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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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DEAL (9), a town, one of the old Cinque ports, oil the E. of Kent, opposite the Goodwin Sands, 89 m. from London, with a fine sea-beach; much resorted to for sea-bathing quarters.

DEAN, FOREST OF, a forest of 22,000 acres in the W. of Gloucestershire, between the Severn and the Wye; the property of the Crown for the most part; the inhabitants are chiefly miners, who at one time enjoyed special privileges.

DEAN OF GUILD, a burgh magistrate in Scotland who has the care of buildings, originally the head of the Guild brethren of the town.

DEAN OF ST. PATRICK'S, Jonathan Swift, who held that post from 1713 till his death.

DEANS, DAVIE, EFFIE, AND JEANIE, characters in the "Heart of Midlothian."

DEBATS, JOURNAL DES, a daily paper, established in 1789; it defends at present the Conservative Republican policy, and publishes often remarkable literary articles.

DEBENTURE, a deed acknowledging a debt on a specified security.

DEBO'RAH, a Hebrew prophetess; reckoned one of the judges of Israel by her enthusiasm to free her people from the yoke of the Canaanites; celebrated for her song of exultation over their defeat, instinct at once with pious devotion and with revengeful feeling; Coleridge calls her "this Hebrew Boadicea."

DEBRECZEN (56), a Hungarian town, 130 m. E. of Buda-Pesth; is the head-quarters of Protestantism in the country, and has an amply equipped and a largely attended Protestant College; is a seat of manufactures and a large trade.

DECAMERON, a collection of a hundred tales, conceived of as rehearsed in ten days at a country-house during the plague at Florence; are of a licentious character, but exquisitely told; were written by Boccaccio; published in 1352; the name comes from deka, ten, and hemera, a day.

DECAMPS, ALEXANDRA GABRIEL, a distinguished French painter, born in Paris; brought up as a boy among the peasants of Picardy; represented nature as he in his own way saw it himself, and visited Switzerland and the East, where he found materials for original and powerful pictures; his pictures since his death have brought great prices (1803-1860).

DE CANDOLLE, AUGUSTIN PYRAME, an eminent botanist, born at Geneva, of Huguenot descent; studied in Paris; attracted the attention of Cuvier and Lamarck, whom he assisted in their researches; published his "Flore Francaise," in six vols.; became professor at Montpellier, and then at Geneva; is the historical successor of Jussieu; his great contribution to botanical science is connected with the classification of plants (1778-1841).

DECA'TUR, STEPHEN, an American naval commodore; distinguished for his feats of valour displayed in the war with Tripoli and with England (1779-1820).

DECCAN, a triangular plateau of from 2000 to 3000 ft. of elevation in the Indian peninsula, extending S. of the Vindhya Mountains; is densely peopled, and contains some of the richest soil in the globe.

DECEMBER, the twelfth month of the year, so called, i. e. tenth, by the Romans, as their year began with March.

DEC'EMVIRS, the patricians of Rome, with Consular powers, appointed in 450 B.C. to prepare a code of laws for the Republic, which, after being agreed upon, were committed first to ten, then to twelve tables, and set up in the Forum that all might read and know the law they lived under.

DECIUS, Roman emperor from 249 to 251; was a cruel persecutor of the Christians; perished in a morass fighting with the Goths, who were a constant thorn in his side all through his reign.

DECIUS MUS, the name of three Romans, father, son, and grandson, who on separate critical emergencies (340, 295, 279 B.C.) devoted themselves in sacrifice to the infernal gods in order to secure victory to the Roman arms; the name is mostly employed ironically.

DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, the immortal work of Gibbon, of which the first volume was published in 1776.

DECRETALS, THE, a collection of laws added to the canon law of the Church of Rome, being judicial replies of the Popes to cases submitted to them from time to time for adjudication.

DEE, JOHN, an alchemist, born in London; a man of curious learning; earned the reputation of being a sorcerer; was imprisoned at one time, and mobbed at another, under this imputation; died in poverty; left 79 works, the majority of which were never printed, though still extant in MS. in the British Museum and other places of safe-keeping (1527-1608).

DEFAUCONPRET, French litterateur; translator of the novels of Sir Walter Scott and Fenimore Cooper (1767-1843).

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, a title conferred by Pope Leo X. in 1521 upon Henry VIII. for his defence of the Catholic faith in a treatise against Luther, and retained ever since by the sovereigns of England, though revoked by Pope Paul III. in 1535 in consequence of Henry's apostasy.

DEFFAND, MARIE, MARQUISE DU, a woman of society, famed for her wit and gallantry; corresponded with the eminent philosophes of the time, in particular Voltaire, as well as with Horace Walpole; her letters are specially brilliant, and display great shrewdness; she is characterised by Prof. Saintsbury as "the typical French lady of the eighteenth century"; she became blind in 1753, but retained her relish for society, though at length she entered a monastery, where she died (1697-1780).

DEFOE, DANIEL, author of "Robinson Crusoe," born in London; bred for the Dissenting ministry; turned to business, but took chiefly to politics; was a zealous supporter of William III.; his ironical treatise, "The Shortest Way with Dissenters" (1703), which, treated seriously, was burned by order of the House of Commons, led to his imprisonment and exposed him for three days to the pillory, amidst the cheers, however, not the jeers, of the mob; in prison wrote a "Hymn to the Pillory," and started his Review; on his release he was employed on political missions, and wrote a "History of the Union," which he contributed to promote. The closing years of his life were occupied mainly with literary work, and it was then, in 1719, he produced his world-famous "Robinson Crusoe"; has been described as "master of the art of forging a story and imposing it on the world for truth." "His circumstantial invention," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "combined with a style which exactly fits it by its simplicity, is the root of the charm of his great story" (1661-1731).

DEGE'RANDO, BARON, a French philanthropist and philosopher, born at Lyons, of Italian descent; wrote "History of Philosophy," long in repute as the best French work on the subject (1772-1842).

DEIANEIRA, the wife of Hercules, whose death she had been the unwitting cause of by giving him the poisoned robe which NESSUS (q. v.) had sent her as potent to preserve her husband's love; on hearing the fatal result she killed herself in remorse and despair.

DEIPHOBUS, a son of Priam and Hecuba, second in bravery to Hector; married Helen after the death of Paris, and was betrayed by her to the Greeks.

DEIR-AL-KAMAR, a town in Syria, once the capital of the Druses, on a terrace in the heart of the Lebanon Mountains.

DEISM, belief on purely rational grounds in the existence of God, and distinguished from theism as denying His providence.

DEISTS, a set of free-thinkers of various shades, who in England, in the 17th and 18th centuries, discarded revelation and the supernatural generally, and sought to found religion on a purely rational basis.

DEJAZET, VIRGINIE, a celebrated French actress, born in Paris; made her debut at five years of age (1797-1875).

DEKKER, THOMAS, a dramatist, born in London; was contemporary of Ben Jonson, between whom and him, though they formerly worked together, a bitter animosity arose; wrote lyrics as well as dramas, which are light comedies, and prose as well as poetry; the most famous among his prose works, "The Gull's Hornbook," a pamphlet, in which he depicts the life of a young gallant; his pamphlets are valuable (1570-1641).

DE LA BECHE, SIR HENRY THOMAS, geologist, born in London; wrote the "Depth and Temperature of the Lake of Geneva," and published a "Manual of Geology" and the "Geological Observer"; was appointed head of the Geological Survey in England (1796-1855).

DELACROIX, EUGENE, a French painter, born at Charenton, dep. of Seine; one of the greatest French painters of the 19th century; was the head of the French Romantic school, a brilliant colourist and a daring innovator; his very first success, "Dante crossing Acheron in Charon's Boat," forms an epoch in the history of contemporary art; besides his pictures, which were numerous, he executed decorations and produced lithographic illustrations of "Hamlet," "Macbeth," and Goethe's "Faust" (1799-1863).

DELAGOA BAY, an inlet in the SE. of Africa, E. of the Transvaal, subject to Portugal; stretches from 25 deg. 30' to 26 deg. 20' S.; extends 52 m. inland, where the Transvaal frontier begins, and between which and it a railway of 52 m., constructed by an English company, extends.

DELAISTRE, a French statuary, born in Paris (1836-1891).

DELAMBRE, JEAN JOSEPH, an eminent French astronomer, born at Amiens, a pupil of Lalande; measured with Mechain the arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and Barcelona towards the establishment of the metric system; produced numerous works of great value, among others "Theoretical and Practical Astronomy" and the "History of Astronomy" (1749-1822).

DELANE, JOHN THADEUS, editor of the Times, born in London; studied at Oxford; after some experience as a reporter was put on the staff of the Times, and in 1841 became editor, a post he continued to hold for 36 years; was the inspiring and guiding spirit of the paper, but wrote none of the articles (1817-1879).

DELAROCHE, PAUL, a French historical painter and one of the greatest, born in Paris; was the head of the modern Eclectic school, so called as holding a middle place between the Classical and Romantic schools of art; among his early works were "St. Vincent de Paul preaching before Louis XIII." and "Joan of Arc before Cardinal Beaufort"; the subjects of his latest pictures are from history, English and French, such as "The Princes in the Tower" and "Cromwell contemplating the corpse of Charles I.," a great work; but the grandest monument of his art is the group of paintings with which he adorned the wall of the semicircle of the Palais des Beaux Arts in Paris, which he completed in 1841 (1797-1856).

DELAUNAY, LE VICOMTE, the nom de plume of Mme. Delphine, under which she published her "Parisian Letters."

DELAUNAY, LOUIS ARSENE, a great French actor, born in Paris; made his debut in 1846, retired 1887.

DELAVIGNE, CASIMIR, a popular French lyric poet and dramatist, born at Havre; his verse was conventional and without originality (1793-1843).

DELAWARE (168), one of the Atlantic and original States of the American Union, as well as the smallest of them; the soil is rather poor, but porcelain clay abounds.

DELCASSE, THEOPHILE, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, born at Pamiers; began life as a journalist; was elected to the Chamber in 1889; became Colonial Minister; advocated colonial expansion; dealt skilfully with the Fashoda affair as Foreign Minister; b. 1852.

DELECTABLE MOUNTAINS, mountains covered with sheep in the "Pilgrim's Progress," from which the pilgrim obtains a view of the Celestial City.

DELESCLUZE, a French Communist, born at Dreux; was imprisoned and transported for his extreme opinions; started a journal, the Reveil, in 1868, to advocate the doctrines of the International; was mainly answerable for the atrocities of the Paris Commune; was killed in the barricades (1809-1871).

DELFT (27), a Dutch town, S m. NW. of Rotterdam, once famous for its pottery; is intersected by canals; has an important polytechnic school.

DELGADO, a cape of E. Africa, on the border between Zanzibar and Mozambique.

DELHI (192), on the right bank of the Jumna, once the capital of the Mogul empire and the centre of the Mohammedan power in India; it is a great centre of trade, and is situated in the heart of India; it contains the famous palace of Shah Jahan, and the Jama Masjid, which occupies the heart of the city, and is the largest and finest mosque in India, which owes its origin to Shah Jahan; it is walled, is 51 m. in circumference, and divided into Hindu, Mohammedan, and European quarters; it was captured by Lord Lake in 1803, and during the Mutiny by the Sepoys, but after a siege of seven days retaken in 1857.

DELIGHT OF MANKIND, the Roman Emperor Trajan.

DELILAH, the Philistine woman who beguiled and betrayed Samson.

DELILLE, JACQUES, a French poet, born at Aigues Perse, in Auvergne; translator of the "Georgics" of Virgil into verse, afterwards the "AEneid" and "Paradise Lost," besides producing also certain didactic and descriptive works; was a good versifier, but properly no poet, and much overrated; died blind (1738-1813).

DELITZSCH, FRANZ, a learned biblical scholar and exegete, born at Leipzig; his commentaries, which are numerous, were of a conservative tendency; he wrote on Jewish antiquities, biblical psychology, and Christian apologetics; was professor at Erlangen and Leipzig successively, where his influence on the students was distinctly marked (1813-1899).

DELIUS, NICOLAUS, a German philologist, born at Bremen; distinguished especially as a student of Shakespeare and for his edition of Shakespeare's works, which is of transcendent merit (1813-1888).

DELIA CRUSCANS, a set of English sentimental poetasters, the leaders of them hailing from Florence, that appeared in England towards the close of the 18th century, and that for a time imposed on many by their extravagant panegyrics of one another, the founder of the set being one Robert Merry, who signed himself Della Crusca; he first announced himself by a sonnet to Love, in praise of which Anne Matilda wrote an incomparable piece of nonsense; "this epidemic spread for a term from fool to fool," but was soon exposed and laughed out of existence.

DELLYS (3), a seaport in Algeria, 49 m. E. of Algiers.

DELOLME, JOHN LOUIS, a writer on State polity, born at Geneva, bred to the legal profession; spent some six years in England as a refugee; wrote a book on the "Constitution of England," and in praise of it, which was received for a time with high favour in the country, but is now no longer regarded as an authority; wrote a "History of the Flagellants," and on "The Union of Scotland with England" (1740-1806).

DELORME, a French architect, born at Lyons; studied in Rome; was patronised by Catherine de Medici; built the palace of the Tuileries, and contributed to the art of building (1518-1577).

DELORME, MARION, a Frenchwoman celebrated for her wit and fascination, born at Chalons-sur-Marne; came to Paris in the reign of Louis XIII., where her drawing-room became the rendezvous of all the celebrities of the time, many of whom were bewitched by her charms; she gave harbour to the chiefs of the Fronde, and was about to be arrested when she died; the story that her death was a feint, and that she had subsequent adventures, is distrusted; she is the subject of a drama by Victor Hugo (1612-1650).

DELOS, the smallest and central island of the Cyclades, the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, and where the former had a famous oracle; it was, according to the Greek mythology, a floating island, and was first fixed to the spot by Zeus to provide Leda with a place, denied her elsewhere by Hera, in which to bring forth her twin offspring; it was at one time a centre of Apollo worship, but is now uninhabited, and only frequented at times by shepherds with their flocks.

DELPHI, a town of ancient Greece in Phocis, at the foot of Parnassus, where Apollo had a temple, and whence he was wont to issue his oracles by the mouth of his priestess the Pythia, who when receiving the oracle used to sit on a tripod over an opening in the ground through which an intoxicating vapour exhaled, deemed the breath of the god, and that proved the vehicle of her inspiration; the Pythian games were celebrated here.

DELPHIN CLASSICS, an edition of the Greek and Roman classics, edited by Bossuet and Huet, assisted by thirty-nine scholars, for the use of the dauphin of Louis XIV.; of little use now.

DELPHINE, a novel by Mme. de Stael; presumed to be an idealised picture of herself.

DELTA, the signature of D. Macbeth Moir in Blackwood's Magazine.

DELUC, JEAN ANDRE, geologist, born in Geneva; lived in England; was reader to Queen Charlotte, and author of several works (1727-1817).

DELUGE, name given to the tradition, common to several races, of a flood of such universality as to sweep the land, if not the earth, of all its inhabitants, except the pair by whom the land of the earth was repeopled.

DEM'ADES, an Athenian orator, a bitter enemy of Demosthenes, in the interest of Philip of Macedon; put to death for treason by Antipater, 318 B.C.; was a man of no principle, but a great orator.

DEMARA'TUS, king of Sparta from 510 to 491 B.C.; dispossessed of his crown, fled to Persia and accompanied Xerxes into Greece.

DEMAVEND, MOUNT, an extinct volcano, the highest peak (18,600 ft.) of the Elburz chain, in Persia.

DEMBEA, a lake, the largest in Abyssinia, being 60 m. long and 6000 ft. above the sea-level, from which the Blue Nile issues.

DEMBINSKI, HENRY, a Polish general, born near Cracow; served under Napoleon against Russia, under Kossuth against Austria; fled to Turkey on the resignation of Kossuth; died in Paris (1791-1864).

DEMERARA, a division of British Guiana; takes its name from the river, which is 200 m. long, and falls into the Atlantic at Georgetown.

DEMETER (lit. Earth-mother), the great Greek goddess of the earth, daughter of Kronos and Rhea and sister of Zeus, and ranks with him as one of the twelve great gods of Olympus; is specially the goddess of agriculture, and the giver of all the earth's fruits; the Latins call her Ceres.

DEMETRIUS, the name of two kings of Macedonia who ruled over the country, the first from 290 to 289 B.C., and the second from 240 to 229 B.C.

DEMETRIUS, or DIMITRI, the name of several sovereigns of Russia, and of four adventurers called the four false Dimitri.

DEMETRIUS I., Soter (i. e. saviour), king of Syria from 162 to 150 B.C.; was grandson of Antiochus the Great. D. II., Nicator (i. e. conqueror), king of Syria from 143 to 125 B.C. D. III., Eucaeros (i. e. the happy), king of Syria in 95, died in 84 B.C.

DEMETRIUS PHALEREUS, an eminent Athenian orator, statesman, and historian, born at Phalerus, a seaport of Athens; was held in high honour in Athens for a time as its political head, but fell into dishonour, after which he lived retired and gave himself up to literary pursuits; died from the bite of an asp; left a number of works (345-283 B.C.).

DEMIDOFF, a Russian family distinguished for their wealth, descended from a serf of Peter the Great, and who amassed a large fortune by manufacturing firearms for him, and were raised by him to the rank of nobility; they were distinguished in the arts, in arms, and even literature; ANATOL in particular, who travelled over the SE. of Europe, and wrote an account of his travels, a work magnificently illustrated.

DEMIGOD, a hero elevated in the imagination to the rank of a divinity in consequence of the display of virtues and the achievement of feats superior to those of ordinary men.

DEMI-MONDE, a class in Parisian society dressing in a fashionable style, but of questionable morals.

DEMIURGUS, a name employed by Plato to denote the world-soul, the medium by which the idea is made real, the spiritual made material, the many made one, and it was adopted by the Gnostics to denote the world-maker as a being derived from God, but estranged from God, being environed in matter, which they regarded as evil, and so incapable as such of redeeming the soul from matter, from evil, such as the God of the Jews, and the Son of that God, conceived of as manifest in flesh.

DEMOCRACY has been defined to be government of the people by the people and for the people, or as a State in which the government rests directly with the majority of the citizens, but this under the protest of some that it is not an end but a means "to the attainment of a truer and truer aristocracy, or government again by the Best."

DEMOCRATS, a political party in the United States that contends for the rights of the several States to self-government as against undue centralisation.

DEMOCRITUS, a Greek philosopher, born in Abdera, Thrace, of wealthy parents; spent his patrimony in travel, gathered knowledge from far and near, and gave the fruits of it in a series of writings to his contemporary compatriots, only fragments of which remain, though they must have come down comparatively entire to Cicero's time, who compares them for splendour and music of eloquence to Plato's; his philosophy was called the Atomic, as he traced the universe to its ultimate roots in combinations of atoms, in quality the same but in quantity different, and referred all life and sensation to movements in them, while he regarded quiescence as the summum bonum; he has been called the Laughing Philosopher from, it is alleged, his habit of laughing at the follies of mankind; b. 460 B.C.

DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR, a pseudonym under which Burton published his "Anatomy of Melancholy."

DEMOGEOT, French litterateur, born at Paris; wrote a history of literature, chiefly French (1808-1894).

DEMOGORGON, a terrible deity, the tyrant of the elves and fairies, who must all appear before him once every five years to give an account of their doings.

DEMOIVRE, ABRAHAM, a mathematician, born in Champagne; lived most of his life in England to escape, as a Protestant, from persecution in France; became a friend of Newton, and a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was of such eminence as a mathematician that he was asked to arbitrate between the claims of Newton and Leibnitz to the invention of fluxions (1667-1754).

DEMON, or DAIMON, a name which Socrates gave to an inner divine instinct which corresponds to one's destiny, and guides him in the way he should go to fulfil it, and is more or less potent in a man according to his purity of soul.

DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS, an eminent mathematician, born in Madura, S. India; was professor of Mathematics in London University from 1828 till his death, though he resigned the appointment for a time in consequence of the rejection of a candidate, James Martineau, for the chair of logic, on account of his religious opinions; wrote treatises on almost every department of mathematics, on arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, differential and integral calculus, the last pronounced to be "the most complete treatise on the subject ever produced in England"; wrote also "Formal Logic" (1806-1871).

DEMOSTHENES, the great Athenian orator, born in Athens; had many impediments to overcome to succeed in the profession, but by ingenious methods and indomitable perseverance he subdued them all, and became the first orator not of Greece only, but of all antiquity; a stammer in his speech he overcame by practising with pebbles in his mouth, and a natural diffidence by declaiming on the sea-beach amid the noise of the waves; while he acquired a perfect mastery of the Greek language by binding himself down to copy five times over in succession Thucydides' "History of the Peloponnesian War"; he employed 15 years of his life in denunciation of Philip of Macedon, who was bent on subjugating his country; pronounced against him his immortal "Philippics" and "Olynthiacs"; took part in the battle of Cheronea, and continued the struggle even after Philip's death; on the death of Alexander he gave his services as an orator to the confederated Greeks, and in the end made away with himself by poison so as not to fall into the hands of Autipater (385-322 B.C.). See CTESIPHON.

DEMPSTER, THOMAS, a learned Scotchman, born in Aberdeenshire; held several professorships on the Continent; was the author of "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," a work of great learning, but of questionable veracity; has been reprinted by the Bannatyne Club; his last days were embittered by the infidelity of his wife (1579-1625).

DENARIUS, a silver coin among the Romans, first coined in 269 B.C., and worth 81/2 d.

DENBIGH (6), the county town of Denbighshire, in the Vale of the Clwyd, 30 m. W. of Chester; manufactures shoes and leather.

DENBIGHSHIRE (117), a county in North Wales, of rugged hills and fertile vales, 40 m. long and 17 m. on an average broad, with a coal-field in the NE., and with mines of iron, lead, and slate.

DENDERA, a village in Upper Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, 28 m. N. of Thebes, on the site of ancient Tentyra, with the ruins of a temple in almost perfect preservation; on the ceiling of a portico of which there was found a zodiac, now in the museum of the Louvre in Paris, and dates from the period of Cleopatra and the early Roman emperors, and has sculptured portraits of that queen and her son Caesarion.

DENGUE, a disease peculiar to the tropics, occurs in hot weather, and attacks one suddenly with high fever and violent pains, and after a relapse returns in a milder form and leaves the patient very weak.

DENHAM, DIXON, an English traveller, companion of Clapperton; visited Bornu and Lake Tchad (1785-1828).

DENHAM, SIR JOHN, an English poet, born at Dublin, the son of an Irish judge; took to gambling and squandered his patrimony; was unhappy in his marriage, and his mind gave way; is best known as the author of "Cooper's Hill," a descriptive poem, interspersed with reflections, and written in smooth flowing verse (1615-1669).

DENINA, CARLO, an Italian historian, born in Piedmont; banished from Italy for a cynical remark injurious to the monks; paid court to Frederick the Great in Berlin, where he lived a good while, and became eventually imperial librarian in Paris under Napoleon (1731-1813).

DENIS, a king of Portugal from 1279 to 1325; the founder of the University of Coimbra and the Order of Christ.

DENIS, ST., the apostle of the Gauls, the first bishop of Paris, and the patron saint of France; suffered martyrdom in 270.

DENIS, ST., a town 6 m. N. of Paris, within the line of the fortifications, with an abbey which contains the remains of St. Denis, and became the mausoleum of the kings of France.

DENISON, EDWARD, philanthropist; distinguished by his self-denying benevolent labours in the East End of London (1840-1870).

DENISON, GEORGE ANTHONY, archdeacon of Taunton, born in Notts; was charged with holding views on the eucharist inconsistent with the teaching of the Church of England, first condemned and then acquitted on appeal; a stanch High Churchman, and equally opposed to Broad Church and Low; b. 1805.

DENISON, JOHN EVELYN, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1858 to 1872, brother of the above (1800-1873).

DENMAN, LORD, Lord Chief-Justice of England from 1832 to 1850, born in London; was along with Brougham counsel for Queen Caroline (1779-1854).

DENMARK (2,182), the smallest of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, consisting of Jutland and an archipelago of islands in the Baltic Sea, divided into 18 counties, and is less than half the size of Scotland; is a low-lying country, no place in it more above the sea-level than 500 ft., and as a consequence has no river to speak of, only meres or lakes; the land is laid out in cornfields and grazing pastures; there are as good as no minerals, but abundance of clay for porcelain; while the exports consist chiefly of horses, cattle, swine, hams, and butter; it has 1407 m. of railway, and 8686 of telegraph wires; the government is constitutional, and the established religion Lutheran.

DENNEWITZ, a village in Brandenburg, 40 m. SW. of Berlin, where Marshal Ney with 70,000 was defeated by Marshal Buelow with 50,000.

DENNIS, JOHN, a would-be dramatist and critic, born in London, in constant broils with the wits of his time; his productions were worth little, and he is chiefly remembered for his attacks on Addison and Pope, and for the ridicule these attacks brought down at their hands on his own head, from Pope in "Narrative of the Frenzy of John Dennis," and "damnation to everlasting fame" in "Dunciad"; he became blind, and was sunk in poverty, when Pope wrote a prologue to a play produced for his benefit (1657-1734).

DENS, PETER, a Catholic theologian, born at Boom near Antwerp; author of a work entitled "Theologia Moralis et Dogmatica," a minute and casuistic vindication in catechetical form of the tenets of the Catholic Church, and in use as a text-book in Catholic colleges (1690-1775).

DENTATUS, M. CURIUS, a Roman of the old stamp; as consul gained two victories over rival States and two triumphs in one year; drove Pyrrhus out of Italy (275 B.C.), and brought to Rome immense booty, of which he would take nothing to himself; in his retirement took to tilling a small farm with his own hand.

DENVER (134), the capital of Colorado, U.S., on a plain 5196 ft. above the sea-level; originally founded as a mining station in 1858, now a large and flourishing and well-appointed town; is the centre of a great trade, and a great mining district.

DEODAR (25), a small protected independent State in the NW. of Gujarat, India.

DEODORAKI, a glacier in the Caucasus Mountains.

DEPARCIEUX, French mathematician, born at Cessoux, dep. of Gard; known for the "Tables" which bear his name, containing a reckoning of the chances of longevity for different ages (1703-1768).

DEPARTMENT, a territorial division in France instituted in 1790, under which the old division into provinces was broken up; each department, of which there are now 87, is broken up into arrondissements.

DEPPING, a learned French historian, born at Muenster; wrote a "History of Normandy," and on "Trade of Europe with the Levant" (1784-1853).

DEPTFORD (101), a town on the S. bank of the Thames, partly in Kent and partly in Surrey, now forming part of London; once with an extensive Government dockyard and arsenal, the site of it purchased by the Corporation of London as a market for foreign cattle; is now the central station for the Electric Light Company.

DE QUINCEY, THOMAS, a great English prose writer, born in Manchester; son of a merchant called Quincey; his father dying, he was under a guardian, who put him to school, from which in the end he ran away, wandered about in Wales for a time, and by-and-by found his way to London; in 1803 was sent to Oxford, which in 1807 he left in disgust; it was here as an anodyne he took to opium, and acquired that habit which was the bane of his life; on leaving Oxford he went to Bath beside his mother, where he formed a connection by which he was introduced to Wordsworth and Southey, and led to settle to literary work at Grasmere, in the Lake District; here he wrote for the reviews and magazines, particularly Blackwood's, till in 1821 he went up to London and published his "Confessions" under the nom de plume of "The English Opium-Eater"; leaving Grasmere in 1828 he settled in Edinburgh, and at Polton, near Lasswade, where he died; is characterised by Stopford Brooke as "owing to the overlapping and involved melody of his style one of our best, as he is one of our most various miscellaneous writers"; he was a writer of very miscellaneous ability and acquirement (1785-1859).

DERBEND (14), capital of Russian Daghestan, on the W. of the Caspian Sea, 140 m. NW. of Baku.

DERBY (94), county town of Derbyshire, on the Derwent, with manufactures of silk, cotton hosiery, lace, porcelain, &c.; it is the centre of a great railway system.

DERBY, CHARLOTTE COUNTESS OF, wife of the 7th Earl who was taken prisoner at Worcester in 1651, and was beheaded at Bolton; famous for her gallant defence of Lathom House against the Parliamentary forces, which she was obliged to surrender; lived to see the Restoration; d. 1663.

DERBY, 14TH EARL OF, British statesman, born at Knowsley Hall, Lancashire; entered Parliament in 1820 in the Whig interest, and was hailed as an accession to their ranks by the Whigs; supported the cause of reform; in 1830 became Chief Secretary for Ireland under Earl Grey's administration; introduced a coercive measure against the Repeal agitation of O'Connell; contributed to the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832; seceded from the Whigs in 1834, and became Colonial Secretary in 1845 under a Conservative administration, but when Sir Robert Peel brought in a bill to repeal the Corn Laws, he retired from the Cabinet, and in 1848 became the head of the Protectionist party as Earl of Derby, to which title he succeeded in 1851; was after that Prime Minister three times over, and it was with his sanction Disraeli carried his Reform Act of 1867, though he spoke of it as "a leap in the dark"; he resigned his Premiership in 1868, and the last speech he made was against the Irish Disestablishment Bill; was distinguished for his scholarship as well as his oratory, and gave proof of this by his scholarly translation of the "Iliad" of Homer (1797-1869).

DERBY, 15TH EARL OF, eldest son of the preceding; entered Parliament as Lord Stanley in 1848; was a member of the three Derby administrations, in the first and third in connection with foreign affairs, and in the second as Secretary for India, at the time when the government of India passed from the Company to the Crown; became Earl in 1869; was Foreign Secretary under Mr. Disraeli in 1874, but retired in 1878; in 1885 joined the Liberal party, and held office under Mr. Gladstone, but declined to follow him in the matter of Home Rule, and joined the Unionist ranks; was a man of sound and cool judgment, and took a deep interest in economical questions (1826-1893).

DERBY DAY, the last Wednesday in May, or, as may happen, the 1st of June, being the second day of the Summer Meeting at Epsom, on which the Derby Stakes for colts and fillies three years old are run for, so called as having been started by the 12th Earl of Derby in 1780; the day is held as a great London holiday, and the scene is one to which all London turns out. The stakes run for are L6000, of which the winner gets L5000.

DERBYSHIRE (520), a northern midland county of England, hilly in the N., undulating and pastoral in the S., and with coal-fields in the E.; abounds in minerals, and is more a manufacturing and mining county than an agricultural.

DERG, LOUGH, an expansion of the waters of the Shannon, Ireland, 24 m. long, from 2 to 6 broad; also a small lake in the S. of Donegal, with small islands, one of which, Station Island, was, as the reputed entrance to St. Patrick's Purgatory, a place of pilgrimage to thousands at one time.

DERVISHES, a name given to members of certain mendicant orders connected with the Mohammedan faith in the East. Of these there are various classes, under different regulations, and wearing distinctive costumes, with their special observances of devotion, and all presumed to lead an austere life, some of whom live in monasteries, and others go wandering about, some of them showing their religious fervour in excited whirling dances, and others in howlings; all are religious fanatics in their way, and held sacred by the Moslems.

DERWENTWATER, one of the most beautiful of the Cumberland lakes, in the S. of the county; extends S. from Keswick; is over 3 m. long, and over 1 m. broad; is dotted with wooded islands, and is overlooked by Skiddaw; it abounds with perch.

DERWENTWATER, EARL OF, a Jacobite leader; was 3rd Earl and the last; several warrants were issued for his apprehension in 1714; he joined the Jacobite rising in 1715; was taken prisoner at Preston, and beheaded on Tower Hill, London, next year, after trial in Westminster Hall, confession of guilt, and pleadings on his behalf with the king.

DERZHAVEN, GABRIEL, a Russian lyric poet, born at Kasan; rose from the ranks as a common soldier to the highest offices in the State under the Empress Catharine II. and her successors; retired into private life, and gave himself up to poetry; the ode by which he is best known is his "Address to the Deity" (1743-1816).

DESAIX, LOUIS CHARLES ANTOINE, a distinguished French general, born at the Chateau d'Ayat, Auvergne, of a noble family; entered the army at 15; commanded a division of the Army of the Rhine in 1796, and after the retreat of Moreau defended Kehl against the Austrians for two months; accompanied Bonaparte to the East, and in 1799 conquered Upper Egypt; contributed effectively to the success at Marengo, and fell dead at the moment of victory, shot by a musket-ball; he was an upright and a chivalrous man, known in Egypt as "the just Sultan," and in Germany as "the good general" (1768-1800).

DESAUGIERS, MARC, a celebrated French composer of songs and vaudevilles; "stands second to Beranger as a light song-writer," and is by some preferred to him (1772-1827).

DESAULT, a French surgeon, born in dep. of Haute-Saone; his works contributed largely to the progress of surgery (1714-1795).

DESBARRES, JOSEPH FREDERICK, military engineer and hydrographer, aide-de-camp of General Wolfe at Quebec; fortified Quebec; surveyed the St. Lawrence; revised the maps of the American coast at the outbreak of the American war; died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, aged 102 (1722-1824).

DESCAMPS, a French painter, born at Dunkirk; painted village scenes (1714-1791).

DESCARTES, RENE, the father of modern philosophy, born at La Haye, in Touraine; was educated at the Jesuit College of La Fleche, where he made rapid progress in all that his masters could teach him, but soon grew sceptical as to their methods of inquiry; "resolved, on the completion of his studies, to bid adieu to all school and book learning, and henceforth to gain knowledge only from himself, and from the great book of the world, from nature and the observation of man"; in 1616 he entered the army of the Prince of Orange, and after a service of five years quitted it to visit various centres of interest on the Continent; made a considerable stay in Paris; finally abandoned his native land in 1629, and betook himself to seclusion in Holland in order to live there, unknown and undisturbed, wholly for philosophy and the prosecution of his scientific projects; here, though not without vexatious opposition from the theologians, he lived twenty years, till in 1649, at the invitation of Christina of Sweden, he left for Stockholm, where, the severe climate proving too much for him, he was carried off by pneumonia next year; Descartes' philosophy starts with Doubt, and by one single step it arrives at Certainty; "if I doubt, it is plain I exist," and from this certainty, that is, the existence of the thinking subject, he deduces his whole system; it all comes from the formula Cogito, ergo sum, "I think, therefore I exist," that is, the thinking ego exists; in which thinking philosophy ere long sums the universe up, regarding it as a void, without thought; Descartes' philosophy is all comprehended in two works, his "Discourse on Method," and his "Meditations" (1596-1650).

DESCHAMPS, EMILE, a French poet, born at Bourges, one of the chiefs of the Romantic school (1795-1871).

DESCHAMPS, EUSTACHE, a French poet, born at Vertus, in Champagne; studied in Orleans University; travelled over Europe; had his estate pillaged by the English, whom, in consequence, he is never weary of abusing; his poems are numerous, and, except one, all short, consisting of ballads, as many as 1175 of them, a form of composition which he is said to have invented; he deals extensively in satire, and if he wields the shafts of it against the plunderers of his country, he does no less against the oppressors of the poor (1328-1415).

DESDEMONA, the wife of Othello the Moor, who, in Shakespeare's play of that name, kills her on a groundless insinuation of infidelity, to his bitter remorse.

DESEZE, a French advocate, had the courage, along with advocate Tronchet, to defend Louis XVI. when dragged to judgment by the Convention, and who, honourably fulfilling his perilous office, pled for the space of three hours, an honourable pleading "composed almost overnight; courageous, yet discreet; not without ingenuity, and soft pathetic eloquence"; he was imprisoned for a time, but escaped the scaffold; on the return of the Bourbons he was made a peer (1750-1828).

DESMOND, EARLDOM OF, an Irish title long extinct by the death of the last earl in 1583; he had rebelled against Elizabeth's government, been proclaimed, and had taken refuge in a peasant's cabin, and been betrayed.

DES MOINES (62), the largest city in Iowa, U.S., and the capital, founded in 1846.

DESMOULINS, CAMILLE, one of the most striking figures in the French Revolution, born at Guise, in Picardy; studied for the bar in the same college with Robespierre, but never practised, owing to a stutter in his speech; was early seized with the revolutionary fever, and was the first to excite the same fever in the Parisian mob, by his famous call "To arms, and, for some rallying sign, cockades—green ones—the colour of Hope, when," as we read in Carlyle, "as with the flight of locusts, the green tree-leaves, green ribbons from the neighbouring shops, all green things, were snatched to make cockades of"; was one of the ablest advocates of the levelling principles of the Revolution; associated himself first with Mirabeau and then with Danton in carrying them out, and even supported Robespierre in the extreme course he took; but his heart was moved to relent when he thought of the misery the guillotine was working among the innocent families, the wives and the children, of its victims, would, along with Danton, fain have brought the Reign of Terror to a close; for this he was treated as a renegade, put under arrest at the instance of Robespierre, subjected to trial, sentenced to death, and led off to the place of execution; while his young wife, for interfering in his behalf, was arraigned and condemned, and sent to the guillotine a fortnight after him (1762-1794).

DE SOTO, a Spanish voyager, was sent to conquer Florida, penetrated as far as the Mississippi; worn out with fatigue in quest of gold, died of fever, and was buried in the river (1496-1542).

DES PERIERS, BONAVENTURE, a French humanist and story-teller, born at Autun, in Burgundy; valet-de-chamber of Margaret of Valois; wrote "Cymbalum Mundi," a satirical production, in which, as a disciple of Lucian, he holds up to ridicule the religious beliefs of his day; also "Novelles Recreations et Joyeux Devis," a collection of some 129 short stories admirably told; was one of the first prose-writers of the century, and is presumed to be the author of the "Heptameron," ascribed to Margaret of Valois; d. 1544.

DESPRE'AUX. See BOILEAU.

DESSALINES, JEAN JACQUES, emperor of Hayti, born in Guinea, W. Africa, a negro imported into Hayti as a slave; on the emancipation of the slaves there he acquired great influence among the insurgents, and by his cruelties compelled the French to quit the island, upon which he was raised to the governorship, and by-and-by was able to declare himself emperor, but his tyranny provoked a revolt, in which he perished (1760-1806).

DESSAU (34), a North German town, the capital of the Duchy of Anhalt, on the Mulde, affluent of the Elbe, some 70 m. SW. of Berlin; it is at once manufacturing and trading.

DESSAUER, THE OLD. See LEOPOLD OF DESSAU.

DESTOUCHES, a French dramatist, born at Tours; his plays were comedies, and he wrote 17, all excellent (1680-1754); also a French painter (1790-1884).

DETMOLD (9), capital of Lippe, 47 m. SW. of Hanover, with a bronze colossal statue of ARMINIUS (q. v.) near by.

DETROIT (285), the largest city in Michigan, U.S., a great manufacturing and commercial centre, situated on a river of the same name, which connects Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie; is one of the oldest places in the States, and dates from 1670, at which time it came into the possession of the French; is a well-built city, with varied manufactures and a large trade, particularly in grain and other natural products.

DETTINGEN, a village in Bavaria, where an army of English, Hanoverians, and Austrians under George II., in 1743 defeated the French under Duc de Noailles.

DEUCALION, son of Prometheus, who, with his wife Pyrrha, by means of an ark which he built, was saved from a flood which for nine days overwhelmed the land of Hellas. On the subsidence of the flood they consulted the oracle at Delphi as to re-peopling the land with inhabitants, when they were told by Themis, the Pythia at the time, to throw the bones of their mother over their heads behind them. For a time the meaning of the oracle was a puzzle, but the readier wit of the wife found it out; upon which they took stones and threw them over their heads, when the stones he threw were changed into men and those she threw were changed into women.

DEUS EX MACHINA, the introduction in high matters of a merely external, material, or mechanical explanation instead of an internal, rational, or spiritual one, which is all a theologian does when he simply names God, and all a scientist does when he simply says EVOLUTION (q. v.).

DEUTERONOMY (i. e. the Second Law), the fifth book of the Pentateuch, and so called as the re-statement and re-enforcement, as it were, by Moses of the Divine law proclaimed in the wilderness. The Mosaic authorship of this book is now called in question, though it is allowed to be instinct with the spirit of the religion instituted by Moses, and it is considered to have been conceived at a time when that religion with its ritual was established in Jerusalem, in order to confirm faith in the Divine origin and sanction of observances there.

DEUTSCH, EMANUEL, a distinguished Hebrew scholar, born at Neisse, in Silesia, of Jewish descent; was trained from his boyhood to familiarity with the Hebrew and Chaldea languages; studied under Boeckh at the university of Berlin; came to England, and in 1855 obtained a post in the library of the British Museum; had made a special study of the "Talmud," on which he wrote a brilliant article for the Quarterly Review, to the great interest of many; his ambition was to write an exhaustive treatise on the subject, but he did not live to accomplish it; died at Alexandria, whither he had gone in the hope of prolonging his days (1829-1873).

DEUTZ (17), a Prussian town on the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Cologne.

DEUX PONTS, French name for ZWEIBRUeCKEN (q. v.).

DEVA, the original Hindu name for the deity, meaning the shining one, whence deus, god, in Latin.

DEVANAG'ARI, the character in which Sanskrit works are printed.

DEVELOPMENT, the biological doctrine which ascribes an innate expansive power to the organised universe, and affirms the deviation of the most complex forms through intermediate links from the simplest, without the intervention of special acts of creation. See EVOLUTION.

DEV'ENTER (25), a town in Holland, in the province of Overyssel, 55 m. SE. of Amsterdam; has carpet manufactures; is celebrated for its gingerbread; was the locality of the Brotherhood of Common Life, with which the life and work of Thomas a Kempis are associated.

DE VERE, THOMAS AUBREY, poet and prose writer, born in co. Limerick, Ireland; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; wrote poetical dramas of "Alexander the Great" and "St. Thomas of Canterbury"; his first poem "The Waldenses"; also critical essays; b. 1814.

DEVIL, THE, a being regarded in Scripture as having a personal existence, and, so far as this world is concerned, a universal spiritual presence, as everywhere thwarting the purposes of God and marring the destiny of man; only since the introduction of Christianity, which derives all evil as well as good from within, he has come to be regarded less as an external than an internal reality, and is identified with the ascendency in the human heart of passions native to it, which when subject ennoble it, but when supreme debase it. He is properly the spirit that deceives man, and decoys him to his eternal ruin from truth and righteousness.

DEVIL, THE, IS AN ASS, a farce by Ben Jonson, full of vigour, but very coarse.

DEVIL-WORSHIP, a homage paid by primitive tribes to the devil or spirit of evil in the simple-hearted belief that he could be bribed from doing them evil.

DEVONPORT (70), a town in Devonshire, adjoining Plymouth to the W., and the seat of the military and naval government of the three towns, originally called Plymouth Dock, and established as a naval arsenal by William III.

DEVONSHIRE, a county in the S. of England, with Exmoor in the N. and Dartmoor in the S.; is fertile in the low country, and enjoys a climate favourable to vegetation; it has rich pasture-grounds, and abounds in orchards.

DEVONSHIRE, DUKE OF. See CAVENDISH.

DEVRIENT, LUDWIG, a popular German actor, born in Berlin, of exceptional dramatic ability, the ablest of a family with similar gifts (1784-1832).

D'EWES, SIR SIMONDS, antiquary, born in Dorsetshire; bred for the bar; was a member of the Long Parliament; left notes on its transactions; took the Puritan side in the Civil War; his "Journal of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth" is of value; left an "Autobiography and Correspondence" (1602-1656).

DE WETTE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT, a German theologian, born near Weimar; studied at Jena, professor of Theology ultimately at Basel; was held in high repute as a biblical critic and exegete; contributed largely to theological literature; counted a rationalist by the orthodox, and a mystic by the rationalists; his chief works "A Critical Introduction to the Bible" and a "Manual to the New Testament" (1780-1849).

DE WITT, JAN, a Dutch statesman, born at Dort; elected grand pensionary in 1652; like his father, Jacob de Witt, before him, was a declared enemy of the House of Orange, and opposed the Stadtholdership, and for a time he carried the country along with him, but during a war with England his influence declined, the Orange party prevailed, and elected the young Prince of Orange, our William III., Stadtholder. He and his brother Cornelius were murdered at last by the populace (1625-1672).

DEWSBURY (73), a town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; engaged in the manufacture of woollens, blankets, carpets, and yarns.

DEXTRINE, a soluble matter into which the interior substance of starch globules is converted by acids or diastase, so called because when viewed by polarised light it has the property of turning the plane of polarisation to the right.

DEYSTER, LOUIS DE, a Flemish painter, born at Bruges; was of a deeply religious temper, and his character was reflected in his choice of subjects, such as the "Death of the Virgin," "The Resurrection of Christ," &c.; he was a recluse (1656-1711).

DEZOBRY, CHARLES, a French writer, born at St. Denis; author of "Rome in the Time of Augustus" (1798-1871).

DHAGOBA, a mound with a dome-shaped top, found to contain Buddhist relics.

DHARMA, the name given to the law of Buddha, as distinct from the Sangha, which is the Church.

DHARWAR (32), a town in the S. of the Bombay Presidency, a place of considerable trade in a district noted for its cotton growing.

DHWALAGIRI, one of the peaks of the Himalayas, the third highest, 26,826 ft. high.

DIABETES, a disease characterised by an excessive discharge of urine, and accompanied with great thirst; there are two forms of this disease.

DIAB'LERETS, a mountain of the Bernese Alps, between the Cantons de Vaud and de Valois.

DIAFOIRUS, THOMAS, the name of two pedantic doctors, father and son, who figure in Moliere's "Malade Imaginaire."

DIAGORAS, a Greek philosopher, born in Melos, one of the Cyclades, 5th century B.C., surnamed the Atheist, on account of the scorn with which he treated the gods of the popular faith, from the rage of whose devotees he was obliged to seek safety by flight; died in Corinth.

DIALECTIC, in the Hegelian philosophy the logic of thought, and, if of thought, the logic of being, of essential being.

DIALOGUES OF PLATO, philosophical dialogues, in which Socrates figures as the principal interlocutor, although the doctrine expounded is rather Plato's than his master's; they discuss theology, psychology, ethics, aesthetics, politics, physics, and related subjects.

DIALYSIS, the process of separating the crystalloid or poisonous ingredients in a substance from the colloid or harmless ingredients.

DIAMANTE, a Spanish dramatic poet, who plagiarised Corneille's "Cid" and passed it off as original; b. 1826.

DIAMANTINA (13), a district in Brazil, in the province of Minas Geraes, rich in diamonds.

DIAMOND, the name of Newton's favourite dog that, by upsetting a lamp, set fire to MSS. containing notes of experiments made over a course of years, an irreparable loss.

DIAMOND NECKLACE, a necklace consisting of 500 diamonds, and worth L80,000, which one Madame de la Motte induced the jeweller who "made" it to part with for Marie Antoinette, on security of Cardinal de Rohan, and which madame made away with, taking it to pieces and disposing of the jewels in London; the swindle was first discovered when the jeweller presented his bill to the queen, who denied all knowledge of the matter; this led to a trial which extended over nine months, gave rise to great scandal, and ended in the punishment of the swindler and her husband, and the disgrace of the unhappy, and it is believed innocent, queen. See CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES."

DIAMOND NET, a name given in the Hegelian philosophy to "the connective tissue, so to speak, that not only supports, but even in a measure constitutes, the various organs" of the universe. See HEGELIANISM.

DIAMOND STATE, Delaware, U.S., from its small size and great wealth.

DIANA, originally an Italian deity, dispenser of light, identified at length with the Greek goddess Artemis, and from the first with the moon; she was a virgin goddess, and spent her time in the chase, attended by her maidens; her temple at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the world. See ARTEMIS.

DIANA DE POITIERS, the mistress of Henry II. of France, for whom he built the magnificent Chateau d'Anet, in Eure-et-Loir; she had a great influence over him, and the cruel persecutions of the Huguenots in his reign were due to her instigation (1490-1566).

DIANA OF FRANCE, the Duchess of Angouleme, the natural daughter of Henry II. and the Duchess de Castro (1538-1619).

DIARBEKIR (42), the largest town in the Kurdistan Highlands, on the Tigris, 194 m. NE. of Aleppo, and on the highway between Bagdad and Constantinople, with a large and busy bazaar.

DIASTASE, a nitrogenous substance developed during the germination of grain, and having the property of converting starch first into dextrine and then into sugar.

DIAVOLO, FRA (lit. Brother Devil), Michele Porsa, a Calabrian, originally a monk, who left his monastery and joined a set of bandits, who lent themselves to and conducted insurrectionary movements in Italy; taken prisoner, was hanged at Naples; Auber's opera, "Fra Diavolo," has no connection with him except the name (1760-1806).

DIAZ, BARTHELEMY, a Portuguese navigator, sent on a voyage of discovery by John II., in the command of two ships; sailed down the W. coast of Africa and doubled the Cape of Good Hope, which, from the storm that drove him past it, he called the Cape of Storms; returning to Lisbon he was superseded by Vasco da Gama, or rather subordinated to him; subsequently accompanied Cabral on his voyage to Brazil, and was lost in a storm in 1500.

DIAZ MIGUEL, governor of Porto Rico, born in Aragon; friend and companion of Columbus; suffered from the usual Jealousies in enterprises of the kind, but prevailed in the end; d. 1514.

DIAZ DE LA PENA, a French painter, born at Bordeaux, of Spanish descent; a landscapist of the Romantic school, eminent as a colourist (1809-1876).

DIAZ DEL CASTELLO, historian; accompanied Cortes to Mexico; took part in the conquest, and left a graphic, trustworthy account of it; died in Mexico, 1560.

DIBDIN, CHARLES, musician, dramatist, and song-writer, born in Southampton; began life as an actor; invented a dramatic entertainment consisting of music, songs, and recitations, in which he was the sole performer, and of which he was for the most part the author; wrote some 30 dramatic pieces, and it is said 1400 songs; his celebrity is wholly due to his sea songs, which proved of the most inspiring quality, and did much to man the navy during the war with France; was the author of "Tom Bowling"; left an account of his "Professional Life" (1745-1814).

DIBDIN, THOMAS, dramatic author and song-writer, son of the preceding; was an actor as well as an author, and a most versatile one; performed in all kinds of characters, and wrote all kinds of plays, as well as numerous songs (1771-1841).

DIBDIN, THOMAS FROGNALL, bibliographer, nephew of Charles Dibdin, born in Calcutta; took orders in the Church of England; held several preferments; wrote several works all more or less of a bibliographical character, which give proof of extensive research, but are lacking often in accuracy and critical judgment; was one of the founders of the Roxburghe Club (1775-1847).

DICAEARCHUS, an ancient geographer, born at Messina, 4th century B.C.; a disciple of Aristotle.

DICK, JAMES, a West Indian and London merchant, born in Forres; bequeathed L113,787 to encourage learning and efficient teaching among the parish schoolmasters of Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen shires; it is known as the Dick Bequest, and the property is vested in a governing body of thirteen duly elected (1743-1828).

DICKENS, CHARLES, celebrated English novelist, born at Landport, Portsmouth; son of a navy clerk, latterly in great straits; was brought up amid hardships; was sent to a solicitor's office as a clerk, learned shorthand, and became a reporter, a post in which he learned much of what afterwards served him as an author; wrote sketches for the Monthly Magazine under the name of "Boz" in 1834, and the "Pickwick Papers" in 1836-37, which established his popularity; these were succeeded by "Oliver Twist" in 1838, "Nicholas Nickleby" in 1839, and others which it is needless to enumerate, as they are all known wherever the English language is spoken; they were all written with an aim, and as Ruskin witnesses, "he was entirely right in his main drift and purpose in every book he has written," though he thinks we are apt "to lose sight of his wit and insight, because he chooses to speak in a circle of stage fire.... Allowing for his manner of telling them, the things he tells us are always true"; being a born actor, and fain in his youth to become one, he latterly gave public readings from his works, which were immensely popular; "acted better," says Carlyle, who witnessed one of these performances, "than any Macready in the world; a whole tragic, comic, heroic theatre visible, performing under one hat, and keeping us laughing—in a sorry way some of us thought—the whole night"; the strain proved too much for him; he was seized with a fit at his residence, Gad's Hill, near Rochester, on June 8, 1870, and died the following morning; he was a little man, with clear blue intelligent eyes, a face of most extreme mobility, and a quiet shrewdness of expression (1812-1870).

DICTATOR, a magistrate invested with absolute authority in ancient republican Rome in times of exigence and danger; the constitution obliged him to resign his authority at the end of six months, till which time he was free without challenge afterwards to do whatever the interest of the commonwealth seemed to him to require; the most famous dictators were Cincinnatus, Camillus, Sulla, and Caesar, who was the last to be invested with this power; the office ceased with the fall of the republic, or rather, was merged in the perpetual dictatorship of the emperor.

DICTATOR OF LETTERS, Voltaire.

DICTYS CRETENSIS (i. e. of Crete), the reputed author of a narrative of the Trojan war from the birth of Paris to the death of Ulysses, extant only in a Latin translation; the importance attached to this narrative and others ascribed to the same author is, that they are the source of many of the Greek legends we find inwoven from time to time in the mediaeval literature that has come down to us.

DIDDLER, JEREMY, a needy, artful swindler in Kenny's farce of "Raising the Wind."

DIDEROT, DENIS, a French philosopher, born at Langres, the son of a cutler there; a zealous propagator of the philosophic ideas of the 18th century, and the projector of the famous "Encyclopedie," which he edited along with D'Alembert, and which made a great noise in its day, but did not enrich its founder, who was in the end driven to offer his library for sale to get out of the pecuniary difficulties it involved him in, and he would have been ruined had not Catharine of Russia bought it, which she not only did, but left it with him, and paid him a salary as librarian. Diderot fought hard to obtain a hearing for his philosophical opinions; his first book was burnt by order of the parlement of Paris, while for his second he was clapped in jail; and all along he had to front the most formidable opposition, so formidable that all his fellow-workers were ready to yield, and were only held to their task by his indomitable resolution and unquenchable ardour. "A deist in his earlier writings," says SCHWEGLER, "the drift of his subsequent writings amounts to the belief that all is God. At first a believer in the immateriality and immortality of the soul, he peremptorily declares at last that only the race endures, that individuals pass, and that immortality is nothing but life in the remembrance of posterity; he was kept back, however, from the materialism his doctrines issued in by his moral earnestness"; that Diderot was at heart no sceptic is evident, as Dr. Stirling suggests, from his "indignation at the darkness, the miserable ignorance of those around him, and his resolution to dispel it" (1713-1784).

DIDIUS, JULIANUS, a Roman emperor who in 193 purchased the imperial purple from the praetorian guards, and was after two months murdered by the soldiers when Severus was approaching the city.

DIDO, the daughter of Belus, king of Tyre, and the sister of Pygmalion, who, having succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, put Sichaeus, her husband, to death for the sake of his wealth, whereupon she secretly took ship, sailed away from the city with the treasure, accompanied by a body of disaffected citizens, and founded Carthage, having picked up by the way 80 virgins from Cyprus to make wives for her male attendants; a neighbouring chief made suit for her hand, encouraged by her subjects, upon which, being bound by an oath of eternal fidelity to Sichaeus, she erected a funeral pile and stabbed herself in presence of her subjects; Virgil makes her ascend the funeral pile out of grief for the departure of AEneas, of whom she was passionately in love.

DIDOT, the name of a French family of paper-makers, printers, and publishers, of which the most celebrated is Ambroise Firmin, born in Paris, a learned Hellenist (1790-1876).

DIDYMUS (twin), a surname of St. Thomas; also the name of a grammarian of Alexandria, a contemporary of Cicero, and who wrote commentaries on Homer.

DIEBITSCH, COUNT, a Russian general, born in Silesia; commander-in-chief in 1829 of the Russian army against Turkey, over the forces of which he gained a victory in the Balkans; commissioned to suppress a Polish insurrection, he was baffled in his efforts, and fell a victim to cholera in 1831.

DIEFFENBACH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, an eminent German surgeon, born at Koenigsberg; studied for the Church; took part in the war of liberation, and began the study of medicine after the fall of Napoleon; was appointed to the chair of Surgery in Berlin; his fame rests on his skill as an operator (1792-1847).

DIEFFENBACH, LORENZ, a distinguished philologist and ethnologist, born at Ostheim, in the grand-duchy of Hesse; was for 11 years a pastor; in the end, until his death, librarian at Frankfort-on-the-Main; his literary works were numerous and varied; his chief were on philological and ethnological subjects, and are monuments of learning (1806-1883).

DIEGO SUAREZ, BAY OF, is situated on the NE. of Madagascar, and has been ceded to France.

DIEMEN, ANTONY VAN, governor of the Dutch possessions in India, born in Holland; was a zealous coloniser; at his instance Abel Tasman was sent to explore the South Seas, when he discovered the island which he named after him Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania after the discoverer (1593-1645).

DIEPENBECK, ABRAHAM VAN, a Flemish painter and engraver (1599-1675).

DIEPPE (22), a French seaport on the English Channel, at the mouth of the river Arques, 93 m. NW. of Paris; a watering and bathing place, with fisheries and a good foreign trade.

DIES IRAE (lit. the Day of Wrath), a Latin hymn on the Last Judgment, so called from first words, and based on Zeph. i. 14-18; it is ascribed to a monk of the name of Thomas de Celano, who died in 1255, and there are several translations of it in English, besides a paraphrastic rendering in the "Lay of the Last Minstrel" by Scott, and it is also the subject of a number of musical compositions.

DIET, a convention of the princes, dignitaries, and delegates of the German empire, for legislative or administrative purposes, of which the most important in a historical point of view are diets held at Augsburg in 1518, at Worms in 1521, at Nueremberg in 1523, 1524, at Spires in 1526, 1529, at Augsburg in 1530, at Cologne in 1530, at Worms in 1536, at Frankfort in 1539, at Ratisbon in 1541, at Spires in 1544, at Augsburg in 1547, 1548, 1550, and at Ratisbon in 1622.

DIETRICH, mayor of Strasburg, at whose request Rouget de Lisle composed the "Marseillaise"; was guillotined (1748-1793).

DIETRICH OF BERN, a favourite hero of German legend, who in the "Nibelungen" avenges the death of Siegfried, and in the "Heldenbuch" figures as a knight-errant of invulnerable prowess, from whose challenge even Siegfried shrinks, hiding himself behind Chriemhilda's veil; has been identified with Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths.

DIEZ, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN, a German philologist, born at Giessen; after service as a volunteer against Napoleon, and a tutorship at Utrecht, went to Bonn, where, advised by Goethe, he commenced the study of the Romance languages, and in 1830 became professor of them, the philology of which he is the founder; he left two great works bearing on the grammar and etymology of these languages (1794-1876).

DIEZ, JUAN MARTIN, a Spanish brigadier-general of cavalry, born at Valladolid, the son of a peasant; had, as head of guerilla bands, done good service to his country during the Peninsular war and been promoted; offending the ruling powers, was charged with conspiracy, tried, and executed (1775-1825).

DIGBY, a seaport on the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia; noted for the curing of pilchards, called from it digbies.

DIGBY, SIR EVERARD, member of a Roman Catholic family; concerned in the Gunpowder Plot, and executed (1581-1606).

DIGBY, SIR KENELM, a son of the preceding; was knighted by James I.; served under Charles I.; as a privateer defeated a squadron of Venetians, and fought against the Algerines; was imprisoned for a time as a Royalist; paid court afterwards to the Protector; was well received at the Restoration; was one of the first members of the Royal Society, and a man of some learning; wrote treatises on the Nature of Bodies and Man's Soul, on the corpuscular theory (1603-1665).

DIHONG, the name given to the Brahmaputra as it traverses Assam; in the rainy season it overflows its channel and floods the whole lowlands of the country.

DIJON (61), the ancient capital of Burgundy, and the principal town in the dep. of Cote d'Or, 195 m. SE. of Paris, on the canal of Bourgogne; one of the finest towns in France, at once for its buildings, particularly its churches, and its situation; is a centre of manufacture and trade, and a seat of learning; the birthplace of many illustrious men.

DIKE (i. e. Justice), a Greek goddess, the daughter of Zeus and Themis; the guardian of justice and judgment, the foe of deceit and violence, and the accuser before Zeus of the unjust judge.

DIKTYS, the fisherman of Seriphus; saved Perseus and his mother from the perils of the deep.

DILETTANTE SOCIETY, THE, a society of noblemen and gentlemen founded in England in 1734, and which contributed to correct and purify the public taste of the country; their labours were devoted chiefly to the study of the relics of ancient Greek art, and resulted in the production of works in illustration.

DILETTANTISM, an idle, often affected, almost always barren admiration and study of the fine arts, "in earnest about nothing."

DILKE, CHARLES WENTWORTH, English critic and journalist; served for 20 years in the Navy Pay-Office; contributed to the Westminister and other reviews; was proprietor and editor of the Athenaeum; started the Daily News; left literary Papers, edited by his grandson (1789-1864).

DILKE, SIR CHARLES WENTWORTH, English publicist and politician, grandson of the preceding, born at Chelsea; called to the bar; travelled in America and the English colonies, and wrote a record of his travels in his "Greater Britain"; entered Parliament as an extreme Liberal; held office under Mr. Gladstone; from exposures in a divorce case had to retire from public life, but returned after a time; b. 1843.

DILLMANN, a great German Orientalist, born at Illingen, a village of Wuertemberg; studied under Ewald at Tuebingen; became professor at Kiel, at Giessen, and finally at Berlin; as professor of Old Testament exegesis made a special study of the Ethiopic languages, and is the great authority in their regard; wrote a grammar and a lexicon of these, as well as works on theology; b. 1823.

DILLON, a general in the service of France, born in Dublin; was butchered by his troops near Lille (1745-1792).

DILLON, JOHN, an Irish patriot, born in New York; entered Parliament in 1880 as a Parnellite; was once suspended, and four times imprisoned, for his over-zeal; sat at first for Tipperary, and since for East Mayo; in 1891 threw in his lot with the M'Carthyites; b. 1851.

DIMANCHE, M. (Mr. Sunday), a character in Moliere's "Don Juan," the type of an honest merchant, whom, on presenting his bill, his creditor appeases by his politeness.

DIME, a U.S. silver coin, worth the tenth part of a dollar, or about fivepence.

DINAN (10), an old town in the dep. of Cotes du Nord, France, 14 m. S. of St. Malo; most picturesquely situated on the top of a steep hill, amid romantic scenery, of great archaeological interest; the birthplace of Duclos.

DINANT, an old town on the Meuse, 14 m. S. of Namur, Belgium; noted for its gingerbread, and formerly for its copper wares, called Dinanderie.

DINAPUR (44), a town and military station on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m. NW. of Patna.

DINARCHUS, an orator of the Phocion party in Athens, born at Corinth.

DINARIC ALPS, a range of the Eastern Alps in Austria, runs SE. and parallel with the Adriatic, connecting the Julian Alps with the Balkans.

DINDORF, WILHELM, a German philologist, born at Leipzig; devoted his life to the study of the ancient Greek classics, particularly the dramatists, and edited the chief of them, as well as the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" of Homer, with notes; was joint-editor with his brothers Ludwig and Hase of the "Thesaurus Graecae Linguae" of Stephanus (1802-1883).

DINGELSTEDT, a German poet, novelist, and essayist, born near Marburg; was the Duke of Wuertemberg's librarian at Stuttgart, and theatre superintendent at Muenich, Weimar, and Vienna successively; his poems show delicacy of sentiment and graphic power (1814-1881).

DINGWALL, the county town of Ross-shire, at the head of the Cromarty Firth.

DINKAS, an African pastoral people occupying a flat country traversed by the White Nile; of good stature, clean habits; of semi-civilised manners, and ferocious in war.

DINMONT, DANDIE, a jovial, honest-hearted store-farmer in Scott's "Guy Mannering."

DINOCRATES, a Macedonian architect, who, in the time of Alexander the Great, rebuilt the Temple of Ephesus destroyed by the torch of Erostratus; was employed by Alexander in the building of Alexandria.

DIOCLETIAN, Roman emperor from 284 to 308, born at Salona, in Dalmatia, of obscure parentage; having entered the Roman army, served with distinction, rose rapidly to the highest rank, and was at Chalcedon, after the death of Numerianus, invested by the troops with the imperial purple; in 286 he associated Maximianus with himself as joint-emperor, with the title of Augustus, and in 292 resigned the Empire of the West to Constantius Chlorus and Galerius, so that the Roman world was divided between two emperors in the E. and two in the W.; in 303, at the instance of Galerius, he commenced and carried on a fierce persecution of the Christians, the tenth and fiercest; but in 305, weary of ruling, he abdicated and retired to Salona, where he spent his remaining eight years in rustic simplicity of life, cultivating his garden; bating his persecution of the Christians, he ruled the Roman world wisely and well (245-313).

DIODATI, a Calvinistic theologian, born at Lucca; was taken while a child with his family to Geneva; distinguished himself there in the course of the Reformation as a pastor, a preacher, professor of Hebrew, and a professor of Theology; translated the Bible into Italian and into French; a nephew of his was a school-fellow and friend of Milton, who wrote an elegy on his untimely death (1576-1614).

DIODORUS SICULUS, historian, born in Sicily, of the age of Augustus; conceived the idea of writing a universal history; spent 30 years at the work; produced what he called "The Historical Library," which embraced the period from the earliest ages to the end of Caesar's Gallic war, and was divided into 40 books, of which only a few survive entire, and some fragments of the rest.

DIOGENES LAERTIUS, a Greek historian, born at Laerte, in Cilicia; flourished in the 2nd century A.D.; author of "Lives of the Philosophers," a work written in 10 books; is full of interesting information regarding the men, but is destitute of critical insight into their systems.

DIOGENES OF APOLLONIA, a Greek philosopher of the Ionic school, and an adherent of ANAXIMENES (q. v.), if of any one, being more of an eclectic than anything else; took more to physics than philosophy; contributed nothing to the philosophic movement of the time.

DIOGENES THE CYNIC, born in Sinope, in Pontus, came to Athens, was attracted to ANTISTHENES (q. v.) and became a disciple, and a sansculotte of the first water; dressed himself in the coarsest, lived on the plainest, slept in the porches of the temples, and finally took up his dwelling in a tub; stood on his naked manhood; would not have anything to do with what did not contribute to its enhancement; despised every one who sought satisfaction in anything else; went through the highways and byways of the city at noontide with a lit lantern in quest of a man; a man himself not to be laughed at or despised; visiting Corinth, he was accosted by Alexander the Great: "I am Alexander," said the king, and "I am Diogenes" was the prompt reply; "Can I do anything to serve you?" continued the king; "Yes, stand out of the sunlight," rejoined the cynic; upon which Alexander turned away saying, "If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." D'Alembert declared Diogenes the greatest man of antiquity, only that he wanted decency. "Great truly," says Carlyle, but adds with a much more serious drawback than that (412-323 B.C.). See "SARTOR RESARTUS," BK. III. CHAP. 1.

DIOGENES THE STOIC, born in Seleucia; a successor of Zeno, and head of the school at Athens, 2nd century B.C.

DIOMEDES, king of Argos, called Tydides, from his father; was, next to Achilles, the bravest of the Greeks at the Trojan war; fought under the protection of Athene against both Hector and AEneas, and even wounded both Aphrodite and Ares; dared along with Ulysses to carry off the Palladium from Troy; was first in the chariot race in honour of Patroclus, and overcame Ajax with the spear.

DIOMEDES, king of Thrace; fed his horses with human flesh, and was killed by Hercules for his inhumanity.

DION CASSIUS, a Greek historian, born at Nicaea, in Bithynia, about A.D. 155; went to Rome, and served under a succession of emperors; wrote a "History of Rome" from AEneas to Alexander Severus in 80 books, of which only 18 survive entire; took years to prepare for and compose it; it is of great value, and often referred to.

DION CHRYSOSTOMUS (Dion with the golden, or eloquent, mouth), a celebrated Greek rhetorician, born at Prusa, in Bithynia, about the middle of the 1st century; inclined to the Platonic and Stoic philosophies; came to Rome, and was received with honour by Nerva and Trajan; is famous as an orator and as a writer of pure Attic Greek.

DION OF SYRACUSE, a pupil of Plato, and an austere man; was from his austerity obnoxious to his pleasure-loving nephew, Dionysius the Younger; subjected to banishment; went to Athens; learned his estates had been confiscated, and his wife given to another; took up arms, drove his nephew from the throne, usurped his place, and was assassinated in 353 B.C., the citizens finding that in getting rid of one tyrant they had but saddled themselves with another, and greater.

DIONE, a Greek goddess of the earlier mythology; figures as the wife of the Dodonian Zeus; drops into subordinate place after his nuptials with Hera.

DIONYSIUS THE ELDER, tyrant of Syracuse from 406 to 367 B.C.; at first a private citizen; early took interest in public affairs, and played a part in them; entered the army, and rose to be head of the State; subdued the other cities of Sicily, and declared war against Carthage; was attacked by the Carthaginians, and defeated them three times over; concluded a treaty of peace with them, and spent the rest of his reign, some 20 years, in maintaining and extending his territory; was distinguished, it is said, as he might well be, both as a poet and a philosopher; tradition represents him as in perpetual terror of his life, and taking every precaution to guard it from attack.

DIONYSIUS THE YOUNGER, tyrant of Syracuse, son of the preceding, succeeded him in 367 B.C. at the age of thirty; had never taken part in public affairs; was given over to vicious indulgences, and proved incapable of amendment, though DION (q. v.) tried hard to reform him; was unpopular with the citizens, who with the help of Dion, whom he had banished, drove him from the throne; returning after 10 years, was once more expelled by Timoleon; betook himself to Corinth, where he associated himself with low people, and supported himself by keeping a school.

DIONYSIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, patriarch from 348, a disciple of Origen, and his most illustrious pupil; a firm but judicious defender of the faith against the heretics of the time, in particular the Sabellians and the Chiliasts; d. 264.

DIONYSIUS, ST., THE AREOPAGITE (i. e. judge of the Areopagus), according to Acts xvii. 34, a convert of St. Paul's; became bishop of Athens, and died a martyr in 95; was long regarded as the father of mysticism in the Christian Church, on the false assumption that he was the author of writings of a much later date imbued with a pantheistic idea of God and the universe.

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS, a Greek historian and rhetorician of the age of Augustus; came to Italy in 29 B.C., and spent 27 years in Rome, where he died; devoted himself to the study of the Roman republic, its history and its people, and recorded the result in his "Archaeologia," written in Greek, which brings down the narrative to 264 B.C.; it consisted of 20 books, of which only 9 have come down to us entire; he is the author of works in criticism of the orators, poets, and historians of Greece.

DIONYSIUS PERIEGETES, a Greek geographer who lived about the 4th century, and wrote a description of the whole earth in hexameters and in a terse and elegant style.

DIONYSUS, the god of the vine or wine; the son of ZEUS AND SEMELE (q. v.), the "twice born," as plucked first from the womb of his dead mother and afterwards brought forth from the thigh of Zeus, which served to him as his "incubator." See BACCHUS.

DIOPHANTUS, a Greek mathematician, born in Alexandria; lived presumably about the 4th century; left works in which algebraic methods are employed, and is therefore credited with being the inventor of algebra.

DIOSCOR'IDES, a Greek physician, born in Cilicia, lived in the 1st century; left a treatise in 5 books on materia medica, a work of great research, and long the standard authority on the subject.

DIOSCURI, twin sons of Zeus, Castor and Pollux, a stalwart pair of youths, of the Doric stock, great the former as a horse-breaker and the latter as a boxer; were worshipped at Sparta as guardians of the State, and pre-eminently as patrons of gymnastics; protected the hearth, led the army in war, and were the convoy of the traveller by land and the voyager by sea, which as constellations they are still held to be.

DIPHILUS, a Greek comic poet, born at Sinope; contemporary of Menander; was the forerunner of Terence and Plautus, the Roman poets.

DIPHTHERIA, a contagious disease characterised by the formation of a false membrane on the back of the throat.

DIPPEL, JOHANN KONRAD, a celebrated German alchemist; professed to have discovered the philosopher's stone; did discover Prussian blue, and an animal oil that bears his name (1672-1734).

DIPPEL'S OIL, an oil obtained from the distinctive distillation of horn bones.

DIRCAEAN SWAN, Pindar, so called from the fountain Dirce, near Thebes, his birthplace.

DIRCE, the wife of Lycus, king of Thebes, who for her cruelty to Antiope, her divorced predecessor, was, by Antiope's two sons, Zethos and Amphion, tied to a wild bull and dragged to death, after which her carcass was flung by them into a well; the subject is represented in a famous antique group by Apollonius and Tauriscus.

DIRECTORY, THE, the name given to the government of France, consisting of a legislative body of two chambers, the Council of the Ancients and the Council of Five Hundred, which succeeded the fall of the Convention, and ruled France from October 27, 1795, till its overthrow by Bonaparte on the 18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799). The Directors proper were five in number, and were elected by the latter council from a list presented by the former, and the chief members of it were Barras and Carnot.

DIRSCHAU (11), a Prussian town on the Vistula, 21 m. SE. of Danzig, with iron-works and a timber trade.

DIS, a name given to Pluto and the nether world over which he rules.

DISCIPLINE, THE TWO BOOKS OF, books of dates 1561 and 1581, regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Presbyterian churches of Scotland, of which the ground-plan was drawn up by Knox on the Geneva model.

DISCOBOLUS, THE, an antique statue representing the thrower of the discus, in the Louvre, and executed by the sculptor Myron.

DISCORD, APPLE OF. See infra.

DISCORD, THE GODDESS OF, a mischief-making divinity, daughter of Night and sister of Mars, who on the occasion of the wedding of Thetis with Peleus, threw into the hall where all the gods and goddesses were assembled a golden apple inscribed "To the most Beautiful," and which gave rise to dissensions that both disturbed the peace of Olympus and the impartial administration of justice on earth. See PARIS.

DISMAL SCIENCE, Carlyle's name for the political economy that with self-complacency leaves everything to settle itself by the law of supply and demand, as if that were all the law and the prophets. The name is applied to every science that affects to dispense with the spiritual as a ruling factor in human affairs.

DISMAS, ST., the good thief to whom Christ promised Paradise as he hung on the cross beside Him.

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN. See BEACONSFIELD.

D'ISRAELI, ISAAC, a man of letters, born at Enfield, Middlesex; only son of a Spanish Jew settled in England, who left him a fortune, which enabled him to cultivate his taste for literature; was the author of several works, but is best known by his "Curiosities of Literature," a work published in six vols., full of anecdotes on the quarrels and calamities of authors; was never a strict Jew; finally cut the connection, and had his children baptized as Christians (1766-1848).

DITHYRAMB, a hymn in a lofty and vehement style, originally in honour of Bacchus, in celebration of his sorrows and joys, and accompanied with flute music.

DITMARSH (77), a low-lying fertile district in West Holstein, between the estuaries of the Elbe and the Eider; defended by dykes; it had a legal code of its own known as the "Ditmarisches Landbuch."

DITTON, HUMPHRY, author of a book on fluxions (1675-1715).

DIU (12), a small Portuguese island, with a port of the same name, in the Gulf of Cambay, S. of the peninsula of Gujarat, India; was a flourishing place once, and contained a famous Hindu temple; inhabited now chiefly by fishermen.

DIVAN, THE, a collection of poems by Haefiz, containing nearly 600 odes; also a collection of lyrics in imitation of Goethe, entitled "Westoestlicher Divan."

DIVES, the name given, originally in the Vulgate, to the rich man in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus.

DIVIDING RANGE, a range of mountains running E. from Melbourne, and then N., dividing the basin of the Murray from the plain extending to the coast.

DIVINE COMEDY, THE, the great poem of Dante, consisting of three compartments, "Inferno," "Purgatorio," and "Paradiso"; "three kingdoms ... Dante's World of Souls...; all three making up the true Unseen World, as it figured in the Christianity of the Middle Ages; a thing for ever memorable, for ever true in the essence of it, to all men ... but delineated in no human soul with such depth of veracity as in this of Dante's ... to the earnest soul of Dante it is all one visible fact—Hell, Purgatory, Paradise, with him not mere emblems, but indubitable awful realities." See DANTE, and CARLYLE'S "HEROES AND HERO-WORSHIP."

DIVINE DOCTOR, Jean de Ruysbroek, the mystic (1294-1381).

DIVINE PAGAN, HYPATIA (q. v.).

DIVINE RIGHT, a claim on the part of kings, now all but extinct, though matter of keen debate at one time, that they derive their authority to rule direct from the Almighty, and are responsible to no inferior power, a right claimed especially on the part of and in behalf of the Bourbons in France and the Stuart dynasty in England, and the denial of which was regarded by them and their partisans as an outrage against the ordinance of very Heaven.

DIXIE LAND, nigger land in U.S.

DIXON, W. HEPWORTH, an English writer and journalist, born in Manchester; called to the bar, but devoted himself to literary work; wrote Lives of Howard, Penn, Robert Blake, and Lord Bacon, "New America," "Spiritual Wives," &c.; was editor of the Athenoeum from 1853 to 1869; died suddenly (1821-1879).

DIZIER, ST. (13), a flourishing French town, 30 m. from Chalons-sur-Marne.

DIZZY, a nickname given to Benjamin Disraeli.

DJEZZAR (i. e. Butcher), the surname of Achmed Pasha, pacha of Acre; was born at Bosnia; sold as a slave, and raised himself by his servility to his master to the length of executing his cruellest wishes; in 1799 withstood a long siege of Acre by Bonaparte, and obliged him to retire (1735-1804).

DJINNESTAN, the region of the Jinns.

DNIEPER, a river of Russia, anciently called the Borysthenes, the third largest for volume of water in Europe, surpassed only by the Danube and the Volga; rises in the province of Smolensk, and flowing in a generally southerly direction, falls into the Black Sea below Kherson after a course of 1330 m.; it traverses some of the finest provinces of the empire, and is navigable nearly its entire length.

DNIESTER, a river which takes its rise in Austria, in the Carpathians, enters Russia, flows generally in a SE. direction past Bender, and after a rapid course of 650 m. falls into the Black Sea at Akjerman.

DOAB, THE, a richly fertile, densely peopled territory in the Punjab, between the Jumna and Ganges, and extending 500 m. N., that is, as far as the Himalayas; it is the granary of Upper India.

DOBELL, SIDNEY, poet, born at Cranbrook, in Kent; wrote, under the pseudonym of Sidney Yendys, the "Roman," a drama, "Balder," and, along with Alexander Smith, sonnets on the war (the Crimean); suffered much from weak health (1824-1874).

DOeBEREINER, a German chemist, professor at Jena; inventor of a lamp called after him; Goethe was much interested in his discoveries (1780-1849).

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