OTHMAN, the third caliph, who ruled from 614 to 636, was assassinated by Mohammed, son of Abu-Bekr.
OTHMAN or OSMAN I., surnamed the Conqueror the founder of the empire of the Ottoman Turks, born in Bithynia (1259-1326).
OTHO, Roman emperor, had been a companion of Nero; was created emperor by the Pretorian Guards in succession to Galba, but being defeated by the German legionaries, stabbed himself to death after a reign of three months (32-69).
OTIS, JAMES, American lawyer, born in Massachusetts, distinguished as a ringleader in the revolution in the colonies against the mother-country that led to American independence, for which he had to pay with his life and the prior loss of his reason (1724-1783).
OTRANTO (2), a decayed seaport and fishing town of SE. Italy, 52 m. S. of Brindisi; founded by Greek colonists, it was in early times the chief port of trade with Greece; there is a cathedral and castle.
OTTAWA (44), capital of the Dominion of Canada, is situated 90 m. up the Ottawa River and its confluence with the St. Lawrence, between the Chaudiere and Rideau Falls. Here are the Parliament buildings, the Governor-General's residence, a Roman Catholic cathedral, numerous colleges and schools, and a great library. There is some flour-milling and some iron-working, but the chief industry is lumber felling. Half the people are French Roman Catholics. It became the capital of the Dominion in 1856, and in ten years after the government was installed in its new buildings.
OTTAWA RIVER, the largest tributary of the St. Lawrence, and one of the largest Canadian rivers, is 700 m. long; rising in the W. of Quebec, it flows W., then S., then SE., sometimes in a narrow channel, sometimes broadening even into lakes, receiving many tributaries, and passing down rapids and falls, and joins the St. Lawrence at Montreal; down its waters are floated immense quantities of lumber.
OTTERBURN, a Northumberland village, 16 m. S. of the border, famous as the scene of a struggle on 19th August 1388 between the Douglases and the Percies, at which the Earl of Douglas lost his life, and Hotspur was taken prisoner. See CHEVY CHASE.
OTTO or ATTAR OF ROSES, an essential oil obtained by distilling rose leaves of certain species in water, of very strong odour, pleasant when diluted; is used for perfumery; it is made in India, Persia, Syria, and at Kezanlik, in Roumelia.
OTTOMANS, the name given to the Turks from OTHMAN (q. v.).
OTWAY, THOMAS, English dramatist, born in Sussex, intended for the Church; took to the stage, failed as an actor, and became a playwright, his chief production in that line being "Alcibiades," "Don Carlos," "The Orphan," and "Venice Preserved," the latter two especially; he led a life of dissipation, and died miserably, from choking, it is said, in greedily swallowing a piece of bread when in a state of starvation (1651-1685).
OUBLIETTE, an underground cell, perfectly dark, in which prisoners were subjected to perpetual confinement, was so called as being a "place of forgetfulness," or where one is forgotten; they were often put secretly to death.
OUDENARDE, a town in Belgium, 15 m. S. of Ghent, scene of Marlborough's third victory over the French in 1708; it contains a 16th-century hotel de ville, with a fine tower, and some interesting churches.
OUDH (12,551), a province in the Bengal Presidency, occupying the basin of the Gumti, Gogra, and Rapti Rivers, and stretching from the N. bank of the Ganges to the lower Himalayas; is a great alluvial plain, through which these rivers flow between natural embankments, affording irrigation by their marshes and overflows. The sole industry is agriculture; the crops are wheat and rice, which are exported by rail and river. The population is one of the densest in the world, the labouring classes being very poor. The only large town is Lucknow (273), on the Gumti. One of the earliest centres of Aryan civilisation, Oudh became subject to the empire of Delhi in the 12th century, but was an independent State for a century prior to its annexation by the British in 1856.
OUDINOT, DUKE OF REGGIO, marshal of France, born at Bar-le-Duc; served with distinction under the Revolution and the Empire; led the retreat from Moscow, and was wounded; joined the Royalists after the fall of Napoleon, and died Governor of the Hotel des Invalides (1767-1847).
OUIDA, the pseudonym of Louise de la Ramee, English novelist, born at Bury St. Edmunds; resides chiefly at Florence; has written over a score of novels, "Under Two Flags" and "Moths" among the best; b. 1840.
OUSE, the name of several English rivers, of which the chief are (1) the Yorkshire Ouse, flowing through the great Vale of York southwards to the Humber, receiving the Swale, Ure, Nidd, Wharfe, and Aire from the W. and the Derwent from the E., and having in its basin more great towns than any other river in the country; (2) the Great Ouse, rising in the S. of Northamptonshire, pursuing a winding course NE. through the plains of Buckingham, Bedford, Huntingdon, Cambridge, and Norfolk to the Wash; and (3) the Sussex Ouse.
OUTRAM, SIR JAMES, British general, surnamed by Napier the "Bayard of India," born in Derbyshire, began his military career in Bombay, served in the Afghan War and the war with Persia, played an important part in the suppression of the Mutiny, marching to the relief of Lucknow, magnanimously waived his rank in favour of Havelock, and fought under him (1803-1863).
OVERBECK, FRIEDRICH, celebrated German painter, born at Luebeck; was head of the new Romantic or Pre-Raphaelite school of German art; had devoted himself to religious subjects, abjured Lutheranism, and joined the Roman Catholic Church; is famed for his frescoes "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem" and "St. Francis" in particular, still more than his oil-paintings; spent most of his life in Rome (1789-1869).
OVERBURY, SIR THOMAS, English gentleman, remembered chiefly from the circumstances of his death, having been poisoned in the Tower at the instance of Rochester and his wife for dissuading the former from marrying the latter, for which crime the principals were pardoned and the instruments suffered death; he was the author of certain works published after his death, and "The Wife," a poem, his "Characters," and "Crumbs from King James's Table" (1581-1613).
OVERLAND ROUTE, the route to Australia and the East across the European continent instead of round the Cape of Good Hope, was inaugurated by Lieutenant Waghorn in 1845, modified on the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, and is now via France, the Mont Cenis tunnel, Brindisi, the Levant, Suez Canal, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean.
OVERREACH, SIR GILES, a character in Massinger's play, "A New Way to Pay Old Debts."
OVERSTONE, BARON, English financier, represented Hythe; was made a peer in 1850; wrote on finances; was opposed to limited liability and the introduction of the decimal system; died immensely rich (1796-1883).
OVID (Publius Ovidius Naso), Roman poet of the Augustan age, born at Salmo, of equestrian rank, bred for the bar, and serving the State in the department of law for a time, threw it up for literature and a life of pleasure; was the author, among other works, of the "Amores," "Fasti," and the "Metamorphoses," the friend of Horace and Virgil, and the favourite of Augustus, but for some unknown reason fell under the displeasure of the latter, and was banished in his fiftieth year, to end his days among the swamps of Scythia, near the Black Sea (B.C. 43-18 A.D.).
OVIEDO (44), capital of the Spanish province of Asturias, near the river Nalon; is the seat of a university, library, and cathedral; it is the centre of the chief coal-field of Spain; in the neighbourhood are a gun-factory and many iron-works.
OWEN, JOHN, Puritan divine, born in Oxfordshire, educated at Oxford; driven from the Church, became first a Presbyterian then an Independent; Cromwell made him chaplain for a sermon he preached the day after Charles I.'s execution, and he was presented in 1651 with the deanery of Christ Church, Oxford, and next year with the Vice-Chancellorship, but on the Restoration was deprived of both, after which, from 1657, he spent his life in retirement; wrote an exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on the Holy Spirit, and many other works in exposition of the Puritan theology, which at one time were held in greater favour than they are now (1616-1683).
OWEN, SIR RICHARD, celebrated English naturalist and comparative anatomist, born in Lancaster; wrote extensively, especially on comparative anatomy and physiology, in which, as in everything that occupied him, he was an enthusiastic worker, being a disciple of Cuvier; did not oppose, but was careful not to commit himself to, Darwin's evolutionary theories; Carlyle, who had two hours' talk with him once, found him "a man of real ability who could tell him innumerable things" (1804-1892).
OWEN, ROBERT, a Socialist reformer, born in Montgomeryshire; became manager of a cotton mill at New Lanark, which he managed on Socialist principles, according to which all the profits in the business above five per cent, went to the workpeople; in furtherance of his principles he published his "New Views of Society," the "New Moral World," as well as pamphlets, lecturing upon them, moreover, both in England and America, but his schemes issued in practical failures, especially as proving too exclusively secular, and he in his old age turned his mind to spiritualism (1771-1858).
OWENS COLLEGE, Manchester, a non-sectarian university, founded by John Owens, a liberal Churchman, in 1846, and supported as well as extended by subsequent bequests, the medical school of which is one of the finest in the kingdom; of the students attending it in 1897-98, 639 were arts students, 99 women, and 418 medicals.
OXENFORD, JOHN, English man of letters and critic; translated Goethe's "Dichtung und Wahrheit," and "Echermann's Conversations with Goethe"; was dramatic critic for the Times, and wrote plays, as well as an "Illustrated Book of French Songs" (1812-1877).
OXENSTIERN, AXEL, COUNT, Swedish statesman, favourite minister of Gustavus Adolphus; supported him through the Thirty Years' War, though he disapproved of his engaging in it, and managed the affairs of the State with great ability after his death (1583-1654).
OXFORD (46), the county town of Oxfordshire, seat of one of the great English universities and of a bishopric; is on the left bank of the Thames, 52 m. W. of London; it is a city of great beauty, its many collegiate buildings and chapels and other institutions making it the richest of English cities in architectural interest; naturally historical associations abound; here the Mad Parliament met and adopted the Provisions of Oxford in 1258; Latimer and Ridley in 1555, and Cranmer in 1556, were burned in Broad Street; Charles I. made it his head-quarters after the first year of the Civil War; it was the refuge of Parliament during the plague of 1665.
OXFORD SCHOOL, the name given to the leaders of the Tractarian Movement, which originated at Oxford in 1833.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY, Oxford is spoken of as a seat of learning as early as the 11th century. Cloistral schools existed before that. Schools of divinity, law, and topography were founded in the 12th century. In the 13th Dominican and Franciscan scholars raised it to a level only second to Paris, and by the end of the 14th century there were thousands of students in attendance. Oxford responded quickly to the Renaissance, and by the time of the Reformation 13 colleges were founded. Her Protestantism stood firm through Mary's reaction, sank into passive obedience under the Stuarts, but woke up to resist James II.'s Catholic propaganda. Thereafter followed a serious lapse in efficiency, but this century has seen a complete revival. Oxford has now 21 colleges, among which are Balliol, Christ Church, Magdalen, Oriel, Trinity, and University College; 64 professors and teachers, and 3000 students. It is rich in museums and libraries; the Bodleian Library is of great value, the Taylor Library is devoted to modern literature. The Oxford or Tractarian Movement, one of the most remarkable religious impulses of modern times, had its centre in the University between 1834 and 1845. Among distinguished Oxford alumni were Hooker, Jeremy Taylor, Wesley, Newman; Hobbes, Locke, Adam Smith; Johnson, Gibbon, Freeman, Green; Chatham, Gladstone; Ruskin; Shelley, Keble, Arnold, and Clough. Of the colleges of which the University consists, the University was founded in 1249, Balliol in 1269, Merton in 1264, Exeter in 1314, Oriel in 1326, Queen's in 1340, New in 1379, Lincoln in 1427, All Souls' in 1437, Magdalen in 1468, Brasenose in 1509, Corpus in 1516, Christ Church in 1546, Trinity in 1554, St. John's in 1555, Jesus in 1571, Wadham in 1612, Pembroke in 1624, Worcester in 1714, Keble in 1870, and Hertford in 1874.
OXFORDSHIRE (186), a S. midland county of England, stretching on the N. bank of the Thames between Gloucester and Buckingham; is an agricultural district; bleak in the N. and W., it is hilly, well wooded and picturesque in the S., where are the Chiltern Hills; iron-stone is mined near Banbury, blankets made at Witney, and paper at Shiplake and Henley; natives of the county were Edward the Confessor, Leland, Warren Hastings, Maria Edgeworth, and J. R. Green.
OXUS or AMU-DARIA, a great river of Central Asia, rises in the Pamirs, and flows W. between Turkestan and Afghanistan, then N. through Turkestan to the Sea of Aral; it is believed at one time to have flowed into the Caspian, and there is record of two changes of course; half its waters are absorbed in irrigating the plains of Khiva.
OXYGEN, a colourless, inodorous gas which constitutes one-fifth in volume of the atmosphere, and which, in combination with hydrogen, forms water. It is the most widely diffused of all the elementary bodies, and an essential support to everything possessed of life.
OYER AND TERMINER, an English Court Commission to hear and determine special causes.
OZONE, is an allotropic form of oxygen, from which it can be developed by electricity, and into which it can be resolved by heat, present in small quantities in the atmosphere, and possessing strong oxidising properties.
PACHE, JEAN, Swiss adventurer, who became Mayor of Paris, and even Minister of War during the French Revolution, "the sleek Tartuffe that he was," is credited with the authorship of the famous revolutionary motto, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, or Death (1746-1823).
PACHOMIUS, ST., an Egyptian hermit, the founder of conventual monachism, who established the first institution of the kind at Tabenna, an island in the Nile; he also established the first nunnery under his sister (292-348). Festival, May 14.
PACHYDERMATA, hoofed animals with thick skins and non-ruminant, such as the elephant and the hog.
PACIFIC OCEAN, the largest sheet of water on the globe, occupies a third of its whole surface, as much as all the land put together. It is a wide oval in shape, lying between Australia and Asia on the W., and North and South America on the E. Except from Asia it receives no large rivers. On its American shores the Gulf of California is the only considerable indentation; the Okhotsk, Japanese, Yellow, and Chinese Seas, on the Asiatic coast, are rather wide bays shut in by islands than inland seas. Its innumerable islands are the chief feature of the Pacific Ocean. The continental islands include the Aleutian, Kurile, Japan, and Philippine Islands, and the archipelago between the Malay Peninsula and Australia; the Oceanic Islands include countless groups, volcanic and coral, chiefly in the southern hemisphere, between the Sandwich Islands and New Zealand. Commerce on the Pacific Ocean is only beginning, but will increase vastly with the extension of the United States westward, the colonisation of Australia, and the opening of Chinese and Japanese ports. San Francisco and Valparaiso on the E., Hong-Kong and Sydney on the W., are just now the chief centres of trade.
PACKHARD, distinguished American entymologist and naturalist, born in Maine; his classification of insects is accepted; b. 1839.
PACTOLUS, a small river of Lydia, famous for the gold contained in its sand, due, it was alleged, to Midas washing the gold off him in its waters, and the alleged source of the wealth of Croesus; its modern name is Sarabat. See MIDAS.
PACUVIUS, an old Latin dramatist, nephew of ENNIUS (q. v.); wrote dramas after the Greek models (220-130 B.C.).
PADANG (15), a town and free port on the W. coast of Sumatra, the largest town on the island, and the Dutch official capital.
PADEREWSKI, IGNACE JAN, a celebrated pianist, born at Podolia, in Russian Poland; master of his art by incessant practice from early childhood, made his debut in 1887 with instant success; his first appearance created quite a furore in Paris and London; has twice visited the United States; is a brilliant composer as well as performer, and has composed numerous pieces both for the voice and the piano; b. 1860.
PADILLA, JUAN LOPEZ DE, a celebrated Castilian noble, who headed a rebellion against Charles V., which he heroically maintained till his defeat at Villalos in 1521, and which his wife, Donna Maria, no less heroically maintained against a strong besieging force after his capture and execution.
PADISHAH, from two Persian words meaning "protector prince," is a title given to the Shah of Persia and the Sultan of Turkey, and at one time applied, among others, to the Emperors of Austria and Russia.
PADUA (79), a walled city of Venetia, 23 m. by rail W. of Venice, has some manufactures of leather and musical-instrument strings, but is chiefly interesting for its artistic treasures; these include the municipal buildings, cathedral, and nearly fifty churches, innumerable pictures and frescoes, and Donatello's famous equestrian statue of Gattamelata; there is also a renowned university, library, museum, and the oldest botanical garden in Europe; after very varied fortunes it was held by Venice 1405-1797, then by Austria till its incorporation in Italy 1866. Livy was a native, as also Andrea Mantegna.
PAESTUM, an ancient Greek city of Lucania, in South Italy, with remains of Greek architecture second only to those of Athens.
PAGAN, ISABEL, Scotch poetess, authoress of the plaintive song "Ca' the Yowes to the Knowes" (1740-1821).
PAGANINI, NICOLO, a celebrated Italian violinist, born at Genoa of humble origin; widely famous for his astonishing feats on a single-stringed instrument; was a composer of musical pieces for both violin and guitar; died rich (1784-1840).
PAGANISM, HEATHENISM (q. v.), so called as lingering among the "pagani" or country people, after Christianity had taken root in the large towns.
PAGODA, an Indian or Chinese temple, associated chiefly with Buddhism, of a more or less pyramidal form and of several storeys, the most imposing being the Greek Pagoda of Tanjore; the name is applied also to a gold coin worth 7s. 6d. stamped with a pagoda.
PAHLEVI, name given to a translation of the ZENDAVESTA (q. v.) in the Zend dialect for the use of the priesthood.
PAINE, THOMAS, a notorious free-thinker and democrat, born in Thetford; emigrated to America, contributed, as he boasted, by his pamphlet "Common Sense," to "free America," by rousing it to emancipate itself from the mother-country; wrote the "Rights of Man" against Burke's "Reflections"; had to emigrate to France; took part in the Revolution to aid in its emancipation also, offended Robespierre, and was put in prison, where he wrote the first part of his "Age of Reason," a book which offended the Christian world and procured him ignominy and even execration in many quarters; died in New York, but his bones were conveyed to England by Cobbett in 1819 (1737-1809).
PAINTER, WILLIAM, author of "Palace of Pleasure," a collection of tales chiefly from Italian sources, which proved suggestive in furnishing the dramatists with interesting subjects for representation (1540-1594).
PAISIELLO, GIOVANNI, an Italian composer, born at Taranto; his great work, the opera "Il Barbiere di Seviglia"; composed besides other operas, cantatas, requiems, &c.
PAISLEY (66), a Renfrewshire town, 7 m. W. of Glasgow, on the White Cart. It is the chief centre of manufacture of cotton thread in the world, and its other industries include dyeing, bleaching, woollen goods, and engineering. There are several fine buildings, a Baptist Church is said to be the finest modern ecclesiastical building in Scotland. The ornithologist Wilson, Professor Wilson ( Christopher North), and Tannahill were born here.
PALACKY, FRANCIS, distinguished Bohemian historian and politician, born in Moravia, author of a "History of Bohemia," in 5 vols., his chief work and a notable (1798-1876).
PALADIN, the name given to the peers of Charlemagne, such as Roland, and also to knights-errant generally.
PALAEOGRAPHY, the name given to the study and the deciphering of ancient manuscripts.
PALAEOLOGUS, the name of a Byzantine family, several members of which attained imperial dignity, the last of the dynasty dying in 1453; they came into prominence in the 11th century.
PALAEONTOLOGY, the name given to the study of fossil remains, a branch of geology.
PALAFOX, DON JOSEPH, a Spanish soldier, born of a noble Aragonese family, who immortalised himself by his heroic defence of Saragossa against the French in 1808-9; on the fall of the place was taken to France and imprisoned till 1813; on his release was created Duke of Saragossa and promoted to other high honours at home (1780-1847).
PALAIS ROYAL, a pile of buildings in Paris, of which the nucleus was a palace built in 1629 by Lemercier for Richelieu, and known afterwards as the Palais Cardinal, and which at length by gift of Louis XIV. became the town residence of the Orleans family; these buildings suffered much damage in 1848 and in 1871, but have been restored since 1873.
PALAMEDES, one of the chiefs of the Greeks at the siege of Troy, a man of inventive genius; discovered the assumed madness of Ulysses, but incurred his resentment in consequence, which procured his death.
PALANQUIN, in India and China a covered conveyance for one person borne on the shoulders of men.
PALATINATE, the name of two States, originally one, of the old German empire, one called the Lower Palatinate or the Palatinate of the Rhine, partitioned in 1815 among the States of Baden, Bavaria, Prussia, and Hesse-Darmstadt, and the other called the Upper Palatinate, now nearly all included in Bavaria; the former has for principal towns Spires and Landau, and the latter Ratisbon.
PALATINE, one of the seven hills of ancient Rome, and, according to tradition, the first to be occupied, and forming the nucleus of the city; it became one of the most aristocratic quarters of the city, and was chosen by the first emperors for their imperial residence.
PALATINE COUNT, a judicial functionary of high rank under the early Frankish kings over what was called a palatinate.
PALATINE COUNTIES, certain frontier counties in England, such as Chester, Durham, and Lancaster, which possess royal privileges and rights.
PALE, THE, that part of Ireland in which after the invasion of 1172 the supremacy of English rule and law was acknowledged, the limits of which differed at different times, but which generally included all the eastern counties extending 40 or 50 m. inland.
PALENQUE, a town in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, discovered in 1760, buried under a dense forest with extensive structures in ruins.
PALERMO (273), capital of Sicily, picturesquely situated in the midst of a beautiful and fertile valley called the Golden Shell; is a handsome town, with many public buildings and nearly 300 churches in Moorish and Byzantine architecture, a university, art school, museum, and libraries; industries are unimportant, but a busy trade is done with Britain, France, and the United States, exporting fruits, wine, sulphur, &c., and importing textiles, coals, machinery, and grain.
PALES, in Roman mythology the tutelary deity of shepherds and their flocks, the worship of whom was attended with numerous observances, as in the case of the nature divinities generally.
PALESTINE, or the HOLY LAND, a small territory on the SE. corner of the Mediterranean, about the size of Wales, being 140 m. from N. to S., and an average of 70 m. from E. to W., is bounded on the N. by Lebanon, on the E. by the Jordan Valley, on the S. by the Sinaitic Desert, and on the W. by the sea; there is great diversity of climate throughout its extent owing to the great diversity of level, and its flora and fauna are of corresponding range; it suffered much during the wars between the Eastern monarchies and Egypt, and in the wars between the Crescent and the Cross, and is now by a strange fate in the hands of the Turk; it has in recent times been the theatre of extensive exploring operations in the interest of its early history.
PALESTRINA, an Italian town, 22 m. SE. of Rome, on a slope of the Apennines, 2546 ft. above sea-level, on the site of the ancient Praeneste, with the remains of Cyclopean walls, with a palace of the BARBERINI (q. v.).
PALESTRINA, GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DE, celebrated composer of sacred music, surnamed the Prince of Music, born at Palestrina; resided chiefly at Rome, where he wrought a revolution in church music, produced a number of masses which at once raised him to the foremost rank among composers; was the author of a well-known Stabat Mater (1524-1594).
PALEY, FREDERICK ALTHORP, classical scholar, grandson of the succeeding, born near York; became a Roman Catholic, contributed to classical literature by his editions of the classics of both Greece and Rome, remarkable alike for their scholarship and the critical acumen they show (1816-1886).
PALEY, WILLIAM, "one of the most masculine and truly English of thinkers and writers," born at Peterborough; studied at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he was Senior Wrangler, and obtained a Fellowship, held afterwards various Church preferments, and died archdeacon of Carlisle; was a clear writer and cogent reasoner on common-sense lines, and was long famous, if less so now, as the author of "Horae Paulinae," "Evidences of Christianity," and "Natural Theology," as well as "Moral and Political Philosophy"; they are genuine products of the time they were written in, but are out of date now (1743-1806).
PALGRAVE, SIR FRANCIS, historian, born in London, of Jewish parents of the name of Cohen; was called to the bar in 1827, and became Deputy-Keeper of Her Majesty's Records in 1838; was the author of a history of the "Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth" and of a "History of England," tracing it back chiefly to the Anglo-Norman period, among other works (1788-1861).
PALGRAVE, FRANCIS TURNER, poet, son of preceding, born in London, professor of Poetry at Oxford, editor of "Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics," as well as author of lyrics, rhymes, &c.; b. 1824.
PALGRAVE, WILLIAM GIFFORD, Arabic scholar, born at Westminster, brother of preceding; after a brief term of service in the army joined the Society of Jesus, and served as a member of the order in India, Rome, and in Syria, where he acquired an intimate knowledge of Arabic, by means of which he contributed to our knowledge of both the Arabic language and the Arab race; wrote a narrative of a year's journey through Arabia (1826-1888).
PALI, the sacred language of the Buddhists, once a living language, but, like Sanskrit, no longer spoken.
PALIMPSEST, the name given to a parchment manuscript written on the top of another that has been erased, yet often not so thoroughly that it cannot be in a measure restored.
PALINGENESIA, name equivalent to "new birth," and applied both to regeneration and restoration, of which baptism in the former case is the symbol; in the Stoic philosophy it is preceded by dissolution, as in the rejuvenescence process of MEDEA (q. v.).
PALINURUS, the pilot of one of the ships of AEneas, who, sleeping at his post, fell into the sea, and was drowned.
PALISSY, BERNARD, the great French potter and inventor of a new process in the potter's art, born in Perigord, of humble parentage; celebrated for his fine earthenware vases ornamented with figures artistically modelled, but above all for his untiring zeal and patience in the study of his art and mastery in it, making fuel of his very furniture and the beams of his house in the conduct of his experiments; he was a Huguenot, but was specially exempted, by order of Catherine de' Medici, from the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1672, although he was in 1585, as a Huguenot, imprisoned in the Bastille, where he died (1510-1590).
PALK'S STRAIT, the channel which separates Ceylon from the mainland of India, 100 m. long and 40 m. wide, generally shallow. See ADAM'S BRIDGE.
PALLADIO, ANDREA, an Italian architect, born at Vicenza, of poor parents; was precursor of the modern Italian style of architecture, and author of a treatise on architecture that has borne fruit; his works, which are masterpieces of the Renaissance, consist principally of palaces and churches, and the finest specimens are to be met with in Venice and in his native place (1518-1580).
PALLADIUM, a statue of Pallas in Troy, on the preservation of which depended the safety of the city, and from the date of the abstraction of which by Ulysses and Diomedes the fate of it was doomed; it was fabled to have fallen from heaven upon the plain of Troy, and to have after its abstraction been transferred to Athens and Argos; it is now applied to any safeguard of the liberty of a State.
PALLADIUS, ST., is called the "chief apostle of the Scottish nation," but his connection with Scotland during his lifetime is doubtful; he was sent to Ireland by Pope Celestine in A.D. 430, whence, after his death, his remains were brought by St. Ternan to Fordoun, Kincardineshire.
PALLAS, one of the names of ATHENA (q. v.) considered as the goddess of war; a name of uncertain derivation.
PALLAS, PETER SIMON, a German traveller and naturalist, born in Berlin, professor of Natural History in St. Petersburg; explored Siberia, and contributed to the geographical knowledge of the Russian empire (1741-1811).
PALLAVICINO, FERRANTE, Italian patriot, who gave offence by his pasquinades to the Papal Court and the Barberini; was betrayed and beheaded (1618-1644).
PALLAVICINO, SFORZA, cardinal and historian, born at Rome; was of the Jesuit order, and wrote a "History of the Council of Trent," in correction of the work of Paul Sarpi (1607-1667).
PALLICE, LA, port of La Rochelle, from which it is 3 m. distant, with harbourage for ocean-going steamers.
PALM, JOHANN PHILIPP, a Nuernberg bookseller, tried by court-martial at the instance of Napoleon, and shot, for the publication of a pamphlet reflecting on Napoleon and his troops, an act, from the injustice of it, that aroused the indignation of the whole German people against him; "better," thinks Carlyle, "had he lost his best park of artillery, or his best regiment drowned in the sea, than shot that poor German bookseller" (1768-1806).
PALM SUNDAY, the Sunday before Easter, is so called from its being commemorative of Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem; it is observed by the Greek and Roman Churches; in the latter palm branches are blessed by the priest before mass, carried in procession, distributed to the congregation, carried home by them, and kept throughout the year.
PALMA, 1, capital of the Balearic Islands (61), on the Bay of Palma, SW. coast of Majorca; has a Gothic cathedral, a Moorish palace, and a collection of pictures in the old Town Hall; manufactures silks, woollens, and jewellery, and does a busy trade. 2, One of the Canary Islands (39), 67 m. NW. of Teneriffe; grows sugar, and exports honey, wax, and silk manufactures.
PALMA, JACOPO, or The Old, a celebrated painter of the Venetian school, was a pupil of Titian; painted sacred subjects and portraits, all much esteemed (1480-1548).
PALMA, JACOPO, The Young, nephew of the preceding, also a painter, but of inferior merit, though he aimed to be the rival of Tintoretto and Paul Veronese (1544-1628).
PALMER, the name given to a pilgrim to the Holy Land who had performed his vow, in sign of which he usually bore a palm branch in his hand, which he offered on the altar on his return home.
PALMER, EDWARD HENRY, Oriental scholar, born at Cambridge; had an aptitude for languages, and was especially proficient in those of the East; by his knowledge of Arabic contributed to the success of exploring expeditions to S. Palestine and Sinai; was appointed professor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1871; produced a Persian-English Dictionary, an Arabic Grammar, and a translation of the Koran, and in 1882 undertook two missions to Egypt, in the latter of which he and his party were betrayed and murdered; he was a man of varied gifts and accomplishments, and the loss in scholarship to his country by his fate is incalculable (1840-1882).
PALMER, SAMUEL, English landscape-painter, chiefly in water-colours (1805-1881).
PALMERSTON, HENRY JOHN TEMPLE, VISCOUNT, English statesman, born, of an Irish family, at Broadlands, Hants; was educated at the universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge; succeeded to his father's title, an Irish peerage, in 1802, and entered Parliament in 1807 as member for Newport, Isle of Wight; during his long career he subsequently represented Cambridge University (1811-1831), Bletchingly, South Hampshire, and Tiverton; from 1809 to 1828 under five Premiers he was Junior Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary at War; and separating himself finally from the Tory party, he joined Earl Grey's Cabinet as Foreign Secretary in 1830; contrary to all expectation he kept the country out of war, and during the next 11 years he associated England's influence with that of France in Continental affairs; returning to office in 1846, he remained at his old post till 1851, steering England skilfully through the Spanish troubles and the revolutionary reaction of 1848; a vote of censure on his policy was carried in the Lords in 1850, but, after a five hours' speech from him, the Commons recorded their approval; he resigned owing to differences with the Premier, Lord John Russell; in 1852 joined Lord Aberdeen's coalition ministry, and on its fall became himself Prime Minister in 1855; he prosecuted the Crimean War and the Chinese War of 1857, and suppressed the Great Mutiny in India; defeated in 1858, he returned to office next year with a cabinet of Whigs and Peelites; his second administration furthered the cause of free trade, but made the mistake of allowing the Alabama to leave Birkenhead; he was Prime Minister when he died; a brusque, high-spirited, cheery man, sensible and practical, unpretending as an orator, but a skilful debater, he was a great favourite with the country, whose prosperity and prestige it was his chief desire to promote (1784-1865).
PALMISTRY, the art of reading character from the lines and marks on the palm of the hand, according to which some pretend to read fortunes as well.
PALMY'RA, a ruined city of Asia Minor, 150 m. NE. of Damascus, once situated in an oasis near the Arabian desert; a place of importance, and said to have been founded by Solomon for commercial purposes; of imposing magnificence as it ruins testify, as notably under Zenobia; it was taken by the Romans in 272, and destroyed by Aurelian, after which it gradually fell into utter decay; its ruins were discovered in 1678; it contains the ruins of a temple to Baal, 60 of the 300 columns of which were still standing.
PALO ALTO, 33 m. SE. of San Francisco; is the seat of a remarkable university founded by Senator Stanford, and opened in 1891, to provide instruction, from the Kindergarten stage to the most advanced and varied, to students and pupils boarded on the premises; of these there were 1000 in 1897.
PALUDAN-MUeLLER, FREDERICK, distinguished Danish poet, born in Fuenen; his greatest poem, "Adam Homo," a didactico-humorous composition; was an earnest man and a finished literary artist (1809-1876).
PAMELA, a novel of Richardson's, from the name of the heroine, a girl of low degree, who resists temptation and reclaims her would-be seducer.
PAMIRS, THE, or the "Roof of the World," a plateau traversed by mountain ridges and valleys, of the average height of 13,000 ft., NW. of the plateau of Thibet, connecting the mountain system of the Himalayas, Tian-Shan, and the Hindu Kush, and inhabited chiefly by nomad Kirghiz bands; territorial apportionments have for some time past been in the hands of Russian and British diplomatists.
PAMPAS, vast grassy, treeless, nearly level plains in South America, in the Argentine State; they stretch from the lower Parana to the S. of Buenos Ayres; afford rich pasture for large herds of wild horses and cattle, and are now in certain parts being brought under tillage.
PAMPELUNA or PAMPLONA (31), a fortified city of Northern Spain, is 80 m. due SE. of Bilbao. It has a Gothic cathedral and a surgical college, with manufactures of pottery and leather, and a trade in wine. Formerly capital of Navarre, it has suffered much in war; has this century several times resisted the Carlists.
PAN, in the Greek mythology a goat-man, a personification of rude nature, and the protector of flocks and herds; originally an Arcadian deity, is represented as playing on a flute of reeds joined together of different lengths, called Pan's pipes; and dancing on his cloven hoofs over glades and mountains escorted by a bevy of nymphs side by side, and playing on his pipes. There is a remarkable tradition, that on the night of the Nativity at Bethlehem an astonished voyager heard a voice exclaiming as he passed the promontory of Tarentum, "The great Pan is dead." The modern devil is invested with some of his attributes, such as cloven hoofs, &c.
PANAMA (15), a free port in the State of Colombia, on the Pacific coast of the isthmus of the same name, and an oppressively hot and humid place, is the terminus of the Panama railroad and the seat of a great transit trade. It has a Spanish cathedral. The population, of Indian and negro descent chiefly, is only half what it was when the canal works were in full operation.
PANAMA CANAL Geographers were familiar with the idea of connecting the two oceans by a canal through Central America as early as the beginning of the 16th century, and Dutch plans are said to exist dating from the 17th century. The first practical steps were taken by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1879; two years later work was begun; the cost was estimated at L24,000,000, but on January 1, 1889, the company was forced into liquidation after spending over L70,000,000, and accomplishing but a fifth of the work. Extravagance and incapacity were alleged among the causes of failure; but the apparently insurmountable difficulties were marshes, quicksands, and the overflow of the Chagres River, the prevalence of earthquakes, the length of the rainy season, the cost of labour and living, and the extreme unhealthiness of the climate.
PANATHENAEA, a festival, or rather two festivals, the Lesser and the Greater, anciently celebrated at Athens in honour of Athena, the patron-goddess of the city.
PANCHATANTRA, an old collection of fables and stories originally in Sanskrit, and versions of which have passed into all the languages of India, have appeared in different forms, and been associated with different names.
PANCRAS, ST., a boy martyr of 16, who suffered under the Diocletian persecution about 304, and is variously represented in mediaeval legend as bearing a stone and sword, or a palm branch, and trampling a Saracen under foot, in allusion to his hatred of heathenism.
PANDECTS, the digest of civil law executed at the instance of the Emperor Justinian between the years 530 and 533.
PANDORA (i. e. the All-Gifted) in the Greek mythology a woman of surpassing beauty, fashioned by Hephaestos, and endowed with every gift and all graces by Athena, sent by Zeus to EPIMETHEUS (q. v.) to avenge the wrong done to the gods by his brother Prometheus, bearing with her a box full of all forms of evil, which Epimetheus, though cautioned by his brother, pried into when she left, to the escape of the contents all over the earth in winged flight, Hope alone remaining behind in the casket.
PANDOURS, a name given to a body of light-infantry at one time in the Austrian service, levied among the Slavs on the Turkish frontier, and now incorporated as a division of the regular army.
PANDULF, CARDINAL, was the Pope's legate to King John of England, and to whom, on his submission, John paid homage at Dover; d. 1226.
PANGE LINGUA, a hymn in the Roman Breviary, service of Corpus Christi, part of which is incorporated in every Eucharistic service; was written in rhymed Latin by Thomas Aquinas.
PANINI, a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, whose work is of standard authority among Hindu scholars, and who lived some time between 600 and 300 B.C.
PANIPAT (29), a town in the Punjab, 53 m. N. of Delhi; was the scene of two decisive battles, one in 1526 to the establishment of the Mogul dynasty at Delhi, and another in 1701 to the extinction of the Mahratta supremacy in North-West India.
PANIZZI, ANTONIO, principal librarian of the British Museum from 1850 to 1866, born at Modena; took refuge in England in 1821 as implicated in a Piedmontese revolutionary movement that year; procured the favour of Lord Brougham and a post in the Museum, in which he rose to be one of the chiefs (1797-1879).
PANNONIA, a province of the Roman empire, conquered between 35 B.C. and A.D. 8; occupied a square with the Danube on the N. and E. and the Save almost on the S. border; it passed to the Eastern Empire in the 5th century, fell under Charlemagne's sway, and was conquered by the modern Hungarians shortly before A.D. 1000.
PANOPTICON, a prison so arranged that the warder can see every prisoner in charge without being seen by them.
PANSLAVISM, the name given to a movement for union of all the Slavonic races in one nationality, a project which lags heavily owing to the jealousy on the part of one section or another.
PANTAGRUEL, the principal character of one of the two great works of Rabelais, and named after him; he and his father Gargantua figured as two enormous giants, being personifications of royalty with its insatiable lust of territory and power.
PANTHEISM, the doctrine or creed which affirms the immanency of God in nature, or that God is within nature, but ignores or denies His transcendency, or that He is above nature; distinguished from deism, which denies the former but affirms the latter, from theism, which affirms both, and from atheism, which denies both.
PANTHEON, a temple in Rome, first erected by Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus, circular in form, 150 ft. in height, with niches all round for statues of the gods, to whom in general it was dedicated; it is now a church, and affords sepulture to illustrious men. Also a building in Paris, originally intended to be a church in honour of the patron saint of Paris, but at the time of the Revolution converted into a receptacle for the ashes of the illustrious dead, Mirabeau being its first occupant, and bearing this inscription, Aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaissant; it was subsequently appropriated to other uses, but under the third republic it became again a resting-place for the ashes of eminent men.
PANTOGRAPH, the name given to a contrivance for copying a drawing or a design on an enlarged or a reduced scale.
PANURGE, one of the principal characters in the "Pantagruel" of Rabelais, an exceedingly crafty knave, a libertine, and a coward.
PANZA, SANCHO, Don Quixote's squire, a squat, paunchy peasant endowed with rude common-sense, but incapable of imagination.
PAOLI, PASQUALE DE, a Corsican patriot; sought to achieve the independence of his country, but was defeated by the Genoese, aided by France, in 1769; took refuge in England, where he was well received and granted a pension; returned to Corsica and became lieutenant-general under the French republic, raised a fresh insurrection, had George III. proclaimed king, but failed to receive the viceroyalty, and returned to England, where he died a disappointed man (1726-1807).
PAPAL STATES, a territory in the N. of Italy extending irregularly from Naples to the Po, at one time subject to the temporal sovereignty of the Pope, originating in a gift to his Holiness of Pepin the Short, and taking shape as such about the 11th century, till in the 16th and 17th centuries the papal power began to assert itself in the general politics of Europe, and after being suppressed for a time by Napoleon it was formally abolished by annexation of the territory to the crown of Sardinia in 1870.
PAPHOS, the name of two ancient cities in the SW. of Cyprus; the older (now Kyklia) was a Phoenician settlement, in which afterwards stood a temple of Venus, who was fabled to have sprung from the sea-foam close by; the other, 8 m. westward, was the scene of Paul's interview with Sergius Paulus and encounter with Elymas.
PAPIAS, bishop of Hierapolis, in Phrygia, who flourished in the middle of the 2nd century, and wrote a book entitled "Exposition of the Lord's Sayings," fragments of which have been preserved by Eusebius and others; he was, it is said, the companion of Polycarp.
PAPIER-MACHE is a light, durable substance made from paper pulp or sheets of paper pasted together and variously treated with chemicals, heat, and pressure, largely used for ornamental trays, boxes, light furniture, &c., in which it is varnished and decorated to resemble lacquer-work, and for architectural decoration, in which it is made to imitate plaster moulding; the manufacture was learned from the Eastern nations. Persia, India, and Japan having been long familiar with it; America has adapted it to use for railroad wheels, &c.
PAPIN, DENIS, French physicist, born at Blois, practised medicine at Angers; came to England and assisted Boyle in his experiments, made a special study of the expansive power of steam and its motive power, invented a steam-digester with a safety-valve, since called after him, for cooking purposes at a high temperature; became professor of Mathematics at Marburg (1647-1712).
PAPINIANUS, AEMILIUS, a celebrated Roman jurist; was put to death by Caracalla for refusing, it is said, when requested, to vindicate his conduct in murdering his brother (142-212).
PAPIRIUS, a Roman pontiff to whom is ascribed a collection of laws constituting the Roman code under the kings.
PAPPENHEIM, COUNT VON, imperial general, born in Bavaria; played a prominent part in the Thirty Years' War; was distinguished for his zeal as well as his successes on the Catholic side; was mortally wounded at Luetzen, expressed his gratitude to God when he learned that Gustavas Adolphus, who fell in the same battle, had died before him (1594-1632).
PAPPUS OF ALEXANDRIA, a Greek geometer of the third or fourth century, author of "Mathematical Collections," in eight books, of which the first and second have been lost.
PAPUANS, the name of the members of the negro race inhabiting certain islands of Oceania, including New Guinea, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Fiji Islands, &c.
PAPY'RUS, the Greek name of the Egyptian papu, is a kind of sedge growing 10 ft. high, with a soft triangular stem, the pith of which is easily split into ribbons, found still in Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, &c.; the pith ribbons were the paper of the ancient Egyptians, of the Greeks after Alexander, and of the later Romans; they were used by the Arabs of the 8th century, and in Europe till the 12th; at first long strips were rolled up, but later rectangular pages were cut and bound together book fashion; though age has rendered the soft white pages brown and brittle, much ancient literature is still preserved on papyrus; the use of papyrus was superseded by that of parchment and rag-made paper.
PARA (40), a Brazilian port at the mouth of the Guama, on the E. shore of the Para estuary, is a compact, regularly-built, thriving town, with whitewashed buildings, blue and white tiled roofs, tree-shaded streets, tram-cars, telephones, theatre, and cathedral; it is the emporium of the Amazon trade, exporting india-rubber and cacao, and sending foreign goods into the interior; though hot, it is healthy.
PARABLE, a short allegorical narrative intended to illustrate and convey some spiritual instruction.
PARABOLA, a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane parallel to one of its sides.
PARACELSUS, a Swiss physician, alchemist, and mystic, whose real name was Theophrastus Bombastus, born at Einsiedeln, in Schwyz; was a violent revolutionary in the medical art, and provoked much hostility, so that he was driven to lead a wandering and unsettled life; notwithstanding, he contributed not a little, by his knowledge and practice, to inaugurate a more scientific study of nature than till his time prevailed (1493-1541).
PARAFFIN, name given by Baron Reichenbach to a transparent crystalline substance obtained by distillation from wood, bituminous coal, shale, &c., and so called because it resists the action of the strongest acids and alkalies.
PARAGUAY (400), except Uruguay the smallest State in South America, is an inland Republic whose territories lie in the fork between the Pilcomayo and Paraguay and the Parana Rivers, with Argentina on the W. and S., Bolivia on the N., and Brazil on the N. and E.; it is less than half the size of Spain, consists of rich undulating plains, and, in the S., of some of the most fertile land on the continent; the climate is temperate for the latitude; the population, Spanish, Indian, and half-caste, is Roman Catholic; education is free and compulsory; the country is rich in natural products, but without minerals; timber, dye-woods, rubber, Paraguay tea (a kind of holly), gums, fruits, wax, honey, cochineal, and many medicinal herbs are gathered for export; maize, rice, cotton, and tobacco are cultivated; the industries include some tanning, brick-works, and lace-making; founded by Spain in 1535, Paraguay was the scene of an interesting experiment in the 17th century, when the country was governed wholly by the Jesuits, who, excluding all European settlers, built up a fabric of Christian civilisation; they were expelled in 1768; in 1810 the country joined the revolt against Spain, and was the first to establish its independence; for 26 years it was under the government of Dr. Francia; from 1865 to 1870 it maintained a heroic but disastrous war against the Argentine, Brazil, and Uruguay, as a consequence of which the population fell from a million and a half to a quarter of a million; it is again prosperous and progressing. The capital is Asuncion (18), at the confluence of the Pilcomayo and Paraguay.
PARAGUAY RIVER, a South American river 1800 m. long, the chief tributary of the Parana, rises in some lakes near Matto Grosso, Brazil, and flows southward through marshy country till it forms the boundary between Brazil and Bolivia, then traversing Paraguay, it becomes the boundary between that State and the Argentine Republic, and finally enters the Parana above Corrientes; it receives many affluents, and is navigable by ocean steamers almost to its source.
PARAKLETE, the Holy Spirit which Christ promised to His disciples would take His place as their teacher and guide after He left them. Also the name of the monastery founded by Abelard near Nogent-sur-Seine, and of which HELOISE (q. v.) was abbess.
PARALLAX, an astronomical term to denote an apparent change in the position of a heavenly body due to a change in the position or assumed position of the observer.
PARAMAR'IBO (24), the capital of Dutch Guiana, on the Surinam, 10 m. from the sea, and the centre of the trade of the colony.
PARAMO, the name given to an elevated track of desert on the Andes.
PARANA RIVER, a great river of South America, formed by the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Paranahyba, in SE. Brazil, flows SW. through Brazil and round the SE. border of Paraguay, then receiving the Paraguay River, turns S. through the Argentine, then E. till the junction of the Uruguay forms the estuary of the Plate. The river is broad and rapid, 2000 m. long, more than half of it navigable from the sea; at the confluence of the Yguassu it enters a narrow gorge, and for 100 m. forms one of the most remarkable rapids in the world; the chief towns on its banks are in the Argentine, viz. Corrientes, Santa Fe, and Rosario.
PARCAE, the Roman name of the THREE FATES (q. v.), derived from "pars," a part, as apportioning to every individual his destiny.
PARCHMENT consists of skins specially prepared for writing on, and is so called from a king of Pergamos, who introduced it when the export of papyrus from Egypt was stopped; the skins used are of sheep, for fine parchment or vellum, of calves, goats, and lambs; parchment for drumheads is made from calves' and asses' skins.
PARCS-AUX-CERFS, the French name for clearings to provide hunting fields for the French aristocracy prior to the Revolution.
PARE, AMBROISE, great French surgeon, born at Laval; was from the improved methods he introduced in the treatment of surgical cases entitled to be called, as he has been, the father of modern surgery, for his success as an operator, in particular the tying of divided arteries and the treatment of gunshot wounds; he was in the habit of saying of any patient he had successfully operated upon, "I cared for him; God healed him"; his writings exercised a beneficent influence on the treatment of surgical cases in all lands (1517-1590).
PARIAH, a Hindu of the lowest class, and of no caste; of the class they are of various grades, but all are outcast, and treated as such.
PARIS (2,448), the capital of France, in the centre of the northern half of the country, on both banks of the Seine, and on two islands (La Cite and St. Louis) in the middle, 110 m. from the sea; is the largest city on the Continent, and one of the most beautiful in the world. No city has finer or gayer streets, or so many noble buildings. The Hotel de Cluny and the Hotel de Sens are rare specimens of 15th-century civic architecture. The Palace of the Tuileries, on the right bank of the Seine, dates from the 16th century, and was the royal residence till the Revolution. Connected with it is the Louvre, a series of galleries of painting, sculpture, and antiquities, whose contents form one of the richest collections existing, and include the peerless "Venus de Milo." The Palais Royal encloses a large public garden, and consists of shops, restaurants, the Theatre Francais, and the Royal Palace of the Orleans family. South of the river is the Luxembourg, where the Senate meets, and on the Ile de la Cite stands the Palais de Justice and the Conciergerie, one of the oldest Paris prisons. St.-Germain-des-Pres is the most ancient church, but the most important is the cathedral of Notre Dame, 12th century, which might tell the whole history of France could it speak. Saint-Chapelle is said to be the finest Gothic masterpiece extant. The Pantheon, originally meant for a church, is the burial-place of the great men of the country, where lie the remains of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Carnot. The oldest hospitals are the Hotel Dieu, La Charite, and La Pitie. The University Schools in the Quartier Latin attract the youth of all France; the chief are the Schools of Medicine and Law, the Scotch College, the College of France, and the Sorbonne, the seat of the faculties of letters, science, and Protestant theology. Triumphal arches are prominent in the city. There are many museums and charitable institutions; the Bibliotheque Nationale, in the Rue Richelieu, rivals the British Museum in numbers of books and manuscripts. The Palace of Industry and the Eiffel Tower commemorate the exhibitions of 1854 and 1889 respectively. Great market-places stand in various parts of the city. The Rue de Rivoli, Rue de la Paix, Rue du Faubourg St.-Honore, and the Rue Royale are among the chief streets; beautiful squares are numerous, the most noted being the Place de la Concorde, between the Champs Elysees and the Gardens of the Tuileries, in the centre of which the Obelisk of Luxor stands on the site of the guillotine at which Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, Philippe Egalite, Danton, and Robespierre died. Boulevards lined with trees run to the outskirts of the city. The many roads, railways, canals, and rivers which converge on Paris have made it the most important trading centre in France, and the concourse of wealthy men of all nations has given it a high place in the financial world. It is a manufacturing city, producing jewellery, ornamental furniture, and all sorts of artistic "articles de Paris." The centre of French, and indeed European, fashion, it is noted for its pleasure and gaiety. The concentration of Government makes it the abode of countless officials. It is strongly fortified, being surrounded by a ring of forts, and a wall 22 m. long, at the 56 gates of which the octroi dues are levied. The Prefect of the Seine, appointed by the Government, and advised by a large council, is the head of the municipality, of the police and fire brigades, cleansing, draining, and water-supply departments. The history of Paris is the history of France, for the national life has been, and is, in an extraordinary degree centred in the capital. It was the scene of the great tragic drama of the Revolution, and of the minor struggles of 1830 and 1849. In recent times its great humiliation was its siege and capture by the Germans in 1870-71.
PARIS, the second son of Priam and Hecuba; was exposed on Mount Ida at his birth; brought up by a shepherd; distinguished himself by his prowess, by which his parentage was revealed; married OENONE (q. v.); appealed to to decide to whom the "apple of discord" belonged, gave it to Aphrodite in preference to her two rivals Hera and Athena; was promised in return that he should receive the most beautiful woman in the world to wife, Helen of Sparta, whom he carried off to Greece, and which led to the TROJAN WAR (q. v.); slew Achilles, and was mortally wounded by the poisoned arrows of Hercules.
PARIS, MATTHEW, English chronicler; a Benedictine monk of St. Albans; author of "Chronica Majora," which contains a history written in Latin of England from the Conquest to the year in which he died (1195-1259).
PARK, MUNGO, African traveller, born at Foulshiels, near Selkirk; was apprenticed to a surgeon, and studied medicine at Edinburgh; 1791-93 he spent in a voyage to Sumatra, and in 1795 went for the first time to Africa under the auspices of the African Association of London; starting from the Gambia he penetrated eastward to the Niger, then westward to Kamalia, where illness seized him; conveyed to his starting-point by a slave-trader, he returned to England and published "Travels in the Interior of Africa," 1799; he married and settled to practice at Peebles, but he was not happy till in 1805 he set out for Africa again at Government expense; starting from Pisania he reached the Niger, and sending back his journals attempted to descend the river in a canoe, but, attacked by natives, the canoe overturned; and he and his companions were drowned (1771-1805).
PARKER, JOHN HENRY, archaeologist and writer on architecture; originally a London publisher, his chief work the "Archaeology of Rome," in nine vols., a subject to which he devoted much study (1800-1884).
PARKER, JOSEPH, an eminent Nonconformist divine, born in Hexham; minister of the City Temple; a vigorous and popular preacher, and the author of numerous works bearing upon biblical theology and the defence of it; his magnum opus is the "People's Bible," of which 25 vols. are already complete; b. 1830.
PARKER, MATTHEW, archbishop of Canterbury, born at Norwich; was a Fellow of Cambridge; embraced the Protestant doctrines; became Master of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; was chaplain to Anne Boleyn, and made Dean of Ely by Edward VI.; was deprived of his offices under Mary, but made Primate under Elizabeth, and the Bishop's Bible was translated and issued under his auspices (1504-1575).
PARKER, THEODORE, an American preacher and lecturer; adopted and professed the Unitarian creed, but discarded it, like Emerson, for a still more liberal; distinguished himself in the propagation of it by his lectures as well as his writings; was a vigorous anti-slavery agitator, and in general a champion of freedom; died at Florence while on a tour for his health (1810-1860).
PARKMAN, FRANCIS, American historian, born in Boston; his writings valuable, particularly in their bearing on the dominion of the French in America, its rise, decline, and fall (1823-1893).
PARLEMENT, the name given to the local courts of justice in France prior to the Revolution, in which the edicts of the king required to be registered before they became laws; given by pre-eminence to the one in Paris, composed of lawyers, or gentlemen of the long robe, as they were called, whose action the rest uniformly endorsed, and which played an important part on the eve of the Revolution, and contributed to further the outbreak of it, to its own dissolution in the end.
PARLIAMENT is the name of the great legislative council of Britain representing the three estates of the realm—Clergy, Lords, and Commons. The Clergy are represented in the Upper House by the archbishops and bishops of sees founded prior to 1846, in number 26; the rest of the Upper House comprises the dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons of the peerage of Great Britain who sit in virtue of their titles, and representatives of the Scotch and Irish peerages elected for life; the total membership is over 550; the House of Lords may initiate any bill not a money bill, it does not deal with financial measures at all except to give its formal assent; it also revises bills passed by the Commons, and may reject these. Of late years this veto has come to be exercised only in cases where it seems likely that the Commons do not retain the confidence of the people, having thus the effect of referring the question for the decision of the constituencies. The Lords constitute the final court of appeal in all legal questions, but in exercising this function only those who hold or have held high judicial office take part. The House of Commons comprises 670 representatives of the people; its members represent counties, divisions of counties, burghs, wards of burghs, and universities, and are elected by owners of land and by occupiers of land or buildings of L10 annual rental who are commoners, males, of age, and not disqualified by unsoundness of mind, conviction for crime, or receipt of parochial relief. The Commons initiates most of the legislation, deals with bills already initiated and passed by the Lords, inquires into all matters of public concern, discusses and determines imperial questions, and exercises the sole right to vote supplies of money. To become law bills must pass the successive stages of first and second reading, committee, and third reading in both Houses, and receive the assent of the sovereign, which has not been refused for nearly two centuries.
PARLIAMENT, THE LONG, the name given to the last English Parliament convoked by Charles I. in 1640, dissolved by Cromwell in 1653, and recalled twice after the death of the Protector before it finally gave up the ghost.
PARLIAMENT OF DUNCES, name given to a parliament held at Coventry by Henry IV. in 1494, because no lawyer was allowed to sit in it.
PARLIAMENTARIAN, one who, in the English Civil War, supported the cause of the Parliament against the king.
PARMA (44), a cathedral and university town in N. Italy, on the Parma, a tributary of the Po, 70 m. NE. of Genoa; is rich in art treasures, has a school of music, picture-gallery, and museum of antiquities; it manufactures pianofortes, silks, and woollens, and has a cattle and grain market; Parma was formerly the capital of the duchy of that name; it was the residence of Correggio as well as the birthplace of Parmigiano.
PARMENION, an able and much-esteemed Macedonian general, distinguished as second in command at Granicus, Issus, and Arbela, but whom Alexander in some fit of jealousy and under unfounded suspicion caused to be assassinated in Media.
PARMENIDES, a distinguished Greek philosopher of the Eleatic school, who flourished in the 5th century B.C.; his system was developed by him in the form of an epic poem, in which he demonstrates the existence of an Absolute which is unthinkable, because it is without limits, and which he identifies with thought, as the one in the many.
PARMIGIANO, a Lombard painter whose proper name was Girolamo Mazzola, born at Parma; went to Rome when 19 and obtained the patronage of Clement VII.; after the storming of the city in 1527, during which he sat at work in his studio, he went to Bologna, and four years later returned to his native city; failing to implement a contract to paint frescoes he was imprisoned, and on his release retired to Casalmaggiore, where he died; in style he followed Correggio, and is best known by his "Cupid shaping a Bow" (1504-1540).
PARNASSUS, a mountain in Phocis, 10 m. N. of the Gulf of Corinth, 8000 ft. high, one of the chief seats of Apollo and the Muses, and an inspiring source of poetry and song, with the oracle of Delphi and the Castalian spring on its slopes; it was conceived of by the Greeks as in the centre of the earth.
PARNELL, CHARLES STUART, Irish Home-Ruler, born at Avondale, in Wicklow; was practically the dictator of his party for a time and carried matters with a high hand, but at the height of his popularity he suffered a fall, and his death, which was sudden, happened soon after (1846-1891).
PARNELL, THOMAS, English minor poet of the Queen Anne period, born in Dublin, of a Cheshire family; studied at Trinity College, took orders, and became archdeacon of Clogher; is best known as the author of "The Hermit," though his odes "The Night-Piece on Death" and the "Hymn to Contentment" are of more poetic worth; he was the friend of Swift and Pope, and a member of the Scriblerus Club (1679-1718).
PAROS (7), one of the Cyclades, lying between Naxos and Siphanto, exports wine, figs, and wool; in a quarry near the summit of Mount St. Elias the famous Parian marble is still cut; the capital is Paroekia (2).
PARR, CATHERINE, sixth wife of Henry VIII., daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal, was a woman of learning and great discretion, acquired great power over the king, persuaded him to consent to the succession of his daughters, and surviving him, married her former suitor Sir Thomas Seymour, and died from the effects of childbirth the year after (1512-1548).
PARR, SAMUEL, a famous classical scholar, born at Harrow; became head-master of first Colchester and then Norwich Grammar-School and a prebend of St. Paul's; he had an extraordinary memory and was a great talker; he was a good Latinist, but nothing he has left justifies the high repute in which he was held by his contemporaries (1747-1825).
PARR, THOMAS, called OLD PARR, a man notable for his long life, being said to have lived 152 years and 9 months, from 1483 to 1635.
PARRAMATTA (12), next to Sydney, from which it is 14 m. W., the oldest town in New South Wales; manufactures colonial tweeds and Parramatta cloths, and is in the centre of orange groves and fruit gardens.
PARRHASIUS, a gifted painter of ancient Greece, born at Ephesus; came to Athens and became the rival of Zeuxis; he was the contemporary of Socrates and a man of an arrogant temper; his works were characterised by the pains bestowed on them.
PARRY, SIR WILLIAM EDWARD, celebrated Arctic explorer, born at Bath; visited the Arctic Seas under Ross in 1818, conducted a second expedition himself in 1819-20, a third in 1821-23, a fourth in 1824-26 with unequal success, and a fifth in 1827 in quest of the North Pole via Spitzbergen, in which he was baffled by an adverse current; received sundry honours for his achievements; died governor of Greenwich Hospital, and left several accounts of his voyages (1790-1855).
PARSEES (i. e. inhabitants of Pars or Persia), a name given to the disciples of Zoroaster or their descendants in Persia and India, and sometimes called Guebres; in India they number some 90,000, are to be found chiefly in the Bombay Presidency, form a wealthy community, and are engaged mostly in commerce; in religion they incline to deism, and pay homage to the sun as the symbol of the deity; they neither bury their dead nor burn them, but expose them apart in the open air, where they are left till the flesh is eaten away and only the bones remain, to be removed afterwards for consignment to a subterranean cavern.
PARSIFAL, the hero of the legend of the HOLY GRAIL (q. v.), and identified with GALAHAD (q. v.) in the Arthurian legend.
PARSON ADAMS, a simple-minded 18th-century clergyman in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews."
PARSONS, ROBERT, English Jesuit, born in Somersetshire, educated at Oxford and a Fellow of Balliol College; he became a convert to Roman Catholicism and entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; conceived the idea of reclaiming England from her Protestant apostasy, and embarked on the enterprise in 1580, but found it too hot for him, and had to escape to the Continent; after this he busied himself partly in intrigues to force England into submission and partly in organising seminaries abroad for English Roman Catholics, and became head of one at Rome, where he died; he appears to have been a Jesuit to the backbone, and to have served the cause of Jesuitry with his whole soul (1546-1610).
PARTHENOGENESIS, name given to asexual reproduction, that is, to reproduction of plants or animals by means of unimpregnated germs or ova.
PARTHENON, a celebrated temple of the Doric order at Athens, dedicated to Athena, and constructed under Phidias of the marble of Pentelicus, and regarded as the finest specimen of Greek architecture that exists; it is 228 ft. in length and 64 ft. in height. Parthenon means the chamber of the maiden goddess, that is, Athena.
PARTHENOPE, in the Greek mythology one of the three SIRENS (q. v.), threw herself into the sea because her love for Ulysses was not returned, and was drowned; her body was washed ashore at Naples, which was called Parthenope after her name.
PARTHIA, an ancient country corresponding to Northern Persia; was inhabited by a people of Scythian origin, who adopted the Aryan speech and manners, and subsequently yielded much to Greek influence; after being tributary successively to Assyria, Media, Persia, Alexander the Great, and Syria, they set up an independent kingdom in 250 B.C. In two great contests with Rome they made the empire respect their prowess; between 53 and 36 B.C. they defeated Crassus in Mesopotamia, conquered Syria and Palestine, and inflicted disaster on Mark Antony in Armenia; the renewal of hostilities by Trajan in A.D. 115 brought more varied fortunes, but they extorted a tribute of 50,000,000 denarii from the Emperor Macrinus in 218. Ctesiphon was their capital; the Euphrates lay between them and Rome; they were over thrown by Ardashir of Persia in 224. The Parthians were famous horse-archers, and in retreat shot their arrows backwards often with deadly effect on a pursuing enemy.
PARTICK (36), a western suburb of Glasgow, has numerous villas, and its working population is very largely engaged in shipbuilding.
PARTINGTON, MRS., an imaginary lady, the creation of the American humorist Shillaber, distinguished for her misuse of learned words; also another celebrity who attempted to sweep back the Atlantic with her mop, the type of those who think to stave back the inevitable.
PASCAL, BLAISE, illustrious French thinker and writer, born at Clermont, in Auvergne; was distinguished at once as a mathematician, a physicist, and a philosopher; at 16 wrote a treatise on conic sections, which astonished Descartes; at 18 invented a calculating machine; he afterwards made experiments in pneumatics and hydrostatics, by which his name became associated with those of Torricelli and Boyle; an accident which befell him turned his thoughts to religious subjects, and in 1654 he retired to the convent of PORT ROYAL (q. v.), where he spent as an ascetic the rest of his days, and wrote his celebrated "Provincial Letters" in defence of the Jansenists against the Jesuits, and his no less famous "Pensees," which were published after his death; "his great weapon in polemics," says Prof. Saintsbury, "is polite irony, which he first brought to perfection, and in the use of which he has hardly been equalled, and has certainly not been surpassed since" (1623-1662).
PAS-DE-CALAIS, the French name for the Strait of Dover; also the name of the adjacent department of France.
PASHA, a Turkish title, originally bestowed on princes of the blood, but now extended to governors of provinces and prominent officers in the army and navy.
PASIPHAE, the wife of MINOS (q. v.) and mother of the MINOTAUR (q. v.).
PASKIEVITCH, a Russian general, born at Poltava; took part in repelling the French in 1812, defeated the Persians in 1826-27 and the Turks in 1828-29; suppressed a Polish insurrection in 1831 and a Magyar revolution in 1849; was wounded at Silistria in 1854 and resigned (1782-1856).
PASQUINO, a cobbler or tailor who lived in Rome at the end of the 15th century, notable for his witty and sarcastic sayings, near whose shop after his death a fragment of a statue was dug up and named after him, on which, as representing him, the Roman populace claim to this day, it would seem, the privilege of placarding jibes against particularly the ecclesiastical authorities of the place, hence Pasquinade.
PASSAU (17), a Bavarian fortified town, situated at the confluence of the Inn and the Danube, 105 m. E. of Muenich by rail; is a picturesque place, strategically important, with manufactures of leather, porcelain, and parquet, and trade in salt and corn.
PASSING-BELL, a bell tolled at the moment of the death of a person to invite his neighbours to pray for the safe passing of his soul.
PASSION PLAY, a dramatic representation of the several stages in the passion of Christ.
PASSION SUNDAY, the fifth Sunday in Lent, which is succeeded by what is called the Passion Week.
PASSION WEEK is properly the week preceding Holy Week, but in common English usage the name is given to Holy Week itself, i. e. to the week immediately preceding Easter, commemorating Christ's passion.
PASSIONISTS, an order of priests, called of the Holy Cross, founded in 1694 by Paul Francisco, of the Cross in Sardinia, whose mission it is to preach the Passion of Christ and bear witness to its spirit and import, and who have recently established themselves in England and America; they are noted for their austerity.
PASSOVER, the chief festival of the Jews in commemoration of the passing of the destroying angel over the houses of the Israelites on the night when he slew the first-born of the Egyptians; it was celebrated in April, lasted eight days, only unleavened bread was used in its observance, and a lamb roasted whole was eaten with bitter herbs, the partakers standing and road-ready as on their departure from the land of bondage.
PASSOW, FRANZ, German philologist, born in Mecklenburg, professor at Breslau; his chief work "Hand-Woerterbuch der Griechischen Sprache"; an authority in subsequent Greek lexicography (1786-1833).
PASTA, JUDITH, a famous Italian operatic singer, born near Milan, of Jewish birth; her celebrity lasted from 1822 to 1835, after which she retired into private life; she had a voice of great compass (1798-1865).
PASTEUR, LOUIS, an eminent French chemist, born at Dole, in dep. of Jura, celebrated for his studies and discoveries in fermentation, and also for his researches in hydrophobia and his suggestion of inoculation as a cure; the Pasteur Institute in Paris was the scene of his researches from 1886 (1822-1895).
PASTON LETTERS, a series of letters and papers, over a thousand in number, belonging to a Norfolk family of the name, and published by Sir John Fenn over a century ago, dating from the reign of Henry V. to the close of the reign of Henry VII.; of importance in connection with the political and social history of the period.
PASTORAL STAFF, a bishop's staff with a crooked head, symbolical of his authority and function as a shepherd in spiritual matters of the souls in his diocese.
PATAGONIA is the territory at the extreme S. of South America, lying between the Rio Colorado and the Strait of Magellan. Chilian Patagonia is a narrow strip W. of the Andes, with a broken coast-line, many rocky islands and peninsulas. Its climate is temperate but very rainy, and much of it is covered with dense forests which yield valuable timber; coal is found at Punta Arenas on the Strait. The population (3) consists chiefly of migratory Araucanian Indians and the Chilian settlers at Punta Arenas. Eastern or Argentine Patagonia is an extensive stretch of undulating plateaux intersected by ravines, swept by cold W. winds, and rainless for eight months of the year. The base of the Andes is fertile and forest-clad, the river valleys can be cultivated, but most of the plains are covered with coarse grass or sparse scrub, and there are some utterly desolate regions. Lagoons abound, and there are many rivers running eastward from the Andes. Herds of horses and cattle are bred on the pampas. The Indians of this region (7) are among the tallest races of the world. There are 2000 settlers at Patagones on the Rio Negro, and a Welsh colony on the Chubut.
PATANJALI is the name of two ancient Indian authors, of whom one is the author of the "Yoga," a theistic system of philosophy, and the other of a criticism on the Sanskrit grammarian Panini.
PATCHOULI, a perfume with a strong odour, derived from the dried roots of an Indian plant introduced into the country in 1844.
PATER, WALTER HORATIO, an English prose-writer, specially studious of word, phrase, and style, born in London; studied at Oxford, and became a Fellow of Brasenose College; lived chiefly in London; wrote studies in the "History of the Renaissance," "Marcus the Epicurean," "Imaginary Portraits," "Appreciations," along with an essay on "Style"; literary criticism was his forte (1839-1894).
PATERCULUS, MARCUS VELLEIUS, a Latin historian of the 1st century, author of an epitome, especially of Roman history, rather disfigured by undue flattery of Tiberius his patron, as well as of Caesar and Augustus.
PATERSON, ROBERT, the original of Scott's "Old Mortality," a stone-mason, born near Hawick; devoted 40 years of his life to restoring and erecting monumental stones to the memory of the Scotch Covenanters (1712-1801).
PATERSON, WILLIAM, a famous financier, born in Tinwald parish, Dumfriesshire; originated the Bank of England, projected the ill-fated Darien scheme, and lost all in the venture, though he recovered compensation afterwards, an indemnity for his losses of L18,000; he was a long-headed Scot, skilful in finance and in matters of trade (1658-1719).
PATHOS, the name given to an expression of deep feeling, and calculated to excite similar feelings in others.
PATLOCK, ROBERT, English novelist, author of "Peter Wilkins," an exquisite production; the heroine, the flying girl Youwarkee (1697-1767).
PATMORE, COVENTRY, English poet, born in Essex, best known as the author of "The Angel in the House," a poem in praise of domestic bliss, succeeded by others, superior in some respects, of which "The Unknown Eros" is by many much admired; he was a Roman Catholic by religious profession (1823-1896).
PATMOS, a barren rocky island in the AEgean Sea, S. of Samos, 28 m. in circuit, where St. John suffered exile, and where it is said he wrote the Apocalypse.
PATNA (165), the seventh city of India, in Bengal, at the junction of the Son, the Gandak, and the Ganges; is admirably situated for commerce; has excellent railway communication, and trades largely in cotton, oil-seeds, and salt. It is a poor city with narrow streets, and except the Government buildings, Patna College, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a mosque, has scarcely any good buildings. At Dinapur, its military station, 6 m. to the W., mutiny broke out in 1857. It is famous for its rice, but this is largely a re-export.
PATOIS, a name the French give to a corrupt dialect of a language spoken in a remote province of a country.
PATON, JOHN GIBSON, missionary to the New Hebrides, son of a stocking-weaver of Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire; after some work in Glasgow City Mission was ordained by the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and laboured in Tanna and Aniwa for twenty-five years; his account of his work was published in 1890; b. 1824.
PATON SIR JOSEPH NOEL, poet and painter, born at Dunfermline; became a pattern designer, but afterwards studied in Edinburgh and London, and devoted himself to art; his early subjects were mythical and legendary, later they have been chiefly religious; he was appointed Queen's Limner for Scotland in 1865, knighted in 1867, and in 1876 received his LL.D. from Edinburgh University; his "Quarrel" and "Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania" are in the National Gallery, Edinburgh; the illustrations of the "Dowie Dens o' Yarrow," and the series of religious allegories, "Pursuit of Pleasure," "Lux in Tenebris," "Faith and Reason," &c., are familiar through the engravings; "Poems by a Painter" appeared in 1861; b. 1821.
PATRAS (37), on the NW. corner of the Morean Peninsula, on the shores of the Gulf of Patras; has a fine harbour; is the chief western port of Greece, shipping currants, olive-oil, and wine, and importing textiles, machinery, and coal; it is a handsome city, in the present century rebuilt and fortified.
PATRIARCH, in Church history is the name given originally to the bishops of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria, and later to those also of Constantinople and Jerusalem, who held a higher rank than other bishops, and exercised a certain authority over the bishops in their districts. The title is in vogue in the Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and other Churches. It was originally given to the chief of a race or clan, the members of which were called after him.
PATRICIANS AND PLEBEIANS, the two classes into which, from the earliest times, the population of the Roman State was divided, the former of which possessed rights and privileges not conceded to the latter, and stood to them as patrons to clients, like the baron of the Middle Ages to the vassals. This inequality gave rise to repeated and often protracted struggles in the commonalty, during which the latter gradually encroached on the rights of the former till the barrier in civic status, and even in social to some extent, was as good as abolished, and members of the plebeian class were eligible to the highest offices and dignities of the State.
PATRICK, ORDER OF ST., an Irish order of knighthood, founded in 1783 by George III., comprising the sovereign, the Lord-Lieutenant, and twenty-two knights, and indicated by the initial letters K.P.
PATRICK, ST., the apostle and patron saint of Ireland; his birthplace uncertain; flourished in the 5th century; his mission, which extended over great part of Ireland, and over thirty or forty years of time, was eminently successful, and at the end of it he was buried in Downpatrick, henceforth a spot regarded as a sacred one. Various miracles are ascribed to him, and among the number the extirpation from the soil of all venomous reptiles.
PATRICK, SIMON, English prelate; distinguished himself, when he was rector of St. Paul's, by his self-denying devotion during the Plague of London; became bishop in succession of Chichester and Ely, and was the author of a number of expository works (1652-1707).
PATRISTIC LITERATURE, the name given to the writings of the early Fathers of the Christian Church.
PATROCLUS, a friend of Achilles, who accompanied him to the Trojan War, and whose death by the hand of Hector roused Achilles out of his sullenness, and provoked him to avenge the deed in the death of Hector.
PATTESON, JOHN COLERIDGE, bishop of Melanesia, grand-nephew of Coleridge; a devoted bishop, in material things no less than spiritual, among the Melanesian islanders; was murdered, presumably through mistake, by the natives of one of the Santa Cruz groups (1827-1871).
PATTI, ADELINA, prima donna, born in Madrid, of Italian extraction; made her first appearance at New York in 1859, and in London at Covent Garden, as Amina in "La Somnambula," in 1861, and has since made the round once and again of the Continent and America, North and South; has been married three times, being divorced by her first husband, and lives at Craig-y-nos Castle, near Swansea, Wales; b. 1843.
PATTISON, MARK, a distinguished English scholar, born at Hornby, Yorkshire; studied at Oxford, and was for a time carried away with the Tractarian Movement, but when his interest in it died out he gave himself to literature and philosophy; wrote in the famous "Essays and Reviews" a paper on "The Tendency of Religious Thought in England"; became rector of Lincoln College, Oxford; wrote his chief literary work, a "Life of Isaac Casaubon," a mere fragment of what it lay in him to do, and left an autobiography, which revealed a wounded spirit which no vulnerary known to him provided by the pharmacopoeia of earth or heaven could heal (1813-1889).
PATTISON'S PROCESS, the name of a process for desilverising lead, dependent on the fact that lead which has least silver in it solidifies first on liquefaction.
PAU (31), chief town of the French province of Basses-Pyrenees, on the Gave de Pau, 60 m. E. of Bayonne; is situated amid magnificent mountain scenery, and is a favourite winter resort for the English; linen and chocolate are manufactured; it was the capital of Navarre, and has a magnificent castle; it stands on the edge of a high plateau, and commands a majestic view of the Pyrenees on the S.
PAUILLAC, a port for Bordeaux, on the left bank of the Gironde.
PAUL, the name of five popes: PAUL I., Pope from 757 to 797; PAUL II., pope from 1464 to 1471; PAUL III., Pope from 1534 to 1549, was zealous against the Protestant cause, excommunicated Henry VIII. in 1536, sanctioned the Jesuit order in 1540, convened and convoked the Council of Trent in 1545; PAUL IV., Pope from 1555 to 1559, originally an ascetic, was zealous for the best interests of the Church and public morality, established the Inquisition at Rome, and issued the first Index Expurgatorius; PAUL V., Pope from 1605 to 1621, his pontificate distinguished by protracted strife with the Venetian republic, arising out of the claim of the clergy for immunity from the civil tribunals, and which was brought to an end through the intervention of Henry IV. of France in 1607; it need not be added that he was zealous for orthodoxy, like his predecessors.
PAUL, ST., originally called Saul, the great Apostle of the Gentiles, born at Tarsus, in Cilicia, by birth a Jew and a Roman citizen; trained to severity by Gamaliel at Jerusalem in the Jewish faith, and for a time the bitter persecutor of the Christians, till, on his way to Damascus, in the prosecution of his hostile purposes, the overpowering conviction flashed upon him that he was fighting against the cause that, as a Jew, he should have embraced, and which he was at once smitten with zeal to further, as the one cause on which hinged the salvation, not of the Jews only, but of the whole world. He did more for the extension, if not the exposition, of the Christian faith at its first promulgation than any of the Apostles, and perhaps all of them together, and it is questionable if but for him it would have become, as it has become, the professed religion of the most civilised section of the world.
PAUL I., Czar of Russia, son of the Empress Catharine II., and her successor in 1796; was a despotic and arbitrary ruler; fought with the allies against France, but entered into an alliance with Napoleon in 1799; was murdered by certain of his nobles as he was being forced to abdicate (1734-1801).
PAUL AND VIRGINIA, a celebrated novel by Saint-Pierre, written on the eve of the French Revolution, in which "there rises melodiously, as it were, the wail of a moribund world: everywhere wholesome Nature in unequal conflict with diseased, perfidious art; cannot escape from it in the lowest hut, in the remotest island of the sea"; it records the fate of a child of nature corrupted by the false, artificial sentimentality that prevailed at the time among the upper classes of France.
PAUL SAMOSATA, so called as born at Samosata, on the Euphrates, a heresiarch who denied the doctrine of three persons in one God, was bishop of Antioch, under the sway of Zenobia, but deposed on her defeat by Aurelian in 272.
PAULDING, American writer, born in New York State; author of "History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan," and the novels "The Dutchman's Fireside" and "Westward Ho" (1779-1860).
PAULI, REINHOLD, German historian of England, born in Berlin; studied much in England, and became professor of History at Goettingen; wrote "Life of King Alfred," "History of England from the Accession of Henry II. to the Death of Henry VII.," "Pictures of Old England," and "Simon de Montfort" (1823-1882).
PAULICIANS, a heretical sect founded by Constantine of Mananalis about A.D. 660 in Armenia, and persisting in spite of severe persecution, were transferred to Thrace in 970, where remnants were found as late as the 13th century; they held that an evil spirit was the creator and god of this world, and that God was the ruler of the next; they refused to ascribe divinity to Christ, to worship Mary, to reverence the cross, or observe the sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist; their name was derived from the special regard in which they held the writings of St. Paul, from which they professed to derive their tenets; they were charged with Manichaeism, but they indignantly repudiated the imputation.
PAULINE, Browning's first poem, written at 19 and published at 21, "breathless, intense, melodramatic," says Professor Saintsbury, "eschewing incident, but delighting in analysis, which was to be one of the poet's points throughout, and ultimately to prevail over the others."
PAULINUS, the first archbishop of York, sent in company with Augustin from Rome by Gregory to Britain in 601: laboured partly in Kent and partly in Northumbria, and persuaded Edwin of Northumbria to embrace Christianity in 629; d. 644.
PAULUS, HEINRICH, one of the founders of German rationalism, born near Stuttgart; held in succession sundry professorships; denied the miraculous in the Scripture history, and invented ingenious rational explanations, now out of date (1761-1851).
PAUSANIAS, a famous Spartan general, the grandson of Leonidas, who, as commander-in-chief of the Greeks, overthrew the Persian army under Mardonius at Plataea in 479, but who, elated by this and other successes, aimed at the sovereignty of Greece by alliance with Xerxes, and being discovered, took refuge in a temple at Athens, where he was blockaded and starved to death in 477 B.C., his mother throwing the first stone of the pile that was cast up to bar his exit.
PAUSANIAS, a Greek traveller and topographer, lived during the reigns of Antoninus Pius and M. Aurelius; wrote an "Itinerary of Greece" in 10 books, the fruit of his own peregrinations, full of descriptions of great value both to the historian and the antiquary.
PAVIA (30), on the Ticino, in Lombardy, is an imposing "city of a hundred towers," with little industry or commerce; in its unfinished cathedral St. Augustine was buried; San Michele, where the early kings of Italy were crowned, dates from the 7th century; the University was founded by Charlemagne, and has now attached to it colleges for poor students, a library, museum, botanic garden, and school of art; stormed by Napoleon in 1796, Pavia was in Austrian possession from 1814 till its inclusion in the kingdom of Italy 1859.
PAXTON, SIR JOSEPH, architect of the Crystal Palace, born in Bedfordshire, was originally a gardener in the service of the Duke of Devonshire, and promoted to the charge of the duke's gardens at Chatsworth, where he displayed the architectural ability in the construction of large glass conservatories which developed itself in the construction of the Great Exhibition of 1851, for which he received the honour of knighthood (1803-1865).
PAYN, JAMES, English novelist, born at Cheltenham; edited Chambers's Journal and Cornhill Magazine; his novels were numerous and of average quality, "Lost Sir Massingberd" and "By Proxy" among the most successful (1830-1899).
PAYNE, JOHN, actor and playwright, born in New York; resided in London from 1813 to 1832; most of his days a stranger in a strange land, immortalised himself as the author of "Home, Sweet Home"; only his remains buried at home 30 years after his death at Tunis (1792-1852).
PEABODY, GEORGE, philanthropist, born at Danvers, now Peabody, in Massachusetts, U.S.; made a large fortune as a dry-goods merchant in Baltimore and as a stockbroker as well in London; gave away for benevolent purposes in his lifetime a million and a half of money, and left to his relatives one million more; died in London; his body was laid beside his mother's at South Danvers, U.S. (1795-1869).
PEACE SOCIETY, a society founded in 1816 for the promotion of permanent and universal peace; advocates a gradual, proportionate, and simultaneous disarmament of all nations and the principle of arbitration.
PEACOCK, THOMAS LOVE, English novelist, born at Weymouth; was pretty much a self-taught scholar, and no mean one, as his literary activity over half a century abundantly showed; held a post in the India House, his predecessor being James Mill and his successor John Stuart Mill; was an intimate friend of Shelley and the father-in-law of George Meredith; he made his first literary appearance as a poet in two small volumes of poems, and his first novel was "Headlong Hall" as his latest was "Gryll Grange," all of them written in a vein of conventional satire, and more conspicuous for wit than humour; Thackeray owed not a little to him, little as the generality did, he being "too learned for a shallow age" (1785-1866).
PEARSON, JOHN, English prelate, born in Norfolk; held a succession of preferments in the Church, and in the end the bishopric of Chester, author of a very learned work "Exposition of the Creed," of which Bentley said, "its very dross is gold" (1612-1686).
PEASANT WAR or BAUERNKRIEG, revolt of the peasantry in the S. and W. of Germany against the oppression and cruelty of the nobles and clergy which broke out at different times from 1500 to 1525, and which, resulting in their defeat, rendered their lot harder than before. The cause of the Reformation, held answerable for the movement, suffered damage as well, but indeed the excesses of the insurgents were calculated to provoke the retribution that was meted out to them.
PECHILI, GULF OF, a great land-locked bay opening in the NW. of the Yellow Sea, receives the waters of the Hoang-ho, and on opposite tongues of land at the mouth of it stand Port Arthur and Wei-hai-Wei.