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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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DOeBEREINER'S LAMP, a light caused by a jet of hydrogen passing over spongy platinum.

DOBROVSKI, JOSEPH, a philologist, born in Gyarmet, in Hungary; devoted his life to the study of the Bohemian language and literature; wrote a history of them, the fruit of immense labour, under which his brain gave way more than once; was trained among the Jesuits (1753-1829).

DOBRENTER, Hungarian archaeologist; devoted 30 years of his life to the study of the Magyar language; author of "Ancient Monuments of the Magyar Language" (1786-1851).

DOBRUDJA (196), the part of Roumania between the Danube and the Black Sea, a barren, unwholesome district; rears herds of cattle.

DOBSON, AUSTIN, poet and prose writer, born at Plymouth, is in a department of the Civil Service; wrote "Vignettes in Rhyme," "Proverbs in Porcelain," "Old World Idylls," in verse, and in prose Lives of Fielding, Hogarth, Steele, and Goldsmith; contributed extensively to the magazines; b. 1840.

DOBSON, WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in London; succeeded Vandyck as king's serjeant-painter to Charles I.; painted the king and members of his family and court; supreme in his art prior to Sir Joshua Reynolds; died in poverty (1610-1646).

DOCETAE, a sect of heretics in the early Church who held that the humanity of Christ was only seeming, not real, on the Gnostic or Manichaean theory of the essential impurity and defiling nature of matter or the flesh.

DOCTOR (lit. teacher), a title implying that the possessor of it is such a master of his art that he can teach it as well as practise it.

DOCTOR MIRABILIS, Roger Bacon.

DOCTOR MY-BOOK, John Abernethy, from his saying to his patients, "Read my book."

DOCTOR OF THE INCARNATION, Cyril of Alexandria, from his controversy with the Nestorians.

DOCTOR SLOP, a doctor in "Tristram Shandy," fanatical about a forceps he invented.

DOCTOR SQUINTUM, George Whitfield.

DOCTOR SYNTAX. See COMBE, WILLIAM.

DOCTORS' COMMONS, a college of doctors of the civil law in London, where they used to eat in common, and where eventually a number of the courts of law were held.

DOCTRINAIRES, mere theorisers, particularly on social and political questions; applied originally to a political party that arose in France in 1815, headed by Roger-Collard and represented by Guizot, which stood up for a constitutional government that should steer clear of acknowledging the divine right of kinghood on the one hand and the divine right of democracy on the other.

DODABETTA, the highest peak, 8700 ft., in the Nilgherries.

DODD, DR. WILLIAM, an English divine, born at Bourne, Lincolnshire; was one of the royal chaplains; attracted fashionable audiences as a preacher in London, but lived extravagantly, and fell hopelessly into debt, and into disgrace for the nefarious devices he adopted to get out of it; forged a bond for L4500 on the Earl of Chesterfield, who had been a pupil of his; was arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death, a sentence which was carried out notwithstanding the great exertions made to procure a pardon; wrote a "Commentary on the Bible," and compiled "The Beauties of Shakespeare" (1729-1777).

DODDRIDGE, PHILIP, a Nonconformist divine, born in London; was minister at Kebworth, Market Harborough, and Northampton successively, and much esteemed both as a man and a teacher; suffered from pulmonary complaint; went to Lisbon for a change, and died there; was the author of "The Family Expositor," but is best known by his "Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul," and perhaps also by his "Life of Colonel Gardiner" (1702-1751).

DOeDERLEIN, LUDWIG, a German philologist, born at Jena; became professor of Philology at Erlangen; edited Tacitus, Horace, and other classic authors, but his principal works were on the etymology of the Latin language (1791-1863).

DODGER, THE ARTFUL, a young expert in theft and other villanies in Dickens's "Oliver Twist."

DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE, English writer and man of genius, with the nom de plume of Lewis Carroll; distinguished himself at Oxford in mathematics; author of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," with its sequel, "Through the Looking-Glass," besides other works, mathematical, poetic, and humorous; mingled humour and science together (1833-1898).

DODINGTON, GEORGE BUBB, an English politician, notorious for his fickleness, siding now with this party, now with that; worked for and won a peerage before he died; with all his pretensions, and they were many, a mere flunkey at bottom (1691-1762).

DODO, an ungainly bird larger than a turkey, with short scaly legs, a big head and bill, short wings and tail, and a greyish down plumage, now extinct, though it is known to have existed in the Mauritius some 200 years ago.

DODO'NA, an ancient oracle of Zeus, in Epirus, close by a grove of oak trees, from the agitation of the branches of which the mind of the god was construed, the interpreters being at length three old women; it was more or less a local oracle, and was ere long superseded by the more widely known oracle of DELPHI (q. v.).

DODS, MEG, an old landlady of consistently inconsistent qualities in "St. Ronan's Well"; also the pseudonym of the authoress of a book on cookery.

DODSLEY, ROBERT, an English poet, dramatist, and publisher; wrote a drama called "The Toyshop," which, through Pope's influence, was acted in Drury Lane with such success as to enable the author to commence business as a bookseller in Pall Mall; projected and published the Miscellany, and continued to write plays, the most popular "Cleone"; is best known in connection with his "Collection of Old Plays"; he was a patron of Johnson, and much esteemed by him (1703-1764).

DOEG, a herdsman of Saul (1 Sam. xxi. 7); a name applied by Dryden to Elkanah Settle in "Absalom and Achitophel."

DOGBERRY, a self-satisfied night constable in "Much Ado about Nothing."

DOG-DAYS, 20 days before and 20 after the rising of the dog-star Sirius, at present from 3rd July to 11th August.

DOGE, the name of the chief magistrate of Venice and Genoa, elected at first annually and then for life in Venice, with, in course of time, powers more and more limited, and at length little more than a figure-head; the office ceased with the fall of the republic in 1797, as it did in Genoa in 1804.

DOGGER BANK, a sandbank in the North Sea; a great fishing-field, extending between Jutland in Denmark and Yorkshire in England, though distant from both shores, 170 m. long, over 60 m. broad, and from 8 to 10 fathoms deep.

DOGS, ISLE OF, a low-lying projection of a square mile in extent from the left bank of the Thames, opposite Greenwich, and 31/2 m. E. of St. Paul's.

DOG-STAR, SIRIUS (q. v.).

DOLABELLA, son-in-law of Cicero, a profligate man, joined Caesar, and was raised by him to the consulship; joined Caesar's murderers after his death; was declared from his profligacy a public enemy; driven to bay by a force sent against him, ordered one of his soldiers to kill him.

DOLCI, CARLO, a Florentine painter, came of a race of artists; produced many fine works, the subjects of them chiefly madonnas, saints. &c. (1616-1686).

DOLCINO, a heresiarch and martyr of the 14th century, of the Apostolic Brethren, a sect which rose in Piedmont who made themselves obnoxious to the Church; was driven to bay by his persecutors, and at last caught and tortured and burnt to death; a similar fate overtook others of the sect, to its extermination.

DOLDRUMS, a zone of the tropics where calms, squalls, and baffling winds prevail.

DOLE (12), a town in the dep. of Jura, on the Doubs, and the Rhone and Rhine Canal, 28 m. SE. of Dijon, with iron-works, and a trade in wine, grain, &c.

DOLET, ETIENNE, a learned French humanist, born at Orleans, became, by the study of the classics, one of the lights of the Renaissance, and one of its most zealous propagandists; suffered persecution after persecution at the hands of the Church, and was burned in the Place Maubert, Paris, a martyr to his philosophic zeal and opinions (1509-1546).

DOLGELLY, capital of Merioneth, Wales, with manufactures of flannel.

DOLGOROUKI, the name of a noble and illustrious Russian family.

DOLLART ZEE, a gulf in Holland into which the Ems flows, 8 m. long by 7 broad, and formed by inundation of the North Sea.

DOeLLINGER, a Catholic theologian, born in Bamberg, Bavaria, professor of Church History in the University of Muenich; head of the old Catholic party in Germany; was at first a zealous Ultramontanist, but changed his opinions and became quite as zealous in opposing, first, the temporal sovereignty, and then the infallibility of the Pope, to his excommunication from the Church; he was a polemic, and as such wrote extensively on theological and ecclesiastical topics; lived to a great age, and was much honoured to the last (1799-1890).

DOLLOND, JOHN, a mathematical instrument-maker, born in Spitalfields, London, of Dutch descent; began life as a silk-weaver; made good use of his leisure hours in studies bearing mainly on physics; went into partnership with his son, who was an optician; made a study of the telescope, suggested improvements which commended themselves to the Royal Society, and in especial how, by means of a combination of lenses, to get rid of the coloured fringe in the image (1706-1761).

DOLMEN, a rude structure of prehistoric date, consisting of upright unhewn stones supporting one or more heavy slabs; long regarded as altars of sacrifice, but now believed to be sepulchral monuments; found in great numbers in Bretagne especially.

DOLOMITE ALPS, a limestone mountain range forming the S. of the Eastern Alps, in the Tyrol and N. Italy, famous for the remarkable and fantastic shapes they assume; named after Dolomieu, a French mineralogist, who studied the geology of them.

DOMAT, JEAN, a learned French jurist and friend of Pascal, regarded laws and customs as the reflex of political history (1625-1696).

DOMBASLE, an eminent French agriculturist, born at Nancy (1771-1818).

DOM-BOKE (i. e. Doom-book), a code of laws compiled by King Alfred from two prior Saxon codes, to which he prefixed the Ten Commandments of Moses, and rules of life from the Christian code of ethics.

DOMBROWSKI, JOHN HENRY, a Polish general, served in the Polish campaigns against Russia and Prussia in 1792-1794; organised a Polish legion which did good service in the wars of Napoleon; covered the retreat of the French at the Beresina in 1812 (1755-1818).

DOMDANIEL, a hall under the ocean where the evil spirits and magicians hold council under their chief and pay him homage.

DOMENICHI'NO, a celebrated Italian painter, born at Bologna; studied under Calvaert and Caracci; was of the Bolognese school, and reckoned one of the first of them; his principal works are his "Communion of St. Jerome," now in the Vatican, and the "Martyrdom of St. Agnes," at Bologna, the former being regarded as his masterpiece; he was the victim of persecution at the hands of rivals; died at Naples, not without suspicion of having been poisoned (1581-1641).

DOMESDAY BOOK, the record, in 2 vols., of the survey of all the lands of England made in 1081-1086 at the instance of William the Conqueror for purposes of taxation; the survey included the whole of England, except the four northern counties and part of Lancashire, and was made by commissioners appointed by the king, and sent to the different districts of the country, where they held courts, and registered everything on evidence; it is a valuable document.

DOMINIC DE GUZMAN, ST., saint of the Catholic Church, born in Old Castile; distinguished for his zeal in the conversion of the heretic; essayed the task by simple preaching of the Word; sanctioned persecution when persuasion was of no avail; countenanced the crusade of Simon de Montfort against the Albigenses for their obstinate unbelief, and thus established a precedent which was all too relentlessly followed by the agents of the Spanish Inquisition, the chiefs of which were of the Dominican order, so that he is ignominiously remembered as the "burner and slayer of heretics" (1170-1221). Festival, Aug. 4.

DOMINICA, or DOMINIQUE (26), the largest and most southerly of the Leeward Islands, and belongs to Britain; one-half of the island is forest, and parts of it have never been explored; was discovered by Columbus on Sunday, November 3, 1493, whence its name.

DOMINICAL LETTER, one of seven letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, used to mark the Sundays throughout the year, so that if A denote the first Sunday, it will denote all the rest, and so on with B, C, &c., till at the end of seven years A becomes the dominical letter again.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, or ST. DOMINGO (610), a republic forming the E. part of the island of Haiti, and consisting of two-thirds of it; it belonged alternately to France and Spain till 1865, when, on revolt, the Spaniards were expelled, and a republic established; the capital is St. Domingo (15), and the chief port Puerto Plata.

DOMINICANS, a religious order of preaching friars, founded at Toulouse in 1215 by St. Dominic, to aid in the conversion of the heretic Albigenses to the faith, and finally established as the order whose special charge it was to guard the orthodoxy of the Church. The order was known by the name Black Friars in England, from their dress; and Jacobins in France, from the street of Paris in which they had their head-quarters.

DOMINIE, SAMPSON, a schoolmaster in "Guy Mannering," "a poor, modest, humble scholar, who had won his way through the classics, but fallen to the leeward in the voyage of life."

DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE, a vacillating ecclesiastic, born in Dalmatia; was educated by the Jesuits; taught mathematics in Padua; wrote a treatise in which an explanation was for the first time given of the phenomenon of the rainbow; became archbishop of Spalatro; falling under suspicion he passed over to England, professed Protestantism, and was made dean of Windsor; reconciled to the Papacy, returned to the Church of Rome, and left the country; his sincerity being distrusted, was cast into prison, where he died, his body being afterwards disinterred and burned (1566-1624).

DOMITIAN, Roman emperor, son of Vespasian, brother of Titus, whom he succeeded in 81, the last of the twelve Caesars; exceeded the expectations of every one in the beginning of his reign, as he had given proof of a licentious and sanguinary character beforehand, but soon his conduct changed, and fulfilled the worst fears of his subjects; his vanity was wounded by the non-success of his arms, and his vengeful spirit showed itself in a wholesale murder of the citizens; many conspiracies were formed against his life, and he was at length murdered by an assassin, who had been hired by his courtiers and abetted by his wife Domitia, in 96.

DOMREMY, a small village on the Meuse, in the dep. of Vosges; the birthplace of Joan of Arc.

DON, a Russian river, the ancient Tanais; flows southward from its source in the province of Tula, and after a course of 1153 m. falls into the Sea of Azov; also the name of a river in Aberdeenshire, and another in Yorkshire.

DON JUAN, the member of a distinguished family of Seville, who seduces the daughter of a noble, and when confronted by her father stabs him to death in a duel; he afterwards prepares a feast and invites the stone statue of his victim to partake of it; the stone statue turns up at the least, compels Don Juan to follow him, and delivers him over to the abyss of hell, the depths of which he had qualified himself for by his utter and absolute depravity.

DON QUIXOTE, the title of a world-famous book written by Miguel Cervantes, in satire of the romances of chivalry with which his countrymen were so fascinated; the chief character of which gives title to it, a worthy gentleman of La Mancha, whose head is so turned by reading tales of knight-errantry, that he fancies he is a knight-errant himself, sallies forth in quest of adventures, and encounters them in the most commonplace incidents, one of his most ridiculous extravagancies being his tilting with the windmills, and the overweening regard he has for his Dulcinea del Tobosa.

DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM, a philologist, born in London; Fellow of Cambridge and tutor of Trinity College; author of "New Cratylus; or Contributions towards a more Accurate Knowledge of the Greek Language," a work of great erudition and of value to scholars; contributed also to the philological study of Latin, and wrote a grammar of both languages; he failed when he intruded into the field of biblical criticism (1811-1861).

DONATELLO, a great Italian sculptor, born at Florence, where he was apprenticed to a goldsmith; tried his hand at carving in leisure hours; went to Rome and studied the monuments of ancient art; returned to Florence and executed an "Annunciation," still preserved in a chapel in Santa Croce, which was followed by marble statues of St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. George, before one of which, that of St. Mark, Michael Angelo exclaimed, "Why do you not speak to me?"; he executed tombs and figures, or groups in bronze as well as marble; his schoolmasters were the sculptors of Greece, and the real was his ultimate model (1383-1460).

DONATI, an Italian astronomer, born at Pisa; discoverer of the comet of 1858, called Donati's comet (1826-1873).

DONATISTS, a sect in N. Africa, founded by Donatus, bishop of Carthage, in the 4th century, that separated from the rest of the Church and formed itself into an exclusive community, with bishops and congregations of its own, on the ground that no one was entitled to be a member of Christ's body, or an overseer of Christ's flock, who was not of divine election, and that in the face of an attempt, backed by the Emperor Constantine, to thrust a bishop on the Church at Carthage, consecrated by an authority that had betrayed and sold the Church to the world; the members of it were subject to cruel persecutions in which they gloried, and were annihilated by the Saracens in the 7th century.

DONATUS, a Latin grammarian and rhetorician of the 4th century, the teacher of St. Jerome; the author of treatises in grammar known as Donats, and, along with the sacred Scriptures, the earliest examples of printing by means of letters cut on wooden blocks, and so appreciated as elementary treatises that they gave name to treatises of the kind on any subject; he wrote also scholia to the plays of Terence.

DONAU, the German name for the Danube.

DONCASTER (26), a market and manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, well built, in a pleasant country, on the right bank of the Don, 33 m. S. of York; famous for its races, the St. Leger in particular, called after Colonel St. Leger, who instituted them in 1776.

DONDRA HEAD, the southern extremity of Ceylon, once the site of the capital.

DONEGAL (185), a county in the NW. of Ireland, in the province of Ulster, the most mountainous in the country; is mossy and boggy, and is indented along the coast with bays, and fringed with islands.

DONETZ, a tributary of the Russian Don, the basin of which forms one large coal-field, reckoned to be as large as all Yorkshire, and is reckoned one of the largest of any in the world.

DONGOLA, NEW, a town in Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, above the third cataract, 20 deg. N. and over 700 m. from Cairo; was founded by the Mamelukes.

DONIZETTI, a celebrated Italian composer, born at Bergamo, Lombardy, and studied at Bologna; devoted himself to dramatic music; produced over 60 operas, among the number "Lucia di Lammermoor," the "Daughter of the Regiment," "Lucrezia Borgia," and "La Favorita," all well known, and all possessing a melodious quality of the first order (1797-1848).

DONNE, JOHN, English poet and divine, born in London; a man of good degree; brought up in the Catholic faith; after weighing the claims of the Romish and Anglican communions, joined the latter; married a young lady of sixteen without consent of her father, which involved him in trouble for a time; was induced to take holy orders by King James; was made his chaplain, and finally became Dean of St. Paul's; wrote sermons, some 200 letters and essays, as well as poems, the latter, amid many defects, revealing a soul instinct with true poetic fire (1573-1631). See "Professor Saintsbury on Donne."

DONNYBROOK, a village now included in Dublin, long celebrated for its fairs and the fights it was the scene of on such occasions.

DONON, the highest peak of the Vosges Mountains.

DOO, GEORGE THOMAS, a celebrated English line-engraver, and one of the best in his day (1800-1886).

DOON, a river rendered classic by the muse of Burns, which after a course of 30 m. joins the Clyde 2 m. S. of Ayr.

DORA, the child-wife of "David Copperfield," Dickens's novel.

DORA D'ISTRIA, the pseudonym of Helena Ghika, born in Wallachia, of noble birth; distinguished for her beauty and accomplishments; was eminent as a linguist; translated the "Iliad" into German; wrote works, the fruits of travels (1829-1888).

DORAN, JOHN, an English man of letters, born In London, of Irish descent; wrote on miscellaneous subjects; became editor of the Athenaeum and Notes and Queries (1807-1878).

DORAT, JEAN, a French poet, born at Limoges; a Greek scholar; contributed much to the revival of classical literature in France, and was one of the FRENCH PLEIADE (q. v.); d. 1588.

DORCAS SOCIETY, a society for making clothing for the poor. See Acts ix. 39.

DORCHESTER (7), the county town of Dorset, on the Frome; was a Roman town, and contains the ruins of a Roman amphitheatre.

DORDOGNE, a river in the S. of France, which, after a course of 300 m., falls into the estuary of Garonne; also a dep. (478) through which it flows.

DORE, GUSTAVE, a French painter and designer, born in Strasburg; evinced great power and fertility of invention, having, it is alleged, produced more than 50,000 designs; had a wonderful faculty for seizing likenesses, and would draw from memory groups of faces he had seen only once; among the books he illustrated are the "Contes Drolatiques" of Balzac, the works of Rabelais and Montaigne, Dante's "Inferno," also his "Purgatorio" and "Paradiso," "Don Quixote," Tennyson's "Idylls," Milton's works, and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner"; among his paintings were "Christ Leaving the Praetorium," and "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem"; he has left behind him works of sculpture as well as drawings and pictures; his art has been severely handled by the critics, and most of all by Ruskin, who treats it with unmitigated scorn (1832-1883).

DORIA, ANDREA, a naval commander, born in Genoa, of noble descent, though his parents were poor; a man of patriotic instincts; adopted the profession of arms at the age of 19; became commander of the fleet in 1513; attacked with signal success the Turkish corsairs that infested the Mediterranean; served under Francis I. to free his country from a faction that threatened its independence, and, by his help, succeeded in expelling it; next, in fear of the French supremacy, served, under Charles V., and entering Genoa, was hailed as its liberator, and received the title of "Father and Defender of his country"; the rest of his life, and it was a long one, was one incessant wrestle with his great rival Barbarossa, the chief of the corsairs, and which ended in his defeat (1466-1560).

DORIANS, one of the four divisions of the Hellenic race, the other three being the Achaeans, the AEolians, and the Ionians; at an early period overran the whole Peloponnesus; they were a hardy people, of staid habits and earnest character.

DORIC, the oldest, strongest, and simplest of the four Grecian orders of architecture.

DORINE, a petulant domestic in Moliere's "Tartuffe."

DORIS, a small mountainous country of ancient Greece, S. of Thessaly, and embracing the valley of the Pindus.

DORIS, the wife of Nereus, and mother of the Nereids.

DORISLAUS, ISAAC, a lawyer, born at Alkmaar, in Holland; came to England, and was appointed Judge-Advocate; acted as such at King Charles's trial, and was for that latter offence assassinated at the Hague one evening by certain high-flying Royalist cut-throats, Scotch several of them; "his portrait represents him as a man of heavy, deep-wrinkled, elephantine countenance, pressed down by the labours of life and law" (1595-1649).

DORKING (7), a market-town picturesquely situated in the heart of Surrey, 24 m. SW. of London; gives name to a breed of fowls; contains a number of fashionable villas.

DORN, a distinguished German orientalist; wrote a History of the Afghans, and on their language (1805-1881).

DORNER, ISAAK AUGUST, a German theologian, born at Wuertemberg; studied at Tuebingen; became professor of Theology in Berlin, after having held a similar post in several other German universities; his principal works were the "History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ," and the "History of Protestant Theology" (1809-1884).

DORNOCH, the county town of Sutherland, a small place, but a royal burgh; has a good golf course.

DOROS, a son of Helen and grandson of Deucalion, the father of the Dorians, as his brother AEolis was of the AEolians.

DOROTHEA, ST., a virgin of Alexandria, suffered martyrdom by being beheaded in 311. Festival, Feb. 6.

DORPAT (38), a town on the Embach, in Livonia, Russia, 150 m. NE. of Riga, with a celebrated university founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; it has a well-equipped staff, and is well attended; the majority of the population is German.

D'ORSAY, COUNT, a man of fashion, born in Paris; entered the French army; forsook it for the society of Lord and Lady Blessington; married Lady B.'s daughter by a former marriage; came to England with her ladyship on her husband's death; started a joint establishment in London, which became a rendezvous for all the literary people and artists about town; was "Phoebus Apollo of Dandyism"; paid homage to Carlyle at Chelsea one day in 1839; "came whirling hither in a chariot that struck all Chelsea into mute amazement with splendour," says Carlyle, who thus describes him, "a tall fellow of six feet three, built like a tower, with floods of dark auburn hair, with a beauty, with an adornment unsurpassable on this planet: withal a rather substantial fellow at bottom, by no means without insight, without fun, and a sort of rough sarcasm, rather striking out of such a porcelain figure"; having shown kindness to Louis Napoleon when in London, the Prince did not forget him, and after the coup d'etat appointed him to a well-salaried post, but he did not live to enjoy it (1798-1852).

DORSET (194), maritime county in the S. of England, with a deeply indented coast; it consists of a plain between two eastward and westward reaching belts of downs; is mainly a pastoral county; rears sheep and cattle, and produces butter and cheese.

DORT, or DORDRECHT (34), a town on an island in the Maas, in the province of South Holland, 12 m. SE. of Rotterdam; admirably situated for trade, connected as it is with the Rhine as well, on which rafts of wood are sent floating down to it; is famous for a Synod held here in 1618-19, at which the tenets of Arminius were condemned, and the doctrines of Calvin approved of and endorsed as the doctrines of the Reformed Church.

DORTMUND (89), a town in Westphalia; a great mineral and railway centre, with large iron and steel forges, and a number of breweries.

DORY, JOHN, the hero of an old ballad.

DO-THE-BOYS'-HALL, a scholastic establishment in "Nicholas Nickleby."

DOUAY (31), a town on the Scarpe, in the dep. of Nord, France, 20 m. S. of Lille, and one of the chief military towns of the country; has a college founded in 1568 for the education of Catholic priests intended for England, and is where a version of the Bible in English for the use of Catholics was issued.

DOUBS, a tributary of the Saone, which it falls into below Dole; gives name to the dep. (303), which it traverses.

DOUBTING CASTLE, a castle belonging to Giant Despair in the "Pilgrim's Progress," which only one key could open, the key Promise.

DOUCE, FRANCIS, a learned antiquary, born in London; for a time keeper of MSS. in the British Museum; author of "Illustrations of Shakespeare," and an illustrated volume, "The Dance of Death"; left in the Museum a chest of books and MSS. not to be opened till 1900; was a man of independent means, and a devoted archaeologist (1757-1834).

DOUGLAS (19), the largest town and capital as well as chief port of the Isle of Man, 74 m. from Liverpool; much frequented as a bathing-place; contains an old residence of the Dukes of Atholl, entitled Castle Mona, now a hotel. See MAN, ISLE OF.

DOUGLAS, the name of an old Scotch family, believed to be of Celtic origin, and that played a conspicuous part at one time in the internal and external struggles of the country; they figure in Scottish history in two branches, the elder called the Black and the later the Red Douglases or the Angus branch, now represented by the houses of Hamilton and Home. The eldest of the Douglases, William, was a kinsman of the house of Murray, and appears to have lived about the end of the 12th century. One of the most illustrious of the family was the Good Sir James, distinguished specially as the "Black" Douglas, the pink of knighthood and the associate of Bruce, who carried the Bruce's heart in a casket to bury it in Palestine, but died fighting in Spain, 1330.

DOUGLAS, GAWIN or GAVIN, a Scottish poet and bishop of Dunkeld, third son of Archibald, Earl of Angus, surnamed "Bell-the-Cat"; political troubles obliged him to leave the country and take refuge at the Court of Henry VII., where he was held in high regard; died here of the plague, and was buried by his own wish in the Savoy; besides Ovid's "Art of Love," now lost, he translated (1512-1513) the "AEneid" of Virgil into English verse, to each book of which he prefixed a prologue, in certain of which there are descriptions that evince a poet's love of nature combined with his love as a Scotchman for the scenery of his native land; besides this translation, which is his chief work, he indited two allegorical poems, entitled the "Palace of Honour," addressed to James IV., and "King Hart" (1474-1522).

DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD, an English general and writer on military subjects, born at Gosport; saw service in the Peninsula; was Governor of New Brunswick and Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands (1776-1861).

DOUGLAS, JOHN, bishop of Salisbury, born at Pittenweem, Fife; wrote "The Criterion of, or a Discourse on, Miracles" against Hume; was a friend of Samuel Johnson's (1721-1807).

DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD, an American statesman, born in Brandon, Vermont; a lawyer by profession, and a judge; a member of Congress and the Senate; was a Democrat; stood for the Presidency when Lincoln was elected; was a leader in the Western States; a splendid monument is erected to his memory in Chicago (1813-1861).

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK, American orator, born a slave in Maryland; wrought as a slave in a Baltimore shipbuilder's yard; escaped at the age of 21 to New York; attended an anti-slavery meeting, where he spoke so eloquently that he was appointed by the Anti-Slavery Society to lecture in its behalf, which he did with success and much appreciation in England as well as America; published an Autobiography, which gives a thrilling account of his life (1817-1895).

DOULTON, SIR HENRY, the reviver of art pottery, born in Lambeth; knighted in the Jubilee year for his eminence in that department; b. 1820.

DOURO, a river, and the largest, of the Spanish Peninsula, which rises in the Cantabrian Mountains; forms for 40 m. the northern boundary of Portugal, and after a course of 500 m. falls into the Atlantic at Oporto; is navigable only where it traverses Portugal.

DOUSTER-SWIVEL, a German swindling schemer in the "Antiquary."

DOVE, in Christian art the symbol of the Holy Ghost, or of a pure, or a purified soul, and with an olive branch, the symbol of peace and the gospel of peace.

DOVE, HEINRICH WILHELM, a German physicist, born at Liegnitz, Silesia; professor of Natural Philosophy in Berlin; was eminent chiefly in the departments of meteorology and optics; he discovered how by the stereoscope to detect forged bank-notes (1803-1879).

DOVER (33), a seaport on the E. coast of Kent, and the nearest in England to the coast of France, 60 m. SE. of London, and with a mail service to Calais and Ostend; is strongly fortified, and the chief station in the SE. military district of England; was the chief of the Cinque Ports.

DOVER, STRAIT OF, divides France from England and connects the English Channel with the North Sea, and at the narrowest 20 m. across; forms a busy sea highway; is called by the French Pas de Calais.

DOVREFELD, a range of mountains in Norway, stretching NE. and extending between 62 deg. and 63 deg. N. lat., average height 3000 ft.

DOW or DOUW, GERARD, a distinguished Dutch genre-painter, born at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his works, which are very numerous, are the fruit of a devoted study of nature, and are remarkable for their delicacy and perfection of finish; examples of his works are found in all the great galleries of Europe (1613-1675).

DOWDEN, EDWARD, literary critic, professor of English Literature in Dublin University, born in Cork; is distinguished specially as a Shakesperian; is author of "Shakespeare: a Study of his Mind and Art," "Introduction to Shakespeare," and "Shakesperian Sonnets, with Notes"; has written "Studies in Literature," and a "Life of Shelley"; is well read in German as well as English literature; has written with no less ability on Goethe than on Shakespeare; b. 1843.

DOWN (266), a maritime county in the SE. of the province of Ulster, Ireland, with a mostly level and fairly fertile soil, and manufactures of linen.

DOWNS, THE, a safe place of anchorage, 8 m. long by 6 m. broad, for ships between Goodwin Sands and the coast of Kent.

DOWNS, THE NORTH AND SOUTH, two parallel ranges of low broad hills covered with a light soil and with a valley between, called the Weald, that extend eastward from Hampshire to the sea-coast, the North terminating in Dover cliffs, Kent, and the South in Beachy Head, Sussex; the South famous for the breed of sheep that pastures on them.

DOYLE, DR. CONAN, novelist, nephew of Richard and grandson of John, born in Edinburgh; studied and practised medicine, but gave it up after a time for literature, in which he had already achieved no small success; several of his productions have attracted universal attention, especially his "Adventures" and his "Memoir of Sherlock Holmes"; wrote a short play "A Story of Waterloo," produced with success by Sir Henry Irving; b. 1859.

DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS, an English poet, born near Tadcaster; bred to the bar, but devoted to poetry and horse-racing; became professor of Poetry at Oxford; author of "Miscellaneous Verses," "Two Destinies," "Retreat of the Guards," "The Thread of Honour," and "The Private of the Buffs" (1810-1858).

DOYLE, JOHN, an eminent caricaturist, of Irish origin, under the initials H. B. (1797-1868).

DOYLE, RICHARD, eminent caricaturist, born in London, son of the preceding; contributed to Punch, of which he designed the cover, but left the staff, in 1850 owing to the criticisms in the journal adverse to the Catholic Church; devoted himself after that chiefly to book illustration and water-colour painting (1824-1883).

DOZY, REINHART, an Orientalist and linguist, born at Leyden, where he became professor of History; devoted himself to the study of the history of the Arabs or Moors in North-Western Africa and Spain, his chief work being "The History of the Mussulmans of Spain"; wrote also a "Detailed Dictionary of the Names of the Dress of the Arabs" (1820-1883).

DRACHENFELS (Dragon's Rock), one of the Siebengebirge, 8 m. SE. of Bonn, 1056 ft. above the Rhine, and crowned by a castle with a commanding view; the legendary abode of the dragon killed by Siegfried in the "Lay of the Nibelungen."

DRACO, a celebrated Athenian law-giver, who first gave stability to the State by committing the laws to writing, and establishing the Ephetae, or court of appeal, 621 B.C.; only he punished every transgressor of his laws with death, so that his code became unbearable, and was superseded ere long by a milder, instituted by Solon, who affixed the penalty of death to murder alone; he is said to have justified the severity of his code by maintaining that the smallest crime deserved death, and he knew no severer punishment for greater; it is said he was smothered to death in the theatre by the hats and cloaks showered on him as a popular mark of honour; he was archon of Athens.

DRAGON, a fabulous monster, being a hideous impersonation of some form of deadly evil, which only preternatural heroic strength and courage can subdue, and on the subdual and slaying of which depends the achievement of some conquest of vital moment to the human race or some members of it; is represented in mediaeval art as a large, lizard-like animal, with the claws of a lion, the wings of an eagle, and the tail of a serpent, with open jaws ready and eager to devour, which some knight high-mounted thrusts at to pierce to death with a spear; in the Greek mythology it is represented with eyes ever on the watch, in symbol of the evil that waylays us to kill us if we don't kill it, as in guarding the "Apples of the Hesperides" and the "Golden Fleece," because these are prizes that fall only to those who are as watchful of him as he is of them; and it is consecrated to Minerva to signify that true wisdom, as sensible of the ever-wakeful dragon, never goes to sleep, but is equally ever on the watch.

DRAGONNADES, the name given to the persecution at the instance of Louis XIV. to force the Huguenots of France back into the bosom of the Catholic Church by employment of dragoons.

DRAGON'S TEETH, the teeth of the dragon that Cadmus slew, and which when sown by him sprang up as a host of armed men, who killed each other all to the five who became the ancestors of the Thebans, hence the phrase to "sow dragon's teeth," to breed and foster strife.

DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS, a great English seaman of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, born near Tavistock, in Devon; served in the Royal Navy under his relative, Sir John Hawkins, and distinguished himself with signal success by his valour and daring against the pride of Spain, towards which, as the great Catholic persecuting power, he had been taught to cherish an invincible hatred; came swoop down like a hawk on its ports across seas, and bore himself out of them laden with spoil; in 1577 sailed for America with five ships, passed through the Strait of Magellan, the first Englishman to do it; plundered the W. coast as far as Peru; lost all his ships save one; crossed the Pacific, and came home by way of the Cape—the first to sail round the world—with spoil to the value of L300,000, his successes contributing much to embolden his countrymen against the arrogance of the Catholic king; and he was vice-admiral in the fleet that drove back the Armada from our shores (1540-1596).

DRAKE, FRIEDRICH, a German sculptor, born at Pyrmont; studied under Rauch; executed numerous statues and busts, among others busts of Oken and Ranke, Bismarck and Moltke; his chief works are the "Eight Provinces of Prussia," represented by large allegorical figures, and the "Warrior crowned by Victory" (1805-1882).

DRAKE, NATHAN, a physician, born at York; author of "Shakespeare and his Times" (1766-1836).

DRAKENBERG MOUNTAINS, a range of mountains in S. Africa, 6500 ft. high, between Natal and the Orange Free State.

DRAMATIC UNITIES, three rules of dramatic construction prescribed by Aristotle, observed by the French dramatists, but ignored by Shakespeare, that (1) a play should represent what takes place within eight hours, (2) there must be no change of locality, and (3) there must be no minor plot.

DRAMMEN (20), a Norwegian seaport on a river which falls into Christiania Bay, 30 m. SW. of Christiania; trade chiefly in timber.

DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM, a chemist, scientist, and man of letters, born at Liverpool; settled in the United States; wrote on chemistry, physiology, and physics generally, as well as works of a historical character, such as the "History of the Intellectual Development of Europe" and the "History of the Conflict between Science and Religion," an able book (1811-1882).

DRAPIER, a pseudonym adopted by Swift in his letters to the people of Ireland anent Wood's pence, and which led to the cancelling of the patent.

DRAVE, a river from the Eastern Alps which flows eastward, and after a course of 380 miles falls into the Danube 10 m. below Essek.

DRAVIDIANS, races of people who occupied India before the arrival of Aryans, and being driven S. by them came to settle chiefly in the S. of the Dekkan; they are divided into numerous tribes, each with a language of its own, but of a common type or group, some of them literary and some of them not, the chief the Tamil; the tribes together number over 20 millions.

DRAWCANSIR, a blustering, bullying boaster in Buckingham's play the "Rehearsal"; he kills every one of the combatants, "sparing neither friend nor foe."

DRAYTON, MICHAEL, an English poet, born In Warwickshire, like Shakespeare; was one of the three chief patriotic poets, Warner and Daniel being the other two, which arose in England after her humiliation of the pride of Spain, although he was no less distinguished as a love poet; his great work is his "Polyolbion," in glorification of England, consisting of 30 books and 100,000 lines; it gives in Alexandrines "the tracts, mountains, forests, and other parts of this renowned isle of Britain, with intermixture of the most remarkable stories, antiquities, wonders, pleasures, and commodities of the same digested in a poem"; this was preceded by other works, and succeeded by a poem entitled "The Ballad of Agincourt," pronounced one of the most spirited martial lyrics in the language (1563-1631).

DRELINCOURT, a French Protestant divine, born at Sedan; author of "Consolations against the Fear of Death" (1595-1669).

DRENTHE (137), a province of Holland lying between Hanover and the Zuyder Zee; the soil is poor, and the population sparse.

DRESDEN (250), the capital of Saxony, on the Elbe, 116 m. SE. of Berlin; a fine city, with a museum rich in all kinds of works of art, and called in consequence the "Florence of Germany"; here the Allies were defeated by Napoleon in 1813, when he entered the city, leaving behind him 30,000 men, who were besieged by the Russians and compelled to surrender as prisoners of war the same year.

DREYFUS, L'AFFAIRE. On 23rd December 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew, captain of French Artillery; was by court-martial found guilty of revealing to a foreign power secrets of national defence, and sentenced to degradation and perpetual imprisonment; he constantly maintained his innocence, and, in time, the belief that he had been unjustly condemned became prevalent, and a revision of the trial being at length ordered, principally through the exertions of Colonel Picquart and Zola, the well-known author, Dreyfus was brought back from Cayenne, where he had been kept a close prisoner and cruelly treated, and a fresh trial at Rennes began on 6th August 1899, and lasted till 9th September; the proceedings, marked by scandalous "scenes," and by an attempt to assassinate one of prisoner's counsel—disclosed an alarmingly corrupt condition of affairs in some lines of French public life under the Republic of the time, and terminated in a majority verdict of "guilty"; M. Dreyfus was set at liberty on 20th September, the sentence of ten years' imprisonment being remitted; b. 1860.

DREYSE, NICHOLAUS VON, inventor of the needle-gun, born at Soemmerda, near Erfurt, the son of a locksmith, and bred to his father's craft; established a large factory at Soemmerda for a manufactory of firearms; was ennobled 1864 (1787-1867).

DROGHEDA (11), a seaport in co. Louth, near the mouth of the Boyne, 32 m. N. of Dublin, with manufactures and a considerable export trade; was stormed by Cromwell in 1649 "after a stout resistance," and the garrison put to the sword; surrendered to William III. after the battle of the Boyne in 1690.

DROMORE, a cathedral town in co. Down, Ireland, 17 m. SW. of Belfast, of which Jeremy Taylor was bishop.

DROOGS, steep rocks which dot the surface of Mysore, in India, and resemble hay-ricks, some of these 1500 ft. high, some with springs on the top, and scalable only by steps cut in them.

DROSTE-HUeLSHOFF, FRAULEIN VON, a German poetess, born near Muenster; was of delicate constitution; wrote tales as well as lyrics in record of deep and tender experiences (1797-1848).

DROUET, JEAN BAPTISTE, notable king-taker, a violent Jacobin and member of the Council of the Five Hundred; had been a dragoon soldier; was postmaster at St. Menehould when Louis XVI., attempting flight, passed through the place, and by whisper of surmise had the progress of Louis and his party arrested at Varennes, June 21, 1791, for which service he received honourable mention and due reward in money; was taken captive by the Austrians at last; perched on a rock 100 ft. high, descended one night by means of a paper kite he had constructed, but was found at the foot helpless with leg broken (1763-1824).

DROUET, JEAN BAPTISTE, COMTE D'ERLON, marshal of France, born at Rheims; distinguished in the wars of the Republic and the Empire; on Napoleon's return from Elba seized on the citadel of Lille, and held it for the emperor; commanded the first corps d'armee at Waterloo; left France at the Restoration; returned after the July Revolution; became governor of Algiers, and was created marshal (1765-1844).

DROUOT, a French general, son of a baker at Nancy; Napoleon, whom, as commander of artillery, he accompanied over all his battlefields in Europe and to Elba, used to call him the Sage of the Grande Armee (1774-1847).

DROUYN DE LHUYS, French statesman and diplomatist, born in Paris; was ambassador at the Hague and Madrid; distinguished himself by his opposition to Guizot; served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Louis Napoleon; withdrew into private life after the collapse at Sedan (1805-1881).

DROYSEN, a German historian, born in Pomerania; professor in Berlin; author of the "History of Prussian Policy," "History of Alexander the Great," and "History of Hellenism" (1808-1884).

DROZ, the name of a Swiss family of mechanicians, one of them, Jean Pierre, an engraver of medals (1746-1833); also of a French moralist and historian, author of "History of Louis XVI." (1773-1850).

DROZ, GUSTAV, a highly popular and brilliant novelist, born in Paris; author of "Monsieur, Madam, et Bebe," "Entre Nous," and "Cahier bleu de Mlle. Cibot" (1832-1895).

DRUIDS, a sacred order of learned men under a chief called the Archdruid, among the ancient Celtic nations, particularly of Gaul and Britain, who, from their knowledge of the arts and sciences of the day, were the ministers of religion and justice, as well as the teachers of youth to the whole community, and exercised an absolute control over the unlearned people whom they governed; they worshipped in oak groves, and the oak tree and the mistletoe were sacred to them; the heavenly bodies appear to have been also objects of their worship, and they appear to have believed in the immortality and transmigration of the soul; but they committed nothing to writing, and for our knowledge of them we have to depend on the reports of outsiders.

DRUMCLOG MOSS, a flat wilderness of broken bog and quagmire in Lanarkshire, where the Covenanters defeated Claverhouse's dragoons in 1679.

DRUMMOND, HENRY, popular scientist and Christian teacher, born in Stirling; was educated at Edinburgh and Tuebingen; studied for the Free Church; lectured on natural science; became famous by the publication of "Natural Law in the Spiritual World," a book which took with the Christian public at once, and had an enormous sale, which was succeeded by "Tropical Africa," a charmingly-written book of travel, and by a series of booklets, commencing with "The Greatest Thing in the World," intended to expound and commend the first principles of the Christian faith; his last work except one, published posthumously, entitled the "Ideal Life," was the "Ascent of Man," in which he posits an altruistic element in the process of evolution, and makes the goal of it a higher and higher life (1851-1897).

DRUMMOND, CAPTAIN THOMAS, civil engineer, born in Edinburgh; inventor of the Drummond Light; was employed in the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland; became Under-Secretary for Ireland, and was held in high favour by the Irish (1797-1840).

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, of Hawthornden, a Scottish poet, named the "Petrarch of Scotland," born in Hawthornden; studied civil law at Bourges, but poetry had more attractions for him than law, and on the death of his father he returned to his paternal estate, and devoted himself to the study of it and the indulgence of his poetic tastes. "His work was done," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "in the reign of James I., but is the result of the Elizabethan influence extending to Scotland. Drummond's sonnets and madrigals have some of the grace of Sidney, and he rose at intervals into grave and noble verse, as in his sonnet on John the Baptist." He was a devoted Royalist; his first poem was "Tears" on the death of James I.'s eldest son Henry, and the fate of Charles I. is said to have cut short his days; the visit of Ben Jonson to him at Hawthornden is well known (1585-1649).

DRUMMOND LIGHT, an intensely-brilliant and pure white light produced by the play of an oxyhydrogen flame upon a ball of lime, so called from the inventor, Captain Thomas Drummond.

DRURY, DRU, a naturalist, born in London; bred a silversmith; took to entomology; published "Illustrations of Natural History"; his principal work "Illustrations of Exotic Entomology" (1725-1803).

DRURY LANE, a celebrated London theatre founded in 1663, in what was a fashionable quarter of the city then; has since that time been thrice burnt down; was the scene of Garrick's triumphs, and of those of many of his illustrious successors, though it is now given up chiefly to pantomimes and spectacular exhibitions.

DRUSES, a peculiar people, numbering some 80,000, inhabiting the S. of Lebanon and Anti-lebanon, with the Maronites on the N., whose origin is very uncertain, only it is evident, though they speak the Arab language, they belong to the Aryan race; their religion, a mixture of Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan beliefs, is grounded on faith in the unity and the incarnation of God; their form of government is half hierarchical and half feudalistic; in early times they were under emirs of their own, but in consequence of the sanguinary, deadly, and mutually exterminating strife between them and the Christian Maronites in 1860, they were put under a Christian governor appointed by the Porte.

DRUSUS, M. LIVIUS, a tribune of the people at Rome in 122 B.C., but a stanch supporter of the aristocracy; after passing a veto on a popular measure proposed by Gracchus his democratic colleague, proposed the same measure himself in order to show and prove to the people that the patricians were their best friends; the success of this policy gained him the name of "patron of the senate."

DRUSUS, M. LIVIUS, tribune of the people, 91 B.C., son of the preceding, and an aristocrat; pursued the same course as his father, but was baffled in the execution of his purpose, which was to broaden the constitution, in consequence of which he formed a conspiracy, and was assassinated, an event which led to the SOCIAL WAR (q. v.).

DRUSUS, NERO CLAUDIUS, surnamed "Germanicus," younger brother of Tiberius and son-in-law of Marc Antony; distinguished himself in four successive campaigns against the tribes of Germany, but stopped short at the Elbe, scared by the apparition of a woman of colossal stature who defied him to cross, so that he had to "content himself with erecting some triumphal pillars on his own safe side of the river and say that the tribes across were conquered"; falling ill of a mortal malady, his brother the emperor hastened across the Alps to close his eyes, and brought home his body, which was burned and the ashes buried in the tomb of Augustus.

DRYADS, nymphs of forest trees, which were conceived of as born with the tree they were attached to and dying along with it; they had their abode in wooded mountains away from men; held their revels among themselves, but broke them off at the approach of a human footstep.

DRYAS, the father of Lycurgus, a Thracian king, and slain by him, who, in a fit of frenzy against the Bacchus worshippers, mistook him for a vine and cut him down. See LYCURGUS.

DRYASDUST, a name of Sir Walter Scott's invention, and employed by him to denote an imaginary character who supplied him with dry preliminary historical details, and since used to denote a writer who treats a historical subject with all due diligence and research, but without any appreciation of the human interest in it, still less the soul of it.

DRYBURGH, an abbey, now a ruin, founded by David I., on the Tweed, in Berwickshire, 3 m. SE. of Melrose; the burial-place of Sir Walter Scott.

DRYDEN, JOHN, a celebrated English poet, "glorious John," born in Northamptonshire, of a good family of Puritan principles; educated at Westminster School and Cambridge; his first poetic production of any merit was a set of "heroic stanzas" on the death of Cromwell; at the Restoration he changed sides and wrote a poem which he called "Astraea Redux" in praise of the event, which was ere long followed by his "Annus Mirabilis," in commemoration of the year 1666, which revealed at once the poet and the royalist, and gained him the appointment of poet-laureate, prior to which and afterwards he produced a succession of plays for the stage, which won him great popularity, after which he turned his mind to political affairs and assumed the role of political satirist by production of his "Absalom and Achitophel," intended to expose the schemes of Shaftesbury, represented as Achitophel and Monmouth as Absalom, to oust the Duke of York from the succession to the throne; on the accession of James II. he became a Roman Catholic, and wrote "The Hind and the Panther," characterised by Stopford Brooke as "a model of melodious reasoning in behalf of the milk-white hind of the Church of Rome," and really the most powerful thing of the kind in the language; at the Revolution he was deprived of his posts, but it was after that event he executed his translation of Virgil, and produced his celebrated odes and "Fables" (1631-1700).

DUALISM, or MANICHAEISM, the doctrine that there are two opposite and independently existing principles which go to constitute every concrete thing throughout the universe, such as a principle of good and a principle of evil, light and darkness, life and death, spirit and matter, ideal and real, yea and nay, God and Devil, Christ and Antichrist, Ormuzd and Ahriman.

DU BARRY, COUNTESS, mistress of Louis XV., born at Vaucouleurs, daughter of a dressmaker; came to Paris, professing millinery; had fascinating attractions, and was introduced to the king; governed France to its ruin and the dismissal of all Louis' able and honourable advisers; fled from Paris on the death of Louis, put on mourning for his death; was arrested, brought before the Revolutionary tribunal, condemned for wasting the finances of the State, and guillotined (1746-1793).

DU BELLAY, a French general, born at Montmirail; served under Francis I. (1541-1590).

DUBLIN (360), the capital of Ireland, at the mouth of the Liffey, which divides it in two, and is crossed by 12 bridges; the principal and finest street is Sackville Street, which is about 700 yards long and 40 wide; it has a famous university and two cathedrals, besides a castle, the residence of the Lord-Lieutenant; and a park, the Phoenix, one of the finest in Europe; manufactures porter, whisky, and poplin.

DUBOIS, GUILLAUME, cardinal and prime minister of France; notorious for his ambition and his debauchery; appointed tutor to the Duke of Orleans; encouraged him in vice, and secured his attachment and patronage in promotion, so that in the end he rose to the highest honours, and even influence, in both Church and state; notwithstanding his debauchery he was an able man and an able minister (1656-1723).

DUBOIS, REYMOND, a German physiologist, born in Berlin, of French descent; professor of Physiology at Berlin; distinguished for his researches in animal electricity; b. 1818.

DUBOIS DE CRANCE, a violent French revolutionary, born at Charleville; besieged and captured Lyons, giving no quarter; was Minister of War under the Directory; secured the adoption of the principle of conscription in recruiting the army (1747-1814).

DUBOURG, a French magistrate, member of the parlement of Paris; burnt as a heretic for recommending clemency in the treatment of the Huguenots (1521-1559).

DUBUFE, a distinguished French portrait-painter (1820-1883).

DUBUQUE (36), a town in Iowa, U.S., on the Mississippi, with lead-mines and a trade in grain, timber, &c.

DUCAMP, MAXIME, a French litterateur, born in Paris; has written "Travels in the East"; is the author of "Paris," its civic life, as also an account of its "Convulsions"; b. 1822.

DU CANGE, CHARLES, one of the most erudite of French scholars, born at Amiens, and educated among the Jesuits; wrote on language, law, archaeology, and history; devoted himself much to the study of the Middle Ages; contributed to the rediscovery of old French literature, and wrote a history of the Latin empire; his greatest works are his Glossaries of the Latin and Greek of the Middle Ages (1614-1688).

DUCAT, a coin, generally in gold, that circulated in Venice, and was current in Germany at one time, of varied value.

DU CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI, an African traveller, born in Louisiana; his principal explorations confined to the equatorial region of West Africa, and the result an extension of our knowledge of its geography, ethnology, and zoology, and particularly of the character and habits of the ape tribes, and above all the gorilla; b. 1837.

DU CHATELET, MARQUISE DE, a scientific lady and friend of Voltaire's, born in Paris; "a too fascinating shrew," as he at length found to his cost (1706-1749).

DUCHESNE, ANDRE, French historian and geographer, born in Touraine; styled the "Father of French History"; famous for his researches in it and in French antiquities, and for histories of England, Scotland, and Ireland respectively; his industry was unwearied; he left more than 100 folios in MS. (1584-1640).

DUCHOBORTZI, a religious community in Russia of Quaker principles, and of a creed that denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity of Christ; they became a cause of trouble to the empire by their fanaticism, and were removed to a high plateau in Transcaucasia, where they live by cattle-rearing.

DUCIS, JEAN, a French dramatist, born at Versailles; took Shakespeare for his model; declined Napoleon's patronage, thinking it better, as he said, to wear rags than wear chains (1733-1816).

DUCKING STOOL, a stool or chair in which a scolding woman was confined, and set before her own door to be pelted at, or borne in a tumbrel through the town to be jeered at, or placed at the end of a see-saw and ducked in a pool.

DUCLOS, CHARLES, a witty and satirical French writer, born at Dinan; author of "Observations," and "A History of the Manners of the Eighteenth Century," and "Memoires of the Reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV."; he mingled much in French society of the period, and took studious note of its passing whims (1704-1772).

DUCORNET, a French historical-painter, born at Lille; being born without arms, painted with his foot (1805-1856).

DUCOS, ROGER, French politician, born at Bordeaux, member of the National Convention and of the Directory (1754-1816).

DUCROT, a French general, born at Nivers; served in Algeria, in the Italian campaign of 1859, and as head of a division in the German War; was imprisoned for refusing to sign the capitulation treaty of Sedan, but escaped and took part in the defence of Paris when besieged by the Germans (1817-1882).

DU DEFFAND, MARQUISE. See DEFFAND.

DUDLEY (90), the largest town in Worcestershire, 81/2 m. NW. of Birmingham, in the heart of the "Black Country," with coal-mines, iron-works, and hardware manufactures.

DUDLEY, EDMUND, an English lawyer and privy-councillor; was associated with Empson as an agent in carrying on the obnoxious policy of Henry VII., and beheaded along with him at the instance of Henry VIII. on a charge of high treason in 1510.

DUDLEY, JOHN, grand-marshal of England, son of the preceding, father-in-law of Lady Jane Grey; beheaded in 1558 for his part in an insurrection in her favour.

DUFF, ALEXANDER, an eminent Indian missionary, born at Moulin, near Pitlochry, Perthshire; a man of Celtic blood, apostolic zeal, and fervid eloquence; was the first missionary sent out to India by the Church of Scotland; sailed in 1830, returned in 1840, in 1849, and finally in 1863, stirring up each time the missionary spirit in the Church; he was the originator of a new method of missionary operations in the East by the introduction of English as the vehicle of instruction in the Christian faith, which met at first with much opposition, but was finally crowned with conspicuous success; died in Edinburgh (1806-1873).

DUFF, JAMES GRANT, Indian soldier and statesman, born at Banff; conspicuous as a soldier for his services in subduing the Mahratta chiefs, and as a statesman for establishing friendly relations between the Mahrattas and the East India Company (1789-1858).

DUFFERIN, MARQUIS OF, and EARL OF AVA, statesman and diplomatist; held office under Lord John Russell and Mr. Gladstone; was in succession Governor-General of Canada, ambassador first at St. Petersburg, then at Constantinople, and finally Governor-General of India; has since acted as ambassador at Rome and Paris; is a man of literary as well as administrative ability; b. 1826.

DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN, an Irish patriot, born in co. Monaghan; bred for the bar; took to journalism in the interest of his country's emancipation; was one of the founders of the Nation newspaper; was twice over tried for sedition, but acquitted; emigrated at length to Australia, where he soon plunged into Colonial politics, and in his political capacity rendered distinguished services to the Australian colonies, especially in obtaining important concessions from the mother-country; he is the author of the "Ballad Poetry of Ireland," and an interesting record of his early experiences in "Young Ireland"; b. 1816.

DUFOUR, a Swiss general, born at Constance; commanded the army directed against the SONDERBUND (q. v.), and brought the war there to a close (1787-1875).

DUFRESNE, CHARLES. See DU CANGE.

DUFRESNY, French painter and poet, born at Paris (1765-1825).

DUFRESNY, CHARLES RIVIERE, French dramatist, a universal genius, devoted to both literature and the arts; held in high esteem by Louis XIV.; wrote a number of comedies, revealing a man of the world, instinct with wit, and careless of style (1648-1724).

DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM, antiquary, born in Warwickshire; was made Chester herald, accompanied Charles I. throughout the Civil War; his chief work was the "Monasticum Anglicanum," which he executed conjointly with Roger Duckworth; wrote also on the antiquities of Warwickshire and heraldry; left 27 folio MSS. now in the Bodleian Library (1605-1686).

DUGOMMIER, French general, pupil of Washington, born at Guadeloupe; distinguished himself in Italy; commanded at the siege of Toulon, which he took; fell at the battle of Sierra-Negra, in Spain, which he had invaded (1736-1794).

DUGUAY-TROUIN, RENE, a celebrated French sea-captain, born at St. Malo; distinguished at first in privateer warfare during the reign of Louis XIV., and afterwards as a frigate captain in the royal navy, to which the royal favour promoted him; was much beloved by the sailors and subordinate officers; died poor (1673-1736).

DU GUESCLIN, BERTRAND, constable of France, born in Cotes du Nord; one of the most illustrious of French war-captains, and distinguished as one or the chief instruments in expelling the English from Normandy, Guienne, and Poitou; was taken prisoner at the battle of Auray in 1364, but ransomed for 100,000 francs, and again by the Black Prince, but soon liberated; he was esteemed for his valour by foe and friend alike, and he was buried at St. Denis in the tomb of the kings of France (1314-1380).

DUHESME, a French general; covered with wounds at Waterloo, he was cruelly massacred by the Brunswick hussars in the house to which he had fled for refuge (1760-1815).

DUILIUS, CAIUS, a Roman consul; distinguished for having on the coast of Sicily gained the first naval victory recorded in the annals of Rome, 260 B.C.

DULCE DOMUM (for Sweet Home), a song sung by the pupils at Winchester College on the approach of and at the break-up of the school for the summer holidays.

DULCINEA DEL TOBOSA, the name Don Quixote gave to his beloved Aldonza Lorenzo, a coarse peasant-girl of Tobosa, conceived by him as a model of all feminine perfection, and as such adored by him.

DULIA, an inferior kind of worship paid to angels and saints, in contradistinction to LATRIA (q. v.).

DULONG, a French chemist, born at Rouen; discoverer, by accidental explosion, of the chloride of nitrogen (1785-1838).

DULUTH (52), a port on Lake Superior, with a fine harbour, and a great centre of commerce.

DULWICH, a southern Surrey suburb of London, with a flourishing college founded in 1619, and a picture gallery attached, rich especially in Dutch paintings. See ALLEYN, EDWARD.

DUMACHUS, the impenitent thief, figures in Longfellow's "Golden Legend" as one of a band of robbers who attacked St. Joseph on his flight into Egypt.

DUMAS, ALEXANDRE, THE ELDER, a celebrated French author, born at Villers-Cotterets, son of General Dumas, a Creole; lost his father at four, and led for a time a miscellaneous life, till, driven by poverty, he came to Paris to seek his fortune; here he soon made his mark, and became by-and-by the most popular dramatist and romancier of his time; his romances are numerous, and he reached the climax of his fame by the production of "Monte Cristo" in 1844, and the "Three Musketeers" the year after; he was unhappy in his marriage and with his wife, as afterwards, he squandered his fortune in reckless extravagance; before the end it was all spent, and he died at Dieppe, broken in health and impaired in intellect, ministered to by his son and daughter (1806-1876).

DUMAS, ALEXANDRE, THE YOUNGER or fils, dramatist and novelist, born in Paris, son of the preceding; he made his debut as a novelist with "La Dame aux Camelias" in 1848, which was succeeded by a number of other novels; he eventually gave himself up to the production of dramas, in which he was more successful than in romance (1824-1895).

DUMAS, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRE, a distinguished French chemist, born at Alais; was admitted to the Academie francaise at the age of 25; at the Revolution of 1848 he became a member of the National Assembly; was created a senator under the Empire, but retired into private life after Sedan; he was distinguished for his studies in chemistry, both theoretical and practical, and ranks among the foremost in the science (1800-1884).

DU MAURIER, artist, born in Paris; started in London as a designer of wood engravings; did illustrations for Once a Week, the Cornhill Magazine, &c.., and finally joined the staff of Punch, to which he contributed numerous clever sketches; he published a novel, "Peter Ibbetson," in 1891, which was succeeded in 1895 by "Trilby," which had such a phenomenal success in both England and America (1834-1897).

DUMB OX, THOMAS AQUINAS (q. v.), so called from his taciturnity before he opened his mouth and began, as predicted, to fill the world with his lowing.

DUMBARTON (17), the county town of Dumbartonshire, and a royal burgh, at the mouth of the Leven, on the Clyde, 15 m. from Glasgow; shipbuilding the chief industry; it was the capital of the kingdom of Strathclyde; adjoining is a castle of historic interest, 250 ft. high, kept up as a military fortress; the county, which is fertile, and was originally part of Lennox, is traversed by the Leven, with its bleach-fields and factories.

DUMBDRUDGE, an imaginary village referred to in "Sartor," where the natives toil and drudge away and say nothing about it, as villagers all over the world used contentedly to do, and did for most part, at the time "Sartor" was written, though less so now.

DUMBIEDIKES, a Scotch laird who figures in the "Heart of Midlothian," in love with Jeanie Deans.

DUMESNIL, MARIE FRANCOISE, a celebrated French tragedienne, born near Alencon; like Mrs. Siddons, surpassed all others at the time in the representation of dignity, pathos, and strong emotion; made her first appearance in 1737, retired in 1775 (1711-1803).

DUMFRIES (18), an agricultural market-town, county town of Dumfriesshire and a seaport, stands on the left bank of the Nith, with Maxwelltown as suburb on the right, 90 m. SW. of Edinburgh; manufactures tweeds and hosiery, and trades in cattle; here Robert Burns spent the last five years of his life, and his remains lie buried.

DUMFRIESSHIRE (74), a south-western Border county of Scotland; an agricultural district, which slopes from a northern pastoral region to the Solway, and is traversed by the fertile valleys of Nithsdale and Annandale.

DUMNORIX, a chief of the AEduan nation in Gaul, who gave some trouble to Caesar in his conquest of Gaul.

DUMONT, AUGUSTIN-ALEXANDRE, a sculptor, born in Paris (1801-1884).

DUMONT, JEAN, an eminent French publicist, who settled in Austria and served the emperor; wrote on international law (1660-1726).

DUMONT, LOUIS, a French publicist, born at Geneva, a friend of Mirabeau, memoirs of whom he wrote, and who, coming to England, formed a close intimacy with Jeremy Bentham, and became his disciple and expounder (1759-1829).

DUMONT D'URVILLE, JULES, a celebrated French navigator, born at Conde-sur-Noireau; made a three years' voyage round the world, and visited the Antarctic regions, of which he made a survey; he was distinguished as a scientist no less than a sea-captain; lost his life in a railway accident at Versailles (1790-1842).

DUMOULIN, a celebrated French jurist, born at Paris; did for French law what Cujas (q. v.) did for Roman (1500-1560).

DUMOURIEZ, a French general, born at Cambrai, "a wiry, elastic, unwearied man ... creature," as he boasted in his old age, "of God and his own sword ... on the whole, one of Heaven's Swiss"; took when already grey to the Revolution and fought on its behalf; gained the battles of Valmy and Jemmapes; conquered Belgium, but being distrusted, passed over to the ranks of the enemies of France; a man really "without faith; wanted above all things work, work on any side"; died an exile in England (1739-1824). See Carlyle's "French Revolution."

DUeNA, a river of Russia, which rises near the source of the Volga, and after a W. and NW. course of 650 m. falls into the Gulf of Riga; it is connected with the Dnieper by the Beresina Canal.

DUNBAR, an ancient seaport and town of Haddingtonshire, on the coast of the Forth, 29 m. E. of Edinburgh; is a fishing station, and manufactures agricultural implements and paper; was, with its castle, which has stood many a siege, a place of importance in early Scottish history; near it Cromwell beat the Scots under Leslie on September 3, 1650.

DUNBAR, William, a Scottish poet, entered the Franciscan order and became an itinerant preaching friar, in which capacity he wandered over the length and breadth of the land, enjoying good cheer by the way; was some time in the service of James IV., and wrote a poem, his most famous piece, entitled "The Thistle and the Rose," on the occasion of the King's marriage with the Princess Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. His poems were of three classes—allegoric, moral, and comic, the most remarkable being "The Dance," in which he describes the procession of the seven deadly sins in the infernal regions. Scott says he "was a poet unrivalled by any that Scotland has produced" (1480-1520).

DUNBLANE, a town in Perthshire, 5 m. N. of Stirling, with a beautiful cathedral, which dates back as far as 1240; of the diocese the saintly Leighton was bishop.

DUNCAN, ADAM, VISCOUNT, a British admiral, born at Dundee; entered the navy in 1746; steadily rose in rank till, in 1795, he became admiral of the Blue and commander of the North Sea fleet in 1795; kept watching the movements of the Dutch squadron for two years, till, at the end of that term, it put to sea, and came up with it off Camperdown, and totally defeated it, June 11, 1797 (1731-1804).

DUNCAN, THOMAS, a Scotch artist, born at Kinclaven, Perthshire; painted fancy and Scoto-historical subjects, and a number of excellent portraits; his career, which was full of promise, was cut short by an early death (1807-1845).

DUNCIAD, THE, a satire of Pope's in four books, the "fiercest" as well as the best of his satires, in which, with merciless severity, he applies the lash to his critics, and in which Colley Cibber figures as the King of Dunces.

DUNCKER, MAX, a historical writer, born in Berlin; held a professorship at Halle and Tuebingen, and became a minister of State; wrote among other works a work of great learning, in seven vols., entitled the "History of Antiquity" (1811-1886).

DUNCOMBE, T. S., an English politician, M.P. for Finsbury, one of the extreme Liberal party of the time, presented to the House of Commons the Chartist petition in 1842; denounced Sir James Graham, the Home Secretary of the day, for opening Mazzini's letter, and advocated Jewish emancipation (1796-1861).

DUNDALK (12), capital of co. Louth, Ireland, 50 m. N. of Dublin; a place of considerable trade and manufactures; is an ancient city; Edward Bruce, the last king of all Ireland, was crowned and resided here; it was besieged and taken more than once, by Cromwell for one.

DUNDAS (of Arniston), the name of a Scottish family, many of the members of which have distinguished themselves at the bar and on the bench.

DUNDAS, HENRY, VISCOUNT MELVILLE, a junior member of the above family; trained for the bar; rose to be Lord Advocate for Scotland and M.P. for the county of Edinburgh; opposed at first to Pitt, he became at last his ablest coadjutor in Parliament, and did important services in connection with the military and naval defences of the country; his power was sovereign in Scotland; his statue, mounted on a lofty column, adorns one of the principal squares of the New Town of Edinburgh (1741-1811).

DUNDEE (153), the third largest city in Scotland, stands on the Firth of Tay, 10 m. from the mouth; has a large seaport; is a place of considerable commercial enterprise; among its numerous manufactures the chief is the jute; it has a number of valuable institutions, and sends two members to Parliament.

DUNDONALD, THOMAS COCHRANE, EARL OF, entered the navy at the age of 17; became captain of the Speedy, a sloop-of-war of 14 guns and 54 men; captured in ten months 33 vessels; was captured by a French squadron, but had his sword returned to him; signalised himself afterwards in a succession of daring feats; selected to burn the French fleet lying at anchor in the Basque Roads, he was successful by means of fire-ships in destroying several vessels, but complained he was not supported by Lord Gambier, the admiral, a complaint which was fatal to his promotion in the service; disgraced otherwise, he went abroad and served in foreign navies, and materially contributed to the establishment of the republic of Chile and the empire of Brazil; in 1830 he was restored by his party, the Whigs, to his naval rank, as a man who had been the victim of the opposite party, and made a vice-admiral of the Blue in 1841; he afterwards vindicated himself in his "Autobiography of a Seaman" (1775-1860).

DUNDREARY, LORD, a character of the play "Our American Cousin"; the personification of a good-natured, brainless swell; represented uniquely on the stage by Mr. Sothern.

DUNEDIN (47), the capital of Otago, in New Zealand, situated well south on the E. side of the South Isle, at the head of a spacious bay, and the largest commercial city in the colony; founded by Scotch emigrants in 1848, one of the leaders a nephew of Robert Burns.

DUNES, low hills of sand extending along the coast of the Netherlands and the N. of France.

DUNFERMLINE (19), an ancient burgh in the W. of Fife; a place of interest as a residence of the early kings of Scotland, and as the birthplace of David II., James I., and Charles I., and for its abbey; it stands in the middle of a coal-field, and is the seat of extensive linen manufactures.

DUNKELD, a town in Perthshire, 15 m. NW. of Perth, with a fine 14th-century cathedral.

DUNKERS, a sect of Quakerist Baptists in the United States.

DUNKIRK (40), the most northern seaport and fortified town of France, on the Strait of Dover; has manufactures and considerable trade.

DUNNET HEAD, a rocky peninsula, the most northerly point in Scotland, the rocks from 100 to 600 ft. high.

DUNNOTTAR CASTLE, an old castle of the Keiths now in ruins, on the flat summit of a precipitous rock 11/2 m. S. of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Scotland, and connected with the mainland by a neck of land called the "Fiddle Head"; famous in Scottish history as a State prison, and as the place of safe-keeping at a troubled period for the Scottish regalia, now in Edinburgh Castle.

DUNOIS, JEAN, a French patriot, called the Bastard of Orleans, born in Paris, natural son of Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI.; one of the national heroes of France; along with Joan of Arc, compelled the English to raise the siege of Orleans, and contributed powerfully, by his sword, to all but expel the English from France after the death of that heroine (1402-1468).

DUNS SCOTUS, JOHANNES, one of the most celebrated of the scholastics of the 14th century, whether he was native of England, Scotland, or Ireland is uncertain; entered the Franciscan order, and from his acuteness got the name of "Doctor Subtilis"; lectured at Oxford to crowds of auditors, and also at Paris; was the contemporary of Thomas Aquinas, and the head of an opposing school of Scotists, as against Thomists, as they were called; whereas Aquinas "proclaimed the Understanding as principle, he proclaimed the Will, from whose spontaneous exercise he derived all morality; with this separation of theory from practice and thought from thing (which accompanied it) philosophy became divided from theology, reason from faith; reason took a position above faith, above authority (in modern philosophy), and the religious consciousness broke with the traditional dogma (at the Reformation)."

DUNSTAN, ST., an English ecclesiastic, born at Glastonbury; a man of high birth and connection as well as varied accomplishments; began a religious life as a monk living in a cell by himself, and prevailed in single combat on one occasion with the devil; became abbot of Glastonbury, in which capacity he adopted the role of statesman, and arose to great authority during the reign of Edgar, becoming archbishop of Canterbury, ruling the nation with vigour and success, but with the death of Edgar his power declined, and he retired to Canterbury, where he died of grief and vexation; he is the patron saint of goldsmiths (924-988).

DUNTON, WATTS. See WATTS, THEODORE.

DUPANLOUP, a French prelate, bishop of Orleans, born at St. Felix, in Savoy; a singularly able and eloquent man; devoted himself to educational emancipation and reform; protested vigorously against papal infallibility; yielded at length, and stood up in defence of the Church (1802-1878).

DUPERRE, a French admiral, born at La Rochelle; contributed along with Marshal Bourmont to the taking of Algiers (1775-1846).

DUPERRON, cardinal, a Swiss by birth and a Calvinist by religious profession; went to Paris, turned papist, and rose to ecclesiastical eminence in France under Henry IV. (1556-1618).

DUPIN, ANDRE, French jurist and statesman; distinguished at the time of the revolution of the three days as a supporter of Louis Philippe, and of the house of Orleans after him (1783-1865).

DUPLEIX, JOSEPH, a French merchant, head of a factory at Chandernagore, who rose to be governor of the French settlements in India, and in the management of which he displayed conspicuous ability, defending them against the English and receiving the dignity of marquis; jealousy at home, however, led to his recall, and he was left to end his days in neglect and poverty, though he pled hard with the cabinet at Versailles to have respect to the sacrifices he made for his country (1697-1763).

DUPLESSIS, MORNAY, a soldier, diplomatist, and man of letters; a leader of the Huguenots, who, after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, visited England, where he was received with favour by Elizabeth in 1575; entered the service of the King of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, but on Henry's reconciliation with the Church of Rome, retired into private life and devoted himself to literary pursuits; he was called the "Pope of the Huguenots"; d. 1623.

DUPONT, PIERRE, French song-writer; his songs, "Le Chant des Ouvriers" and "Les Boeufs," the delight of the young generation of 1848 (1820-1872).

DUPONT DE L'EURE, a French politician, born at Neubourg; filled several important offices in the successive periods of revolution in France; was distinguished for his integrity and patriotism, and made President of the Provisional Government in 1848 (1767-1855).

DUPONT DE NEMOURS, French political economist; took part in the Revolution; was opposed to the excesses of the Jacobin party, but escaped with his life; wrote a book entitled "Philosophie de l'Universe" (1739-1817).

DUPUIS, CHARLES FRANCOIS, a French savant; was a member of the Convention of the Council of the Five Hundred, and President of the Legislative Body during the Revolution period; devoted himself to the study of astronomy in connection with mythology, the result of which was published in his work in 12 vols., entitled "Origine de tous les Cultes, ou la Religion Universelle"; he advocated the unity of the astronomical and religious myths of all nations (1742-1809).

DUPUY, M. CHARLES, French statesman, born at Puy; elected to the Chamber in 1885; became Premier in 1893 and in 1894; was in office when Dreyfus was condemned and degraded, and resigned in 1895; b. 1851.

DUPUYTREN, BARON, a celebrated French surgeon, born at Pierre-Buffiere; he was a man of firm nerve, signally sure and skilful as an operator, and contributed greatly, both by his inventions and discoveries, to the progress of surgery; a museum of pathological anatomy, in which he made important discoveries, bears his name (1777-1835).

DUQUESNE, ABRAHAM, MARQUIS, an illustrious naval officer of France, born at Dieppe; distinguished himself in many a naval engagement, and did much to enhance the naval glory of the country; among other achievements plucked the laurels from the brow of his great rival, De Ruyter, by, in 1676, defeating the combined fleets of Spain and Holland under his command; Louis XIV. offered him a marshal's baton if he would abjure Calvinism, but he declined; he was the only one of the Huguenots excepted from proscription in the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but his last days were saddened by the banishment of his children (1610-1688).

DURA DEN, a glen near Cupar-Fife, famous for the number of ganoid fossil fishes entombed in its sandstone.

DURANCE, a tributary of the Rhone, which, after a rapid course of 180 m., falls into that river by its left bank 3 m. below Avignon.

DURAND, an Indian officer; served in the Afghan and Sikh Wars, and became Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab (1828-1871).

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