The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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CROMWELL, RICHARD, son of the Protector; appointed to succeed him; was unequal to the task, and compelled to abdicate, April 26, 1659; retired into private life; went after the Restoration for a time abroad; returned under a feigned name, and lived and died at Cheshunt (1626-1712).

CROMWELL, THOMAS, minister of Henry VIII., and malleus monachorum, the "mauler of the monks," born at Putney; the son of a blacksmith; led a life of adventure for eight or nine years on the Continent; settled in England about the beginning of Henry's reign; came under notice of Wolsey, whose confidant he became, and subordinate agent in suppressing the smaller monasteries; on his master's fall rose into favour with Henry by suggesting he should discard the supremacy of the Pope, and assume the supremacy of the Church himself; attained, in consequence, the highest rank and authority in the State, for the proposal was adopted, with the result that the Crown remains the head of ecclesiastical authority in England to this day; the authority he thus acquired he employed in so high-handed a fashion that he lost the favour of both king and people, till on a sudden he was arrested on charges of treason, was condemned to death, and beheaded on Tower Hill (1485-1540).

CRONSTADT (42), the port of St. Petersburg, at the mouth of the Neva; a strongly fortified place, and the greatest naval station in the country; it is absolutely impregnable.

CROOKES, WILLIAM, an eminent chemist and physicist, born in London; distinguished for researches in both capacities; discovered the metal thallium, and invented the radiometer; b. 1832.

CROSS, MRS., George Eliot's married name.

CROSS, SOUTHERN, a bright constellation in the southern hemisphere, consisting of four stars.

CROSS, VICTORIA, a naval and military decoration instituted in 1854; awarded for eminent personal valour in the face of the enemy.

CROSS FELL, one of the Pennine range of mountains in the N. of England, 2892 ft., on the top of which five counties meet.

CROSSE, ANDREW, electrician, born at Somersetshire; made several discoveries in the application of electricity; he was a zealous scientist, and apt to be over-zealous (1784-1855).

CROSSRAGUEL, an abbey, now in ruins, 2 m. SW. of Maybole, Ayrshire, where John Knox held disputation with the abbot, and of which in his "History of the Reformation" he gives a humorous account (1562).

CROTCH, WILLIAM, musical composer of precocious gifts, and writer in music, born in Norwich; became, in 1797, professor of Music in Oxford, and in 1822 Principal of the Royal Academy; his anthems are well known (1775-1847).

CROTONA, an ancient large and flourishing Greek city, Magna Graecia, in Italy; the residence of the philosopher Pythagoras and the athlete Milo.

CROWE, EYRE EVANS, historian and miscellaneous writer, born in Hants; editor of the Daily News; author of the "History of France" and "Lives of Eminent Foreign Statesmen" (1799-1868).

CROWE, SIR JAMES ARCHER, writer on art and a journalist, born in London, son of the preceding; is associated with Cavalcaselle in several works on art and famous artists; b. 1825.

CROWNE, JOHN, playwright, born in Nova Scotia, a contemporary and rival of Dryden; supplied the stage with plays for nearly 30 years (1640-1705).

CROWTHER, SAMUEL ADJAI, bishop of the Niger Territory; an African by birth; was captured to be sold as a slave, but released by an English cruiser; baptized a Christian in 1825; joined the first Niger Expedition in 1841; sent out as a missionary in 1843; appointed bishop in 1864, the duties of which he discharged faithfully, zealously, and well (1810-1891).

CROYDON (103), the largest town in Surrey, on the Wandle, 10 m. SW. of London Bridge, and practically now a suburb of London.

CRUDEN, ALEXANDER, author of a "Complete Concordance of the Holy Scriptures," with which alone his name is now associated; born in Aberdeen; intended for the Church, but from unsteadiness of intellect not qualified to enter it; was placed frequently in restraint; appears to have been a good deal employed as a press corrector; gave himself out as "Alexander the Corrector," commissioned to correct moral abuses (1701-1770).

CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE, a richly gifted English artist, born in London, of Scotch descent; the first exhibition of his talent was in the illustration of books for children, but it was in the line of humorous satire he chiefly distinguished himself; and he first found scope for his gifts in this direction in the political squibs of William Hone, a faculty he exercised at length over a wide area; the works illustrated by him include, among hundreds of others, "Grimm's Stories," "Peter Schlemihl," Scott's "Demonology," Dickens's "Oliver Twist," and Ainsworth's "Jack Shepherd"; like Hogarth, he was a moralist as well as an artist, and as a total abstainer he consecrated his art at length to dramatise the fearful downward career of the drunkard; his greatest work, done in oil, is in the National Gallery, the "Worship of Bacchus," which is a vigorous protestation against this vice (1792-1878).

CRUSADES, THE, military expeditions, organised from the 11th century to the 13th, under the banner of the Cross for the recovery of the Holy Land from the hands of the Saracens, to the number of eight. The First (1096-1099), preached by Peter the Hermit, and sanctioned by the Council of Clermont (1095), consisted of two divisions: one, broken into two hordes, under Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless respectively, arrived decimated in Syria, and was cut to pieces at Nicaea by the sultan; while the other, better equipped and more efficiently organised, laid siege to and captured in succession Nicaea, Antioch, and Jerusalem, where Godfrey of Bouillon was proclaimed king. The Second (1147-1149), preached by St. Bernard, consisting of two armies under Conrad III. of Germany and Louis VII. of France, laid siege in a shattered state to Damascus, and was compelled to raise the siege and return a mere remnant to Europe. The Third (1189-1193), preached by William, archbishop of Tyre, and provoked by Saladin's capture of Jerusalem, of which one division was headed by Barbarossa, who, after taking Iconium, was drowned while bathing in the Orontes, and the other, headed by Philippe Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion, who jointly captured Acre and made peace with Saladin. The Fourth (1202-1204), under sanction of Pope Innocent III., and undertaken by Baldwin, count of Flanders, having got the length of Venice, was preparing to start for Asia, when it was called aside to Constantinople to restore the emperor to his throne, when, upon his death immediately afterwards, the Crusaders elected Baldwin in his place, pillaged the city, and left, having added it to the domain of the Pope. The Fifth (1217-1221), on the part of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem, and Andrew II., king of Hungary, who made a raid upon Egypt against the Saracens there, but without any result. The Sixth (1228-1229), under conduct of Frederick II. of Germany, as heir through John of Brienne to the throne of Jerusalem, who made a treaty with the sultan of Egypt, whereby the holy city, with the exception of the Mosque of Omar, was made over to him as king of Jerusalem. The Seventh (1248-1254), conducted by St. Louis in the fulfilment of a vow, in which Louis was defeated and taken prisoner, and only recovered his liberty by payment of a heavy ransom. The Eighth (1270), also undertaken by St. Louis, who lay dying at Tunis as the towns of Palestine fell one after another into the hands of the Saracens. The Crusades terminated with the fall of Ptolemais in 1291.

CRUSOE, ROBINSON, the hero of Defoe's fiction of the name, a shipwrecked sailor who spent years on an uninhabited island, and is credited with no end of original devices in providing for his wants. See SELKIRK.

CSOMA DE KOeROeS, ALEXANDER, a Hungarian traveller and philologist, born in Koeroes, Transylvania; in the hope of tracing the origin of the Magyar race, set out for the East in 1820, and after much hardship by the way arrived in Thibet, where, under great privations, though aided by the English Government, he devoted himself to the study of the Thibetan language; in 1831 settled in Calcutta, where he compiled his Thibetan Grammar and Dictionary, and catalogued the Thibetan works in the library of the Asiatic Society; died at Darjeeling just as he was setting out for fresh discoveries (1784-1836).

CTESIAS, Greek physician and historian of Persia; was present with Artaxerxes Mnemon at the battle of Cunaxa, 401 B.C., and stayed afterwards at the Persian court, where he got the materials for his history, of which only a few fragments are extant.

CTESIPHON, an Athenian who, having proposed that the city should confer a crown of gold on Demosthenes, was accused by AEschines of violating the law in so doing, but was acquitted after an eloquent oration by Demosthenes in his defence.

CUBA (1,500), the largest of the West India Islands, 700 m. long and from 27 m. to 290 m. in breadth; belonged to Spain, but is now under the protection of the United States; is traversed from E. to W. by a range of mountains wooded to the summit; abounds in forests—ebony, cedar, mahogany, &c.; soil very fertile; exports sugar and tobacco; principal town, Havana.

CUBBIT, SIR WILLIAM, an eminent English engineer, born in Norfolk; more or less employed in most of the great engineering undertakings of his time (1785-1861).

CUDWORTH, RALPH, an eminent English divine and philosopher, born in Somerset; his chief work, a vast and discursive one, and to which he owes his fame, "The True Intellectual System of the Universe," in which he teaches a philosophy of the Platonic type, which ascribes more to the abiding inner than the fugitive outer of things; he defends revealed religion on grounds of reason against both the atheist and the materialist; his candour and liberality exposed him to much misconstruction, and on that account was deemed a latitudinarian. "He stands high among our early philosophers for his style, which, if not exactly elegant and never splendid, is solid and clear" (1617-1688).

CUENCA, a fine old city in Spain, 83 m. E. of Madrid; also a high-lying city of Ecuador, over 100 m. S. of Quito, with a delightful climate; both in provinces of the same name.

CUJAS, or CUJACIUS, a celebrated French jurist, born at Toulouse; devoted to the study of Roman law in its historical development, and the true founder of the Historical school in that department (1522-1590).

CULDEES, fraternities of uncertain origin and character scattered up and down Ireland, and especially Scotland, hardly at all in England, from the 9th or 10th to the 14th century; instituted, as would appear, to keep alive a religious spirit among themselves and disseminate it among their neighbours, until on the establishment of monastic orders in the country they ceased to have a separate existence and lost their individuality in the new communities, as well as their original character; they appear to have been originally, whatever they became at length, something like those fraternities we find later on at Deventer, in Holland, with which Thomas a Kempis was connected, only whereas the former sought to plant Christianity, the latter sought to purify it. The name disappears after 1332, but traces of them are found at Dunkeld, St. Andrews, Brechin, and elsewhere in Scotland; in Ireland they continued in Armagh to the Reformation, and were resuscitated for a few years in the 17th century.

CULLEN, PAUL, Cardinal, Catholic primate of Ireland, born in Kildare; was an extreme Ultramontanist; vigorously opposed all secret societies in the country with revolutionary aims, as well as the system of mixed education then in force (1803-1878).

CULLEN, WILLIAM, physician, born at Hamilton; studied in Glasgow; held successively the chairs of Chemistry, the Institutes of Medicine, and Medicine in Edinburgh University; author of several medical works; did much to advance the science of medicine; the celebrated Dr. Black was one of his pupils in chemistry (1710-1790).

CULLODEN, a moor, 5 m. NE. of Inverness, where the Duke of Cumberland defeated Prince Charles in 1746, and finally wrecked the Stuart cause in the country.

CULPEPER, NICHOLAS, a herbalist, born in London, who practised medicine and associated therewith the art of the astrologer as well as the faith of a Puritan; was a character and a phenomenon of his time (1616-1654).

CULVERWEL, NATHANIEL, an English author, born in Middlesex; educated at Cambridge, and one of the Platonist school there; wrote "Light of Nature," "Spiritual Optics," "Worth of Souls," &c., works which evince vigour of thinking as well as literary power (1633-1651).

CUMAE, a considerable maritime city of Campania, now in ruins; alleged to be the earliest Greek settlement in Italy; famous as the residence of the SIBYL (q. v.), and a place of luxurious resort for wealthy Romans.

CUMBERLAND (250), a county in N. of England, of mountain and dale, with good agricultural and pasture land, and a rich coal-field on the coast, as well as other minerals in the interior.

CUMBERLAND, DR. RICHARD, bishop of Peterborough, born in London, educated at Cambridge, wrote several works, the chief "An Inquiry into the Laws of Nature," in reply to Hobbes, in which he elevates the tendency to produce happiness into something like a moral principle; wrought hard, lived to a great age, and is credited with the saying, "Better wear out than rust out" (1631-1718).

CUMBERLAND, RICHARD, dramatist, great-grandson of the preceding; was a prolific writer for the stage; the play "The West Indian," which established his reputation, was his best (1732-1811).

CUMBERLAND, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, DUKE OF, second son of George II., was defeated at Fontenoy by the French in 1745; defeated the Pretender next year at Culloden; earned the title of "The Butcher" by his cruelties afterwards; was beaten in all his battles except this one (1721-1765).

CUMBRIA, a country of the Northern Britons which, in the 6th century, extended from the Clyde to the Dee, in Cheshire.

CUMMING, GORDON, the African lion-hunter, of Celtic origin; served for a time in the army; wrote an account of his hunting exploits in his "Five Years of a Hunter's Life" (1820-1866).

CUMMING, JOHN, a Scotch clergyman, popular in London, born at Fintray, in Aberdeenshire; of a highly combative turn, and rather foolhardy in his interpretations of prophecy (1807-1881).

CUNARD, SIR SAMUEL, founder of Cunard Line of Steamships, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia (1787-1865).

CUNAXA, a town in Babylonia, on the Euphrates, 60 m. N. of Babylon.

CUNCTATOR, a name given to Fabius Maximus on account of the tantalising tactics he adopted to wear out his adversary Hannibal.

CUNE'IFORM, an epithet applied to the wedge-shaped characters in which the Assyrian and other ancient monumental inscriptions are written.

CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN, poet and man of letters, born in the parish of Keir, Dumfriesshire; bred to the mason craft, but devoted his leisure hours to study and the composition of Scottish ballads, which, when published, gained him the notice of Sir Walter Scott; in 1810 he went to London, where he wrote for periodicals, and obtained employment as assistant to Chantrey the sculptor, in which post he found leisure to cultivate his literary proclivities, collating and editing tales and songs, editing Burns with a Life, and writing the Lives of famous artists, and died in London; "a pliant, Naturmensch," Carlyle found him to be, "with no principles or creed that he could see, but excellent old habits of character" (1784-1842).

CUNNINGHAM, PETER, son of the preceding, author of the "Life of Drummond of Hawthornden," "Handbook of London," &c. (1816-1867).

CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM, a Scotch divine, born in Hamilton, well read in the Reformation and Puritan theology, a vigorous defender of Scottish orthodoxy, and a stanch upholder of the independence of the Church of State control; was a powerful debater, and a host in any controversy in which he embarked (1805-1861).

CUPID, or AMOR, the god of love, viewed as a chubby little boy, armed with bow and arrows, and often with eyes bandaged.

CUPID AND PSYCHE, an allegorical representation of the trials of the soul on its way to the perfection of bliss, being an episode in the "Golden Ass" of Apuleius. See PSYCHE.

CURACA'O (26), one of Antilles, in the West Indies, belonging to the Dutch, 36 m. long by about 8 broad; yields, along with other West Indian products, an orange from the peel of which a liqueur is made in Holland.


CURE'TES, priests of Cybele, in Crete, whose rites were celebrated with clashing of cymbals.

CURETON, WILLIAM, Syriac scholar, born in Shropshire, assistant-keeper of MSS. at the British Museum; applied himself to the study and collation of Syriac MSS., and discovered, among other relics, a version of the Epistle of Ignatius; was appointed canon of Westminster (1808-1864).

CURIATII, three Alban brothers who fought with the three Horatii Roman brothers, and were beaten, to the subjection of Alba to Rome.

CURLE, EDMUND, a London bookseller, notorious for the issue of libellous and of obscene publications, and for prosecutions he was subjected to in consequence (1675-1747).

CURLING, a Scottish game played between rival clubs, belonging generally to different districts, by means of cheese-shaped stones hurled along smooth ice, the rules of which are pretty much the same as those in bowling.

CURRAN, JOHN PHILPOT, an Irish orator and wit, born in co. Cork; became member of Parliament in 1784; though a Protestant, employed all his eloquence to oppose the policy of the Government towards Ireland, together with the Union; retired on the death of Pitt; was Master of the Rolls for a time; was Irish to the core (1750-1817).

CURRIE, JAMES, a Liverpool physician, born in Kirkpatrick-Fleming, Dumfriesshire; was the earliest biographer and editor of Burns, in 4 vols., a work he undertook for behoof of his widow and family, and which realised L1400, involved no small labour, was done con amore, and done well (1756-1805).

CURRIE, SIR PHILIP, her Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople since 1893; has been connected with the Foreign Office since 1854; had been attache at St. Petersburg, and was secretary to Lord Salisbury; b. 1834.

CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM, an American writer, born in Rhode Island, distinguished as contributor or editor in connection with several American journals and magazines; b. 1824.

CURTIUS, a noble youth of Roman legend who leapt on horseback full-armed into a chasm in the Forum, which the soothsayers declared would not close unless at the sacrifice of what Rome held dearest, and which he did, judging that the wealth of Rome lay in its citizens, and tradition says the chasm thereupon immediately closed.

CURTIUS, ERNST, a German archaeologist and philosopher, born at Luebeck; travelled in Greece and Asia Minor; contributed much by his researches to the history of Greece, and of its legends and works of art; his jubilee as a professor was celebrated in 1891, when he received the congratulations of the Emperor William II., to whose father he at one time had acted as tutor; b. 1814.

CURTIUS, GEORG, German philologist, born at Luebeck, brother of the preceding; held professorial appointments in Prague, Kiel, and Berlin; one of the best Greek scholars in Germany, and contributed largely to the etymology and grammar of the Greek language (1820-1885).

CURTIUS, QUINTUS RUFUS, a Roman historian of uncertain date; wrote a history of Alexander the Great in ten books, two of which have been lost, the rest surviving in a very fragmentary state.

CURTMANTLE, a surname of Henry II., from a robe he wore shorter than that of his predecessors.

CURULE CHAIR, a kind of ivory camp-stool, mounted on a chariot, on which a Roman magistrate, if consul, praetor, censor, or chief edile, sat as he was conveyed in state to the senate-house or some public function.

CURWEN, JOHN, an Independent clergyman, born in Yorkshire; the founder of the Tonic Sol-fa system in music; from 1864 gave himself up to the advocacy and advancement of his system (1816-1880).

CURZON, GEORGE NATHANIEL, LORD, English statesman, son of a clergyman, educated at Eton and Oxford; became Fellow of All Souls; became Under-Secretary for India in 1891; travelled in the East, and wrote on Eastern topics, on which he became an authority; was appointed Viceroy of India in 1899; b. 1859.

CUSHING, an American jurist and diplomatist (1800-1879).

CUSHMAN, CHARLOTTE, an American actress, born in Boston; represented, among other characters, Lady Macbeth, Rosalind, Meg Merilees, and Romeo (1810-1876).

CUSTINE, COUNT DE, a French general, born at Metz; seized and occupied Mayence, 1792; was forced out of it by the Prussians and obliged to retreat; was called to account and sent to the guillotine; "unsuccessfulness," his crime; "had fought in America; was a proud, brave man, and his fortune led him hither" (1746-1793)

CUeSTRIN, a strong little town, 68 or 70 m. E. of Berlin, where young Frederick the Great was kept in close confinement by his father.

CUTCH, a native State in the Bombay Presidency, in the country called Gujarat.

CUTCH, RANN OF, a salt-water morass between Gujarat and Scinde, which becomes a lake during the SW. monsoon.

CUTHBERT, a monk of Jarrow, a disciple of Bede; was with him when he died, and wrote in a letter a graphic and touching account of his death.

CUTHBERT, ST., born in Northumbria; originally a shepherd; saw a vision in the night-watches of the soul of St. Aidan ascending to heaven, which determined his destiny, and he became a monk; entered the monastery of Melrose, and eventually became prior, but devoted most of his time to mission-work in the surrounding districts; left Melrose to be prior of Lindisfarne, but longing for an austerer life, he retired to, and led the life of a hermit on, an island by himself; being persuaded to come back, he acted as bishop of Lindisfarne, and continued to act as such for two years, but his previous longings for solitude returned, and he went back to a hermit life, to spend a short season, as it happened, in prayer and meditation; when he died; what he did, and the memory of what he did, left an imperishable impression for good in the whole N. of England and the Scottish borders; his remains were conveyed to Lindisfarne, and ere long to Durham (635-687).

CUTTACK (47), capital of a district in S. of Bengal, at the apex of the delta formed by the Mahanuddy; noted for its gold and silver filigree work.

CUVIER, GEORGES, a celebrated naturalist, born at Montebeliard, of Huguenot ancestry; the creator of comparative anatomy and palaeontology; was educated at Stuttgart, where he studied natural science; but the observation of marine animals on the coast of Normandy, where he held a tutorship, first led him to the systematic study of anatomy, and brought him into correspondence with Geoffroy St. Hilaire and others, who invited him to Paris, where he prosecuted his investigations, matured his views, and became professor of Comparative Anatomy at the Jardin des Plantes, a member of the French Institute, and Permanent Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, and eventually a peer of France; his labours in the science to which he devoted his life were immense, but he continued to the last a determined opponent of the theory, then being broached and now in vogue, of a common descent (1769-1832).

CUXHAVEN, a German watering-place at the mouth of the Elbe, on the southern bank.

CUYP, ALBERT, a celebrated Dutch landscape-painter, son of Jacob Cuyp, commonly called Old Cuyp, also a landscapist, born at Dort; painted scenes from the banks of the Meuse and the Rhine; is now reckoned a rival of Claude, though he was not so in his lifetime, his pictures selling now for a high price; he has been praised for his sunlights, but these, along with Claude's, have been pronounced depreciatively by Ruskin as "colourless" (1605-1691).

CUZCO (20), a town in Peru, about 11,440 ft. above the sea-level, the ancient capital of the Incas; still retains traces of its former extent and greatness, the inhabitants reckoned as then numbering 200,000, and the civilisation advanced.

CYBELE, a nature-goddess worshipped in Phrygia and W. Asia, whose worship, like that of the nature divinities generally, was accompanied with noisy, more or less licentious, revelry; identified by the Greeks with RHEA (q. v.), their nature-goddess.

CYCLADES, islands belonging to Greece, on the East or the AEgean Sea, so called as forming a circle round Delos, the most famous of the group.

CYCLIC POETS, poets who after Homer's death caught the contagion of his great poem and wrote continuations, additions, &c.

CYCLOPEAN WALLS, a name given to structures found in Greece, Asia Minor, Italy, and Sicily, built of large masses of unhewn stone and without cement, such as it is presumed a race of gigantic strength like the Cyclops (3) must have reared.

CYCLOPS, a name given to three distinct classes of mythological beings: (1) a set of one-eyed savage giants infesting the coasts of Sicily and preying upon human flesh; (2) a set of Titans, also one-eyed, belonging to the race of the gods, three in number, viz., Brontes, Steropes, and Arges—three great elemental powers of nature, subjected by and subject to Zeus; and (3) a people of Thrace, famed for their skill in building.

CYMBELINE, a legendary British king, and the hero of Shakespeare's romance play of the name.

CYNAEGIRUS, a brother of AEschylus; distinguished himself at Marathon; is famed for his desperate attempt to seize a retreating ship.

CYNEWULF, a Saxon poet, flourished at the second half of the 8th century; seems to have passed through two phases, first as a glad-hearted child of nature, and then as a devout believer in Christ; at the former stage wrote "Riddles" and "Ode to the West Wind," at the latter his themes were the lives of Christ and certain Saints.

CYNICS, a sect of Greek philosophers, disciples of Antisthenes, who was a disciple of Socrates, but carried away with him only part of Socrates' teaching and enforced that as if it were the whole, dropped all regard for humanity and the universal reason, and taught that "virtue lay wholly in the avoidance of evil, and those desires and greeds that bind us to enjoyments," so that his disciples were called the "Capuchins of the Old World." These in time went further than their master, and conceived a contempt for everything that was not self-derived; they derived their name from the gymnasium in Athens, where their master taught.

CYPRIAN, ST., one of the Fathers of the Church, born at Carthage, about the year 200, converted to Christianity in 245; devoted himself thereafter to the study of the Bible, with the help of Tertullian his favourite author; became bishop of Carthage in 248; on the outbreak of the Decian persecution had to flee for his life, ministering to his flock the while by substitutes; on his return, after two years, he was involved in the discussion about the reception of the lapsed; under the Valerian persecution was banished; being recalled, he refused to sacrifice to the gods, and suffered martyrdom in 258; he was a zealous bishop of the High Church type, and the father of such, only on broader lines. Festival, Sept. 16.

CYPRUS (21), a fertile, mountainous island in the Levant, capital Nicosia (12); geographically connected with Asia, and the third largest in the Mediterranean, being 140 m. long and 60 m. broad; government ceded to Great Britain in 1878 by the Sultan, on condition of an annual tribute; is a British colony under a colonial governor or High Commissioner; is of considerable strategic importance to Britain; yields cereals, wines, cotton, &c., and has 400 m. of good road, and a large transit trade.

CYRENAICS, a sect of Greek philosophers, disciples of Aristippus, who was a disciple of Socrates, but who broke away from his master by divorcing virtue from happiness, and making "pleasure, moderated by reason, the ultimate aim of life, and the supreme good."

CYRE'NE, a town and Greek colony in Africa, E. of Egypt, extensive ruins of which still exist, and which was the capital of the State, called Cyrenaica after it, and the birthland of several illustrious Greeks.

CYRIL, ST., surnamed the PHILOSOPHER, along with his brother Methodius, the "Apostle of the Slavs," born in Thessalonica; invented the Slavonic alphabet, and, with his brother's help, translated the Bible into the language of the Slavs; d. 868. Festival, March 9.

CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA, ST., born at Alexandria, and bishop there; an ecclesiastic of a violent, militant order; persecuted the Novatians, expelled the Jews from Alexandria, quarrelled with the governor, excited a fanaticism which led to the seizure and shameful murder of Hypatia; had a lifelong controversy with Nestorius, and got him condemned by the Council of Ephesus, while he himself was condemned by the Council at Antioch (608), and both cast into prison; after release lived at peace (376-444). Festival, Jan. 28.

CYRIL OF JERUSALEM, ST., patriarch of Jerusalem, elected 351, and a Father of the Greek Church; in the Arian controversy then raging was a Semi-Arian, and was persecuted by the strict Arians; joined the Nicene party at the Council of Constantinople in 381; was an instructor in church doctrine to the common people by his catechisms (315-386). Festival, March 18.

CYROPAEDIA, a work by Xenophon, being an idealistic account of the "education of Cyrus the Great."

CYRUS, surnamed the GREAT, or the ELDER, the founder of the Persian empire; began his conquests by overthrowing his grandfather Astyages, king of the Medes; subdued Croesus, king of Lydia; laid siege to Babylon and took it, and finished by being master of all Western Asia; was a prince of great energy and generosity, and left the nations he subjected and rendered tributary free in the observances of their religions and the maintenance of their institutions; this is the story of the historians, but it has since been considerably modified by study of the ancient monuments (560-529 B.C.).

CYRUS, surnamed the YOUNGER, second son of Darius II.; conspired against his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, was sentenced to death, pardoned, and restored to his satrapy in Asia Minor; conspired anew, raised a large army, including Greek mercenaries, marched against his brother, and was slain at Cunaxa, of which last enterprise and its fate an account is given in the "Anabasis" of Xenophon; d. 401 B.C.

CYTHERA, the ancient name of Cerigo; had a magnificent temple to Venus, who was hence called Cytheraea.

CZARTORYSKI, a Polish prince, born at Warsaw; passed his early years in England; studied at Edinburgh University; fought under Kosciusko against the Russians, and was for some time a hostage in Russia; gained favour at the Court there, and even a high post in the State; in 1830 threw himself into the revolutionary movement, and devoted all his energies to the service of his country, becoming head of the government; on the suppression of the revolution his estates were confiscated; he escaped to Paris, and spent his old age there, dying at 90 (1770-1861).

CZECHS, a branch of the Slavonic family that in the later half of the 6th century settled in Bohemia; have a language of their own, spoken also in Moravia and part of Hungary.

CZERNO'WITZ (54), the capital of the Austrian province of Bukowina, on the Pruth.

CZERNY, CHARLES, a musical composer and pianist, born at Vienna; had Liszt and Thalberg for pupils (1791-1857).

CZERNY, GEORGE, leader of the Servians in their insurrection against the Turks; assisted by Russia carried all before him; when that help was withdrawn the Turks gained the advantage, and he had to flee; returning after the independence of Servia was secured, he was murdered at the instigation of Prince Milosch (1766-1817).


DACCA (82), a city 150 m. NE. of Calcutta, on a branch of the Brahmaputra, once the capital of Bengal, and a centre of Mohammedanism; famous at one time for its muslins; the remains of its former grandeur are found scattered up and down the environs and half buried in the jungle; it is also the name of a district (2,420), well watered, both for cultivation and commerce.

DACIA, a Roman province, N. of the Danube and S. of the Carpathians.

DACIER, ANDRE, a French scholar and critic, born at Castres, in Languedoc; assisted by his wife, executed translations of various classics, and produced an edition of them known as the "Delphin Edition" (1651-1722).

DACIER, MADAME, distinguished Hellenist and Latinist, wife of the preceding, born in Saumur (1651-1720).

DACOITS, gangs of semi-savage Indian brigands and robbers, often 40 or 50 in a gang.

DA COSTA, ISAAC, a Dutch poet, born at Amsterdam, of Jewish parents; turned Christian, and after the death of Bilderdijk was chief poet of Holland (1798-1860).

DAEDALUS, an architect and mechanician in the Greek mythology; inventor and constructor of the Labyrinth of Crete, in which the Minotaur was confined, and in which he was also imprisoned himself by order of Minos, a confinement from which he escaped by means of wings fastened on with wax; was regarded as the inventor of the mechanic arts.

DAGHESTAN (529), a Russian province W. of the Caspian Sea, traversed by spurs of the Caucasus Mountains; chief town Derbend.

DAGO, a marshy Russian island, N. of the Gulf of Riga, near the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.

DAGOBERT I., king of the Franks, son of Clotaire II., reformed the laws of the Franks; was the last of the Merovingian kings who knew how to rule with a firm hand; the sovereign power as it passed from his hands was seized by the mayor of the palace; d. 638.

DAGON, the national god of the Philistines, represented as half-man, sometimes half-woman, and half-fish; appears to have been a symbol to his worshippers of the fertilising power of nature, familiar to them in the fruitfulness of the sea.

DAGUERREOTYPE, a process named after its inventor, Louis Daguerre, a Frenchman, of producing pictures by means of the camera on a surface sensitive to light and shade, and interesting as the first step in photography.

DAHL, a Norwegian landscape-painter, born at Bergen; died professor of Painting at Dresden (1788-1857).

DAHLGREN, JOHN ADOLPH, a U.S. naval officer and commander; invented a small heavy gun named after him; commanded the blockading squadron at Charleston (1809-1870).

DAHLMANN, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH, a German historian and politician, born at Wismar; was in favour of constitutional government; wrote a "History of Denmark," "Histories of the French Revolution and of the English Revolution"; left an unfinished "History of Frederick the Great" (1785-1860).

DAHN, FELIX, a German jurist, historian, novelist, and poet, born in Hamburg; a man of versatile ability and extensive learning; became professor of German jurisprudence at Koenigsberg; b. 1834.

DAHNA DESERT, the central division of the Arabian Desert.

DAHOMEY (150), a negro kingdom of undefined limits, and under French protectorate, in W. Africa, N. of the Slave Coast; the religious rites of the natives are sanguinary, they offer human victims in sacrifice; is an agricultural country, yields palm-oil and gold dust, and once a great centre of the slave-trade.

DAIRI, the Mikado's palace or his court, and sometimes the Mikado himself.

DAKO'TA, NORTH and SOUTH (400), three times as large as England, forming two States of the American Union; consist of prairie land, and extend N. from Nebraska as far as Canada, traversed by the Missouri; yield cereals, especially wheat, and raise cattle.

DALAI-LAMA, chief priest of Lamaism, reverenced as a living incarnation of deity, always present on earth in him. See LAMAISM.

DALAYRAC, celebrated French composer; author of a number of comic operas (1753-1809).

DALBERG, BARON DE, an eminent member of a noble German family; trained for the Church; was a prince-bishop; a highly cultured man, held in high esteem in the Weimar Court circles, and a friend of Goethe and Schiller; an ecclesiastic, as one might suppose, only in name (1744-1817).

DALBERG, DUC DE, nephew of the preceding; contributed to political changes in France in 1814, and accompanied Talleyrand to the Congress of Vienna (1773-1833).

D'ALBRET, JEANNE, queen of Navarre, and mother of Henry IV. of France; came to Paris to treat about the marriage of her son to Charles IX.'s sister; died suddenly, not without suspicion of foul-play, after signing the treaty; she was a Protestant (1528-1572).

D'ALEMBERT, a French philosopher, devoted to science, and especially to mathematics; along with Diderot established the celebrated "Encyclopedie," wrote the Preliminary Discourse, and contributed largely to its columns, editing the mathematical portion of it; trained to quiet and frugality, was indifferent to wealth and honour, and a very saint of science; no earthly bribe could tear him away from his chosen path of life (1717-1783).

DALGARNO, LORD, a heartless profligate in the "Fortunes of Nigel."

DALGETTY, DUGALD, a swaggering soldier of fortune in the "Legend of Montrose," who let out his services to the highest bidder.

DALHOUSIE, JAMES ANDREW BROUN-RAMSAY, MARQUIS OF, Governor-General of India, third son of the ninth Earl; as Lord Ramsay served in Parliament as member for Haddingtonshire; on his father's death in 1838 entered the House of Lords; held office under Sir Robert Peel and Lord Russell; went to India as Governor-General in 1848; ruled vigorously, annexed territory, developed the resources of the country, projected and carried out important measures for its welfare; his health, however, gave way at the end of eight years, and he came home to receive the thanks of the Parliament, elevation in the peerage, and other honours, but really to end his days in pain and prostration; dying without male issue, he was succeeded in the earldom by Fox Maule, Lord Panmure (1812-1860).

DALKEITH (7), a grain-market town in Midlothian, 6 m. SE. of Edinburgh, with a palace adjoining, a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch.

DALLAS, GEORGE MIFFLIN, an American diplomatist, born in Philadelphia; represented the United States as ambassador at St. Petersburg and at London, and was from 1844 to 1849 Vice-President (1792-1864).

DALMATIA (527), a crownland of Austria, lying along the NE. coast of the Adriatic, and bounded on the land side by Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina; half the land is pasture, only one-ninth of it arable, which yields cereals, wine, oil, honey, and fruit.

DALRI'ADS, a Celtic race who came over from Ireland to Argyllshire, and established a kingdom in the SW. of Scotland, till King Kenneth Macalpin succeeded in 843, who obtained rule both over it and the northern kingdom of the Picts, and became the first king of Scotland.

DALRYMPLE, ALEXANDER, hydrographer to the Admiralty and the East India Company, born at New Hailes, and brother of Lord Hailes; produced many good maps (1737-1808).

DALTON, JOHN, chemist and physicist, born near Cockermouth, of a Quaker family; took early an interest in meteorology, and kept through life a record of meteorological observations; taught mathematics and physics in Manchester; made his first appearance as an author in 1793 in a volume of his observations and essays, and in 1808 published "A New System of Chemical Philosophy," which he finished in 1810; famous for his experiments on the elastic force of steam, for his researches on the proportional weights of simple bodies, for his discovery of the atomic theory, as also for his investigations on colour-blindness by experimenting on himself and his brother, who along with himself was colour-blind (1766-1844).


DALZIEL, THOMAS, general, born in Linlithgowshire; being hand-idle at home, entered the Russian service against the Turks; returning at the request of Charles II., was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland; suppressed a rising of the Covenanters at Pentland in 1666; never once shaved his beard after the execution of Charles I. (1599-1685).

DAMAN, a Portuguese settlement with a port of the same name in Gujarat, India, 100 m. N. of Bombay.

DAM'ARALAND, a territory on the W. coast of South Africa, N. of Namaqualand; the chief industry is pastoral; the mountain districts, which are rich in minerals, particularly copper, are inhabited by Damaras, who are nomads and cattle-rearers; it is a German protectorate since 1890.

DAMAS, COLONEL COMTE DE, a devoted adherent of Louis XVI., and one of his convoys on his attempt at flight.

DAMASCUS (220), the capital of Syria, one of the oldest cities in the world; stands 2260 ft. above the sea-level; is a great centre of the caravan trade; is embosomed in the midst of gardens and orchards, hence its appearance as the traveller approaches it is most striking; its history goes as far back as the days of Abraham; it was the scene of two great events in human destiny—the conversion of St. Paul, and, according to Moslem tradition, a great decisive moment in the life of Mahomet, when he resolutely turned his back once for all on the pleasures of the world.

DAMASUS, ST., Pope from 366 to 384, a Spaniard; a zealous opponent of the Arians and a friend of St. Jerome, who, under his sanction, executed his translation of the Bible into the Vulgate; there was a Damasus II., Pope in 1048.

DAME AUX CAMELIAS, LA, a romance and a drama by Alexander Dumas fils, one of his best creations.

DAMIEN, FATHER, a French priest, born at Louvain; devoted his life to nurse and instruct the lepers in an island of the Hawaian group, and, though after 12 years infected with the disease himself, continued to minister to them till his death (1841-1889).

DAMIENS, ROBERT FRANCOIS, the would-be assassin of Louis XV., born near Arras; aimed at the king as he was entering his carriage at Trianon, but failed to wound him mortally; was mercilessly tortured to death; was known before as Robert le Diable; his motive for the act was never known (1715-1757).

DAMIETTA (36), a town, the third largest, in Egypt, on an eastern branch of the Nile, 8 m. from its mouth; has a trade in grain, rice, hides, fish, &c.; was taken by St. Louis in 1249, and restored on payment of his ransom from captivity.

DAMOCLES, a flatterer at the court of the elder Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, whom, after one day extravagantly extolling the happiness of kings, Dionysius set down to a magnificent banquet, but who, when seated at it, looked up and saw a sword hanging over his head suspended by a single hair; a lesson this which admonished him, and led him to change his views of the happiness of kings.

DAMON AND PYTHIAS, two Pythagoreans of Syracuse of the days of Dionysius I., celebrated for their friendship; upon the latter having been condemned to death, and having got leave to go home to arrange his affairs beforehand, the former pledged his life for his return, when just as, according to his promise, he presented himself at the place of execution, Pythias turned up and prepared to put his head on the block; this behaviour struck the tyrant with such admiration, that he not only extended pardon to the offender, but took them both into his friendship.

DAMPIER, WILLIAM, an English navigator and buccaneer; led a roving and adventurous life, and parting company with his comrades, set off on a cruise in the South Seas; came home and published a "Voyage Round the World"; this led to his employment in further adventures, in one of which Alexander Selkirk accompanied him, but was wrecked on Juan Fernandez; in his last adventure, it is said, he rescued Selkirk and brought him home (1652-1715).

DANA, CHARLES ANDERSON, American journalist, member of BROOK FARM (q. v.), and became editor of the New York Tribune, the Sun, and a cyclopaedia: b. 1829.

DANA, JAMES DWIGHT, American mineralogist and geologist, born at Utica, New York State; was associated as scientific observer with Commodore Wilkes on his Arctic and Antarctic exploring expeditions, on the results of which he reported; became geological professor in Yale College; author of works on mineralogy and geology, as also on South Sea volcanoes (1813-1895).

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, an American poet and critic; editor of the North American Review, author of the "Dying Raven," the "Buccaneer," and other poems (1787-1879).

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, a son of the preceding, lawyer; author of "Two Years before the Mast" (1815-1882).

DANAE, daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, confined by her father in an inaccessible tower of brass to prevent the fulfilment of an oracle that she should be the mother of a son who would kill him, but Zeus found access to her in the form of a shower of gold, and she became the mother of Perseus, by whose hand Acrisius met his fate. See PERSEUS.

DANA'IDES, daughters of Danaues, who, for murdering their husbands on the night after marriage, were doomed in the nether world to the impossible task of filling with water a vessel pierced with holes. See DANAUeS.

DANAUeS, son of Belus, and twin-brother of AEgyptus, whom fearing, he fled from with his fifty daughters to Argos, where he was chosen king; by-and-by the fifty sons of AEgyptus, his brother, came to Argos to woo, and were wedded to, their cousins, whom their father provided each with a dagger to murder her husband, which they did, all except Hypermnestra, whose husband, Lynceus, escaping, succeeded her father as king, to the defeat of the old man's purpose in the crime.

DANBY, FRANCIS, painter, born near Wexford; settled for a time in Bristol, then in Switzerland, and finally at Exmouth; his works are mostly landscape, instinct with feeling, but some of them are historical, the subjects being taken from Scripture, as the "Passage of the Red Sea," or from pagan sources, as "Marius among the Ruins of Carthage" (1793-1861).

DANCE, GEORGE, English architect; was architect to the City of London, and designed the Mansion House, his chief work (1700-1768). GEORGE, his son, built Newgate Prison (1740-1825).

DANCE OF DEATH, an allegorical representation in a dramatic or pictorial form of Death, figuring, originally as a skeleton, and performing his part as a chief actor all through the drama of life, and often amid the gayest scenes of it; a succession of woodcuts by Holbein in representation of this dance is well known.

DANCING MANIA, an epidemic of frequent occurrence, especially in German towns, during the Middle Ages, of the nature of hysteria, showing itself in convulsive movements beyond the control of the will, and in delirious acts, sometimes violently suicidal; the most signal occurrence of the mania was at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1374.

DANCOURT, FLORENT CARTON, French dramatist, a prolific author; a favourite of Louis XIV.; wrote comedies, chiefly on the follies of the middle classes of the time (1661-1725).

DANDIE DINMONT, a humorous, jovial store-farmer in "Guy Mannering."

DANDIN, GEORGE, one of Moliere's comedies, illustrative of the folly a man commits when he marries a woman of higher rank than his own, George being his impersonation of a husband who has patiently to endure all the extravagant whims and fancies of his dame of a wife.

DANDIN, PERRIN, a simple citizen in the "Pantagruel" of Rabelais, who seats himself judge-wise on the first stump that offers, and passes offhand a sentence in any matter of litigation; a character who figures similarly in a comedy of Racine's, and in a fable of La Fontaine's.

DAN'DOLO, a Venetian family that furnished four Doges to the Republic, ENRICO being the most illustrious; chosen Doge in his eighty-fourth year, assisted the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade with ships; joined them, when blind and aged 90, in laying siege to Constantinople; led the attack by sea, and was the first to leap ashore; was offered the imperial crown, but declined it; died instead "despot" of Roumania in 1205, at 97.

DANEGELT, originally a tax imposed on land to buy off the Danes from the shores of England, and subsequently for other objects, such as the defence of the coast; abolished by Henry II., though re-imposed subsequently under other names.

DANELAGH, a district in the E. of England, N. of the Thames; dominated at one time more or less by the Danes; of vague extent.

DANGEAU, MARQUIS, author of "Memoirs" affecting the court of Louis XIV. and its manners (1638-1720).

D'ANGOULEME, DUCHESSE, daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette; was released from restraint after the execution of her parents in exchange for prisoners in the Royalist's hands; fled to Vienna, where she was driven forth; married her cousin, to whom she was early betrothed; could find no place of safe refuge but in England; returned to France on Napoleon's exile to Elba, and headed a body of troops against him on his return; after Waterloo, returned to France and stayed till July 1830, and lived to see Louis Philippe, in 1848, driven from the throne; Napoleon called her "the only man of her family"; left "Memoirs" (1778-1851).

DANGS, THE, a forest district in the N. of the Presidency of Bombay, occupied by fifteen wild tribes, each under a chief.

DANIEL, a Hebrew of fine physique and rare endowment, who was, while but a youth, carried captive to Babylon, and trained for office in the court of the king; was found, after three years' discipline, to excel "in wisdom and understanding" all the magicians and enchanters of the realm, of which he gave such proof that he rose step by step to the highest official positions, first in the Babylonian and then in the Persian empire. He was a Hebrew prophet of a new type, for whereas the old prophet had, for the most part, more regard to the immediate present and its outlooks, his eye reached forth into the future and foresaw in vision, as his book has foretold in symbol, the fulfilment of the hope for which the fathers of his race had lived and died.

DANIEL, SAMUEL, English poet, born near Taunton; wrote dramas and sonnets; his principal production a "History of the Civil Wars" of York and Lancaster, a poem in seven books; is called the "Well-Englished Daniel," and is much admired for his style; in prose he wrote a "History of England," and a "Defence of Rhyme," which Swinburne pronounces to be "one of the most perfect examples of sound sense, of pure style, and of just judgment in the literature of criticism"; he is associated with Warner and Drayton as having given birth to "a poetry which has devoted itself to extol the glory of England" (1562-1619).

DANIELL, JOHN FREDERICK, a distinguished chemist, born in London; professor of Chemistry in King's College, London; wrote "Meteorological Essays," and "Introduction to Chemical Philosophy"; invented a hygrometer and an electric battery (1790-1845).

DANIELL, WILLIAM, an eminent draughtsman; spent his early life in India; author of "Oriental Scenery," in six folio vols. (1769-1837).

DANITES, or Destroying Angels, a band of Mormons organised to prevent the entrance into Mormon territory of other than Mormon immigrants, but whose leader, for a massacre they perpetrated, was in 1827 convicted and shot.

DANNECKER, JOHANN HEINRICH VON, a distinguished German sculptor, born near Stuttgart, and educated by the Duke of Wuertemberg, who had become his patron; became professor of Sculpture in the Academy at Stuttgart; his earlier subjects were from the Greek mythology, and his later Christian, the principal of the latter being a colossal "Christ," which he took eight years to complete; he executed besides busts of contemporaries, which are wonderful in expression, such as those of Schiller, Lavater, and Glueck; "Ariadne on the Panther" is regarded as his masterpiece (1758-1841).

DANTE ALIGHIERI, the great poet of Italy, "the voice of ten silent centuries," born in Florence; was of noble birth; showed early a great passion for learning; learned all that the schools and universities of the time could teach him "better than most"; fought as a soldier; did service as a citizen; at thirty-five filled the office of chief magistrate of Florence; had, while but a boy of ten, "met a certain Beatrice Portinari, a beautiful girl of his own age and rank, and had grown up in partial sight of her, in some distant intercourse with her," who became to him the ideal of all that was pure and noble and good; "made a great figure in his poem and a great figure in his life"; she died in 1290; he married another, "not happily, far from happily; in some civic Guelf-Ghibelline strife he was expelled the city, and his property confiscated; tried hard to recover it, even 'with arms in his hand,' but could not, and was doomed, 'whenever caught, to be burned alive'; invited to confess his guilt and return, he sternly answered: 'If I cannot return without calling myself guilty, I will never return.'" From this moment he was without home in this world; and "the great soul of Dante, homeless on earth, made its home more and more in that awful other world ... over which, this time-world, with its Florences and banishments, flutters as an unreal shadow." Dante's heart, long filled with this, brooding over it in speechless thought and awe, bursts forth at length into "mystic unfathomable song," and this, his "DIVINE COMEDY" (q. v.), the most remarkable of all modern Books, is the result. He died after finishing it, not yet very old, at the age of 56. He lies buried in his death-city Ravenna, "shutout from my native shores." The Florentines begged back his body in a century after; the Ravenna people would not give it (1265-1321). See CARLYLE'S "HEROES AND HERO-WORSHIP," and Dean Plumptre's "LIFE OF DANTE."

DANTON, GEORGES JACQUES, "The Titan of the Forlorn Hope" of the French Revolution, born at Arcis-sur-Aube, "of good farmer people ... a huge, brawny, black-browed man, with a waste energy as of a Hercules"; an advocate by profession, "esurient, but with nothing to do; found Paris and his country in revolt, rose to the front of the strife; resolved to do or die"; the cause threatened, he threw himself again and again into the breach defiant, his motto "to dare, and to dare, and again to dare," so as to put and keep the enemy in fear; "Let my name be blighted," he said, "what am I? The cause alone is great, and will live and not perish"; but the "SEA-GREEN" (q. v.) viewed him with jealousy, held him suspect, had him arrested, brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal, the severity of whose proceedings under him he had condemned, and sentenced to the guillotine; a reflection of his in prison has been recorded: "Oh, it were better to be a poor fisherman than to meddle with governing of men." "No weakness, Danton," he said to himself on the scaffold, as his heart began to sink within him as he thought of his wife. His last words were to Samson the headsman: "Thou wilt show my head to the people, it is worth showing"; words worthy of the brother of Mirabeau, who died saying, "I wish I could leave my head behind me, France needs it just now"; a man fiery-real, as has been said, genuine to the core, with many sins, yet lacking that greatest of sins, cant. "He was," says Mr. Belloc, "the most French, the most national, the nearest to the mother of all the Revolutionary group. He summed up France ... when we study him, we see France" (1759-1794). See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION."

DANTZIG (116), the capital of W. Prussia, once a Hanse town, on the Vistula, 4 m. from the mouth; one of the great ports and trading centres of Germany and in the N. of Europe; it is traversed by canals, and many of the houses are built on piles of wood; exports grain brought down the river on timber rafts from the great grain country in the S.; it is one of the chief stations of the German navy.

DANUBE, THE, the great south-eastward-flowing river of Europe, 1750 m. in length, rises in the Black Forest, and is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower; the Upper extends as far as Pressburg, begins to be navigable to Ulm, flows NE. as far as Ratisbon, and then bends SE. past Vienna; the Middle extends from Pressburg to the Iron Gate, enclosing between its gorges a series of rapids, below Orsova; and the Lower extends from the Iron Gate to the Black Sea. It receives numerous tributary rivers, 60 of them navigable, in its course; forms with them the great water highway of the SE. of Europe, and is of avail for traffic to all the races and nations whose territories it traverses; the navigation of the river is free indeed to all nations.

DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES, Moldavia and Wallachia.

DANVILLE, the name of several towns in the United States.

D'ANVILLE, geographer to the king of France; left numerous valuable maps and geographical works (1697-1782).

DAPHNE (lit. a laurel), a nymph chased by Apollo, transformed into a laurel as he attempts to seize her; henceforth sacred to the god.

DAPHNIS, a Sicilian shepherd, the mythical inventor of pastoral poetry.

DAPSANG, the highest of the Karakorum Mountains.

D'ARBLAY, MADAME, a distinguished novelist, daughter of Dr. Burney, the historian of music; authoress of "Evelina" and "Cecilia," the first novels of the time, which brought her into connection with all her literary contemporaries, Johnson in chief; left "Diary and Letters" (1752-1840).

DARBOY, GEORGES, archbishop of Paris: was a defender of the Gallican liberties of the Church; had been assiduous in offices of benevolence during the siege of Paris; was arrested as a hostage by the Communists, and shot (1813-1871).

DARBY AND JOAN, a married couple celebrated for their mutual attachment.

DARBYITES, the PLYMOUTH BRETHREN (q. v.), from the name of one of their founders, a man of scholarly ability and culture, and the chief expounder of their views (1800-1852).

DARDANELLES, a strait extending between the Archipelago and the Sea of Marmora, anciently called the Hellespont, 40 m. long, from 1 to 4 broad; commanded by Turkey, both sides of the strait being strongly fortified.

DARDANUS, a son of Zeus and Electra, mythical ancestor of the Trojans; originally a king in Greece.

DARFUR (500), a district in the Egyptian Soudan, in which vegetation is for the most part dormant all the year round, except from June to September, when it is rank and rich; was snatched from Egypt by the Mahdi, but is now restored.

D'ARGENS, MARQUIS, born at Aix; disinherited owing to his misconduct; turned author, and became a protege of Frederick the Great, but lost caste with him too, and was deprived of his all once more (1704-1771).

D'ARGENSON, COMTE, an eminent French statesman, head of the police in Paris; introduced lettres de cachet, and was a patron of the French philosophes; had the "Encyclopedie" dedicated to him; fell out of favour at Court, and had to leave Paris, but returned to die there (1696-1764).

DARIC, a gold coin current in ancient Persia, stamped with an archer kneeling, and weighing little over a sovereign.

DARIEN, GULF OF, an inlet of the Caribbean Sea, NW. of S. America. For isthmus of, see PANAMA.

DARIEN SCHEME, a project to plant a colony on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, which was so far carried out that some 1200 left Scotland in 1698 to establish it, but which ended in disaster, and created among the Scotch, who were the chief sufferers, an animus against the English, whom they blamed for the disaster, an animus which did not for long die out.

DARIUS I., eldest son of Hystaspes, king of the Persians; subdued subject places that had revolted, reorganised the empire, carried his conquests as far as India, subdued Thrace and Macedonia, declared war against the Athenians; in 492 B.C. sent an expedition against Greece, which was wrecked in a storm off Athos; sent a second, which succeeded in crossing over, but was defeated in a famous battle at Marathon, 490 B.C.

DARIUS II., called OCHUS or NOTHUS, king of the Persians; subject to his eunuchs and his wife Parysatis; his reign was a succession of insurrections; he supported the Spartans against the Athenians, to the ascendency of the former in the Peloponnesus; d. 405 B.C.

DARIUS III., surnamed CODOMANNUS, king of the Persians, a handsome man and a virtuous; could not cope with Alexander of Macedon, but was defeated by him in successive engagements at Granicus, Issus, and Arbela; was assassinated on his flight by BESSUS (q. v.), one of his satraps, in 330 B.C.; with him the Persian empire came to an end.

DARJEELING (14), a sanitary station and health resort in the Lower Himalayas, and the administrative head-quarters of the district, 7167 ft. above the level of the sea; it has greatly increased of late years.

DARLEY, GEORGE, poet and critic, born in Dublin; author of "Sylvia" and "Nepenthe"; wrote some good songs, among them "I've been Roaming," once very popular; much belauded by Coleridge; contributed to the Athenaeum (1795-1846).

DARLING, a tributary of the Murray River, in Australia, now stagnant, now flooded.

DARLING, GRACE, a young maiden, daughter of the lighthouse keeper of one of the Farne Islands, who with her father, amid great peril, saved the lives of nine people from the wreck of the Forfarshire, on Sept. 7, 1838; died of consumption (1815-1842).

DARLINGTON (38), a town in S. of Durham, on the Tees, with large iron and other works; a considerable number of the inhabitants belong to the Society of Friends.

DARMESTETER, JAMES, Orientalist, born in Lorraine, of Jewish descent; a distinguished Zend scholar and authority in Zend literature; in the interpretation of the Zend and other ancient literatures was of the modern critical school (1849-1894).

DARMSTADT (55), the capital of the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Darm, an affluent of the Rhine, 15 m. S. of Frankfort; is divided into an old and a new town; manufactures tobacco, paper, carpets, chemicals, &c.

DARNLEY, HENRY STUART, LORD, eldest son of the Earl of Lennox and grand-nephew of Henry VIII.; husband of Queen Mary; was murdered on Feb. 5, 1567, in Kirk-o'-Field, which stood on the site of the present University of Edinburgh.

DARTMOOR, moor in Devonshire, a tableland of an average height of 1200 ft. above the sea-level, and of upwards of 120,000 acres in extent, incapable of cultivation, but affording pasturage for sheep, of which it breeds a small hardy race; it has rich veins of minerals; abounds in British remains, and contains a large convict prison.

DARU, COMTE, a French administrator and litterateur, born at Montpellier; translated Horace when in prison during the Reign of Terror; served as administrator under Napoleon; on the return of the Bourbons devoted himself to letters, and wrote the "History of the Republic of Venice" (1767-1829).

DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT, great English naturalist and biologist, born at Shrewsbury, grandson of Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and of Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's; studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge; in 1831 accompanied as naturalist without salary the Beagle in her voyage of exploration in the Southern Seas, on the condition that he should have the entire disposal of his collections, all of which he got, and which he ultimately distributed among various public institutions; he was absent from England for five years, and on his return published in 1836 his "Naturalist's Voyage Round the World," in 1839-43 accounts of the fruits of his researches and observations in the departments of geology and natural history during that voyage, in 1842 his treatise on the "Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs," and in 1859 his work on the "Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection," a work which has proved epoch-making and gone far to revolutionise thought in the scientific study of, especially, animated nature, and is being applied to higher spheres of being; this work was followed by others more or less confirmatory, finishing off with "The Descent of Man" in 1871, in which he traces the human race to an extinct quadrumanous animal related to that which produced the orang-outang, the chimpanzee, and the gorilla. He may be said to have taken evolution out of the region of pure imagination, and by giving it a basis of fact, to have set it up as a reasonable working hypothesis. Prof. A. R. Wallace claims for Darwin "that he is the Newton of natural history, and has ... by his discovery of the law of natural selection and his demonstration of the great principles of the preservation of useful variations in the struggle for life, not only thrown a flood of light on the process of development of the whole organic world, but also established a firm foundation for the future study of nature." He was buried in Westminster Abbey (1809-1882).

DARWIN, ERASMUS, physician and natural philosopher, born in Nottinghamshire; studied at Cambridge and Edinburgh; practised medicine in Lichfield, and finally settled in Derby; occupied his mind with the study of fanciful analogies in the different spheres of nature, and committed his views, often not without genuine poetic sentiment and melody of expression, to verse, while in the views themselves there have been recognised occasional glimpses of true insight, and at times a foreshadow of the doctrine developed on strict scientific lines by his illustrious grandson. His chief poetic works were the "Botanic Garden" and the "Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life," deemed, in the philosophy of them, not unworthy of criticism by such sane thinkers as Paley and Dugald Stewart (1731-1802).

DARWINIAN THEORY, the theory established by Darwin that the several species of plants and animals now in existence were not created in their present form, but have been evolved by natural law of descent, with modifications of structure, from cruder forms. See DARWIN, C. R.

DASENT, SIR GEORGE WEBBE, Icelandic scholar, born at St. Vincent, West Indies; studied at Oxford; from 1845 to 1870 was assistant-editor of the Times; has translated "The Prose, or Younger, Edda" and Norse tales and sagas; written also novels, and contributed to reviews and magazines; b. 1817.

DASH, COUNTESS, the nom de plume of the Viscountess de Saint-Mars, a French novelist, born at Poitiers; in straits for a living, took desperately to writing; treated of aristocratic life and its hollow artificialities and immoralities (1804-1872).

DASHKOFF, a Russian princess of note; played a part in the conspiracy which ended in the elevation of Catharine II. to the throne; was a woman of culture; founded the Russian Academy; projected and assisted in the compilation of a Russian dictionary; died at Moscow (1744-1810).

DATES OF EPOCH-MAKING EVENTS, the Ascendency in Athens of Pericles (445 B.C.); the Fall of the Persian Empire (330 B.C.); the Death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.); the Reduction of Greece to a Roman province, and the Ruin of Carthage (146 B.C.); the Battle of Actium (31 B.C.); Birth of Christ, 14th year of Augustus; Commencement of the Middle Ages (395); Ruin of the Roman Empire by the Barbarians (476); Clovis, ruler of Gaul (509); the Flight of Mahomet (622); Charlemagne, Emperor of the West (800); Treaty of Verdun (843); the Crusades (1096-1291); Employment of Cannon at Crecy (1346); Invention of Printing (1436); Taking of Constantinople by Mahomet II. (1453); Discovery of America by Columbus (1492); Copernican System published (1500); Accession of Leo X. as Pope (1513); the Reformation of Luther (1517); Publication of Bacon's "Novum Organon" (1620); Publication of Descartes's "Discourse on Method" (1637); the Peace of Westphalia (1648); Reign of Louis XIV. at its Height, and Peace of Nimeguen (1678); Publication of Newton's Theory of Gravitation (1682); Watt's Invention of the Steam-Engine (1769); Independence of the United States (1776); Coup d'etat of 10th Brumaire (1799); Waterloo, and Congress of Vienna (1815); Introduction of Railroads into England (1830); First Attempt at Electric Telegraphy in France (1837); Africa traversed by Livingstone (1852-1854); Publication of Darwin's "Origin of Species" (1859); Opening of the Suez Canal (1869); Proclamation of the German Empire (1871); Congress of Berlin (1878).

DAUBENTON, LOUIS JEAN MARIE, a French naturalist, born at Montbard; associated with Buffon in the preparation of the first 15 vols. of his "Histoire Naturelle," and helped him materially by the accuracy of his knowledge, as well as his literary qualifications; contributed largely to the "Encyclopedie," and was 50 years curator of the Cabinet of Natural History at Paris (1716-1799).

DAUBENY, CHARLES, English chemist and botanist, author of "A Description of Active and Extinct Volcanoes," an "Introduction to the Atomic Theory," and other works, all like the latter more or less related to chemistry (1795-1867).

D'AUBIGNE, MERLE, a popular Church historian, born near Geneva; studied under Neander at Berlin; became pastor at Hamburg, court-preacher at Brussels, and professor of Church History at Geneva; his reputation rests chiefly on his "History of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century" (1794-1872).

D'AUBIGNE, THEODORE AGRIPPA, a historian, bred to the military profession; held appointments under Henry IV., on whose assassination he returned to Geneva, where he wrote his "Histoire Universelle," which had the honour to be burned by the common hangman in Paris; was a satirical writer; grandfather to Mme. de Maintenon (1550-1630).

DAUBIGNY, CHARLES FRANCOIS, a French landscape painter and skilful etcher, born in Paris, attained distinction as an artist late in life (1817-1878).

D'AUBUSSON, PIERRE, grand-master of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, of French origin; served under the Emperor Sigismund against the Turks; went to Rhodes; became a knight of St. John, and was chosen grand-master; defended Rhodes against 100,000 Turks, and thus stayed the career of Mahomet II., who, after establishing himself in Constantinople, was threatening to overrun Europe (1423-1503).

DAUDET, ALPHONSE, a noted French novelist of great versatility, born at Nimes, of poor parents; early selected literature as his career in life; wrote poems and plays, and contributed to the Figaro and other journals; worked up into his novels characters and situations that had come under his own observation, often in too satirical a vein to become universally popular; has been likened to Dickens in his choice of subjects and style of treatment; died suddenly (1840-1897).

D'AULNOY, THE COUNTESS, authoress of charmingly-written "Contes des Fees" (Fairy Tales), and on which her reputation rests (1650-1705).

DAUMIER, HENRI, a French caricaturist of great fertility and playfulness of genius, born at Marseilles; became blind in his old age (1808-1879).

DAUN, KARL, German theologian, born at Cassel, professor at Heidelberg, sought to ground theology on a philosophic basis, and found what he sought in the philosophy of Hegel (1765-1836).

DAUN, LEOPOLD, GRAF VON, an able Austrian general, born at Vienna; distinguished himself by his prudence and valour in the Seven Years' War, gained a victory over Frederick the Great at Kolin in 1757, and another at Hochkirch in 1758; could prevail little or not at all against Frederick afterwards as soon as Frederick saw through his tactics, which he was not long in doing (1705-1766).

DAUPHIN, a name originally given to the Seigneurs of the province of Dauphine, in allusion to the dolphin which several members of the family wore as a badge, but in 1349 given to the heir-presumptive to the crown of France, when Humbert II., dauphin of Vienne, ceded Dauphine to Philippe of Valois, on condition that the eldest son of the king of France should assume the title, a title which was abolished after the Revolution of 1830. The word signifies dolphin in French.

DAUPHINE, a SW. province of France, of which the capital was Grenoble; annexed to the French crown under Philippe II. in 1349.

DAURAT, JEAN, French scholar, a member of the Pleiade (q. v.), and who figures as one of the leading spirits in the fraternity (1507-1588).

DAVENANT, SIR WILLIAM, an English playwright, born at Oxford, who succeeded Ben Jonson as poet-laureate, and was for a time manager of Drury Lane; was knighted by Charles I. for his zeal in the Royalist cause; his theatrical enterprise had small success during the Commonwealth, but interest in it revived with the Restoration, at which time "the drama broke loose from the prison of Puritanism to indulge in a shameless license" (1606-1668).

DAVID, FELICIEN, a French composer, born at Vaucluse; author, among other compositions, of the "Desert," a production which achieved an instant and complete triumph; was in his youth an ardent disciple of St. Simon (1810-1876).

DAVID, GERHARD, a Flemish painter; painted religious subjects, several from the life of Christ (1450-1525).

DAVID, KING OF ISRAEL, 11th century B.C., born in Bethlehem; tended the flocks of his father; slew Goliath with a stone and a sling; was anointed by Samuel, succeeded Saul as king; conquered the Philistines; set up his throne in Jerusalem, and reigned thirty-three years; suffered much from his sons, and was succeeded by Solomon; the book of Psalms was till recently accepted as wholly his by the Church, but that hypothesis no longer stands the test of criticism.

DAVID, LOUIS, a French historical painter, born in Paris; studied in Rome and settled in Paris; was carried away with the Revolution; joined the Jacobin Club, swore eternal friendship with Robespierre; designed "a statue of Nature with two mammelles spouting out water" for the deputes to drink to, and another of the sovereign people, "high as Salisbury steeple"; was sentenced to the guillotine, but escaped out of regard for his merit as an artist; appointed first painter by Napoleon, but on the Restoration was banished and went to Brussels, where he died; among his paintings are "The Oath of the Horatii," "The Rape of the Sabines," "The Death of Socrates," and "The Coronation of Napoleon" (1748-1825).

DAVID D'ANGERS, a French sculptor, born at Angers; came to Paris and became a pupil of the preceding, afterwards proceeded to Rome and associated with Canova; executed in Paris a statue of the Great Conde, and thereafter the pediment of the Pantheon, his greatest work, as well as numerous medallions of great men; on a visit to Weimar he modelled a bust of Goethe (1788-1856).

DAVID I., king of Scotland, youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and Queen Margaret; was brought up at the English court; was prince of Cumbria under the reign of his brother Alexander, on whose decease he succeeded to the throne in 1124; on making a raid in England to avenge an insult offered to his son Henry, was defeated at Northallerton in the Battle of the Standard; addressed himself after this to the unification of the country and civilisation of his subjects; founded and endowed bishoprics and abbeys at the expense of the crown, on account of which he was called St. David, and characterised by James VI., a successor of his, as a "sair saunt to the croon"; the death of his son Henry was a great grief to him, and shortened his days (1084-1153).

DAVID II., king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce, born at Dunfermline; succeeded his father when a boy of four; spent from 1334 to 1341 in France; was taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Neville's Cross, and was afterwards, till his death, dependent on England (1326-1371).

DAVID, ST., or DEWI, the patron saint of Wales, lived about the 5th century; archbishop of Caerleon; transferred his see to St. David's; founded churches, opposed Pelagianism, and influenced many by the odour of his good name.

DAVIDS, RHYS, professor of Pali and Buddhist literature, born in Colchester; author of "Buddhism: a Sketch of the Life and Teachings of Gautama, the Buddha," and of other works in that department of literature; b. 1843.

DAVIDSON, ANDREW BRUCE, Hebrew scholar and professor, born in Aberdeenshire; a most faithful, clear, and effective interpreter of the spirit of Hebrew literature, and influential for good as few men of the time have been in matters of biblical criticism; b. 1831.

DAVIDSON, JOHN, poet and journalist, born at Barrhead, Renfrewshire; has written novels and plays as well as poems; b. 1859.

DAVIDSON, SAMUEL, biblical scholar and exegete, born near Ballymena; wrote Introductions to the Old and the New Testaments; was pioneer in the higher criticism (1807-1898).

DAVIES, BEN, a popular tenor vocalist, born near Swansea in 1858.

DAVIES, SIR JOHN, poet and statesman, born in Wiltshire; wrote two philosophic poems, "The Orchestra," a poem in which the world is exhibited as a dance, and "Nosce Teipsum" (Know Thyself), a poem on human learning and the immortality of the soul; became a favourite with James I., and was sent Attorney-General to Ireland (1569-1626).

DAVILA, a celebrated historian, born near Padua, brought up in France; served in the French army under Henry IV.; did military and other service in Venice; was assassinated; his great work "The History of the Civil War in France" (1576-1631).

DAVIS, JEFFERSON, President of the Confederate States, born in Kentucky; entered the army; fought against the Indians; turned cotton-planter; entered Congress as a Democrat; distinguished himself in the Mexican war; defended slave-holding and the interests of slave-holding States; was chosen President of the Confederate States; headed the conflict with the North; fled on defeat, which he was the last to admit; was arrested and imprisoned; released after two years; retired into private life, and wrote a "History of the Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government" (1808-1889).

DAVIS, JOHN, an English navigator, born near Dartmouth; took early to the sea; conducted (1585-1587) three expeditions to the Arctic Seas in quest of a NW. passage to India and China, as far N. as 73 deg.; discovered the strait which bears his name; sailed as pilot in two South Sea expeditions, and was killed by Japanese pirates near Malacca; wrote the "Seaman's Secret" (1550-1605).

DAVIS, THOMAS, an Irish patriot, born at Mallow; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and called to the Irish bar; took to journalism in the interest of Irish nationality; founded the Nation newspaper, and by his contributions to it did much to wake up the intelligence of the country to national interests; died young; was the author of "Songs of Ireland" and "Essays on Irish Songs" (1814-1845).

DAVIS STRAIT, strait connecting Baffin's Bay with the Atlantic, discovered by JOHN DAVIS (q. v.).

DAVITT, MICHAEL, a noted Irish patriot, born in co. Mayo, son of a peasant, who, being evicted, settled in Lancashire; joined the Fenian movement, and was sentenced to 15 years' penal servitude; released on ticket-of-leave after seven years; founded the Land League; was for over a year imprisoned again for breaking his ticket-of-leave; published in 1885 "Leaves from a Prison Diary"; entered Parliament in 1895 for co. Mayo; b. 1846.

DAVOS-PLATZ, a village 5105 ft. above the sea-level, in a valley of the East Grisons; a place frequented in winter by invalids suffering from chest disease, the dry air and sunshine that prevail being favourable for patients of that class.

DAVOUT, Duke of Auerstaedt, Prince of Eckmuehl, marshal of France, born at Annoux, in Burgundy; was fellow-student with Napoleon at the military school in Brienne; entered the army in 1788, served in the Revolutionary wars under Dumouriez and Desaix, and became general; served under Bonaparte in Egypt; distinguished himself at Austerlitz, Auerstaedt, Eckmuehl, and Wagram; was made governor of Hamburg; accompanied Napoleon to Moscow; returned to Hamburg, and defended it during a siege; was made Minister of War in 1815, and assisted Napoleon in his preparations for the final struggle at Waterloo; commanded the remains of the French army which capitulated under the walls of Paris; adhered to the Bourbon dynasty on its return, and was made a peer; was famous before all the generals of Napoleon for his rigour in discipline (1770-1823).

DAVY, SIR HUMPHRY, a great English chemist, born at Penzance; conceived early in life a passion for the science in which he made so many discoveries; made experiments on gases and the respiration of them, particularly nitrous oxide and carbonic acid; discovered the function of plants in decomposing the latter in the atmosphere, and the metallic bases of alkalies and earths; proved chlorine to be a simple substance and its affinity with iodine, which he discovered; invented the safety-lamp, his best-known achievement; he held appointments and lectured in connection with all these discoveries and their applications, and received knighthood and numerous other honours for his services; died at Geneva (1778-1829).

DAVY JONES'S LOCKER, the sailors' familiar name for the sea as a place of safe-keeping, though why called of Davy Jones is uncertain.

DAVY-LAMP, a lamp encased in gauze wire which, while it admits oxygen to feed the flame, prevents communication between the flame and any combustible or explosive gas outside.

DAWKINS, WILLIAM BOYD, geologist and palaeontologist, born in Montgomeryshire; has written "Cave Hunting," "Early Man in Britain," &c.; b. 1838.

DAWSON, GEORGE, a popular lecturer, born in London; educated in Aberdeen and Glasgow; bred for the ministry by the Baptist body, and pastor of a Baptist church in Birmingham, but resigned the post for ministry in a freer atmosphere; took to lecturing on a purely secular platform, and was for thirty years the most popular lecturer of the day; no course of lectures in any institute was deemed complete if his name was not in the programme; did much to popularise the views of Carlyle and Emerson (1821-1876).

DAWSON, SIR JOHN WILLIAM, geologist and naturalist, born in Pictou, Nova Scotia; studied in Edinburgh; distinguished himself as a palaeontologist; published in 1872, "Story of the Earth and Man"; in 1877, "Origin of the World"; and recently, "Geology and History"; called in question the Darwinian theory as to the origin of species; b. 1820.

DAY, JOHN, an English dramatist, contemporary of Ben Jonson; author of the "Parliament of Bees," a comedy in which all the characters are bees.

DAY, THOMAS, an eccentric philanthropist, born in London; author of "Sandford and Merton"; he was a disciple of Rousseau; had many a ludicrous adventure in quest of a model wife, and happily fell in with one to his mind at last; was a slave-abolitionist and a parliamentary reformer (1748-1789).


DAYTON (85), a prosperous town in Ohio, U.S.; a great railway centre, with a court-house of marble, after the Parthenon in Athens.

D'AZARA, a Spanish naturalist, born in Aragon; spent 20 years in South America; wrote a "Natural History of the Quadrupeds in Paraguay" (1781-1811).

DEAD SEA, called also the Salt Sea and 'the Asphalt Lake, a sea in Palestine, formed by the waters of the Jordan, 46 m. long, 10 m. broad, and in some parts 1300 ft. deep, while its surface is 1312 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, just as much as Jerusalem is above it; has no outlet; its waters, owing to the great heat, evaporate rapidly, and are intensely salt; it is enclosed E. and W. by steep mountains, which often rise to a height of 6000 ft.

DEAK, FRANCIS, an eminent Hungarian statesman, born at Kehida, of an ancient noble Magyar family; his aim for Hungary was the same as that of CAVOUR (q. v.) for Italy, the establishment of constitutional government, and he succeeded; standing all along as he did from Hungarian republicanism on the one hand, and Austrian tyranny on the other, he urged on the Emperor of Austria the demand of the Diet, of which he had become leader, at first without effect, but after the humiliation of Austria in 1866, all that he asked for was conceded, and the Austrian Emperor received the Hungarian crown (1803-1876).

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