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The Origins of Contemporary France, Volume 3 (of 6) - The French Revolution, Volume 2 (of 3)
by Hippolyte A. Taine
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[Footnote 3446: Madame Roland, II.56. Note by Roland.]

[Footnote 3447: Mortimer-Ternaux, V. 476.]

[Footnote 3448: Mortimer-Ternaux, V. 513.]

[Footnote 3449: Comte de Segur, "Memoires." I. 13.]

[Footnote 3450: Harmand de la Meuse (member of the Convention), "Anecdotes relative a la Revolution," 83, 85.]

[Footnote 3451: Meissner, 148, "Voyage a Paris" (last months of 1795). Testimony of the regicide Audrein.]

[Footnote 3452: Louvet, 775.]

[Footnote 3453: Meillan, 16.]

[Footnote 3454: Remark by M. Guirot ("Memoires"), II. 73.]

[Footnote 3455: Moniteur, XIV. 432, session of Nov. 10, 1792. Speech by Cambon: "That is the reason why I shall always detest the 2nd of September; for never will I approve of assassinations." In the same speech he justifies the Girondists against any reproach of federalism.]

[Footnote 3456: "Le Marechal Davoust," by Madame de Bocqueville. Letter of Davoust, battalion officer, June 2, 1793: "We are animated with the spirit of Lepelletier, which is all that need be said with respect to our opinions and what we will do in the coming crisis, in which, perhaps, a faction will try to plunge us anew into a civil war between the departments and Paris. Perfidious eloquence... conservative Tartufes."]

[Footnote 3457: Moniteur, XIV. 738. Report by Cambon, Dec. 15. "On the way French generals are to act in countries occupied by the armies of the republic." This important document is a true manifesto of the Revolution.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII 140, session of May 20, and XXVI. 177, session of April 27, speech by Cambon: "The department of Herault says to this or that individual: 'You are rich; your opinions cause us expenditure.. I mean to fix you to the Revolution in spite of yourself. You shall lend your fortune to the republic, and when liberty is established the republic will return your capital to you.—"I should like, then, following the example of the department of Herault, that the Convention should organize a civic loan of one billion, to be supplied by egoists and the indifferent.—Decree of May 20, "passed almost unanimously. A forced loan of one billion shall be made on wealthy citizens."]

[Footnote 3458: Meillan. 100.]

[Footnote 3459: Speech by Ducos, March 20. "We must choose between domestic education and liberty. So long as the poor and the rich are not brought close together through a common education, in vain will your laws proclaim sacred equality!"—Rabaut-Saint-Etienne: "In every township a national temple will be erected, in which every Sunday its municipal officers will give moral instruction to the assembled citizens. This instruction will be drawn from books approved of by the legislative body, and followed by hymns also approved of by the legislative. A catechism, as simple as it is short, drawn up by the legislative body, shall be taught and every boy will know it by heart."—On the sentiments of the Girondists in relation to Christianity, see chapters V. and XI. of this volume.—On the means for equalizing the fortunes, see articles by Rabaut-Saint-Etienne (Buchez et Roux, XXIII. 467).—Ibid., XXIV. 475 (March 7-11) decree abolishing the testamentary right.—Condorcet, in his "Tableau des progres de l'Esprit humain," assigns the leveling of conditions as the purpose of society.—On propaganda abroad, read the report by Cambon (Dec. 15). This report is nearly unanimously accepted, and Buzot exacerbates it by adding an amendment]

[Footnote 3460: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 287, session of May 28, vote on the maintenance of the Commission of Twelve.]

[Footnote 3461: Moniteur. XV. 395, session of Feb. 8, 1793.]

[Footnote 3462: Decrees of March 13 and 14.]

[Footnote 3463: Moore, II. 44 (October 1792). Danton declares in the tribune that "the Convention should be a committee of instruction for kings throughout the universe." On which Moore remarks that this is equivalent to declaring war against all Europe except Switzerland.—Mallet du Pan, "Considerations sur la Revolution de France," p.37: "In a letter which chance has brought to my notice, Brissot wrote to one of his minister-generals towards the close of last year: 'The four quarters of Europe must be set on fire; that is our salvation.'"]

[Footnote 3464: Duvergier, "Collection des lois et decrets." Decree of March 10-12. Title I. articles 4, 12, 13; title II. articles 2, 3. Add to this the decree of March 29-31, establishing the penalty of death against whoever composes or prints documents favoring the re-establishment of royalty.]

[Footnote 3465: Ib., Decree of March 28—April 5 (article 6).—Cf. the decrees of March 18-22, and April 23-24.]

[Footnote 3466: Decree of March 27-30.]

[Footnote 3467: Decree of April 5-7.]

[Footnote 3468: Decree of May 4. (A law fixing the highest price at which grain shall be sold. TR.)]

[Footnote 3469: Decree of April 11-16 (bearing on the reduction in value of the legal currency.—TR).]

[Footnote 3470: Decree of May 20-25.]

[Footnote 3471: Decree of April 5-7. Words used by Danton in the course of the debate.]

[Footnote 3472: Decree of April 5-11.]

[Footnote 3473: Decrees of May 13, 16, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 29, June 1.]

[Footnote 3474: Decrees of March 21-23 and March 26-30.]

[Footnote 3475: Decrees of March 29-31.]

[Footnote 3476: Decree of April 1-5.]

[Footnote 3477: Schmidt, I. 232. Report by Dutard, May 10.]

[Footnote 3478: "Archives Nationales," F7, 2401 to 2505. Records of the section debates in Paris.—Many of these begin March 28, 1793, and contain the deliberations of revolutionary committees; for example, F7, 2475, the section of the Pikes or of the Place Vendome. We see by the official reports dated March 28 and the following days that the suspected were deprived all weapons, even the smallest, every species of swordcane, including dress-swords with steel or silver handles.]

[Footnote 3479: Buchez et Roux, XXV. 157.—"Archives Nationales," F7, 2494, section of the Reunion, official report, March 28.]

[Footnote 3480: Schmidt, I. 223 (Dutard, May 14).—Ibid., 224. "If the Convention allows committees of supervision to exercise its authority, I will not give it eight days."—Meillan, 111: "Almost all the section agitators were strangers"—"Archives Nationales," F7, 3294 and 3297, records of debate in the committees of supervision belonging to the sections of the Reunion and Droits de l'Homme. Quality of mind and education are both indicated by orthography. For instance: "Le dit jour et an que decus."—"Orloger."—"Lecture d'une lettre du comite de surte general de la convention qui invite le comite a se transporter de suites chez le citoyen Louis Feline rue Baubourg, a leffets de faire perquisition chez lui et dans tout ces papiers, et que ceux qui paraitrons suspect lon y metes les seles."]

[Footnote 3481: "Archives Nationales," F7, 3294. Section of the Reunion, official report. March 28.]

[Footnote 3482: Buchez et Roux, XXV. 168. An ordinance of the commune, March 27.]

[Footnote 3483: Schmidt, I.223. Report by Dutard, May 14.]

[Footnote 3484: Buchez et Roux, XXV. 167. Ordinance of May 27. XXXVII. 151. Ordinance of May 20.]

[Footnote 3485: "Archives Nationales," F7, 3294. See in particular, the official reports of the month of April.—Buchez et Roux, XXV. 149, and XXVI. 342. (ordinances of the Commune, March 27 and May 2).]

[Footnote 3486: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 402 (article from the Patriote Francais, May 8). "Arrests are multiplied lately to a frightful extent. The mayoralty overflows with prisoners. Nobody has any idea of the insolence and harshness with which citizens are treated. Slaughter and a Saint-Bartholomew are all that are talked of. "—Meillan, 55. "Let anybody in any assemblage or club express any opinion not in unison with municipal views, and he is sure to be arrested the following night. "—Gouverneur Morris, March 29, 1793. "Yesterday I was arrested in the street and conducted to the section of Butte-des-Moulins... Armed men came to my house yesterday. "—Reply of the minister Lebrun, April 3. "Domiciliary visits were a general measure from which no house in Paris was exempt."]

[Footnote 3487: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 384. Speech by Buzot, session of May 8.]

[Footnote 3488: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 332. Ordinance of the commune, May 1.]

[Footnote 3489: Schmidt, I. 216. Report by Dutard, May 13.]

[Footnote 3490: Schmidt, I.301. "In our sections the best class of citizens are still afraid of imprisonment or of being disarmed. Nobody talks freely."—The Lyons revolutionaries make the same calculation ("Archives Nationales," AF, II. 43). Letter addressed to the representatives of the people by the administrators of the department of the Rhone, June 4, 1793. The revolutionary committee "designated for La Vendee those citizens who were most comfortably off or those it hated, whilst conditional enlistment with the privilege of remaining in the department were granted only to those in favor of disorganization."—Cf. Guillon de Montleon, I. 235.]

[Footnote 3491: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 399. Ordinance of the commune, May 3, on a forced loan of twelve millions, article 6. "The revolutionary committees will regard the apportionment 'lists simply as guides, without regarding them as a basis of action."—Article 14. "The personal and real property of those who have not conformed to the patriotic draft will be seized and sold at the suit of the revolutionary committees, and their persons declared suspected."]

[Footnote 3492: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 17 (Patriote Francais, number for May 14). Francoeur is taxed at 3,600 francs.—The same process at Lyons (Balleydier, 174, and Guillon de Montleon, I. 238). The authorized tax by the commissaries of the convention amounted to six millions. The revolutionary committee levied thirty and forty millions, payable in twenty-four hours on warrants without delay (May 13 and 14). Many persons are taxed from 80,000 to 100,000 francs, the text of the requisitions conveying ironically a hostile spirit.]

[Footnote 3493: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 463, session of the Jacobin Club, May 11.]

[Footnote 3494: Meillan, 17.]

[Footnote 3495: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 463, session of the Jacobin club, May 11. Speech by Hassenfratz.—Ibid., 455, session of the Jacobin club, May 10, speech by Robespierre. "The rich are all anti-revolutionaries; only beggars and the people can save the country."—Ibid. N—: "Revolutionary battalions should be maintained in the department at the expense of the rich, who are cowards."—Ibid., XXVII. 317. Petition of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, May 11.—Schmidt, I. 315 (Report by Dutard, May 13). "There is no recruiting in the faubourgs, because people there know that they are more wanted here than in La Vendee. They let the rich go and fight. They watch things here, and trust nobody but themselves to guard Paris."]

[Footnote 3496: "Archives Nationales," F7, 2494. Section of the Reunion, official reports of May 15 and 16.—Buchez et Roux, XXV. 167, ordance of the commune, March 27.]

[Footnote 3497: Schmidt, I.327. Report of Perriere, May 28. "Our group itself seemed to governed by nothing but hatred of the rich by the poor. One must be a dull observer not to see by a thousand symptoms that these two natural enemies stand in battle array, only awaiting the signal or the opportunity."]

[Footnote 3498: Buchez et Roux, XXV. 460. The papers examined by the accusers are the numbers of Marat's journal of the 5th of January and of the 25th of February. The article which provoked the decree is his "Address to the National Convention," pp. 446 and 450.]

[Footnote 3499: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 149; Narrative by Marat,114. Bulletin of the revolutionary tribunal, session of the Convention.]

[Footnote 34100: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 358, article in the Chronique de Paris; 358, article by Marat.—Schmidt, I. 184. Report by Dutard, May 5.—Paris, "Histoire de Joseph Lebon," I. 81. Letter by Robespierre, Jr., May 7.]

[Footnote 34101: Buchez et Roux, XXV. 240 and 246. Protest of the Mail section, of the electoral body of the Arsenal, Marais, Gravelliers, and Arcis sections. (The Convention, session of April 2; the commune, session of April 2.)—XXVI. 358 Protests of the sections of Bon-Conseil and the Unite, (May 5).—XXVII. 71. Defeat of the anarchists in the section of Butte-des-Moulins. "A great many sections openly show a determination to put anarchy down." (Patriote Francais, May 15).—Ibid., 137. Protests of the Pantheon Francais, Piques, Mail, and several other sections (Patriote Francais, May 19).—Ibid., 175. Protest of the Fraternite section (session of the Convention, May 23).]

[Footnote 34102: Schmidt, I. 189. Dutard, May 6.]

[Footnote 34103: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 218. Official report of the reunion of the two sections of the Lombards and Bon-Conseil (April 12), "by which the two said sections promise and swear union, aid, fraternity, and mutual help, in case the aristocracy are disposed to destroy liberty."—"Consequently," says the Bon-Conseil section, "many of the citizens of the Lombards section, justly alarmed at the disturbances occasioned by the evil-disposed, came and proffered their assistance."—Adhesion of the section of Les Amis de la Patrie.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 138. (Article of the Patriote Francais, May 19): "This brigandage is called assembly of combined sections."—Ibid., 236, May 26, session of the commune. "Deputations of the Montreuil, Quinze-Vingts and Droits de l'Homme sections came to the assistance of the Arsenal patriots; the aristocrats took to flight, leaving their hats behind them."—Schmidt, I. 213, 313 (Dutard, May 13 and 27). Violent treatment of the moderates in the Bon-Conseil and Arsenal sections; "struck with chairs, several persons wounded, one captain carried off on a bench; the gutter-jumpers and dumpy shopkeepers cleared out, leaving the sans-culottes masters of the field."—Meillan, 111.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 237, session of the Jacobin club, May 26. "In the section of Butte-des-Moulins the patriots, finding they were not in force, seized the chairs and drove the aristocrats out."]

[Footnote 34104: Buchez et Roux, 78, XXVII. On the juge-de-paix Roux, carried off at night and imprisoned. April 16.—Mortimer-Ternaux, III. 220, on the vice-president Sagnier, May 10.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 231, May 26, on the five citizens of the Unite section arrested by the revolutionary committee of the section "for having spoken against Robespierre and Marat."]

[Footnote 34105: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 154. Speech of Leonard Bourdon to the Jacobins, May 20.]

[Footnote 34106: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 3. Address drawn up by the commissaries of the 48 sections approved of by 35 sections, also by the commune, and presented to the Convention April 15.—Others have preceded it, like pilot ballons.—Ibid., XXV. 319. Petition of the Bon-Conseil, April 8.—XXV. 320. Petition of the section of the Halleau-Ble, April 10.]

[Footnote 34107: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 83. Speech by Vergniaud to the convention, session of April 20. "These facts are accepted. Nobody can contradict them. More than 10,000 witnesses would confirm them."—There are the same proceedings at Lyons Jan.13, 1792, against the petition far an appeal to the people (Guillon de Montleon, I.145, 155). The official report of the Jacobins claims that the petition obtained 40,215 signatures. "The petition was first signed by about 200 clubbists, who pretended to be the people... They spread the report among the people that all who would not sign the address would be blacklisted or proscribed. That's why they had desks set up in all the public squares, and seized by the arm all who came, and forced them to sign. As this approach did not prove fruitful they made children ten years of age, women, and ignorant rustics put down their name." They were told that the object was to put down the price of bread. "I swear to you that this address is the work a hundred persons at most; the great majority of the citizens of Lyons desire to avail themselves of their own sovereignty in the judgment of Louis." (Letter of David of Lyons to the president of the convention, Jan. 16.)]

[Footnote 34108: "Fragment," by Lanjuinais (in the memoirs of Durand-Maillane, p. 297).]

[Footnote 34109: Meillan, 113.]

[Footnote 34110: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 3!9 (May 12).—Meillan, 113.]

[Footnote 34111: Buchez et Roux, XVI. 327. On being informed of this the crowd sent new deputies, the latter stating in relation to the others: "We do not recognise them."]

[Footnote 34112: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 143.]

[Footnote 34113: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 175, May 23.]

[Footnote 34114: Schmidt, I. 212. Report of Dutard, May 13.—I. 218. "A plot is really under way, and many heads are singled out." (Terrasson, May 13.)]

[Footnote 34115: Buchez et Roux, XXVII 9. Speech of Guadet to the Convention, May 14.]

[Footnote 34116: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 2. Patriote Francais, May 13.]

[Footnote 34117: Schmidt, I 242. Report of Dutard, May 18.—Also 245.]

[Footnote 34118: Schmidt, I 254. Report of Dutard, May 19.]

[Footnote 34119: Bergoeing, Chatry, Dubosq, "Pieces recueillies par la Commission des Douze et publiees a Caen." June 28, 1793 (in the "Memoires" of Meillan, pp. 176-198). Attempts at murder had already occurred. "Lanjuinais came near being killed. Many of the deputies were insulted and threatened. The armed force joins with the malefactors; we have accordingly no means of repression." (Mortimer-Ternaux, VII.562, letter of the deputy Michel to his constituents, May 20.)]

[Footnote 34120: Bergoeing, "Pieces, etc."—Meillan, pp. 39 and 40.—The depositions are all made by eye witnesses. The propositions for the massacre were made in the meetings at the town-hall, May 19, 20 and 21, and at the Cordeliers club May 22 and 23.]

[Footnote 34121: The Jacobins at Lyons plot the same thing (Guilion de Montleon, 248). Chalier says to the club: "We shall not fail to have 300 noted heads. Get hold of the members of the department, the presidents and secretaries of the sections, and let us make a bundle of them for the guillotine; we will wash our hands in their blood." Thereupon, on the night of May 28 the revolutionary municipality seize the arsenal and plant cannon on the Hotel-de-ville. The Lyons sections, however, more energetic than those of Paris, take, up arms and after a terrible fight they get possession of the Hotel-de-ville. The moral difference between the two parties is very marked in Gonchon's letters. ("Archives Nationales," AF, II. 43. letters of Gonchon to Garat, May 31, June 1 and 3.) "Keep up the courage of the Convention. It need not be afraid. The citizens of Lyons have covered themselves with glory. They displayed the greatest courage in every fight that took place in various quarters of the town, and the greatest magnanimity to their enemies, who behaved most villainously." The municipal body had sent a flag of truce, pretending to negotiate, and then treacherously opened fire with its cannon on the columns of the sections, and cast the wounded into the river. The citizens of Lyons, so often slandered, will be the first to have set an example of true republican character. Find me a similar instance, if you can, in the history of revolutions: being victorious and yet not then to have shed a drop of blood!" They cared for the wounded, and raised a subscription for the widows and orphans of the dead, without distinction of party. Cf. Lauvergue, "Histoire du Var," 175. The same occurs at Toulon (insurrection of the moderates, July 12 and 13, 1793).—At Toulon, as at Lyons, there was no murder after the victory; only regular trials and the execution of two or three assassins whose crimes were legally proved.]

[Footnote 34122: Schmidt, I. 335. Report of Perriere, May 29.]

[Footnote 34123: Bergoeing, "Pieces, etc.", p. 195.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII 296.]

[Footnote 34124: The insurrection at Lyons took place on May 29. On the 2nd of June it is announced in the Convention that the insurgent army of Lozere, more than 30,000 strong, has taken Marvejols, and is about to take Mende (Buchez et Roux XXVII. 387).—A threatening address from Bordeaux (May 14) and from thirty-two sections in Marseilles (May 25) against the Jacobins (Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 3. 214).—Cf. Robinet in "Le proces des Dantonistes, 303, 305.]

[Footnote 34125: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII 38.]

[Footnote 34126: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 297, session of the Jacobins, May 29.]

[Footnote 34127: Barrere, "Memoires," II. 91, 94. As untruthful as Barrere is, here his testimony may be accepted. I see no reason why he should state what is not true; he was well informed, as he belonged to the Committee of Public Safety. His statements, besides, on the complicity d the Mountain and on the role of Danton are confirmed by the whole mass of facts.—Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 200 (speech by Danton in the Convention, June 13). "Without the canon of the 31st of May, without the insurrection the conspirators would have triumphed; they would have given us the law. Let the crime of that insurrection be on our heads! That insurrection—I myself demanded it!... I demand a declaration by the Convention, that without the insurrection of May 31, liberty would be no more!"—Ibid., 220. Speech by Leclerc at the Cordeliers club, June 27: "Was it not Legendre who rendered abortive our wise measures, so often taken, to exterminate our enemies? He and Danton it was, who, through their culpable resistance, reduced us to the moderation of the 31st of May, Legendre and Danton are the men who opposed the revolutionary steps which we had taken on those great days to crush out all the aristocrats in Paris!"]

[Footnote 34128: Schmidt, I. 244. Report by Dutard, May 18.]

[Footnote 34129: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 253 and following pages, session of May 27.—Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 294.—Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 9 ("Precis rapide" by Gorsas).]

[Footnote 34130: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 258. Meillan, 43.]

[Footnote 34131: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 259 (words of Raffet).]

[Footnote 34132: Meillan, 44.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 267, 280.]

[Footnote 34133: Meillan, 44. Placed opposite the president, within ten paces of him, with my eyes constantly fixed on him, because in the horrible din which disgraced the Assembly we could have no other compass to steer by, I can testify that I neither saw nor heard the decree put to vote."—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 278. Speech by Osselin, session of May 28: "I presented the decree as drawn up to the secretaries for their signatures this morning. One of them, after reading it, observed to me that the last article had not been decreed, but that the preceding articles had been."—Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 562. Letter of the deputy Michel. May 29. "The guards were forced, and the sanctuary of the law invested from about four to ten hours, so that nobody could leave the hall even for the most urgent purposes.]

[Footnote 34134: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 308. Extract from the official reports of the patriotic club of Butte-des-Moulins, May 30. "Considering that the majority of the section, known for incivism and its antirevolutionary spirit, would decline this election or would elect commissaries not enjoying the confidence of patriots,".. the patriotic club takes upon itself the duty of electing the two commissaries demanded.]

[Footnote 34135: Durand-Maillan, 297. "Fragment," by Lanjuinais. "Seven strangers, seven outside agents, Desfieux, Proly, Pereyra, Dubuisson, Gusman, the two brothers Frey, etc., were set up by the commune as an insurrectionary committee." Most of them are vile fellows, as is the case with Varlet, Dobsen, Hassenfratz, Rousselin, Desfieux, Gusman, etc.]

[Footnote 34136: Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 156. "We, members of the revolutionary commission, citizens Clemence, of the Bon-Conseil section; Dunouy, of the Sans-culottes section; Bonin, of the section of Les Marches, Auvray of the section of Mont-Blanc; Seguy, of the section of Butte-des-Moulins; Moissard, of Grenelle; Berot, canton d'Issy; Rousselin, section of the Unite; Marchand, section of Mont-Blanc; Grespin, section of Gravilliers." They resign on the 6th of June.—The commission, at first composed of nine members, ends in comprising eleven (Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 316, official reports of the commune. May 31.) then 25 (Speech by Pache to the Committee of Public Safety, June 1.)]

[Footnote 34137: Buchez et Roux XXVII. 306. Official reports of the commune, May 31.—Ibid., 316. Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 319.]

[Footnote 34138: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 274 Speech by Hassenfratz to the Jacobin Club, May 27.]

[Footnote 34139: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 346 (speech by Lhuillier in the Convention, May 31).]

[Footnote 34140: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 302, session of the Convention, May 30. Words uttered by Hassenfratz, Varlet, and Chabot, and denounced by Lanjuinais.]

[Footnote 34141: Madame Roland, "Appel a l'impartiale posterite." Conversation of Madam Roland on the evening of May 31 on the Place du Carrusel with an artillerist.]

[Footnote 34142: Buchez et Roux, 307-323. Official reports of the commune, May 31.]

[Footnote 34143: "Archives Nationales," F7, 2494, register of the revolutionary committee of the Reunion section, official report of May 31, 6 o'clock in the morning.]

[Footnote 34144: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 335, session of the Convention, May 31. Petition presented by the commissaries in the name of forty-eight sections; their credentials show that they are not at first authorized by more than twenty-six sections.]

[Footnote 34145: Buchez et Roux, 347, 348. Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 350 (third dispatch of the Hotel-de-ville delegates, present at the session): "The National Assembly was not able to accept the above important measures... until the perturbators of the Assembly, known under the title of the 'Right,' did themselves the justice to perceive that they were not worthy of taking part in them; they evacuated the Assembly, after the great gesticulations and imprecations, to which you know they are liable."]

[Footnote 34146: Dauban, "La Demagogie en 1793." Diary of Beaulieu, May 31.—Declaration of Henriot, Germinal 4, year III.—Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 351]

[Footnote 34147: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 565. Letter of the deputy Loiseau, June 5.]

[Footnote 34148: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 352 to 360, 368 to 377. Official reports of the commune, June 1 and 2. Proclamation of the revolutionary committee, June 1. "Your delegates have ordered the arrest of all suspected persons concealing themselves in the sections of Paris. This arrest is in progress in all quarters."]

[Footnote 34149: "Archives Nationales," F7, 2494. Section of the Reunion, official report, June 1.—Ibid., June 2. Citizen Robin is arrested on the 2nd of June, "for having manifested opinions contrary to the sovereignty of the people in the National Assembly." The same day a proclamation is made on the territory of the section by a deputation of the commune, accompanied by one member and two drummers, "tending (tendantes) to make known to the people that the country will be saved by awaiting (en atendans) with courage the decree which is to be rendered to prevent traitors (les traitre) from longer sitting in the senate house."—Ibid., June 4. The committee decides that it will add new members to its number, but they will be taken only from all "good sans-cullote; no notary, no notary's clerk, no lawyers nor their clerks, no banker nor rich landlord" being admissible, unless he gives evidence of unmistakable civism since 1789.—Cf. F7, 2497 (section of the Droits de l'Homme), F7, 2484 (section of the Halle-au-ble), the resemblance in orthography and in their acts; the registry of the Piques section (F7, 2475) is one of the most interesting; here may be found the details of the appearance of the ministers before it; the committee that examines them does not even spell their names correctly, "Clavier" being often written for Claviere, and "Goyer" for Gohier.]

[Footnote 34150: Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 19.]

[Footnote 34151: Buchez et Roux, XXVII.357. Official reports of the commune, June 1.]

[Footnote 34152: Meillan, 307.—"Fragment," by Lanuinais.—"Diurnal," of Beaulieu, June 2.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 399 (speech by Barere).]

[Footnote 34153: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 357. Official reports of the commune, June 1.]

[Footnote 34154: Meillan, 53, 58, 307. Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 14 (Precis, by Gordas).]

[Footnote 34155: Buchez et Roux, XXVII 359. Official reports of the commune, June 1. "One member of the Council stated that on going to the Beaurepaire section he was not well received; that the president of this section spoke uncivilly to him and took him for an imaginary municipalist; that he was threatened with the lock-up, and that his liberty was solely due to the brave citizens of the Sans-culottes section and the gunners of the Beaurepaire section who went with him."—Preparations for the investment began on the 1st of June. ("Archives Nationales," F7, 2497, official reports of the Droits de l'Homme section, June 1.) Orders of Henriot to the commandant of the section to send "400 homme et la compagnie de canonier avec le 2 pieces de canon au Carouzel le long des Thuilerie plasse de la Revolution."]

[Footnote 34156: "Lanjuinais states 100,000 men, Meillan 50,000; the deputies of the Somme say 60,000, but without any evidence. Judging by various indications I should put the number much lower, on account of the disarmament and absentees: say 30,000 men, the same as May 31.]

[Footnote 34157: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 566. Letter of the deputy Loiseau: "I passed through the whole of one battalion; the men all said that they did not know why the movement was made, that only their officers knew." (June 1.)]

[Footnote 34158: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 400. Session of the Convention, June 2.——XXVIII. 43 (report by Saladin).]

[Footnote 34159: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 392. Official report of the Jacobin Club, June 2 "The deputies were so surrounded as not to be able to go out even for special purposes."—Ibid., 568 Letter of the deputy Loiseau.]

[Footnote 34160: Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 44. Report by Saladin.—Meillan, 237.—Mortimer-Ternaux VII. 547. Declaration of the deputies of the Somme.]

[Footnote 34161: Meillan, 52.—Petion, "Memoires," 109 (Edition Dauban).—Lanjuinais ("Fragment")—"Nearly all those called Girondists thought it best to stay away."—Letter of Vergniaud June 3 (in the Republican Francais, June 5, 1793). "I left the Assembly yesterday between 1 and 2 o'clock."]

[Footnote 34162: Lanjuinais, "Fragment," 299.]

[Footnote 34163: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 400.]

[Footnote 34164: Robinet, "Le Proces de Danton," 169. Words of Danton (according to the notes of a juryman, Topino-Lebrun).]

[Footnote 34165: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 44. Report by Saladin.—Meillan, 59.—Lanjuinais, 308, 310.]

[Footnote 34166: Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 401]

[Footnote 34167: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 569. Letter of the deputy Loiseau.—Meillan, 62.]

[Footnote 34168: Buchez et Roux, XXVI. 341. Speech by Chasles in the Convention, May 2: "The farmers... are nearly all aristocrats."]

[Footnote 34169: Or workhouses, see Taine: "Notes on England" page 214: "It is an English principle that the indigent, by giving up their freedom, have a right to be supported. Society pays the cost, but shuts them up and sets them to work. As this condition is repugnant to them, they avoid the workhouse as much as possible." Similar institutions existed in France before the revolution. (SR).]

[Footnote 34170: Sieyes (quoted by Barante, "Histoire de la Convention," III. 169) thus describes it: "The fake people, the deadliest enemy which the French people ever had, blocked incessantly the approaches to the Convention... At the entrance or exit of the Convention the astonished spectator thought that a new invasion of barbarian hordes had suddenly occurred, a new irruption of voracious, sanguinary harpies, flocking there to seize hold of the revolution as if it were the natural prey of their species."]

[Footnote 34171: Gouverneur Morris, II. 241. Letter of Oct. 23, 1792. "The populace—something, thank God, that is unknown in America"—He often insists on this essential characteristic of the French Revolution.—On this ever-present class, see the accurate and complete work well supported by facts, of Dr. Lombrose, "L'Uomo delinquente."]

[Footnote 34172: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. Letter of the deputy Laplaigne, July 6.]

[Footnote 34173: Meillan, 51.—Buchez et Roux, XXVII. 356. Official report of the commune, session of June 1. In the afternoon Marat comes to the commune, harrangues the council, and gives the insurrection the last impetus. It is plain that he was chief actor on both these days (June 1 and 2).]

[Footnote 34174: Petion, 116.]

[Footnote 34175: Schmidt, I. 370.—Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 391. Letter of Marchand, member of the Central Committee. "I saw Chaumette do everything he could to hinder this glorious revolution,... exclaim, shed tears, and tear his hair."—Buchez et Roux, XXVIII. 46. According to Saladin, Chaumette went so far as to demand Hebert's arrest.]

[Footnote 34176: Mortimer-Ternaux, VII. 300.—Cf. "Le vieux Cordelier," by C. Desmoulins, No. 5.]

[Footnote 34177: Mallet du Pan, II. 52. (March 8, 1794).—The titular general of the revolutionary army was Ronsin. "Previous to the Revolution he was a seedy author earning his living and reputation by working for the boulevard stalls... One day a person informed him that his staff 'was behaving very badly, acting tyrannically in the most outrageous manner at the theaters and everywhere else, striking women and tearing their bonnets to pieces. Your men commit rape, pillage, and massacre.' To which he replied; 'Well, what shall I do? I know that they are a lot of ruffians as well as you do; but those are the follows I need for my revolutionary army. Find me honest people, if you can, that will do that business.'" (Prudhomme, "Crimes de la Revolution," V. 130.)]

[Footnote 34178: Buchez et Roux, XXIX. 152.]

[Footnote 34179: Beaulieu, "Essais sur la Revolution," V. 200.]

[Footnote 34180: Schmidt, II. 85. Report of Dutard, June 24 (on the review of the previous evening) "A sort of low-class artisan who seemed to me to have been a soldier... Apparently he had associated only with disorderly men; I am sure that he would be found fond of gaming, wine, women, and everything that denotes a bad character."]

[Footnote 34181: Charlotte de Corday d'Armont, 1768 to 1793. Young French girl who knifed Marat in his bath. Adherent of the Revolution, she considered Marat as being responsible for the elimination of the Girondists and the establishment of the terror. She was guillotined. (SR.)]

[Footnote 34182: Lauvergne, "Histoire de la Revolution dans le departement du Var," 176. At Toulon "the spirit of counter-revolution was nothing else than the sentiment of self-preservation." It was the same thing at Lyons. (Nolhac, "Souvenir de trois annee de la Revolution a Lyon," p. 14.)]

[Footnote 34183: Gouverneur Morris, II. 395. Letter of Jan. 21, 1794. "Admitting what has been asserted by persons in a situation to know the truth and deeply interested to prove the contrary, it is an undoubted truth that ninety-nine-hundredths are opposed to all ideas of a dismemberment, and will fight to prevent it.]

[Footnote 34184: Mallet du Pan, II. 44.]

[Footnote 34185: Carnot, Lazare, Nicolas, 1753-1823, military engineer and mathematician, member of the committee of public safety, organized the armies of the republic and their offensive tactics. (SR).]

[Footnote 34186: Among other documents, the following letter will show the quality of these recruits, especially of the recruits of 1791, who were much the best men. (Letter from the municipal officers of Dorat, December 28, 1792, "Archives Nationales," F7, 3275.) "The commune of Dorat is made up of three classes of citizens: The richest class, composed of persons confirmed in the prejudices of the ancient regime, has been disarmed. The second, composed of well-to-do people, fills the administrative positions. It is against them that the fury of the turbulent is aimed; but those of this class who could make resistance have gone to fight the enemy abroad. The third class, and the most numerous, is made up in part of the seditious and in part of laborers, who, not daring to mix in the revolt, content themselves with coveting the tax on grain."—Toulongeon, "Histoire de France depuis la Revolution," IV. 94. "Do not degrade a nation by ascribing base motives to it and a servile fear. Every one, on the contrary, felt himself infused by an exalted instinct for the public welfare."—Gouvion Saint-Cyr, "Memoires," I. 56: A young man would have blushed to remain at home when the independence of the nation was threatened. Each one quitted his studies or his profession.]

[Footnote 34187: Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, 26. "The manifesto of Brunswick assigns to France more than a hundred battalions, which, within three weeks, were raised, armed, and put in the field."]

[Footnote 34188: In respect of these sentiments, cf. Gouvion Saint-Cyr, "Memoires," and Fervel, "Campagnes de la Revolution Francaise dans les Pyrenees orientales."]

[Footnote 34189: Stendhal, Memoires sur Napoleon.]

[Footnote 34190: Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, "Memoires," p.43. "Patriotism made up for everything; it alone gave us victory; it supplied our most pressing needs."]

THE END

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