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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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STOCKHOLM (246), capital of Sweden; occupies a charming site on the channel leading out of Lake Maelar into a bay of the Baltic; stands partly on the mainland and partly on nine islands, communication between which is facilitated by handsome bridges and a busy service of boats; its wooded and rocky islands, crowned with handsome buildings, its winding waterways, peninsulas, crowded wharves, and outlook over the isleted lake, combine to make it one of the most picturesque cities of Europe; Town Island, the nucleus of the city, is occupied by the royal palace, House of Nobles, principal wharf, &c., while on Knights' Island stand the Houses of Parliament, law-courts, and other public buildings; Norrmalm, with the Academy of Science, National Museum, Academy of Fine Arts, Hop Garden, &c., is the finest quarter of the city; manufactures embrace sugar, tobacco, silks, linen, cotton, &c., besides which there are flourishing iron-works and a busy export trade in iron and steel, oats, and tar, despite the hindrance caused by the ice during three or four months in winter; founded in 1255 by Birger Jarl.

STOCKMAR, BARON DE, statesman, born at Coburg; bred to medicine, became physician to Leopold I. of Belgium, and at length his adviser; was adviser also of Queen Victoria before her accession; accompanied Prince Albert to Italy before his marriage, and joined him thereafter in England as the trusted friend of both the queen and him; he had two political ideals—a united Germany under Prussia, and unity of purpose between Germany and England (1757-1863).

STOCKPORT (70), a cotton town of East Cheshire; occupies a site on the slopes of a narrow gorge overlooking the confluence of the Thame and Goyt (forming the Mersey), 37 m. E. of Liverpool; a handsome viaduct spans the river; has an old grammar-school, free library, technical school, &c.; during the present century has grown to be a busy centre of cotton manufactures, and has besides flourishing iron and brass foundries, machine-shops, breweries, &c.

STOCKTON-ON-TEES (69), a prosperous manufacturing town and port of Durham, on the Tees, 4 m. from its mouth; an iron bridge spanning the river connects it with Thornaby-on-Tees; has the usual public buildings; steel and iron shipbuilding building, potteries, foundries, machine-shops are flourishing industries; iron and earthenware are the chief exports, and with imports of corn and timber give rise to a busy and increasing shipping, facilitated by the excellent river-way.

STOICS, the disciples of Zeno; derived their name from the stoa or portico in Athens where their master taught and founded the school in 340 B.C. The doctrines of the school were completely antagonistic to those of Epicurus, and among the disciples of it are to be reckoned some of the noblest spirits of the heathen world immediately before and after the advent of Christ. These appear to have been attracted to it by the character of its moral teachings, which were of a high order indeed. The principle of morality was defined to be conformity to reason, and the duty of man to lie in the subdual of all passion and a composed submission to the will of the gods. It came short of Christian morality, as indeed all Greek philosophy did, in not recognising the Divine significance and power of humility, and especially in its failure to see, still more to conform to, the great doctrine of Christ which makes the salvation of a man to depend on the interest he takes in, as well as in the fact of the salvation of, other men. The Stoic was a proud man, and not a humble, and was content if he could only have his own soul for a prey. He did not see—and no heathen ever did—that the salvation of one man is impossible except in the salvation of other men, and that no man can save another unless he descend into that other's case and stand, as it were, in that other's stead. It is the glory of Christ that He was the first to feel Himself, and to reveal to others, the eternal validity and divinity of this truth. The Stoic morality is selfish; the morality of Christ is brotherly.

STOKE-UPON-TRENT (24), chief seat of the "Potteries," in Staffordshire, on the Trent and the Trent and Mersey Canal, 15 m. SE. of Crewe; is of modern growth, with free library, infirmary, public baths, statue to Wedgwood, &c., and is busily engaged in the manufacture of all sorts of porcelain ware, earthenware, encaustic tiles, &c., besides which there are flourishing iron-works, machine-shops, coal-mines, &c.

STOKES, SIR GEORGE GABRIEL, mathematician and physicist, born in Skreen, co. Sligo; he is great in the department of mathematical physics, and has been specially devoted to the study of hydro-dynamics and the theory of light; has opened new fields of investigation, and supplied future experimenters with valuable hints; he was one of the foremost physicists of the day; b. 1819.

STOLBERG, CHRISTIAN, COUNT, German poet of the Goettingen school, to which Buerger and Voss belonged, born in Hamburg; was with his brother a friend of Goethe's, and held a civil appointment in Holstein (1748-1821).

STOLBERG, FRIEDRICH LEOPOLD, COUNT OF, German poet, born in Holstein, brother of preceding; held State appointments in Denmark; joined the Romish Church, and showed a religious and ascetic temper (1750-1819).

STOLE, a long scarf worn by bishops and priests in the administration of the sacraments of the Church, and sometimes when preaching, as well as in symbol of authority.

STONE AGE, the name given to that period in the history of civilisation when the weapons of war and the chase and the implements of industry were made of stone, prior to employment for these purposes of bronze, characteristic of the age succeeding.

STONE CIRCLES, circles of STANDING STONES (q. v.) found in various parts of Great Britain, North Europe generally, and also, but of more recent origin, in North India; were certainly, in the most of cases, set up to mark the circular boundary of a place of burial; erroneously ascribed to the Druids; from the character of numerous cinerary urns exhumed, seem to have belonged to the bronze age in Great Britain; most interesting are those of Stennis, in Orkney, with a circumference of 340 ft., Avebury, in Wiltshire, and STONEHENGE (q. v.).

STONEHAVEN (4), fishing port and county town of Kincardineshire, situated at the entrance of Carron Water (dividing the town) into South Bay, 16 m. SSW. of Aberdeen; has a small harbour, and is chiefly engaged in herring and haddock fishing.

STONEHENGE, the greatest and best preserved of the STONE CIRCLES (q. v.) of Britain, situated in Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, 7 m. N. of Salisbury; "consists of two concentric circles, enclosing two ellipses"; the diameter of the space enclosed is 100 ft.; the stones are from 13 ft. to 28 ft. high; is generally regarded as an exceptional development of the ordinary stone circle, but the special purpose of its unusual construction is still a matter of uncertainty.

STONYHURST, a celebrated Roman Catholic college in East Lancashire, 10 m. N. of Blackburn; established in 1794 by certain Jesuit fathers who, after the suppression of their seminary at St. Omer, in France, by the Bourbons, took up their residence at Bruges and then at Liege, but fled thence to England during the Revolution, and accepted the shelter offered them at Stonyhurst by Mr. Weld of Lulworth; there are about 300 students, and upwards of 30 masters; a preparatory school has been established at Hodder, a mile distant; in 1840 was affiliated to the University of London, for the degrees of which its students are chiefly trained; retains in its various institutions many marks of its French origin.

STOOL OF REPENTANCE, in Scotland in former times an elevated seat in a church on which for offences against morality people did penance and suffered rebuke.

STORM, THEODORE WOLDSEN, German poet and exquisite story-teller, born in Sleswig; was a magistrate and judge in Sleswig-Holstein (1817-1888).

STORM-AND-STRESS PERIOD, name given in the history of German literature to a period at the close of the 18th century, when the nation began to assert its freedom from artificial literary restraint, a period to which Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen" and Schiller's "Robbers" belong, and the spirit of which characterises it; the representatives of the period were called Kraftmaenner (Power-men), who "with extreme animation railed against Fate in general, because it enthralled free virtue, and with clenched hands or sounding shields hurled defiance towards the vault of heaven."

STORMS, CAPE OF, name originally given in 1486 to the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Dias.

STORNOWAY, a fishing-port, the capital of Lewis, and the chief town in the Outer Hebrides, with Stornoway Castle adjoining.

STORTHING (i. e. great court), the national Parliament of Norway, composed of two chambers, the Lagthing or Upper Chamber, and the Odelsthing or Lower.

STORY, JOSEPH, American jurist and judge, born in Massachusetts (1779-1845).

STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE, poet and sculptor, son of preceding; b. 1819.

STOTHARD, THOMAS, artistic designer and book illustrator, as well as painter, born in London, son of an innkeeper; illustrated, among other works, "Pilgrim's Progress," and along with Turner, Rogers' "Italy" (1755-1834).

STOURBRIDGE, manufacturing town in Worcestershire; its staple manufactures are glass and pottery.

STOW, JOHN, English antiquary, born in London; bred a tailor; took to antiquarian pursuits, which he prosecuted with the zeal of a devotee that spared no sacrifice; wrote several works on antiquities, the chief and most valuable being his "Survey of London and Westminster"; he ended his days in poverty (1525-1605).

STOWELL, WILLIAM SCOTT, eminent English judge, born at Heworth, brother of Lord Eldon; famed for his judicial decisions (1745-1836).

STRABO, ancient geographer, born at Amasia, in Pontus; flourished in the reign of Augustus, and the early part of that of Tiberius; was a learned man, lived some years in Rome, and travelled much in various countries; wrote a history of 43 books, all lost, and a work on geography, in 17 books, which has come down to us entire all to the 7th; the work is in general not descriptive; it comprehends principally important political events in connection with the countries visited, with a notice of their illustrious men, or whatever seemed to him characteristic in them or was of interest to himself; born about 63 B.C.

STRADDHA, the funeral rites and funeral offerings for the dead among the Hindus.

STRAFFORD, THOMAS WENTWORTH, EARL OF, English statesman, born in London, of an old Yorkshire family; studied at Cambridge; after some months' travel on the Continent entered Parliament in 1614, but took no active part in affairs till 1621; he took sides at first with the party for freedom, but in 1622 felt compelled to side with the king, to his elevation of greater and greater influence as his counsellor; his policy, named "Thorough," was to establish a strong Government with the king at the head, and to put down with a strong hand all opposition to the royal authority; appointed Lord-Deputy in Ireland in 1633, he did all he could to increase the royal resources, and was at length, in 1640, exalted to the Lord-Lieutenancy, being at the same time created Earl of Strafford; he had risen by this time to be the chief adviser of the king, and was held responsible for his arbitrary policy; after the meeting of the Long Parliament he was impeached for high treason; the impeachment seemed likely to fail, when a Bill of Attainder was produced; to this the king refused his assent, but he had to yield to the excitement his refusal produced, and as the result Strafford was beheaded on Tower Hill (1593-1641).

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (507, of which 150 are Chinese), British colony in the East Indies, embracing the British possessions in the Malay Peninsula (on the Strait of Malacca), Singapore, Malacca, Penang, and the Keeling Islands and Christmas Island; were under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of India till 1867, in which year they passed under the control of the Colonial Office at home.

STRALSUND (28), a fortified seaport of North Prussia, on Strela Sound, opposite the island of Ruegen, in the Baltic, and 66 m. NW. of Stettin, forms of itself an islet, and is connected with the mainland (Pomerania) by bridges; is a quaint old town, dating back to the 13th century; figures often in the wars of Prussia, and is now a place of considerable commercial importance.

STRANGFORD, PERCY C. S. SMYTHE, VISCOUNT, diplomatist; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1800; entered the diplomatic service, and in the following year succeeded to the title; was ambassador to Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and Russia; translated the "Rimas" of Camoens, and was raised to the peerage (1825) as Baron Penshurst (1780-1855).

STRANGFORD, PERCY E. F. W. SMYTHE, son of preceding, diplomatist and noted philologist, born at St. Petersburg; passed through Harrow and Oxford; entered the diplomatic service; became attache at Constantinople, and during the Crimean War served as Oriental Secretary, acquiring the while a profound grip of the Eastern Question, and an unrivalled knowledge of European and Asiatic languages—Turkish, Persian, Arabic, Slavonic, Afghan, Basque, &c.; succeeded to the title in 1855, and henceforth resided chiefly in London; was President of the Asiatic Society, and was considered by Freeman "our greatest English philologist"; author of various articles on political, geographical, and philological subjects (1825-1869).

STRANRAER (6), a royal burgh and seaport of Wigtownshire, finely situated at the southern extremity of Loch Ryan, 73 m. W. of Dumfries; has an interesting 16th-century castle, and a handsome town-hall and court-house; there is some shipping in agricultural produce, and steamers ply daily between Stranraer and Larne, in Ireland.

STRAPAROLA, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, author of a famous collection of stories after the style of Boccaccio's "Decameron," partly borrowed and partly genuine folk-stories, which ranks as an Italian classic, and has been translated into various European languages; flourished in the 16th century.

STRAP, HUGH, a simple-hearted friend and adherent of Roderick Random in Smollett's novel of that name.

STRAPPADO, an obsolete military punishment by drawing a culprit to the top of a beam and then letting him drop the length of the rope.

STRASBURG (124), capital, since 1871, of Alsace-Lorraine, on the Ill, a few miles above its confluence with the Rhine, 89 m. N. of Basel; a place of great strategical importance, and a fortress of the first class; is a city of Roman origin, and contains a magnificent Gothic cathedral (11th century) with a famous astronomical clock, an imperial palace, university, &c.; manufactures embrace beer, leather, cutlery, jewellery, &c.; there is also a busy transit trade; a free town of the German empire in the 13th century; fell into the hands of the French in 1681, and was captured by the Germans, after a seven weeks' siege, on 28th September 1870, after which it became finally German, as it was originally, by the peace of Frankfort, May 1871.

STRATFORD (40), manufacturing town in Essex, on the Lee, 4 m. NE. of London.

STRATFORD DE REDCLIFFE, SIR STAFFORD CANNING, FIRST VISCOUNT, a distinguished ambassador, born in London, son of a well-connected merchant, and cousin to Canning the statesman; passed from Cambridge to the Foreign Office in 1807 as a precis-writer to his cousin; in three years had risen to the post of minister-plenipotentiary at Constantinople, where he speedily gave evidence of his remarkable powers as a diplomatist by arranging unaided the treaty of Bucharest (1814) between Russia and Turkey, and so setting free the Russian army to fall upon Napoleon, then retreating from Moscow; as minister to Switzerland aided the Republic in drawing up its constitution, and in the same year (1815) acted as commissioner at the Congress of Vienna; was subsequently employed in the United States and various European capitals, but his unrivalled knowledge of the Turkish question brought him again, in 1842, to Constantinople as ambassador, where his remarkable power and influence over the Turks won him the title of "Great Elchi"; exerted in vain his diplomatic skill to prevent the rupture between Turkey and Russia, which precipitated the Crimean War; resigned his embassy in 1858; was raised to the peerage in 1852; sat in Parliament for several years previous to 1842, but failed to make his mark as a debater; ranks among the great ambassadors of England (1786-1880).

STRATFORD-ON-AVON (8), a pleasant old market-town of Warwickshire, on the right bank of the Avon, 8 m. SW. of Warwick and 110 m. NW. of London; forever famous as the birth and burial place of Shakespeare, with whom all that is of chief interest in the town is associated, the house he was born in, his old school, Anne Hathaway's cottage on the outskirts, the fine Early English church (14th century), where he lies buried, the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, museum, &c.; is Visited annually by some 20,000 pilgrims; a thriving agricultural centre.

STRATHCLYDE or NORTHERN CUMBRIA, an ancient kingdom of the Britons, which originated in the 8th century, and comprised the W. side of Scotland between the Solway and the Clyde; Alclyde or Dumbarton was the capital; was permanently annexed to Scotland in 1124 under David I.

STRATHFIELDSAYE, an estate in Hampshire with a fine Queen Anne mansion, 7 m. NE. of Basingstoke, purchased by Parliament for L263,000, and presented to the Duke of Wellington in 1817.

STRATHMORE ("Great Valley"), the great plain of Scotland stretching for 100 m. (5 to 10 m. broad), in a north-easterly direction from Dumbartonshire to Stonehaven, in Kincardineshire, between the great mountain barrier of the Highlands, the Grampians, and the Southern Lennox, Ochil, and Sidlaw Hills; in a more restricted sense denotes the plain between Perth and Brechin.

STRATHPEFFER, a watering-place in Ross and Cromarty, 5 m. W. of Dingwall, a great health-resort, and much frequented on account of its mineral waters and bracing air and other attractions.

STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH, German theological and biblical critic, born at Ludwigsburg, in Wuertemberg; studied in the Theological Institute of Tuebingen under Baur, was ordained in 1830, and went in 1834 to Berlin to attend the lectures of Hegel and Schleiermacher, and returning to Tuebingen gave lectures on Hegel in 1832, he the while maturing his famous theory which, published in 1835, made his name known over the whole theological world; this was his "Leben Jesu," the first volume of which appeared that year, in which he maintained that, while the life of Christ had a historical basis, all the supernatural element in it and the accounts of it were simply and purely mythical, and the fruit of the idea of His person as Divine which at the foundation of the Christian religion took possession of the mind of the Church; the book proved epoch-making, and the influence of it, whether as accepted or as rejected, affected, as it still does, the whole theology of the Church; the effect of it was a shock to the whole Christian world, for it seemed as if with the denial of the supernatural the whole Christian system fell to pieces; and its author found the entire Christian world opposed to him, and he was cast out of the service of the Church; this, however, did not daunt his ardour, for he never abandoned the ground he had taken up; his last work was entitled "Der Alte und der Neue Glaube," in which he openly repudiates the Christian religion, and assigns the sovereign authority in spiritual matters to science and its handmaid art. In a spiritual reference the whole contention of Strauss against Christianity is a tissue of irrelevancies, for the spirit of it, which is its life and essence, is true whatever conclusion critics in their seraphic wisdom may come to regarding the facts (1808-1874).

STRAUSS, JOHANN, musical composer, born at Vienna; was a musical conductor and composer, chiefly of waltz music.

STREATHAM (48), a Surrey suburb of London, 61/2 m. SW. of St. Paul's.

STREET, GEORGE EDMUND, architect, born in Essex; was the architect of the New Law Courts in London; had been trained under Gilbert Scott (1824-1881).

STRELITZES, the name given to the life-guards of the czar, which at one time numbered 40,000; became so unruly and dangerous to the State that they were dissolved by Peter the Great, and dispersed in 1705.

STRETTON, HESBA, the nom de plume of Sarah Smith, daughter of a Shropshire bookseller, whose semi-religious stories, chiefly for the young, have won wide acceptance in English homes since the publication of "Jessica's First Prayer" in 1867; was a regular contributor to Household Words and All the Year Round during Dickens's editorship; has written upwards of 40 volumes.

STRICKLAND, AGNES, biographer of the queens of England, born at Roydon Hall, near Southwold, Suffolk; had already published poems and some minor works before she conceived the plan of writing a series of biographies of the queens of England; these appeared in 12 vols. during 1840-1848, and such was their popularity that a similar work dealing with the queens of Scotland was immediately undertaken; was aided in these by her sister Elizabeth (1794-1875); was the author of various other works, "Lives of the Seven Bishops," "Bachelor Kings of England," &c.; her writings are of no value as history, but are full of entertaining details (1806-1874).

STRINDBERG, AUGUST, the most noted of modern Swedish writers, born at Stockholm; accumulated stores of valuable experience during various early employments, which he utilised in his first successful work, "The Red Room" (1879), a satire on social life in Sweden, "The New Kingdom" (1882), equally bitter in its attack on social conventions, got him into trouble, and since then his life has been spent abroad; "Married Life," a collection of short stories, brought upon him a charge of "outraging Christianity," but after trial at Stockholm, in which he eloquently defended himself, he was acquitted; a prolific writer in all kinds of literature, and imbued with modern scientific and socialistic ideas, his writings lack the repose necessary to the highest literary achievement; b. 1849.

STROMBOLI, one of the Lipari Islands; has an active volcano, the cone 3022 ft., which erupts every five minutes what happens to be little else than steam; it is 12 m. in circuit, and contains about 1000 inhabitants.

STROMKARL, a Norwegian spirit who has 11 different music strains, to 10 of which people may dance, the 11th being his night strain, to the tune of which every one and everything begins to dance.

STROMNESS, a seaport on the Orkney island of Pomona.

STROUD (10), a busy manufacturing town of Gloucestershire; stands on rising ground overlooking the confluence of the Frome and Slade, which unite to form the Frome or Stroud Water, 10 m. SE. of Gloucester; numerous cloth and dye works are built along the banks of the river; in the town are several woollen factories.

STRUCK JURY, a jury of men who possess special qualifications to judge of the facts of a case.

STRUENSEE, Danish statesman, bred to medicine; became minister of Charles VII., took advantage of his imbecility and directed the affairs of government, roused the jealousy of the nobles, and he was arrested, tried on false charges, and was beheaded (1737-1776).

STRUTT, JOSEPH, antiquary, born in Essex; wrote the "Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England," followed by other works on the manners and customs of the English people, that on their "Sports and Pastimes" the chief (1742-1802).

STRYPE, JOHN, historian and biographer, born in London; was a voluminous writer, wrote Lives of eminent English Churchmen and upon the English Reformation (1643-1737).

STUART, ARABELLA, daughter of the Earl of Lennox, and, as descended from Margaret Tudor, heiress to the English throne in default of James VI. of Scotland and his family, and towards whom James all along cherished a jealous feeling, and who was subjected to persecution at his hands; when she chose to marry contrary to his wish he confined her in the Tower, where she went mad and died.

STUART DYNASTY, a dynasty of Scotch and finally English kings as well, commenced with Robert II., who was the son of Marjory, Robert the Bruce's daughter, who married Walter, the Lord High Steward of Scotland, hence the name, his successors being Robert III., James I., James II., James III., James IV., and James V., Mary Queen of Scots, and James VI. in Scotland, and ended with James II. of England, who was expelled from the throne for an obstinacy of temper which characterised all the members of his house, "an unfortunate dynasty," too, being appointed at length to rule at a time and over a people that thought kings were born for the country and not the country for kings, a dictum which they stubbornly refused to concede, thinking that the nation existed for them instead of them for the nation. The line became extinct by the death of Cardinal York in 1807, who survived his brother Charles Edward 19 years.

STUART, GILBERT CHARLES, American portrait-painter, born at Narragansett, Rhode Island; was taken up by a Scotch painter named Alexander, whom he accompanied to Edinburgh, but was set adrift by the death of his patron, and for some years led a wandering life in America and London till his great gift of portrait-painting was recognised; in 1792 returned to America, and there painted portraits of Washington, Jefferson, and other noted Americans (1756-1828).

STUART, JOHN, Scottish antiquary; author of "The Sculptured Stones of Scotland," "The Book of Deer," and frequent contributor to the Proceedings of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries; held a post in the Register House for 24 years (1813-1877).

STUBBS, C. W., English clergyman, born in Liverpool; has held several incumbencies; is rector at Wavertree, near Liverpool, and takes a great interest in the working-classes and in social subjects; is liberal both in his political and in his theological opinions; has written on questions of the day in a Christian reference; b. 1845.

STUBBS, WILLIAM, historian, born at Knaresborough; studied at Oxford; became a Fellow of Trinity and of Oriel, professor of Modern History at Oxford, and finally bishop; was author of "Constitutional History of England," an epoch-making book in three volumes, and editor of a collection of mediaeval Chronicles, with valuable prefaces accompanying; his writings are distinguished by their learning and accuracy; b. 1825.

STUHLWEISSENBURG (25), an old historic Hungarian town, 42 m. SW. of Pesth; was for long the residence of the Hungarian kings, in the cathedral of which they were crowned and buried.

STUKELEY, WILLIAM, antiquary, born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire; graduated in medicine at Cambridge, and practised in London and elsewhere till 1729, when he took holy orders, and, after holding livings at Stamford and Somerby, was presented in 1747 to the rectory of St George the Martyr in London; maintained a lifelong interest in antiquarian research, and published many volumes on British and Roman antiquities, in which he displays unflagging industry and an exuberant fancifulness; "I have used his materials," says Gibbon, "and rejected most of his fanciful conjectures"; his credulous works on the supposed Druidical remains at Stonehenge and elsewhere gained him the title of the "Arch-Druid" (1687-1765).

STUMP ORATOR, one who is ready to take up any question of the day, usually a political one, and harangue upon it from any platform offhand; the class, the whole merely a talking one, form the subject, in a pretty wide reference, of one of Carlyle's scathing "Latter-Day Pamphlets."

STURM, JOHANN, educational reformer, born In Luxemburg; settled in Paris; established a school there for dialectics and rhetoric for a time, but left it on account of his Protestantism for Strasburg at the invitation of the civic authorities, and became rector of the gymnasium there, which under him acquired such repute that the Emperor Maximilian constituted it a university with him at the head; his adoption of the theological views of Zwingli in opposition to those of Luther made him many enemies, and he was dismissed from office, but was allowed a pension; he was a great student of Cicero; he wrote many works in Latin in a style so pure and elegant that he was named the German Cicero (1507-1589).

STURM-UND-DRANG. See STORM-AND-STRESS.

STURT, CHARLES, a noted Australian explorer, and a captain in the army; during 1828-45 was the determined leader of three important exploratory expeditions into Central Australia, the results of which he embodied in two works; became colonial secretary of South Australia, but failing health and eyesight led to his retirement, and he was pensioned by the first Parliament of South Australia; he returned to England totally blind (1795-1869).

STUTTGART (140), capital of Wuertemberg, stands amid beautiful vine-clad hills in a district called the "Swabian Paradise," on an affluent of the Neckar, 127 m. SE. of Frankfort; is a handsome city with several royal palaces, a 16th-century castle, interesting old churches, a royal library (450,000 vols.), a splendid royal park, conservatory of music, picture gallery, and various educational establishments; ranks next to Leipzig as a book mart, and has flourishing manufactures of textiles, beer, pianofortes, chemicals, &c.

STYLITES. See PILLAR-SAINTS.

STYMPHALIAN BIRDS, fabulous birds with brazen claws, wings, and beaks, that used their feathers as arrows, ate human flesh, and infested Arcadia; Hercules startled them with a rattle, and with his arrows either shot them or drove them off.

STYRIA (1,281), a central duchy of Austria, stretching in a semicircle from Upper Austria and Salzburg on the NW. to Croatia and Slavonia on the SE., and flanked by Hungary on the E.; a mountainous region crossed by various eastern ranges of the Alpine system, and drained by the Drave, Save, Inn, and other rivers; more than half lies under forest; agriculture flourishes, but mineral products, iron, salt, coal, &c., constitute the chief wealth. The principal manufactures are connected therewith; was joined to the Austrian crown in 1192.

STYX, name (from the Greek verb signifying "to abhor") of the principal river of the nether world, which it flows sluggishly round seven times; is properly the river of death, which all must cross to enter the unseen world, and of which, in the Greek mythology, Charon was the ferryman. In their solemn engagements it was by this river the gods took oath to signify that they would forego their godhood if they swore falsely. The Styx was a branch of the Great Ocean which girds the universe. See OCEANUS.

SUAKIN or SAWAKIN (11), a seaport under Egyptian control, and since the Mahdi's revolt garrisoned by the English, on the Nubian coast of the Red Sea; stands on a rocky islet, and is connected with El Keff on the mainland by a causeway; is the starting-point of caravans to Berber and Khartoum, and as such has a large transit trade, exporting silver ornaments, ivory, gums, hides, gold, &c.; here African pilgrims to Mecca embark to the number of 6000 or 7000 annually.

SUAREZ, FRANCISCO, scholastic philosopher, born at Grenada; after joining the Jesuit body became professor of Theology at Coimbra, attempted to reconcile realism with nominalism, and adopted in theology a system called "Congruism," being a modification of Molinism; wrote a "Defence of the Catholic Faith against the Errors of the Anglican Sect" at the instance of the Pope against the claims of James I. in his oath of allegiance (1548-1617).

SUBAHDAR, a title given to governors of provinces in the times of the Mogul dynasty, now bestowed upon native officers in the Indian army holding rank equivalent to an English captaincy.

SUBIACO (7), an ancient and interesting town of Central Italy; occupies a pleasant site amid encircling hills on the Teverone, 32 m. E. by N. of Rome; has a quaint, mediaeval appearance, and is overlooked by an old castle, a former residence of the Popes; there are two Benedictine monasteries dating from the 6th century, and in a grotto near St. Benedictine lived, in his youth, a hermit life for three years.

SUBJECTIVE, THE, that, in contrast to objective, which rests on the sole authority of consciousness, and has no higher warrant.

SUBJECTIVISM, the doctrine of the pure relativity of knowledge, or that it is purely subjective.

SUBLAPSARIANISM, same as INFRALAPSARIANISM (q. v.).

SUBLIMATION, the vaporisation of a solid body and its resumption thereafter of the solid form.

SUBLIME PORTE, a name given to the Ottoman Government, so called from a lofty gateway leading into the residence of the Vizier.

SUBSTITUTION, in theology the doctrine that Christ in His obedience and death stood in the place of the sinner, so that His merits on their faith in Him are imputed to them.

SUBTLE DOCTOR, name given to DUNS SCOTUS (q. v.) for his hairsplitting acuteness and extreme subtlety of distinction.

SUCCESSION WARS, the general title of several European wars which arose in the 18th century consequent on a failure of issue in certain royal lines, most important of which are (1) WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION (1701-1713). The death (1700) of Charles II. of Spain without direct issue caused Louis XIV. of France and the Emperor Leopold I. (the former married to the elder sister of Charles, the latter to the younger sister, and both grandsons of Philip III. of Spain) to put forth claims to the crown, the one on behalf of his grandson, Philip of Anjou, the other for his second son, the Archduke Charles. War broke out on the entry of Philip into Madrid and his assumption of the crown, England and the United Netherlands uniting with the emperor to curb the ambition of Louis. During the long struggle the transcendent military genius of Marlborough asserted itself in the great victories of Blenheim, Ramillies, and Oudenarde, but the lukewarmness of England in the struggle, the political fall of Marlborough, and the Tory vote for peace prevented the allies reaping the full benefit of their successes. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) left Philip in possession of his Spanish kingdom, but the condition was exacted that the crowns of Spain and France should not be united. The emperor (the Archduke Charles since 1711) attempted to carry on the struggle, but was forced to sign the Treaty of Rastadt (1714), acknowledging Philip king of Spain. Spain, however, ceded her Netherlands Sardinia, &c., to the emperor, while Gibraltar, Minorca, and parts of North America fell to England. (2) WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1740-1748) followed on the death (1740) of the Emperor Charles VI. without male issue. His daughter, Maria Theresa, entered into possession of Bohemia, Hungary, and the Archduchy of Austria, but was immediately attacked by the Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria and Augustus of Saxony and Poland, both rival claimants for the imperial crown, while Frederick II. of Prussia seized the opportunity of Maria's embarrassment to annex Silesia. France, Spain, and England were drawn into the struggle, the last in support of Maria. Success oscillated from side to side, but the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which brought the war to a close, left Maria pretty well in possession of her inheritance save the loss of Silesia to Frederick.

SUCHET, LOUIS GABRIEL, DUC D'ALBUFERA, marshal of France, born in Lyons; distinguished himself in Italy, Egypt, Austria, and Prussia, and became general in command in Aragon, by his success in ruling which last he gained the marshal's baton and a dukedom; he rejoined Napoleon during the Hundred Days; after Waterloo he lost his peerage, but recovered it in 1819 (1770-1826).

SUCKLING, SIR JOHN, poet, born, of good parentage, at Whitton, Middlesex; quitted Cambridge in 1628 to travel on the Continent, and for a time served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany; returning to England about 1632 he became a favourite at Court, where he was noted for his wit, prodigality, and verses; supported Charles in the Bishops' Wars against the Scots; sat in the Long Parliament; was involved in a plot to rescue Strafford, and to bring foreign troops to the aid of the king, but discovered, had to flee the country; died, probably by his own hand, in Paris; wrote several forgotten plays, a prose treatise on "Religion by Reason," and miscellaneous poems, amongst which are his charming songs and ballads, his title to fame (1609-1642).

SUDARIUM, the handkerchief given by ST. VERONICA (q. v.) to Christ as He was passing to crucifixion, and on which His face was miraculously impressed as He wiped the sweat off it.

SUDBURY (7), a borough of Suffolk, on the Stour, where it crosses the Essex border, 58 m. NE. of London; has three old churches (Perpendicular style), a grammar-school founded in the 15th century, a corn-exchange, &c.; manufactures embrace cocoa-nut matting, silk, &c.

SUDETIC MOUNTAINS stretch in irregular broken masses and subsidiary chains for 120 m. across South-East Germany, separating Bohemia and Moravia from Saxony and Prussian Silesia, and forming a link between the Carpathians and mountains of Franconia; highest and central position is known as the RIESENGEBIRGE (q. v.); Schneekoppe is the culminating point of the range.

SUDRAS, the fourth and lowest of the HINDU CASTES (q. v.); are by some alleged to be of the aboriginal race of India who to retain their freedom adopted Brahmanism.

SUE, MARIE-JOSEPH-EUGENE, a writer of sensational novels, born at Paris; was for some years an army surgeon, and served in the Spanish campaign of 1823; his father's death (1829) bringing him a handsome fortune, he retired from the army to devote himself to literature; his reputation as a writer rests mainly on his well-known works "The Mysteries of Paris" (1842) and "The Wandering Jew" (1845), which, displaying little skill on the artistic side, yet rivet their readers' attention by a wealth of exciting incident and plot; was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1850, but the coup d'etat of 1852 drove him an exile to Annecy, in Savoy, where he died (1804-1859).

SUETONIUS, TRANQUILLUS, Roman historian; practised as an advocate in Rome in the reign of Trajan; was a friend of the Younger Pliny, became private secretary to Hadrian, but was deprived of this post through an indiscretion; wrote several works, and of those extant the chief is the "Lives of the Twelve Caesars," beginning with Julius Caesar and ending with Domitian, a work which relates a great number of anecdotes illustrating the characters of the emperors; b. A.D. 70.

SUEZ (13), a town of Egypt, stands at the edge of the desert at the head of a gulf of the same name and at the S. end of the Suez Canal, 75 m. E. of Cairo, with which it is connected by railway; as a trading place, dating back to the times of the Ptolemies, has had a fluctuating prosperity, but since the completion of the canal is growing steadily in importance; is still for the most part an ill-built and ill-kept town; has a large English hospital and ship-stores.

SUEZ CANAL, a great artificial channel cutting the isthmus of Suez, and thus forming a waterway between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea; was planned and undertaken by the French engineer Lesseps, through whose untiring efforts a company was formed and the necessary capital raised; occupied 10 years in the construction (1859-69), and cost some 20 million pounds; from Port Said on the Mediterranean to Suez at the head of the Red Sea the length is about 100 m., a portion of which lies through Lakes Menzaleh, Ballah, Timsah, and the Bitter Lakes; as widened and deepened in 1886 it has a minimum depth of 28 ft., and varies from 150 to 300 ft. in width; traffic is facilitated by electric light during the night, and the passage occupies little more than 24 hours; has been neutralised and exempted from blockade, vessels of all nations in peace or war being free to pass through; now the highway to India and the East, shortening the voyage to India by 7600 m.; three-fourths of the ships passing through are English; an annual toll is drawn of close on three million pounds, the net profit of which falls to be divided amongst the shareholders, of whom since 1875 the British Government has been one of the largest.

SUFFOLK (371), eastmost county of England, fronts the North Sea between Norfolk (N.) and Essex (S.); is a pleasant undulating county with pretty woods and eastward-flowing streams (Waveney, Aide, Orwell, Stour, &c.); long tracts of heathland skirt the coast; agriculture is still the staple industry, wheat the principal crop; is famed for its antiquities, architecture, historic associations, and long list of worthies. Ipswich is the county town.

SUFFREN, BAILLI DE, a celebrated French admiral, who entered the navy a boy of 14 during the wars with England, and rose to be one of his country's greatest naval heroes, especially distinguishing himself as commander of a squadron in the West Indies, proving himself a master of naval tactics in more or less successful engagements with the English; is regarded by Professor Laughton as "the most illustrious officer that has ever held command in the French navy"; sprang from good Provence stock (1729-1788).

SUFISM, the doctrine of the Sufis, a sect of Mohammedan mystics; imported into Mohammedanism the idea that the soul is the subject of ecstasies of Divine inspiration in virtue of its direct emanation from the Deity, and this in the teeth of the fundamental article of the Mohammedan creed, which exalts God as a being passing all comprehension and ruling it by a law which is equally mysterious, which we have only to obey; this doctrine is associated with the idea that the body is the soul's prison, and death the return of it to its original home, a doctrine of the dervish fraternity, of which the Madhi is high-priest.

SUGER, ABBE, abbot of St. Denis, minister of Louis VI. and Louis VII.; reformed the discipline in his abbey, emancipated the serfs connected with it, maintained the authority of the king against the great vassals; he was regent of the kingdom during the second Crusade, and earned the title of Father of his Country; he wrote a Life of Louis VI. (1082-1152).

SUIDAS, name of a grammarian and lexicographer of the 10th or 11th century; his "Lexicon" is a kind of encyclopaedic work, and is valuable chiefly for the extracts it contains from ancient writers.

SUIR, a river of Ireland which rises in Tipperary and joins the Barrow after a course of 100 m.

SUKKUR (29), a town on the Indus (here spanned by a fine bridge), 28 m. SE. of Shikarpur; has rail communication with Kurrachee and Afghanistan, and considerable trade in various textiles, opium, saltpetre, sugar, &c.; 1 m. distant is Old Sukkur; the island of Bukkur, in the river-channel and affording support to the bridge, is occupied and fortified by the British.

SULEIMAN PASHA, a distinguished Turkish general, born in Roumelia; entered the army in 1854, fought in various wars, became director of the Military Academy at Constantinople; distinguished himself in the Servian War of 1876, and was elected governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina; during the Russian-Turkish War made a gallant attempt to clear the enemy from the Shipka Pass, but as commander of the Danube army was defeated near Philippopolis (1878), and subsequently court-martialled and sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment, but was pardoned by the sultan (1838-1883).

SULIMAN or SULEIMAN MOUNTAINS, a bare and rugged range, stretching N. and S. for upwards of 350 m. from the Kyber Pass almost to the Arabian Sea, and forming the boundary between Afghanistan and the Punjab, India.

SULIOTES, a Graeco-Albanian race who in the 17th century, to escape their Turkish oppressors, fled from their old settlement in Epirus to the mountains of Suli, in South Albania, where they prospered in the following century in independence; driven out by the Turks in 1803, they emigrated to the Ionian Islands; came to the aid of Ali Pasha against the sultan in 1820, but, defeated and scattered, found refuge in Cephalonia, and later gave valuable assistance to the Greeks in their struggle for independence. The treaty of 1829 left their district of Suli in the hands of the Turks, and since then they have dwelt among the Greeks, many of them holding high government rank.

SULLA, LUCIUS CORNELIUS, a Roman of patrician birth; leader of the aristocratic party in Rome, and the rival of Marius (q. v.), under whom he got his first lessons in war; rose to distinction in arms afterwards, and during his absence the popular party gained the ascendency, and Marius, who had been banished, was recalled; the blood of his friends had been shed in torrents, and himself proscribed; on the death of Marius he returned with his army, glutted his vengeance by the sacrifice of thousands of the opposite faction, celebrated his victory by a triumph of unprecedented splendour, and caused himself to be proclaimed Dictator 81 B.C.; he ruled with absolute power two years after, and then resigning his dictatorship retired into private life; d. 76 B.C. at the age of 60.

SULLAN PROSCRIPTIONS, sentences of proscription issued by Sulla against Roman citizens in 81 B.C. under his dictatorship.

SULLIVAN, SIR ARTHUR SEYMOUR, English composer, born in London; won the Mendelssohn scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, and by means of it completed his musical education at Leipzig; in 1862 composed incidental music for "The Tempest," well received at the Crystal Palace; since then has been a prolific writer of all kinds of music, ranging from hymns and oratorios to popular songs and comic operas; his oratorios include "The Prodigal Son" (1868), "The Light of the World," "The Golden Legend," &c., but it is as a writer of light and tuneful operas (librettos by W. S. GILBERT, q. v.) that he is best known; these began with "Cox and Box" (1866), and include "Trial by Jury," "The Sorcerer" (1877), "Pinafore," "Patience" (1881), "Mikado" (1885), &c., in all of which he displays great gifts as a melodist, and wonderful resource in clever piquant orchestration; received the Legion of Honour in 1878, and was knighted in 1883; b. 1842.

SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, a long and narrow island, a favourite sea-bathing resort, on the N. of the entrance to Charleston Harbour, South Carolina, U.S.

SULLY, MAXIMILIEN DE BETHUNE, DUKE OF, celebrated minister of Henry IV. of France, born at the Chateau of Rosny, near Mantes, whence he was known at first as the Baron de Rosny; at first a ward of Henry IV. of Navarre, he joined the Huguenot ranks along with him, and distinguished himself at Coutras and Ivry, and approved of Henry's policy in changing his colours on his accession to the throne, remaining ever after by his side as most trusted adviser, directing the finances of the country with economy, and encouraging the peasantry in the cultivation of the soil; used to say, "Labourage et pasteurage, voila les deux mamelles dont La France est alimentee, les vraies mines et tresors de Perou," "Tillage and cattle-tending are the two paps whence France sucks nourishment; these are the true mines and treasures of Peru;" on the death of the king he retired from court, and occupied his leisure in writing his celebrated "Memoirs," which, while they show the author to be a great statesman, give no very pleasant idea of his character (1560-1611).

SULLY-PRUDHOMME, French poet, born in Paris; published a volume of poems in 1865 entitled "Stances and Poemes," which commanded instant regard, and have been succeeded by others which have deepened the impression, and entitled him to the highest rank as a poet; they give evidence of a serious mind occupied with serious problems; was elected to the Academy in 1881; b. 1839.

SULPICIUS SEVERUS, an ecclesiastical historian, born in Aquitaine; wrote a "Historia Sacra," and a Life of St. Martin (363-406).

SULTAN, the title of a Mohammedan sovereign, Sultana being the feminine form.

SULU ISLANDS (75), an archipelago of 162 islands in Asiatic waters, lying to the NE. of Borneo, and extending to the Philippines; belongs to the Spaniards who, in 1876, subdued the piratical Malay inhabitants; the trade in pearls and edible nests is mainly carried on by Chinese.

SUMATRA (3,572, including adjacent islands), after Borneo the largest of the East Indian islands, stretches SE. across the Equator between the Malay Peninsula (from whose SW. coast it is separated by the Strait of Malacca) to Java (Strait of Sunda separating them); has an extreme length of 1115 m., and an area more than three times that of England; is mountainous, volcanic, covered in central parts by virgin forest, abounds in rivers and lakes, and possesses an exceptionally rich flora and peculiar fauna; rainfall is abundant; some gold and coal are worked, but the chief products are rice, sugar, coffee, tobacco, petroleum, pepper, &c.; the island is mainly under Dutch control, but much of the unexplored centre is still in the hands of savage tribes who have waged continual warfare with their European invaders. Padang (150) is the official Dutch capital.

SUMBAWA (150), one of the Sunda Islands, lying between Lombok (W.) and Flores (E.); mountainous and dangerously volcanic; yields rice, tobacco, cotton, &c.; is divided among four native rulers under Dutch authority.

SUMNER, CHARLES, American statesman and abolitionist, born in Boston; graduated at Harvard (1830), and was called to the bar in 1834, but found a more congenial sphere in writing and lecturing; during 1837-40 pursued his favourite study of jurisprudence in France, Germany, and England; was brought into public notice by his 4th of July oration (1845) on "The True Grandeur of Nations," an eloquent condemnation of war; became an uncompromising opponent of the slave-trade; was one of the founders of the Free Soil Party, and in 1851 was elected to the National Senate, a position he held until the close of his life, and where he did much by his eloquent speeches to prepare the way for emancipation, and afterwards to win for the blacks the rights of citizenship (1811-1874).

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD, archbishop of Canterbury; rose by a succession of preferments to the Primacy, an office which he discharged with discretion and moderation (1780-1862).

SUMPTUARY LAWS, passed in various lands and ages to restrict excess in dress, food, and luxuries generally; are to be found in the codes of Solon, Julius Caesar, and other ancient rulers; Charles VI. of France restricted dinners to one soup and two other dishes; appear at various times in English statutes down to the 16th century against the use of "costly meats," furs, silks, &c., by those unable to afford them; were issued by the Scottish Parliament against the extravagance of ladies in the matter of dress to relieve "the puir gentlemen their husbands and fathers"; were repealed in England in the reign of James I.; at no time were they carefully observed.

SUMTER, FORT, a fort on a shoal in Charleston harbour, 31/2 m. from the town; occupied by Major Anderson with 80 men and 62 guns in the interest of the secession of South Carolina from the Union, and the attack on which by General Beauregard on 12th April 1861 was the commencement of the Civil War; it held out against attack and bombardment till the month of July following.

SUN, THE, is a star; is the centre of the solar system, as it is in consequence called, is a globe consisting of a mass of vapour at white heat, and of such enormous size that it is 500 times larger than all the planets of the system put together, or of a bulk one million and a half times greater than the earth, from which it is ninety-two and a half million miles distant; the bright surface of it is called the photosphere, and this brightness is diversified with brighter spots called faculae, and dark ones called sun-spots, and by watching which latter as they move over the sun's disk we find it takes 25 days to revolve on its axis, and by means of SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. v.) find it is composed of hydrogen and a number of vaporised metals.

SUNDA ISLANDS, a name sometimes applied to the long chain of islands stretching SE. from the Malay Peninsula to North Australia, including Sumatra, Timor, &c., but more correctly designates the islands Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sandalwood Island, &c., which lie between Java and Timor, are under Dutch suzerainty, and produce the usual East Indian products. See various islands named.

SUNDERBUNDS or SUNDARBANS, a great tract of jungle, swamp, and alluvial plain, forming the lower portion of the Ganges delta; extends from the Hooghly on the W. to the Meghna on the E., a distance of 165 m.; rice is cultivated on the upper part by a sparse population; the lower part forms a dense belt of wild jungle reaching to the sea, and is infested by numerous tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses, pythons, cobras, &c.

SUNDERLAND (142), a flourishing seaport of Durham, situated at the mouth of the Wear, 12 m. SE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; embraces some very old parishes, but as a commercial town has entirely developed within the present century, and is of quite modern appearance, with the usual public buildings; owes its prosperity mainly to neighbouring coal-fields, the product of which it exports in great quantities; has four large docks covering 50 acres; also famous iron shipbuilding yards, large iron-works, glass and bottle works, roperies, &c.

SUNDERLAND, CHARLES SPENCER, THIRD EARL, son of succeeding, and son in law of the Duke of Marlborough; was a Secretary of State in Queen Anne's reign during 1706-1710, and in the following reign, as leader of the Whigs, exercised unbounded influence over George I.; narrowly escaped, chiefly through Walpole's help, being found guilty of accepting heavy bribes from the South Sea Company; lost office, and was displaying his father's propensity to underhand scheming by intriguing with the Tories and the Pretender's party when death cut short his career (1675-1722).

SUNDERLAND, ROBERT SPENCER, SECOND EARL OF, an English statesman prominent in the reign of Charles II., James II., and William III.; was for some years engaged in embassies abroad before being appointed Secretary of State in 1679; adroit and insinuating, and with great capacity for business, he soon became a leading minister; attached himself to the Duchess of Portsmouth, and in the corrupt politics of the two Stuart kings played his own hand with consummate if unscrupulous skill, standing high in King James's favour as Prime Minister, although he had formerly intrigued in favour of Monmouth; supported the Exclusion Bill, and even then was in secret communication with the Prince of Orange; after the Revolution rose to high office under William; was instrumental in bringing the Whigs into power, and during 1695-1697 was acknowledged head of his Government (1640-1702).

SUNNITES, the orthodox Mohammedans, a name given to them because they accept the Sunna, i. e. traditional teaching of the Prophet, as of the same authority as the Koran, in the matter of both faith and morals, agreeably to a fundamental article of Mohammedanism, that not only the rule of life, but the interpretation of it, is of divine dictation.

SUN-WORSHIP, the worship of the sun is conceived of as an impersonation of the deity, that originated among races so far advanced in civilisation as to recognise what they owed to its benignant influence, in particular as tillers of the soil, and, is associated with advance as the worship of Bacchus was, which could not originate prior to cultivation of the vine.

SUONADA, the Inland Sea of Japan, separating Kyushu and Shikoku from the Main Island, Honshiu, a fine sheet of water (250 m. by 50), picturesquely studded with islands which, however, render navigation difficult.

SUPEREROGATION, WORKS OF, name given in the Roman Catholic theology to works or good deeds performed by saints over and above what is required for their own salvation, and the merit of which is held to be transferable to others in need of indulgence.

SUPER-GRAMMATICAM (above grammar), name given to Sigismund, emperor of Germany, from his rejoinder to a cardinal who one day on a high occasion mildly corrected a grammatical mistake he had made in a grand oration, "I am King of the Romans, and above grammar."

SUPERIOR, LAKE, largest fresh-water lake on the globe, lies between the United States and Canada, the boundary line passing through the centre; area, 31,200 sq. m., almost the size of Ireland; maximum depth, 1008 ft.; St. Mary's River, the only outlet, a short rapid stream, carries the overflow to Lake Huron; receives upwards of 200 rivers, but none of first-class importance, largest is the St. Louis; is dotted with numerous islands; water is singularly clear and pure, and abounds with fish; navigation is hindered in winter by shore-ice, but the lake never freezes over.

SUPERSTITION, the fear of that which is not God, as if it were God, or the fear of that which is not the devil, as if it were the devil; or, as it has in more detail been defined by Ruskin, "the fear of a spirit whose passions and acts are those of a man present in some places and not others; kind to one person and unkind to another, pleased or angry, according to the degree of attention you pay him, or the praise you refuse him; hostile generally to human pleasure, but may be bribed by sacrificing part of that pleasure into permitting the rest."

SUPRALAPSARIANISM, the doctrine of the extreme Calvinists, that the decree of God as regards the eternal salvation of some and the eternal reprobation of others is unconditional.

SUPREMACY, ROYAL, the supremacy of the sovereign in matters ecclesiastical and matters of civil right to the exclusion of matters spiritual and the jurisdiction in the former claimed by the Pope.

SURABAYA (127), a seaport on the NE. coast or Java, is the head-quarters of the Dutch military, and exports tropical products; of the population 6000 are European, and 7000 or so Chinese.

SURAT (109), a city of India, Bombay Presidency, on the Tapti, 14 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Bombay; stretches along the S. bank of the river, presenting no architectural features of interest save some Mohammedan, Parsee, and Hindu temples, and an old castle or fortress; chief exports are cotton and grain; the English erected here their first factory on the Indian continent in 1612, and with Portuguese and Dutch traders added, it became one of the principal commercial centres of India; in the 18th century the removal of the English East India Company to Bombay drew off a considerable portion of the trade of Surat, which it has never recovered.

SURINAM. See GUIANA, DUTCH.

SURPLICE, a linen robe with wide sleeves worn by officiating clergymen and choristers, originating in the rochet or alb of early times.

SURREY (1,731), an inland county, and one of the fairest of England, in the SE. between Kent (E.) and Hampshire (W.), with Sussex on the S., separated from Middlesex on the N. by the Thames; the North Downs traverse the county E. and W., slope gently to the Thames, and precipitously in the S. to the level Weald; generally presents a beautiful prospect of hill and heatherland adorned with splendid woods; the Wey and the Mole are the principal streams; hops are extensively grown round Farnham; largest town is Croydon; the county town, Guildford.

SURREY, HENRY HOWARD, EARL OF, poet, son of the Duke of Norfolk; early attached to the court of Henry VIII., he attended his royal master at the "Field of the Cloth of Gold," and took part in the coronation ceremony of Anne Boleyn (1533); was created a Knight of the Garter in 1542, and two years later led the English army in France with varying success; imprisoned along with his father on a charge of high treason, for which there was no adequate evidence, he was condemned and executed; as one of the early leaders of the poetic renaissance, and introducer of the sonnet and originator of blank verse, he deservedly holds a high place in the history of English literature (1516-1547).

SURYA, in the Hindu mythology the sun conceived of as a female deity.

SUSA (the Shushan of Daniel, Esther, &c.), an ancient city of Persia, now in ruins, that spread over an area of 3 sq. m., on the Kerkha, 250 m. SE. of Bagdad; was for long the favourite residence of the Persian kings, the ruins of whose famous palace, described in Esther, are still extant.

SUSAN, ST., the patron saint and guardian of innocence and saviour from infamy and reproach. See SUSANNA.

SUSANNA, THE HISTORY OF, a story in the Apocrypha, evidently conceived to glorify Daniel as a judge, and which appears to have been originally written by a Jew in Greek. She had been accused of adultery by two of the elders and condemned to death, but was acquitted on Daniel's examination of her accusers to their confusion and condemnation to death in her stead. The story has been allegorised by the Church, and Susanna made to represent the Church, and the two elders her persecutors.

SUSQUEHANNA, a river of America, formed by the junction at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, of the North Branch (350 m.) flowing out of Schuyler Lake, central New York, and the West Branch (250 m.) rising in the Alleghany Mountains; flows in a shallow, rapid, unnavigable course S. and SE. through beautiful scenery to Port Deposit, at the N. end of Chesapeake Bay; length, 150 m.

SUSSEX (550), a S. maritime county of England, fronts the English Channel between Hampshire (W.) and Kent (E.), with Surrey on its northern border; is traversed E. and W. by the South Downs, which afford splendid pasturage for half a million sheep, and terminates in Beachy Head; in the N. lies the wide, fertile, and richly-wooded plain of the Weald; chief rivers are the Arun, Adur, Ouse, and Rother, of no great size; is a fine agricultural county, more than two-thirds of its area being under cultivation; was the scene of Caesar's landing (55 B.C.), of AElla's, the leader of the South Saxons (whence the name Sussex), and of William the Conqueror's (1066); throughout the country are interesting antiquities; largest town, Brighton; county town, Lewes.

SUTHERLAND (22), a maritime county of N. Scotland; presents a N. and a W. shore to the Atlantic, between Ross and Cromarty (S.) and Caithness (E.), and faces the North Sea on the SE., whence the land slopes upwards to the great mountain region and wild, precipitous loch-indented coasts of the W. and N.; scarcely 3 per cent, of the area is cultivated, but large numbers of sheep and cattle are raised; the Oykell is the longest (35 m.) of many streams, and Loch Shin the largest of 300 lochs; there are extensive deer forests and grouse moors, while valuable salmon and herring fisheries exist round the coasts; is the most sparsely populated county in Scotland. Dornoch is the county town.

SUTLEJ, the eastmost of the five rivers of the Punjab; its head-waters flow from two Thibetan lakes at an elevation of 15,200 ft., whence it turns NW. and W. to break through a wild gorge of the Himalayas, thence bends to the SW., forms the eastern boundary of the Punjab, and joins the Indus at Mithankot after a course of 900 m.

SUTRAS, name given to a collection of aphorisms, summaries of the teachings of the Brahmans, and of rules regulative of ritual or religious observances, and also given to these aphorisms and rules themselves.

SUTTEE, a Hindu widow who immolates herself on the funeral pile of her husband, a term applied to the practice itself. The practice was of very ancient date, but the custom was proclaimed illegal in 1829 under Lord William Bentinck's administration, and it is now very seldom that a widow seeks to violate the law. In 1823, in Bengal alone, 575 widows gave themselves to be so burned, of whom 109 were above sixty, 226 above forty, 209 above twenty, and 32 under twenty.

SUWARROW or SUVOROFF, Russian field-marshal, born at Moscow; entered the army as a private soldier, distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War, and after 20 years' service rose to command; in command of a division he in 1773 routed an army of the Turks beyond the Danube, and in 1783 he reduced a tribe of Tartars under the Russian yoke; his greatest exploit perhaps was his storming of Ismail, which had resisted all attempts to reduce it for seven months, and which he, but with revolting barbarities however, in three days succeeded by an indiscriminate massacre of 40,000 of the inhabitants; his despatch thereafter to Queen Catharine was "Glory to God and the Empress, Ismail is ours!" he after this conducted a cruel campaign in Poland, which ended in its partition, and a campaign in Italy to the disaster of the French and his elevation to the peerage as a prince, with the title of Italinski; he was all along the agent of the ruthless purposes of POTEMKIN (q. v.) (1730-1800).

SVEABORG, a strong fortress in Finland, protecting Helsingfors, in the Baltic, 3 m. distant from that town, and called the "Gibraltar of the North."

SVIR, a Russian river that flows into Lake Ladoga.

SWABIA, an ancient duchy in the SW. of Germany, and most fertile part, so called from the Suevi, who in the 1st century displaced the aboriginal Celts, and which, along with Bavaria, formed the nucleus of the Fatherland; was separated by the Rhine from France and Switzerland, having for capital Augsburg, and being divided now into Wuertemberg, Bavaria, Baden, and Lichtenstein.

SWAHILI (i. e. coast people), a people of mixed Bantu and Arab stock occupying Zanzibar and the adjoining territory from nearly Mombasa to Mozambique; they are an enterprising race, and are dispersed as traders, hunters, carriers, &c., far and wide over Central Africa.

SWALE, a river in the North Riding of Yorkshire, uniting, after a course of 60 miles, with the Ure to form the Ouse.

SWAMMERDAM, JAN, a Dutch entomologist, born at Amsterdam, where he settled as a doctor, but turning with enthusiasm to the study of insect life, made important contributions to, and practically laid the foundations of, entomological science (1637-1680).

SWAN OF AVON, sweet name given by Ben Jonson to Shakespeare.

SWAN OF MANTUA, name given to Virgil, as born at Mantua.

SWANSEA (90), a flourishing and progressive seaport of Glamorganshire, at the entrance of the Tawe, 45 m. into Swansea Bay; has a splendid harbour, 60 acres of docks, a castle, old grammar-school, &c.; is the chief seat of the copper-smelting and of the tin-plate manufacture of England, and exports the products of these works, as well as coal, zinc, and other minerals, in large quantities.

SWATOW (30), a seaport of China, at the mouth of the Han, 225 m. E. of Canton; has large sugar-refineries, factories for bean-cake and grass-cloth; since the policy of "the open door" was adopted in 1867 has had a growing export trade.

SWAZILAND (64), a small South African native State to the E. of the Transvaal, of which in 1893 it became a dependency, retaining, however, its own laws and native chief; is mountainous, fertile, and rich in minerals; the Swazis are of Zulu stock, jealous of the Boers, and friendly to Britain.

SWEATING SICKNESS, an epidemic of extraordinary malignity which swept over Europe, and especially England, in the 15th and 16th centuries, attacking with equal virulence all classes and all ages, and carrying off enormous numbers of people; was characterised by a sharp sudden seizure, high fever, followed by a foetid perspiration; first appeared in England in 1485, and for the last time in 1551.

SWEATING SYSTEM, a term which began to be used about 1848 to describe an iniquitous system of sub-contracting in the tailoring trade. Orders from master-tailors were undertaken by sub-contractors, who themselves farmed the work out to needy workers, who made the articles in their own crowded and foetid homes, receiving "starvation wages." The term is now used in reference to all trades in cases where the conditions imposed by masters tend to grind the rate of payment down to a bare living wage and to subject the workers to insanitary surroundings by overcrowding, &c., and to unduly long hours. Kingsley's pamphlet, "Cheap Clothes and Nasty," and novel, "Alton Locke," did much to draw public attention to the evil. In 1890 an elaborate report by a committee of the House of Lords was published, and led in the following year to the passing of the Factory and Workshops Act and the Public Health Act, which have greatly mitigated the evil.

SWEDEN (4,785), a kingdom of Northern Europe, occupying the eastern portion of the great Scandinavian Peninsula, bounded W. by Norway, E. by Russian Finland, Gulf of Bothnia, and the Baltic, and on the N. stretches across the Arctic circle between Norway (NW.) and Russia (NE.), while its southern serrated shores are washed by the Skager-Rack, Cattegat, and Baltic. From the mountain-barrier of Norway the country slopes down in broad terrace-like plains to the sea, intersected by many useful rivers and diversified by numerous lakes, of which Lakes Wenner, Wetter, and Maelar (properly an arm of the sea) are the largest, and lying under forest to the extent of nearly one-half its area; is divided into three great divisions: 1, Norrland in the N., a wide and wild tract of mountainous country, thickly forested, infested by the wolf, bear, and lynx, in summer the home of the wood-cutter, and sparsely inhabited by Lapps. 2, Svealand or Sweden proper occupies the centre, and is the region of the great lakes and of the principal mineral wealth (iron, copper, &c.) of the country. 3, Gothland, the southern portion, embraces the fertile plains sloping to the Cattegat, and is the chief agricultural district, besides possessing iron and coal. Climate is fairly dry, with a warm summer and long cold winter. Agriculture (potatoes, grain, rye, beet), although scarcely 8 per cent. of the land is under cultivation, is the principal industry, and with dairy-farming, stock-raising, &c., gives employment to more than one-half of the people; mining and timber-felling are only less important; chief industries are iron-works, sugar-refineries, cotton-mills, &c.; principal exports timber (much the largest), iron, steel, butter, &c., while textiles and dry-goods are the chiefly needed imports. Transit is greatly facilitated by the numerous canals and by the rivers and lakes. Railways and telegraphs are well developed in proportion to the population. As in Norway, the national religion is Lutheranism; education is free and compulsory. Government is vested in the king, who with the advice of a council controls the executive, and two legislative chambers which have equal powers, but the members of the one are elected for nine years by provincial councils, while those of the other are elected by the suffrages of the people, receive salaries, and sit only for three years. The national debt amounts to 141/2 million pounds. In the 14th century the country became an appanage of the Danish crown, and continued as such until freedom was again won in the 16th century by the patriot king, Gustavus Vasa. By the 17th century had extended her rule across the seas into certain portions of the empire, but selling these in the beginning of the 18th century, fell from her rank as a first-rate power. In 1814 Norway was annexed, and the two countries, each enjoying complete autonomy, are now united under one crown.

SWEDENBORG, EMMANUEL, a mystic of the mystics, founder of the "New Church," born at Stockholm, son of a bishop, a boy of extraordinary gifts and natural seriousness of mind; carefully educated under his father, attended the university of Upsala and took his degree in philosophy in 1709; in eager quest of knowledge visited England, Holland, France, and Germany; on his return, after four years, was at 28 appointed by Charles XII. assessor of the Royal College of Mines; in 1721 went to examine the mines and smelting-works of Europe; from 1716 spent 30 years in the composition and publication of scientific works, when of a sudden he threw himself into theology; in 1743 his period of illumination began, and the publication of voluminous theological treatises; the Swedish clergy interfered a little with the publication of his works, but he kept the friendship of people in power. He was never married, his habits were simple, lived on bread, milk, and vegetables, occupied a house situated in a large garden; visited England several times, but attracted no special attention; died in London of apoplexy in his eighty-fifth year. "He is described, in London, as a man of quiet, clerical habit, not averse to tea and coffee, and kind to children. He wore a sword when in full velvet dress, and whenever he walked out carried a gold-headed cane." This is Emerson's account in brief of his outer man, but for a glimpse or two of his ways of thinking and his views the reader is referred to Emerson's "Representative Men." The man was a seer; what he saw only himself could tell, and only those could see, he would say, who had the power of transporting themselves into the same spiritual centre; to him the only real world was the spirit-world and the world of sense only in so far as it reflected to the soul the great invisible (1688-1772).

SWEDENBORGIANS, the members of the "New Jerusalem Church," founded on the teaching of EMMANUEL SWEDENBORG (q. v.) on a belief in direct communion with the world of spirits, and in God as properly incarnate in the divine humanity of Christ.

SWEDISH NIGHTINGALE, name popularly given to JENNY LIND (q. v.).

SWERGA or SVARGA, the summit of Mount Meru, the Hindu Olympus, the heaven or abode of INDRA (q. v.) and of the gods in general.

SWETCHINE, MADAME, a Russian lady, Sophie Soymanof, born at Moscow, who married General Swetchine, and, after turning Catholic, became celebrated in Paris during 1817-51 as the gracious hostess of a salon where much religious and ethical discussion went on; plain and unimposing in appearance, she yet exercised a remarkable fascination over her "coterie" by the elevation of her character and eager spiritual nature (1782-1857).

SWIFT, JONATHAN, born at Dublin, a posthumous son, of well-connected parents; educated at Kilkenny, where he had Congreve for companion, and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was a somewhat riotous and a by no means studious undergraduate, only receiving his B.A. by "special grace" in 1686; two years later the Revolution drove him to England; became amanuensis to his mother's distinguished relative Sir William Temple, whose service, however, was uncongenial to his proud independent nature, and after taking a Master's degree at Oxford he returned to Dublin, took orders, and was presented to the canonry of Kilroot, near Belfast; the quiet of country life palling upon him, he was glad to resume secretarial service in Temple's household (1696), where during the next three years he remained, mastering the craft of politics, reading enormously, and falling in love with STELLA (q. v.); was set adrift by Temple's death in 1699, but shortly afterwards became secretary to Lord Berkeley, one of the Lord-Deputies to Ireland, and was soon settled in the vicarage of Laracor, West Meath; in 1704 appeared anonymously his famous satires, the "Battle of the Books" and the "Tale of a Tub," masterpieces of English prose; various squibs and pamphlets followed, "On the Inconvenience of Abolishing Christianity," &c.; but politics more and more engaged his attention; and neglected by the Whigs and hating their war policy, he turned Tory, attacked with deadly effect, during his editorship of the Examiner (1710-11), the war party and its leader Marlborough; crushed Steele's defence in his "Public Spirit of the Whigs," and after the publication of "The Conduct of the Allies" stood easily the foremost political writer of his time; disappointed of an English bishopric, in 1713 reluctantly accepted the deanery of St. Patrick's, Dublin, a position he held until the close of his life; became loved in the country he despised by eloquently voicing the wrongs of Ireland in a series of tracts, "Drapier's Letters," &c., fruitful of good results; crowned his great reputation by the publication (1726) of his masterpiece "Gulliver's Travels," the most daring, savage, and amusing satire contained in the world's literature; "Stella's" death and the slow progress of a brain disease, ending in insanity, cast an ever-deepening gloom over his later years (1667-1745).

SWILLY, LOUGH, a narrow inlet of the Atlantic, on the coast of Donegal, North Ireland, running in between Dunaff Head (E.) and Fanad Point (W.), a distance of 25 m.; is from 3 to 4 m. broad; the entrance is fortified.

SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES, poet and prose writer, born in London, son of Admiral Swinburne; educated at Balliol College, Oxford, went to Florence and spent some time there; his first productions were plays, two of them tragedies, and "Poems and Ballads," his later "A Song of Italy," essay on "William Blake," and "Songs before Sunrise," instinct with pantheistic and republican ideas, besides "Studies in Song," "Studies in Prose and Poetry," &c.; he ranks as the successor of Landor, of whom he is a great admirer, stands high both as a poet and a critic, and is a man of broad and generous sympathies; his admirers regard it as a reproach to his generation that due honour is not paid by it to his genius; b. 1837.

SWINDON (32), a town in Wiltshire, 77 m. W. of London; contains the Great Western Company's engineering works, which cover 200 acres, and employ 10,000 hands.

SWINEMUeNDE (9), a fortified seaport on the island of Usedom, in the Baltic, near the mouth of the Swine, one of the outlets of the Oder.

SWISS CONFEDERATION, a league of the several Swiss cantons to resist an attempt on the part of the Emperor Albrecht to incorporate certain of the free towns into his family possessions.

SWISS GUARDS. See GARDES SUISSES.

SWITHIN, ST., bishop of Winchester from 852 to 862; was buried by his own request in Winchester Churchyard, "where passers-by might tread above his head, and the dews of heaven fall on his grave." On his canonisation, a century after, the chapter resolved to remove his body to a shrine in the cathedral, but their purpose was hindered on account of a rain which lasted 40 days from the 15th July; hence the popular notion that if it rained that day it would be followed by rain for 40 days after.

SWITZERLAND (2,918), a republic of Central Europe, bounded by Germany (N.), France (W.), Italy (S.), and Austria and Germany (E.); in size is slightly more than one-half of Scotland, of semicircular shape, having the Jura Alps on its French border, and divided from Italy by the great central ranges of the Alpine system, whence radiate the Swiss Alps—Pennine, Lepontine, Bernese, &c.—covering the E. and S., and occupying with intervening valleys two-thirds of the country; the remaining third is occupied by an elevated fertile plain, extending between Lakes of Constance and Geneva (largest of numerous lakes), and studded with picturesque hills; principal rivers are the Upper Rhone, the Aar, Ticino, and Inn; climate varies with the elevation, from the high regions of perpetual snow to warm valleys where ripen the vine, fig, almond, and olive; about one-third of the land surface is under forest, and one quarter arable, the grain grown forming only one-half of what is required; flourishing dairy farms exist, prospered by the fine meadows and mountain pastures which, together with the forests, comprise the country's greatest wealth; minerals are exceedingly scarce, coal being entirely absent. Despite its restricted arable area and lack of minerals the country has attained a high pitch of prosperity through the thrift and energy of its people, who have skilfully utilised the inexhaustible motive-power of innumerable waterfalls and mountain streams to drive great factories of silks, cottons, watches, and jewellery. The beauty of its mountain, lake, and river scenery has long made Switzerland the sanatorium and recreation ground of Europe; more than 500 health resorts exist, and the country has been described as one vast hotel. The Alpine barriers are crossed by splendid roads and railways, the great tunnels through St. Gothard and the Simplon being triumphs of engineering skill and enterprise. In 1848, after the suppression of the SONDERBUND (q. v.), the existing league of 22 semi-independent States (constituting since 1798 the Helvetic Republic) formed a closer federal union, and a constitution (amended in 1874) was drawn up conserving as far as possible the distinctive laws of the cantons and local institutions of their communes. The President is elected annually by the Federal Assembly (which consists of two chambers constituting the legislative power), and is assisted in the executive government by a Federal Council of seven members. By an institution known as the "Referendum" all legislative acts passed in the Cantonal or Federal Assemblies may under certain conditions be referred to the mass of the electors, and this is frequently done. The public debt amounts to over two million pounds. The national army is maintained by conscription; 71 per cent. of the people speak German, 22 per cent. French, and 5 per cent. Italian; 59 per cent. are Protestants, and 41 per cent. Catholics. Education is splendidly organised, free, and compulsory; there are five universities, and many fine technical schools.

SYBARIS, an ancient city of Magna Graecia, on the Gulf of Tarentum, flourished in the 17th century B.C., but in 510 B.C. was captured and totally obliterated by the rival colonists of Crotona; at the height of its prosperity the luxury and voluptuousness of the inhabitants was such as to become a byword throughout the ancient world, and henceforth a Sybaris city is a city of luxurious indulgence, and Sybarite a devotee of pleasure.

SYBEL, HEINRICH VON, German historian, born at Duesseldorf; was a pupil of RANKE'S (q. v.), and became professor of History at Muenich and Bonn; he was a Liberal in politics; his great works are a "History of the Period of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1795, and then to 1800," in five volumes, and the "History of the Founding of the German Empire under William I.," in five volumes; he has also written a "History of the First Crusade" (1817-1895).

SYCORAX, a hag in the "Tempest," the dam of Caliban.

SYDENHAM, a district of Kent and suburb of London, to the SE. of which it lies 7 m., includes the Surrey parish of Lambeth, where in 1852-54 the Crystal Palace was erected and still stands, a far-famed sight of London, containing valuable collections illustrative of the arts and sciences, and surrounded by a magnificent park and gardens.

SYDENHAM, FLOYER, Greek scholar; translated some of the Dialogues of Plato into English, and wrote a dissertation on Heraclitus, which failed of being appreciated, and involved in embarrassment, he was thrown into prison because he could not pay a small bill for provisions, and there died; his sad fate led to the foundation of the Literary Fund (1710-1787).

SYDENHAM, THOMAS, the "English Hippocrates," born in Dorsetshire, educated at Oxford, and a Fellow of All Souls'; practised medicine in London, where, though regarded with disfavour by the faculty, he stood in high regard, and had an extensive practice, from his study of the symptoms of disease, and the respect he paid to the constitution of the patient; he used his own sense and judgment in each case, and his treatment was uniformly successful; he commanded the regard of his contemporaries Locke and Boyle, and his memory was revered by such experts as Boerhaave, Stahl, Pinel, and Haller; he ranks as a great reformer in the healing art (1624-1689).

SYDNEY (488), the capital of New South Wales, the oldest city in Australia, and one of the first in the world, on the S. shore of the basin of Port Jackson; and the entrance of a magnificent, almost land-locked, harbour for shipping of the largest tonnage; the situation of the city is superb, and it is surrounded by the richest scenery; the shores of the basin are covered with luxuriant vegetation, studded with islands and indented with pretty bays; it is well paved, has broad streets, and some fine buildings, the principal being the university, the two cathedrals, the post-office, and the town hall. It is a commercial rather than a manufacturing city, though its resources for manufacture are considerable, for it is in the centre of a large coal-field, in connection with which manufacturing industries may yet develop.

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