the judge-provisors and vicars-general of all the islands; for the archbishop thought that this provision belonged to his care and jurisdiction, as he was the prelate nearest to these islands. But Don Luis Barruelo arrived at the islands in the year 1577, six years after the foundation of Manila. Therefore it appears that the Augustinian fathers were the only ones who exercised the entire government in utroque foro, [50] and the parochial administration of Manila and all the islands. To them succeeded, in the said government, the discalced Franciscan religious, until the arrival of the most illustrious Salazar, first bishop of Manila.

514. This church, when first erected, was poor. Although with the lapse of time it had sufficient incomes, yet, with the fires and continual earthquakes, the church buildings were ruined. Thus, because of the earthquakes of the year 1645, the church of La Misericordia was used as the cathedral church from November 26, 1652, until June 7, 1662, when possession was taken of the new church. The latter is still standing, and was built by the zealous and costly efforts of the holy archbishop, Don Miguel de Poblete, albeit he did not leave it entirely finished. His Excellency placed the first stone April 20, 1654. It was a square slab, and bore the following inscription: "The Church being under the government of Innocent X; the Espanas, under King Phelipe IV the Great; and these islands, under Don Sabiniano Manrique de Lara, knight of the Order of Calatrava: Don Miguel de Poblete, its metropolitan archbishop, placed this stone, April 20, 1654, for the building of this holy cathedral—its titular being the Conception of our Lady, and its patron, St. Andrew the apostle." It was completed later (on August 30, 1671), by the dean his nephew, the master Don Joseph Millan de Poblete, who was afterward bishop of Nueva Segovia. It is a beautiful stone building. It is forty brazas long by fifteen wide, and five high. It has three principal doors, corresponding to the three naves of its structure. Along the two side aisles it has eight chapels on each side [of the church], with two sacristies—one for Spaniards, and the other for the natives of this country. The capacity of its choir is fifty-two. Its stalls are of red wood. The steeple is high and beautiful, and has fourteen bells—a larger number and larger in size than the old bells, and lately cast anew—and has upper works of wood, which are not used. The church is under the personal care and watchful management of the archbishop of Manila who is now governing. The houses of the ecclesiastical cabildo are contiguous to the church. [51]

515. Gregory XIII was the one who erected that first parochial church into a cathedral, by his bull given at Roma in the seventh year of his pontificate, namely, in that of 1578, at the petition of our Phelipe II, king of the Espanas. He assigned it twenty-seven prebendaries of whom the king appoints those who are necessary. They consist of five dignitaries—dean, archdeacon, precentor, schoolmaster, and treasurer; three canons (the fourth having been suppressed by the Inquisition, as has been done throughout the Indias); and two whole and two half racioneros, by virtue of a royal decree given in Valladolid, June 2, 1604, countersigned by Juan de Ybarra, the king's secretary. With the above, and two curas, sacristans, master-of-ceremonies, verger, etc., this church is very distinguished and well served, and the choir is quite crowded at all canonical hours. At its first erection, the advocacy of the most pure Conception was bestowed upon this church, and it has been preserved up to the present time.

516. The archbishops of Manila receive the salary of 5,000 pesos of common gold, by virtue of his Majesty's decree given at Madrid, May 28, 1680; the dean, 600 pesos, by virtue of royal presentation; the four dignitaries of this holy church—namely, archdeacon, schoolmaster, precentor, and treasurer—each receive 500 pesos, for the same reason; the three canons—namely, the doctoral, the magistral, and he of grace—each 400 pesos, for the same reason; the two racioneros, each 300 pesos, for the same reason; the two medio-racioneros, each 200 pesos, for the same reason; the master-of-ceremonies, 200 pesos, by a royal decree dated February 22, 1724; the two curas of the holy church—one for the Spaniards, and the other for the natives and blacks—each 183 pesos, 6 tomins, and 7 granos.



Chapter XLVII

Jurisdiction of the archbishopric

536. The archbishopric of Manila extends its jurisdiction through the entire provinces of Tongdo, Bulacan, Pampanga, Taal, or Balayan; even to Mindoro and Marinduque; all the coast of Zambales, up to the point and bay of Bolinao; Laguna de Bai, and its mountains, to Mahayhay inclusive; and the jurisdictions of Cavite, Marivelez, and the city of Manila.



Chapter XLVIII

Ecclesiastical tribunals of Manila

537. For the despatch of its business this archiepiscopal ecclesiastical tribunal has its provisor and vicar-general, with his chief notary and fiscals. It has a house which is used as the prison of the ecclesiastical tribunal, which has a capacious living-room, and separate lodgings for the seclusion of abandoned women.



Commissariat of the holy Inquisition

538. There has been and always is in this city of Manila a commissary of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, appointed by the holy tribunal of Mexico. [52] That commissary is the superior and superintendent of all the commissaries scattered about in the islands—namely, in Cagayan, Pangasinan, Camarines, Zebu, Ilocos, and the island of Negros; and at Manila another private commissary for the fathers of the Society, who is always an honored cleric. The tribunal here is formed of the said superintendent-commissary with his chief constable and his notary. Its council of ministers comprises various examiners of books and writings, counselors, and familiars. There are always three or four superintendent-commissaries appointed, so that in case of death or removal another may succeed promptly to the office; but only one of them exercises the office [at any one time]. From the time of the venerable martyr of Syan [i.e., Siam], Fray Juan de San Pedro Martyr, or Maldonado, the first commissary in these islands (who died December 22, 1599), until the present commissary, the very reverend father ex-provincial Fray Juan de Arechederra (a son of the convent of San Jacinto de Caracas, of the province of Santa Cruz of the Indias, and graduated with the degree of doctor from the celebrated university of Mexico), this office of superintendent-commissary has been vested in the religious of our father St. Dominic successively, without other interruption than the short interval of seven years—when an Augustinian, Father Joseph Paternina, exercised the office, beginning with October, 1664, when he succeeded father Fray Francisco de Paula, until July of 1671. Then father Fray Phelipe Pardo, afterward archbishop of Manila, assumed the office, because of the dismissal of Father Paternina from his office by a sentence of the holy tribunal of Mexico, because he unjustly issued acts against and arrested the governor of these islands, Don Diego de Salcedo. This commissariat has always been a post of great honor, authority, and credit, and is for that reason eagerly sought by the most distinguished members of the order. But, the tribunal of Mexico having requested the fathers superintendent-commissaries to make investigations, in order to act as such, the Dominican fathers excused themselves, as they live here without incomes, and were unable to make investigations because of their increased expenses; and Father Paternina being in Mexico on that occasion, he easily obtained the office which afterward cost him so much.



Tribunal of the Holy Crusade

539. The erection of the apostolic and royal tribunal of the Holy Crusade in the city of Manila (as the capital of these islands, where the royal Audiencia resides), had its foundation in the general decree of Phelipe III, given in San Lorenzo, under date of May 16, 1609. [53] In consequence of that decree, that tribunal is composed of a commissary-subdelegate-general, who performs the duties of president, and is appointed by his Majesty, with the advice of the supreme council of the Holy Crusade; an auditor, who is the senior auditor of the royal Audiencia; and the fiscal of the same body—all of whom receive a special salary for their duties. For the computation of its accounts, the senior accountant of the royal officials serves, in accordance with the terms of the above-mentioned royal decree. For their business they have a secretary; a chief notary, with a salary; and four notaries, without any assigned salary, but who receive the fees from the business transacted by them. For the expedition of the bulls (which are published biennially in these provinces), the suitable number, and at all prices—bulls for the living and for the dead, de lacticinios, and of composition [54]—are sent from Europa, with the bundles of despatches and instructions from his Majesty and from the apostolic commissary-general. Having been first examined and numbered before the subdelegate-general, they are deposited under good security in the royal magazines of this capital, where pay-warrants are issued for the treasurer-general or manager, into whose charge this business is given.

540. From the first foundation, it was established that the preaching of each biennial term should occur on the twenty-eighth of October. But with the beginning of the year 1736 that date was transferred to the first Sunday in Advent, by order of his Excellency the commissary-general, so that the preaching might be on the same date in all the kingdoms and seigniories of the royal crown.

541. The management and despatch of this concession, and the collection of the alms and proceeds from it, were regularly included, annexed, in the agreements which were made with the royal apostolic tribunal of the City of Mexico—the treasurer-general of the kingdom naming a substitute deputy, who should have in his charge the matters pertaining to these Philipinas. When that was omitted, it was in charge of the royal officials of these treasuries, in accordance with the royal decrees which have so provided it. Certain publications intervened, which were entrusted, by special arrangement, to the inhabitants of Manila, independently of the treasurer-general of Mexico. But lately, the dependence of Philipinas on the arrangements of that kingdom having been dispensed with, a solemn agreement was made with the royal apostolic tribunal of this capital, for the six biennials of the thirteenth concession, by General Don Joseph Antonio Nuno de Villavicencio, proprietary regidor of this city (who obtained a letter from his Excellency the bishop, an inquisitor, and former apostolic commissary-general of the said Holy Crusade); and the said contract having terminated, a new one was made by General Don Diego Zamudio, an inhabitant of the said city, who is charged with this enterprise for the six biennials of the current and fourteenth concession. [55]

542. For that expedition the said treasurers give bonds in sufficient form. They appoint the receiving treasurers, who attend to the expense of bulls in all the villages of the provinces that are included in this jurisdiction, and place the proceeds of this concession, as they become due, in the royal treasury of Manila, or in those of Mexico, according to the agreement at the time of contract.



Chapter XLIX

Churches and colleges of Manila

Royal chapel

543. Inside the walls of the city of Manila, and at the extreme northeast by north section of it, stands the royal chapel, which has the title of Nuestra Senora de la Encarnacion [i.e., our Lady of the Incarnation], and contains the most holy sacrament. It is a very elegant structure, and was founded by Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera. It is used for the chapel functions of the royal Audiencia, for the spiritual administration of the royal hospital for the soldiers of the army, and for their burial. For this last purpose, the chaplains go without any subordination to the parish church, wearing the cope, and with cross carried high, through the public streets to the said royal hospital for the bodies of the deceased soldiers, which they carry with all manner of solemnity to the royal chapel, where they are buried. For the above, and so that they may serve in the chaplaincies of the galleons in this line, and for the divine worship of the said chapel, the chapel has its chief chaplain, and a number of royal chaplains, sacristans, and other ministers, who serve it with great decorum and pomp. This is a rich church, and is beautifully adorned with altars, reredoses, pulpit, and sacristy; it has choir, organ, and a goodly band of singers; and rich ornaments, and sacred vessels of silver and gold—and, in particular, a monstrance of pure gold, valued at eleven thousand ducados.



Royal hospital

544. Not very far from this royal chapel, and more toward the center of the city, is the said royal hospital, for the soldiers of the Manila camp. It has its own chaplain, manager, physician, surgeon, apothecary, and all the other necessary provisions.



Royal seminary-college of San Phelipe

545. His Majesty asked Don Fausto Cruzat y Gongora, governor of these islands, by a royal decree of November 28, 1697, to inform him whether there was or was not a seminary-college for boys in Manila, for the service of his cathedral church; and that, in case there were not, he should set about its foundation and building. He was to advise his Majesty of the expenses necessary for it, and for its necessary maintenance. The governor reported; and, by another royal decree of April 28, 1702, the piety of his Catholic Majesty decided upon the foundation of a royal college in the city of Manila, which should be a seminary for eight seminarists. The sum necessary for its building and maintenance was to be appropriated from the funds accumulating from vacancies in the bishoprics of these islands, and from the tithes; and, if necessary, from the funds of the royal treasury. All was to be done with the advice of the archbishop of Manila, and his Majesty was to be informed of all that was done. Everything was carried out by the governor and master-of-camp, Don Domingo de Zabalburu; and, with the approval of his Excellency the archbishop, Don Diego Camacho y Avila, the plans for the building of the seminary were begun with all possible energy. By a general meeting of the treasury tribunal, held May 22, 1705, four thousand pesos were appropriated to General Don Miguel de Elorriaga for the encouragement of this enterprise.

546. With the arrival at these islands of the patriarch of Antiochia, Cardinal Don Carlos Thomas Millard de Tournon, [56] in the year 1704, and with the stay of the abbot Don Juan Baptista Sidoti [57] in the islands, until he went to Japon, that work was strengthened by various alms, which the said Sidoti went about collecting for it, until he succeeded in giving it a stone foundation one vara high. The seminary was called San Clemente, in honor of the pope. [58] Then writing to Madrid and to Roma the progress that had been made—namely, that the seminary was already in operation, and that the number of the seminarists exceeded twenty, and attributing that glory to the said gentlemen and to their efforts, it was advised that the said cardinal should select those persons whom he thought proper for master and rector. Pontifical commission was assigned him for that, and in fact, in the year 1707, the licentiate Don Gabriel de Isturis was appointed rector, and the bachelor Don Hypolito del Rio as master of the seminarists. On November 28 of that year, the first eight seminarists were received by the governor of these islands, Don Domingo de Zabalburu. The archbishop and governor of these islands helped in all these plans, and, in addition to the above alms, contributions were made from the revenues of the royal treasury.

547. Having been informed of all this news, the apostolic nuncio at the court of Espana presented himself before the Catholic Majesty in the name of the pope (who had been informed by the archbishop and the governor of Manila), asking that his Majesty would deign to consider as valid the said foundation in the aforesaid form in the city of Manila—since it meant glory to his crown to have a seminary in these islands, from which so many advantages would follow for the spread of the Catholic faith in Japon, and China, and among other barbarous peoples, by rearing subjects in the said seminary in virtue and learning as evangelical ministers, of whom there was so much need. That was to be without any expense to the royal treasury, since some of its seminarists were supported with alms, and some with the revenues that belonged to their own houses.

548. His Majesty consulted his royal Council of the Indias. From their examination of the matter a royal decree resulted, dated at Madrid, March 3, 1710, and countersigned by his Majesty's secretary, Don Felix de la Cruz Ahedo, and with the rubrics of five members of the Council of the Indias. In it his Majesty manifests his just anger at such innovations and prejudicial proceedings through the agency of foreigners, when his Majesty had ordained it so long beforehand; and that, with what had been done, there should be given room for such progress to be attributed in the Roman court to the active diligence of foreigners, when his Catholic zeal had sent, at the cost of his royal treasury, and maintained in these parts the great number of learned regular missionaries [who are there] for the conversion [of the heathen], and the propagation of the holy gospel. He was angry also because this news had come to his royal ears by other vehicles than his vassals and ministers, and that foreigners had been allowed in these islands without his royal consent.

549. Therefore, in the said royal order, his Majesty commands that all the foreign seminarists be taken out of the said seminary, and that only the eight before decided upon be left, since those were his vassals. He allows at the most, sixteen boarders, and all those shall enter only by permission of the governor of these islands, as the vice-patron; and the building of the said seminary which his Majesty had before ordered shall be promoted. If there should be persons, who in good faith would have aided the new seminary with buildings, incomes, and other gifts, it is asked that they consent to apply these on the building of the seminary intended and ordered by his Majesty. In case that they do not agree to that, the just price of whatever can be useful for this desirable end shall be paid to them; and what is useless shall be restored to its owners, except such buildings as may not be necessary, which shall be immediately demolished.

550. By virtue of the royal decree to the royal Audiencia, and those decrees which accompanied it for the archbishop and governor of Manila, the building which (as above stated) was already begun was demolished, and today it is used as the summer palace of the governors; and all the orders expressed in the said decrees were carried out. On May 6, 1712, the course of arts was inaugurated in the royal seminary of San Phelipe (for thus did his Majesty order it to be called, and that the name of San Clemente be erased), with the bachelor Don Bartholome Caravallo, presbyter, as master. He was appointed by decree of the superior government, during the governorship of the count of Lizarraga, Don Martin de Ursua. Doctor Don Francisco Fermin de Vivar was appointed master of theology on July 5, 1714. At his death, the master Don Ignacio Mariano Garcia, who is at present doctor in theology, canon of this holy church, and rector of the said royal college, succeeded to the office. After that time, they began to have public theological theses there, with the help of the communities of Manila. Still later, esteeming it advisable for the royal treasury, the offices of master of arts and theology were suspended, and only that of master of grammar is preserved. The seminarists who may choose to continue their scholastic studies, go to the university of Santo Thomas to hear lecturers there. That is the present course; and the said seminarists, after being present at the service of the cathedral church—their first duty—go to the university of Santo Thomas for the ordinary lectures which are given to them.



Royal professorships

551. In the year 1717, his Majesty (may God preserve him) sent three professors to the city of Manila, with suitable salaries, to erect and conduct three professorships—of canons, institutes, and laws: these were in fact, erected and conducted in this city, in one of its most notable and roomy houses. In the year 1724, because of the promotion by the king of Don Julian de Velasco, one of the professors, to the royal Audiencia of Mexico, and as there were no suitable persons [for these chairs] the royal Audiencia of these islands communicated that fact to his Majesty on June 10, 1726, as well as the small results and increased expenses that were experienced from those professorships. Therefore, the royal Audiencia had made provision, while awaiting a new royal order, for maintaining the two professorships, with the same two lecturers who held them. However, there was some change, the professorship of canons being given to the very reverend father Pedro Murillo Velarde, of the holy Society of Jesus; while the place where the lectures were given was changed to the college of San Ignacio, of the same Society, where its provincial generously assigned a room for the exercise [of these lectureships] and for literary functions. In view of that, the king ordained, by his decree of July 26, 1730, the suspension of everything enacted therein by that Audiencia—doing away, for the time being, with the foundation of the royal university; and saving the royal treasury more than ten thousand pesos per annum, which had been fruitlessly spent. Now, very recently, his Majesty, by a decree dated San Lorenzo, October 23, 1733, has determined that there shall be a chair of canons and another of institutes in the college of San Ignacio; and he also determines that there shall be the same at the university of Santo Thomas. Such is the present condition of the king's professorships, until a new order is given.



Royal seminary of Santa Potenciana

552. The royal seminary of Santa Potenciana was built in Manila, where it is situated, in the year 1591. At that time Don Fray Domingo de Salazar was bishop, and he aided it with his alms; while the governor of the islands was Gomez Perez Dasmarinas. It was established in some houses and on a plot of ground given for that purpose by Captain Luis de Vibanco, factor of the royal treasury. There also was built the church with the title of St. Andrew the apostle, the patron saint of Manila. That church is thought to be [on the site of] the ancient chapel of St. Andrew which, as appears, was in that same spot, according to several papers which I have seen of the year 1580. The seminary has been, and is, used for orphan girls, the daughters of Spanish parents, to give them good education and rearing. It is under the royal patronage; and his Majesty takes care of the maintenance of the seminarists, and helps them as far as may be necessary. Some pupils, some servants, and even some reformed women are received also. For the last named, Licentiate Don Francisco Gomez de Arellano, archdeacon of Manila, and provisor of this archbishopric, built a separate room. He furnished the reredos of the principal altar, and gave several other alms and support for the purpose of changing that seminary to a monastery of nuns; but he was unable to attain his purpose, for God cut short the thread of his life. They have their own chaplain, their rectoress, and their portress; and they live safely retired and with holy mode of life.



Royal brotherhood of the Santa Misericordia

553. The royal brotherhood of the Santa Misericordia of the city of Manila is composed of the members of the most prominent families of Manila. They have their overseer, twelve deputies, and a secretary, who form their executive board, besides other officers for their necessary transaction of business. They were established in imitation of the one which was erected in Lisboa, in the year 1498, by the most serene queen of Portugal—Dona Leonor, at that time the widow of Don Juan the Second, who had died in the year 1495 as appears in all the Portuguese histories. Their founder was a Trinitarian religious of praiseworthy life, one Fray Miguel de Contreras. The Misericordia of Manila is due to the pious and fervent efforts of that venerable servant of God. Father Juan Fernandez de Leon, a secular priest, a native of Gibra-Leon, in the county of Niebla in Andalucia, at the time when this archbishopric was governed by the very reverend father Fray Christoval de Salvatierra, [59] of the Order of Preachers, and the Philipinas Islands by Don Luis Gomez [sic: error for Perez] Dasmarinas. This holy brotherhood was established April 16, 1594, with the liberal alms of all the nobility of Manila, and the above-named governor was appointed its first overseer. The three who cooperated for its establishment and the formation of its constitution, were Father Pereyra, of the holy Society of Jesus, father Fray Marcos de Lisboa, a Franciscan, and Don Christoval Giral, all three of them Portuguese. In the church of the Society of Jesus at Manila met the most reverend father Fray Christoval de Salvatierra, the venerable dean Don Diego Basquez de Mercado, and the said venerable Juan Fernandez de Leon; the venerable fathers Antonio Sedeno and Raymundo de Prado, of the holy Society of Jesus; the venerable fathers Fray Agustin de Tordesillas, Fray Marcos de Lisboa, Fray Alonso Munoz, and Fray Juan Bautista, of this seraphic [i.e., Franciscan] province; together with the magistrates, regidors, and superior officers of the army of the city, and other persons of education and talents, both ecclesiastics and laymen.

554. Thus erected, and in accordance with its erection, the Santa Misericordia remained with the temporal management, and our province with the spiritual management, of the hospital, which from that time began to be called the Misericordia [i.e., "House of Mercy"] of the Franciscan fathers—which before had been cared for by the venerable Leon and our venerable Fray Juan Clemente; and the erection of the said hospital in proper shape was considered.

555. They built a church with the title of "Presentacion de Nuestra Senora" [i.e., "Presentation of our Lady"], and a house and seminary with that of Santa Isabel, in order to rear Spanish orphan girls with thorough instruction in Christian doctrine and with good morals. It had a rectoress to care for and govern it, and a portress. Thence the girls go out with dowries sufficient for the estate [of marriage] to which they naturally tend, for which purpose the holy Misericordia appropriates sixteen thousand pesos. The girls who study there, who all the time are supported with whatever is necessary, number about sixty, besides some pupils, six slave girls, and other servants. For their expenses and those of their chaplains ten thousand seven hundred pesos are appropriated. It is a seminary of so great reputation and honor that, although it has been used from its beginning as a refuge for girls—the daughters of poor Spaniards, whom the brothers obtain from various houses and from Santa Potenciana—the best citizens of the community do not hesitate today to send their daughters there. Thence they go out to assume the state of matrimony, or as nuns of St. Clare. Their church is very capacious, of beautiful architecture, and very richly adorned. It was used as the cathedral (as above stated) until the year 1662, when the cabildo took possession of its new church.

556. Not only does this brotherhood have in charge today the support of this girls' seminary, and of the hospital of the Misericordia (although the latter is at present under the charge of the hospital order), but there is no class of persons which does not experience the charity of this holy house, through the generous alms that its executive board distributes. If the royal Misericordia of Lisboa boasts that 30,000 ducados of private alms and other sums, which are spent nearly every year for the redemption of captives, were distributed in one year, there is not a year that this great charitable institution does not spend 70,000 pesos in various purposes of charity, such as those already mentioned—poor Spaniards who are unwilling to ask alms, and prisoners, and masses for the blessed souls—so that it is estimated that this holy house has given 3,448,506 pesos in alms from the year 1599 until that of 1726. That sum has been produced by the pious bequests that have been left for charitable purposes by the inhabitants of Manila. To this should be added the advances that have been made to the general fund of these islands, in cases of extreme necessity and invasions by the enemy, in the years 1646, 650, 653, 663 to 668, and to that of 1735. The total, according to an accurate computation, amounts to 1,069,099 pesos.

557. The Misericordia takes care of the financial affairs of twenty-nine collative and of ten laical chaplaincies; and, in the royal college of San Joseph, of two fellowships.

558. It is governed by its own special rules, and their observance imposes the obligation of mortal sin. It has remarkable and venerated reliquaries. It enjoys many privileges from the supreme pontiffs, and innumerable indulgences. It is under the immediate royal protection by a royal decree of his Majesty, dated Sevilla, March 25, 1733, countersigned by Don Miguel de Villanueva, the king's secretary. Concession was granted in that decree to place the royal arms in their church and college; to go out as a corporation on Holy Thursday to make the round of the stations; and entire credit is to be given in all the tribunals to the instruments of the secretary of the executive board.



Other charitable institutions

559. There are other charitable institutions in Manila in emulation of that of the holy Misericordia, although not so wealthy: in the cathedral church, in the seraphic tertiary order of the convent of Manila, in that of the convent of Dilao, in [the convent of] St. Dominic, in their convent of Binondoc, in their beaterio, in the convent of the calced Augustinian fathers, in that of the discalced Augustinians, and in that of the Society. All of them serve as a refuge for the poor; for from them is obtained money in proportion to good securities, and on pledges of gold and silver, at moderate rates of interest, for the trade of merchants, with which the poor Spaniards engage in business and increase their wealth. Their returns are used for the various charities purposed by the founders who placed their money there—such as divine worship; alms for the orders; dowries for poor Spanish, Indian, and mestiza girls, and for those of the Cavite shore; alms for the self-respecting poor; hospitals and prisons; and suffrages for the blessed souls in purgatory—which are perennial.



Chapter L

Curacies and employments of religious in this archbishopric

Curacies

560. There are thirteen secular curacies and their visitas in all the archbishopric of Manila. In the Manila cathedral there are two—one for Spaniards, and one for natives. In the province of Tongdo is the curacy of Santiago; that of La Hermita de Guia, and that of Quiapo, the latter being an archiepiscopal house. In the jurisdiction of Cavite, the curacy of that port and city, and that of the natives of San Roque. In the province of Balayan, the curacy of Balayan and that of El Rosario. In the province of Laguna de Bai, the curacy of Tunasan, that of Tabuco, and that of Santo Thomas in the mountains. In the jurisdiction of Mindoro, the curacy of Luban. In all those curacies there are now administered about [blank in original] souls.



Calced Augustinians

561. The calced Augustinian religious have their convent and church within the archbishopric. It is all of stone arches, and is located in Manila; and art has employed all its beauties in its building, and it is of special size and beauty. There live, as a general thing, fifty religious, all of well-known talents; and they have quarters for novitiates and study, for those who need them. This was the first order which (in the year 1565) conquered these islands; through their first prelate and father of them all, the venerable Fray Andres de Urdaneta, a Biscayan, and a son of the convent and province of Mexico. This convent of Manila is the head of all the province of Dulcissimo Nombre de Jesus, and of all the parochial convents that are possessed throughout the province by the Augustinians, to wit, as follows:

562. In the province of Tongdo: the convents of Tongdo, Tambobong, Malate, Paranaque, Pasig, and Tagui. According to the last census, those convents minister to 21,959 souls.

563. The sanctuary of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe on the river of Manila, where there are no Indians in its charge, and where only a few religious stay for the worship of that holy image.

564. In the province of Bai, the province of San Pablo de los Montes, which has in charge 2,600 souls.

565. In the province of Taal or Balayan: the convents of Taal, with the holy sanctuary of the miraculous Virgin, and of Casaysay and its administration; that of Bauan, that of Batangas, that of Tanauan, that of Sala, and that of Lipa—with 14,628 souls.

566. In the province of Bulacan: the convents of the villages of Bulacan, Dapdap, Guiguinto, Bigaa, Angat, Baliuag, Quingua, Malolos, Paombong, Calumpit, and Hagonoy—with 23,303 souls.

567. In the province of Pampanga: the convents of the villages of Bacolor, Macabebe, Sesmoan, Lubao, Vaua, Minalin, Betis, Porac, Pueblo de Mexico, Arayat, Magalang, Tarlac, Gapang, Santol (with its missions, and the new village of San Sebastian), San Miguel de Mayomo, Candaba, Cabacsa, Apalit—with 38,513 souls.

568. In the mountains of the same province of Pampanga, within a radius of twenty-four leguas, there is a most flourishing mission of several barbaric nations, in which 4,500 souls are converted. [60]

569. The order of our father St. Francis of the discalced religious followed the Augustinians in point of their establishment in these islands; but I shall leave them for the last place in this book, in order to give precedence to the guests from outside, who honor my work.



Society of Jesus

570. The holy Society of Jesus came to these islands with their two vigorous apostolic leaders, Father Antonio Sedeno and Father Alonso Sanchez—who were most helpful companions of Don Fray Domingo de Salazar, the first bishop of Manila—in the year 1581. They have their principal college in Manila, whose titular is St. Ignatius. It is a sumptuous edifice, and head of all the colleges (which are eight in number, the houses proper of the order), and of all the residences and missions of these islands. In this chief college is situated the pontifical and royal university of letters.

571. It is assured that Pope Julius III was the first to concede the power of granting degrees to the holy Society of Jesus, on October 22, 1552; but only to Jesuit scholars. Afterward Pius IV extended this faculty to outside students, August 19, 1561. Lastly, it was all confirmed by his Holiness, Gregory XIII, May 7, 1578, that pope declaring that the prefect of studies could give the degrees. Urban VIII, on petition of the sovereigns Phelipe III and Phelipe IV, decreed that degrees could be given in the Indias by the hands of the bishops, in the colleges of the Society, as was once practiced in Manila by Archbishop Serrano. And because it was not continued, that college of San Ignacio availed itself of the privileges already noted, and of which mention is made in libro i, titulo xxii, law ii, of the Recopilacion de Indias. [61] Wherefore it appears that the holy Society gave degrees in Manila by pontifical and regal authority. Later his Holiness, Gregory XV, by his brief Apud S. Mariam Mayorem, conceded, on August 8, 1621, the same privilege, but with the following restriction, praesentibus ad decennium dum-taxat valituris, and that decennial was completed in the year 1631. Then on May 12, 1653, a royal writ of execution was issued, granting authority to graduate students from the college of San Ignacio or that of San Joseph. In the year 1718, the royal university was started in these islands, and it was maintained until the year 1726. As one of the professors was promoted to the royal Audiencia of Mexico, the chair of the morning classes in canonical law was given to the very reverend father Pedro Murillo Velarde, of the same Society, who had been professor of these branches in the universities of Granada and Salamanca, as a collegiate in the imperial university of San Miguel of Granada, and of the chief [college] of Cuenca at Salamanca. But on account of the increased expenses occasioned by this royal university, and as the benefits derived therefrom, as experience demonstrated, were little, this royal Audiencia of Manila determined that these professorships should be located—as it were, in trust—in the college of San Ignacio of Manila. That was in fact done, the Society showing this courtesy to his Catholic Majesty—until, by a decree dated July 26, 1730, those professorships are now suppressed, and other provision has been made. Now, very recently, the chief college of San Ignacio has, besides the privileges above cited, two new chairs—one of canonical law, without a salary, directed by a religious; and the other of institutes, under a layman, with four hundred pesos of income, in accordance with a decree from the Escorial, dated October 23, 1733. The college is authorized to grant degrees in canons, laws, and other branches by his Holiness, Clement XII, by his brief of December 6, 1735. Many are taking those studies, and are deriving great advantages therefrom. Their literary exercises are very excellent, and continue [throughout their course of study] under the careful guidance of the holy Society, which is not a new thing.

572. The royal college of San Joseph, contiguous to the above college of San Ignacio, and near the royal gate of Manila, has for its origin a royal decree of Phelipe II, dated June 8, 1585, wherein the governor of these islands—who was to confer with the bishop of the islands as to the means—was ordered to institute a college, and support religious who were to teach Latin, the sciences, and good morals to those who should attend. In obedience to that decree, the said college of San Joseph was founded in the year 1595. Twelve fellowships were created, and one thousand pesos assigned from the royal treasury. A deed of it was given on condition that the college was to be called a royal college, and that the arms of his Majesty were to be placed on it. A few years afterward, by the will left by Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, governor and captain-general of the island of Mindanao, this college was established from the foundations in his name. It had a sufficient number of students, and a continually brilliant exercise in the branches of learning, which is flourishing in these times. Its antiquity, and its precedence to that of Santo Tomas, is defined by the royal Council of the Indias, in a contradictory judgment, which appears from a royal decree or writ of execution dated March 12, 1653. The title Real ad honorem, with authority to place it on all its acts and despatches, and to place the royal arms on its gates, as we now see them, is a concession of our Catholic king, by his royal order of May 3, 1722. Therefore this college is held in esteem and has a remarkable popularity.

573. In the province of Tongdo [the Society has] [marginal note: residences or missions] in the villages of Santa Cruz, outside the Manila walls, and in San Miguel on the river of Manila; up the river toward Laguna de Bai, in the villages of San Pedro Macati, San Matheo (with the missions of San Isidro, and Paynaan in the mountains), Antipolo, Taytay, Cainta, Mariquina, Silan, and Indang.

In the jurisdiction of Cavite, in the village of Cavite el Viejo [i.e., old Cavite], and in the port of Cavite, a college without administration.

In that of Marivelez, in the village of Marigondong.

In the jurisdiction of Mindoro, in the island of Marinduque, in the villages of Boac, Santa Cruz de Napo, and Gasang.

574. There is a beaterio, in the city of Manila, of respectable Indian women with their mistress, who have withdrawn from the world, and are employed in holy living and exercises. Although the fathers of the Society do not have charge of it and its government, because of the prohibition in their statutes, it is, through the common error of the crowd, called "Las Beatas de la Compania" ["Devout women of the Society"], for they hear mass, confess, and receive communion in their church at the college of the Society.

575. The number of souls in charge of the fathers of the Society throughout these islands and the Marianas, according to the latest computation (of which the fathers have informed me), is one hundred and seventy thousand.

This is all the total that I know from this point on, for the other bishoprics, which are lacking.



St. Dominic

576. The first religious of the order of our father St. Dominic who were known to have come to this archipelago were in the year 1581—the first bishop, Don Fray Domingo de Salazar, and his associate, Fray Christoval de Salvatierra, the only survivor of a very fine mission that his Excellency brought. But the first mission that came to establish itself in Manila consisted of fourteen religious, under their vicar-general, Fray Juan de Castro, in the year 1587, on the eve of [Mary] Magdalene. This holy religion has the merit of being more strict in Philipinas than in Europa; for its members do not receive honorable titles or its convents incomes. Their habit is of unmixed frieze, and there is nothing to be asked for as a dispensation in their regular observance. They have a very fine convent in the city of Manila, which supports about thirty religious of virtue and learning. It is the chief convent of this most religious province of Santissimo Rosario.

577. The pontifical and royal university of Santo Thomas, incorporated in this holy province of Santissimo Rosario of our father St. Dominic, must recognize as its origin that venerable servant of God, the most illustrious and reverend Don Fray Miguel de Venavides, of the same order, who while archbishop of Manila, planned this so noble a work in the year 1610—giving all his library and about one thousand pesos, which was the amount of his property, to begin its foundation. He was followed by Don Fray Diego de Soria, of the same order, and bishop of Nueva Segovia in these islands, who bequeathed all his library and three thousand eight hundred pesos for the continuation of this work. Consequently, by the year 1620 it already had lecturers and masters for the public teaching of the sciences, by order of the superior government and the Audiencia of these islands, as appears from the Recopilacion de Indias, libro i, titulo xxii, ley liii. [62] After that three pontifical briefs were obtained, each one ad decennium, empowering them to graduate students from the courses of philosophy and theology. But Don Phelipe IV by his letter to the count of Siruela, his ambassador in Roma, petitioned and obtained from his Holiness Innocent X the bull commencing In supereminenti, given at Roma, November 20, 1645. In that bull his Holiness erects a university in the college of Santo Thomas in due form, with all the exemptions and privileges that other universities have, under the care of the Order of Preachers. Authority is given to the rector to confer degrees, establish statutes, and appoint officials, his Holiness giving them the names proper of university, etc., until an independent university of general studies should be founded in Manila. Afterward the king, by a royal decree, dated Madrid, May 17, 1680, admitted the said university under his patronage and royal protection; and ordered the governor, Audiencia, archbishop, and orders to so regard it, and to observe its statutes and exemptions. By another decree, dated Madrid, November 22, 1682, the king concedes authority for the erection of the chairs of laws and medicine in Santo Thomas. By another quite recent decree, dated San Lorenzo, October 23, 1733, the king grants to the university of Santo Thomas two chairs—one of canonical law, which is held by a religious who receives no salary; and the other of the institutes, in charge of a layman, appointed by the royal Audiencia, and assigned a salary of four hundred pesos per annum, payable from the royal treasury, and to be taken from [funds arising from] the vacant sees of the archbishop and bishops of these islands. The same favor is conferred upon the college of San Ignacio of the Society. At present these two chairs are being maintained in both places. A petition having been made to his Holiness in behalf of the said university, that authority be conceded it to graduate students in the laws from it, his Blessedness Clement XII (who is at present governing the Church), concedes this, granting said chairs to the university. His bull Dudum emanarunt, promulgated in Roma, September 2, 1734, in which he inserts the letter of Innocent above cited, and the permissions and prerogatives there expressed (which are those of general universities), incorporates the said chairs, and those which may be founded in the future, so that the university may be able to graduate students in them, and so that the graduates may enjoy all the exemptions which are there mentioned.

578. Thus does the order maintain that university, and it has men there of excellent learning and qualifications for public teaching. There are a sufficient number of students and collegiates who hear instruction, illustrated in the public literary exercises in the sciences, and with all the other aids necessary. Its material edifice is very substantial and large and has a sufficient number of apartments and class-rooms of goodly capacity. It is located next door to the convent of our father St. Dominic in Manila.

579. The seminary of San Juan de Letran was started by a Spaniard of excellent life, called Brother Juan Geronymo Guerrero, who had in charge the rearing and teaching of poor and orphaned Spanish boys—whom, partly with his own money but more with alms, he was supporting and had gathered in his house. For that purpose his Majesty granted him an encomienda in Ylocos for the support of the said boys. When he became quite old and helpless he retired, with the permission of the archbishop, to the infirmary of St. Dominic, where he died a religious, having renounced in due form his house, encomienda, and all his other property, so that he might give them to the order. The latter was to take charge of the education of the said orphans. So in effect the seminary of the said boys was given to the order of our father St. Dominic with all the aforesaid incomes, besides a piece of land one hundred brazas long by fifty wide (which they were to choose) in the Parian—free, and without paying land-tax to the city—as a help toward its support. That transfer was made by decree of Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, dated Manila, June 18, 1640, as appears from the first document in the book of the foundation of said seminary. In that book is seen its erection into a seminary with the advocacy of St. John of the Lateran, as appears from the acts of the archbishop and provisor, and from the other solemnities, found on leaves 5-11 inclusive. Their principal rule was the education of the said orphans, so that they might go thence as soldiers, and to occupy other posts in the community. Now most of them become priests, studying the branches of philosophy and theology; and almost all the seculars of the bishopric of Camarines, and many others in the other bishoprics of the islands, come from that seminary. From the said seminary, there have been already graduated with great credit four doctors through the university of Santo Thomas, two of whom are now canons of this metropolitan church—one, provisor of Ylocos; and the other, chief chaplain of the Misericordia. Some incomes in the royal chapel have been added to the said seminary, and a seraphic tertiary order with which fifty collegiates are regularly maintained in education for the order of our father St. Dominic.

580. In the suburbs of Manila, the Dominicans have the hospital of San Gabriel for the Chinese, and the convent and church of Santos Reyes [i.e., "holy kings"], with the administration of the same Christian Chinese, who live and trade here.

581. In the province of Tongdo, this order has charge of the village of Binondoc and the convent of San Juan del Monte (but without any administration), up the river of Manila.

582. In the province of Pampanga, the convents and administration of the villages of Abocay, Samal, Oriong, Orani, with some visitas and missions. In these administrations they have in charge sixteen thousand souls.

In the port of Cavite, a convent without administration.

583. Inside the city of Manila, the royal beaterio of Santa Cathalina is incorporated with the province of Santissimo Rosario. It was established in the year 1695, in the house and on the ground given for that purpose by Don Antonio Esguerra with some shops of the Parian for its support. Accordingly, some beatas [i.e., devout women] lived there in retreat for some years, in the care of the Dominican religious. Later General Don Juan Escano took charge of the maintenance of the said beatas. He left a considerable portion of his property for that purpose, specifying that there should be fifteen Spanish beatas for the choir, and sufficient lay-sisters to take care of the beaterio. Today it is a house worthy of deep veneration and respect. The king has incorporated it in his royal patronage, with authority to have a public church with bells and a choir, and permission to celebrate the divine offices. They have a cloister, and profess the tertiary order of the Dominicans. The only thing necessary to perfect their lives, and which they desire, is profession as nuns.



Discalced Augustinians

584. The discalced religious of the great father of the Church, St. Augustine, entered Manila in the year 1606. Although they were the last evangelical workers, their apostolic zeal has extended in rivalry to the first ones, and they have attained abundant results from their labors, in the reduction of the most barbarous islanders, and in the exemplary lives of their reformed religious. The first convent in which they lived was the one now called San Juan de Bagongbayan, outside the walls of the city of Manila. It was established with the title of San Nicolas de Tolentino, which is still preserved (without administration), with the veneration merited, not only by their primacy but by the miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Salud [i.e., "our Lady of health"] who is venerated there. Later, a convent was erected in due form under the ancient advocacy of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, that saint being today the titular of that most strict province. In that convent, which is inside and near the walls of Manila, there are generally maintained thirty or forty religious. They have the reputation of being a community as well regulated as the best in Castilla, and one in which have been known a great number of fathers of holiness and learning. From that convent they go out to perform their laborious ministrations in these islands. Their houses in this archbishopric are as follows.

585. In the province of Tongdo, the convent of San Sebastian near Manila, where the miraculous image of Nuestra Senora del Carmen [i.e., "our Lady of Carmen"] is revered, and she has a Confraternity of the holy Escapular, with very fervent devotion. There are three hundred and thirty-six souls ministered to in that convent.

586. In the jurisdiction of Marivelez: in the villages of Marivelez, Cabcaben, Bagac, Morong; and they have administration between Subic and the point of Bolinao, which is the country of the Zambales. They also have some missions in the mountains near by. In that district they care for 8,550 souls.

587. All of the island of Mindoro is under the charge of those religious, where in various villages, visitas, missions, and settlements, they minister to 7,552 souls.

588. In the port of Cavite, they have another convent, a dwelling for the religious without any administration of Indians.

[In the margin: "Total number of souls, 16,438."]



St. John of God

589. The hospital Order of St. John of God, although their institute is the hospital and the treatment of bodies, have not a few times served as medicine for souls, under the spur of the apostolic zeal of those charitable religious. Although it appears from a royal decree of February 10, 1617, that permission was given for ten religious for these islands, one cannot find evidence of the time of their entrance. They can only be found in the year 1649, with a hospital of convalescents in Ragongbayan, outside the walls of Manila, with their superior, the very reverend prior vicar-provincial, Fray Francisco de Magallanes. [63] Cession was made to him, as the head of his order, of the old hospital, which was founded by our Fray Juan Clemente. The Santa Misericordia of Manila, under the title of "Hospital of the Misericordia of the Franciscan fathers," managed its financial affairs—as appears from the written statement of the said executive board of May 13, 1656, and from the permissions of Archbishop Poblete, of May 11 of the said year, and of Governor Don Sabiniano, of March 22 of the same year. His Catholic Majesty approved that gift by his royal decree of December 5, 1659. That hospital continually suffered ever-recurring disasters, until the arrival at these islands of the very reverend father Fray Antonio Arce, in July of 1726, as its head and superior. Such has been his zeal and prudence that he has merited the glorious title of restorer of the hospital order in these islands, in its organization and affairs. For now, not only is it seen to be glorified by a very large, distinguished, and devout community, but they have built a sumptuous church from the foundations, excellent sick wards, and the house of the religious, almost to the extreme of perfection. They began so grand and vast a work November 28, 1728, when his Excellency Archbishop Don Carlos Vermudez blessed the first stone, in the presence of Governor Marquis de Torre Campo (who began that building with two thousand pesos, which he gave that afternoon as alms), and the most noble and prominent people of this community.

590. There was another hospital in Cavite, but it was swallowed up in the sea. At present a common house is used there as a hospital. The same thing is true of Zebu. All that will be remedied, as is proved by experience, if the providence of God do not fail it, as hitherto it has not.



Discalced Franciscans

591. Our discalced religious came to these islands immediately following the Augustinian fathers, in the year 1577. They were the founders of the custodia of San Phelipe, which was later entitled San Gregorio. Now the province of the discalced Franciscans has the same title. Its first founder was the venerable Fray Antonio de San Gregorio, and its first custodian, the venerable Fray Pedro de Alfaro. Possession was taken of the new convent of Manila, August 2, 1577, and the most holy sacrament was placed in their church of Santa Maria de los Angeles [i.e., "St. Mary of the Angels"]. That was the first receptacle [for the sacrament], or sacristy, that his Majesty had in these islands. In this convent the community ceremonies are observed, in accordance with the rigor of the rules of Espana. There is a well-served infirmary, and [opportunity for] studies, when that is necessary. It generally contains thirty religious, according as the climate and other accidents of this country permit. This convent is the mother and head of this holy province, whence go religious to minister to the places in our charge. They are as follows.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse