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The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (Vol. II)
by Washington Irving
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Columbus, Christopher, account of his birth, parentage, and education; early life of; his first voyage; engages in the service of Reinier, king of Naples; alters the point of the compass of his ship to deceive his discontented crew; engaged in the Mediterranean and the Levant; said to be appointed captain of several Genoese ships in the service of Louis XI.; his gallant conduct when sailing with Colombo the younger; goes to Lisbon, where he takes up his residence; picture of his person; early character; becomes enamored of Dona Felipa Monis de Palestrello, whom he marries; becomes possessed of his father-in-law's charts, journals, etc.; removes to the island of Porto Santo; becomes acquainted with Pedro Correo, a navigator of note; is animated with a wish to make discoveries; grounds on which he founds his belief of the existence of undiscovered countries in the West; correspondence of Columbus with Paulo Toscanelli: makes a voyage to the north of Europe; the astrolabe having been applied to navigation, Columbus proposes a voyage of discovery to John II. king of Portugal; this proposition is referred to a junto charged with all matters relating to maritime discovery; who regard the project as visionary; the king then refers it to his council; by whom it is condemned; a ship is secretly sent in the direction proposed, but returns: Columbus's indignation; loses his wife; quits Portugal; goes to Genoa and proposes his project to the government; it is rejected; supposed by some to have carried his plan to Venice; visits his father; arrives in Spain, and requests a little bread and water at a convent of Franciscan friars; the prior detains him as a guest; and invites Garcia Fernandez to meet him; gives him letters of introduction to Fernando de Talavera, queen Isabella's confessor; sets out for Cordova; arrives there; finds it impossible to obtain a hearing; the queen's confessor regards his plan as impossible; maintains himself by designing maps and charts; is received into the house of Alonzo de Quintanilla; introduced to the archbishop of Toledo; who gives him an attentive hearing; becomes his friend and procures him an audience of the king; who desires the prior of Prado to assemble astronomers, etc. to hold conference with him; Columbus appears before the assembly at Salamanca; arguments against his theory; his reply; the subject experiences procrastination and neglect; is compelled to follow the movements of the court; his plan recommended by the marchioness of Moya; receives an invitation to return to Portugal from John II.; receives a favorable letter from Henry VII. of England; distinguishes himself in the campaign of 1489, and is impressed deeply with the arrival and message of two friars from the soldan of Egypt relative to the Holy Land; determines to devote the profits arising from his intended discovery to the purpose of rescuing the holy sepulchre from the hands of the infidels; council of learned men again convened; who pronounce the scheme vain and impossible; receives a message from the sovereigns; has an audience of the sovereigns: leaves Seville in disgust; forms a connection with Beatrix Enriquez; applies to the duke of Medina Sidonia, who rejects his plan; applies to the duke of Medina Celi, who is prevented from acceding to his plan from a fear of the court; returns to the convent of La Rabida; Alonzo Pinzon offers to pay his expenses in a renewed application to the court; returns at the desire of the queen; witnesses the surrender of Granada to the Spanish arms; negotiation with persons appointed by the sovereigns; his propositions are considered extravagant; are pronounced inadmissible; lower terms are offered him, which he rejects; the negotiation broken off; quits Santa Fe; Luis de St. Angel reasons with the queen; who at last consents; a messenger dispatched to recall Columbus; he returns to Santa Fe; arrangement with the Spanish sovereigns; his son appointed page to prince Juan; he returns to La Rabida; preparations at the Port of Palos, and apprehensions there relative to the expedition; not a vessel can be procured; they are at last furnished; Columbus hoists his flag; sails; prologue to his voyage; an account of the map he had prepared previous to sailing; difficulties begin to arise; arrives at the Canaries; comes in sight of Mount Teneriffe; arrives at Gomera; the news which reached him there; alarm of his sailors on losing all sight of land; begins to keep two reckonings; falls in with part of a mast; notices a variation of the needle; his opinion relative to that phenomenon; they are visited by two birds; terrors of the seamen; sees large patches of weeds; his situation becomes more critical; part of his crew determine, should he refuse to return, to throw him into the sea; false appearance of land; his crew become exceedingly clamorous; the assertion that he capitulated with them disproved; his address to the crew; sees a light; land discovered; the reward for land adjudged to him; lands on the island of St. Salvador; which he takes possession of in the name of the Castilian sovereigns; the surprise of the natives: gold first discovered; reconnoitres the island; takes seven of the inhabitants to teach them Spanish that they might become interpreters; discovers Santa Maria de la Conception; discovers Exuma; discovers Isabella; hears of two islands called Cuba and Bohio: sails in search of the former; discovers it; takes formal possession; sends two Spaniards up the country; coasts along the shore; return of the Spaniards with their report; goes in search of the supposed island of Babeque; discovers an archipelago, to which he gives the name of the King's Garden; desertion of Alonzo Pinzon; discovers St. Catherine, in which he finds stones veined with gold; specimen of his style in description; reaches what be supposes to be the eastern extremity of Asia; discovers Hispaniola; its transcendent appearance; enters a harbor, to which he gives the name of St. Nicholas; a female brought to him who wore an ornament of gold in her nose; coasts along the shores; is visited by a Cacique; receives a message from Guacanagari; his ship strikes upon a sand-bank in the night; some of his crew desert in a boat; the ship becomes a wreck, and he takes refuge on board a caravel; receives assistance from Guacanagari; transactions with the natives; is invited to the residence of Guacanagari; his affectionate reception of him; his people desire to have permission to remain in the island; he forms the plan of a colony and the design of constructing a fortress; and of returning to Spain for reinforcements; entertained in the most hospitable manner by Guacanagari; who procures for him a great quantity of gold previous to his departure; his address to the people; gives a feast to the chieftains; sails; coasts towards the eastern end of Hispaniola: meets with Pinzon; Pinzon's apology; account of the Ciguayens; the first native blood shed by the whites; account of the return voyage; encounters violent storms; the crew draw lots who shall perform pilgrimages; two lots fall to the admiral; vows made; commits an account of his voyage in a barrel to the sea; land discovered; which proves to be the Azores; transactions at St. Mary's; receives supplies and a message from the governor; attempted performance of the vow made during the storm; the seamen taken prisoners by the rabble, headed by the governor; the governor's disgraceful conduct; seamen liberated; cause of the governor's conduct; violent gales; lots for pilgrimages again cast; arrives off Cintra, in Portugal; writes to the sovereigns and the king of Portugal; is summoned by a Portuguese admiral to give an account of himself; effect of his return at Lisbon; receives an invitation from the king of Portugal; interview with the king; jealousy of the king excited; a proposition to the king by some of his courtiers to assassinate Columbus and take advantage of his discoveries; rejected by the king; disgraceful plot of the king to rob Spain of the newly- discovered possessions; his interview with the queen of Portugal; enters the harbor of Palos; account of his reception there; arrival of Pinzon; receives an invitation from the sovereigns at Barcelona; his reception on the road; is received in a magnificent manner by the courtiers; and the sovereigns; his vow in respect to the holy sepulchre; the manner in which his discoveries were received throughout Europe; a coat of arms given him; the manner in which he receives the honors paid to him; preparations for a second voyage; agreement made with the sovereigns; powers with which he is invested; takes leave of the sovereigns at Barcelona; arrives at Seville; prepares for the voyage; ideas of Columbus and the people relative to the New World; insolence of Juan de Soria; conduct of Fonseca: departure on his second voyage; anchors at Gornera; gives sealed instructions to the commander of each vessel; sees a swallow; encounters a storm; sees the lights of St. Elmo; discovers the Caribbee Islands; takes possession of them; discovers Guadaloupe; transactions there; cruises among the Caribbees; arrives at Hispaniola; at the gulf of Samana; anchors at Monte Christi; arrives at La Navidad; is visited by a cousin of the Cacique; learns a disaster which had occurred at the fortress; visits Guacanagari: abandons La Navidad: founds the city of Isabella at Monte Christi; falls sick; sends Alonzo de Ojeda to explore the interior of the island; dispatches twelve ships to Spain; requests fresh supplies; recommends Pedro Margarite and Juan Aguado to the patronage of the government; recommends a curious plan in respect to an exchange of Caribs for live stock; recommendation of Columbus in respect to the Caribs; his conduct in respect to Diaz's mutiny; consequences; sets out on an expedition to the mountains of Cibao; erects a fortress of wood among the mountains; returns to Isabella; receives unpleasant intelligence from Pedro Margarite; sickness in the colony; puts his people on short allowance, Sol; offends the Hidalgos, by making them share the common labors of the colony; distributes his forces in the interior; gives the command of them to Pedro Margarite; his instructions to that officer; instructs Margarite to surprise and secure Caonabo; his conduct in respect to Haytien thieves; sails for Cuba; visits La Navidad; arrives at St. Nicholas; lands at Guantanamo; anchors at St. Jago; sails in search of Bubeque; discovers Jamaica; received in a hostile manner: takes possession of the island; amicable intercourse with the natives; returns to Cuba; lands at Cabo de la Cruz; encounters a storm; becomes engaged in a most difficult navigation; discovers an archipelago, to which he gives the name of the Queen's Gardens; hears of a province called Mangon, which greatly excites his attention; coasts along the southern side of Cuba; encounters a dangerous navigation in A white pea; sends parties to explore the interior of the country; deceives himself in respect to what he wishes; fancies he has arrived on that part of Asia which is beyond the boundaries of the Old World, laid down by Ptolemy; anticipates returning to Spain by the Aurea Chersonesus, Taprobana, the Straits of Babelmandel, and the Red Sea, or the Coast of Africa; returns along the southern coast of Cuba, in the assurance that Cuba was the extremity of the Asiatic continent; discovers the island of Evangelista; his ship runs aground; sails along the province of Ornofay: erects crosses in conspicuous situations to denote his discoveries; is addressed by an Indian; takes an Indian with him: his ship leaks; reaches Santa Cruz; coasts along the south side of Jamaica; his ship visited by a Cacique and his whole family; who offer to accompany him to Spain to do homage to the king and queen; he evades this offer; coasts along the south side of Hispaniola; makes an error in reckoning; arrives at Mona; is suddenly deprived of all his faculties; arrives at Isabella; is joined by his brother Bartholomew; invests him with the title and authority of Adelantado; is visited by Guacanagari, who informs him of a league formed against him by the Haytien Caciques; his measures to restore the quiet of the island; wins over Guarionex, and prevails upon him to give his daughter in, marriage to Diego Colon; builds Fort, Conception in the territories of Guarionex; Caonabo is delivered into his hands by Ojeda; he puts him in chains; his interview with him; his anxiety relieved by the arrival of Antonio de Torres; sends home specimens of gold, plants, etc., and five hundred Indian prisoners to be sold as slaves; undertakes an expedition against the Indians of the Vega; a battle ensues; the Indians defeated; makes a military tour through various parts of the island, and reduces is to obedience; imposes a tribute; refuses the offer of Guarionex to cultivate grain, instead of paying in gold; erects forts; the natives having destroyed the crops, are hunted and compelled to return to their labors; account of the intrigues against Columbus in the court of Spain; charges brought against him; his popularity declines in consequence; measures taken in Spain; Aguado arrives at Isabella to collect information relative to the state of the colony; his dignified conduct at his first interview with Aguado; the Caciques prefer complaints against him: he resolves on returning to Spain; a violent hurricane occurs previous to his departure, which sinks six caravels; pleased with the discovery of the gold mines of Hayna; orders a fort to be erected; invests his brother with the command; fails for Spain; arrives at Guadaloupe; his politic conduct there; leaves Guadaloupe: a famine on board the ships; his magnanimous conduct; arrives in Spain.; his representation of things; writes instructions for ibe conduct of Bartholomew; invited to court; favorably received; proposes a third voyage of discovery; the king promises him ships; delays and their causes; refuses the title of duke or marquess, and a grant of lands in Hispaniola; terms on winch he was to sail: honors bestowed upon him; his respect and love for Genoa; makes his will; odium thrown upon his enterprises; plan to which he was compelled to resort to procure men for his third voyage; in consequence of delays, he almost resolves to give up all further enterprise; chastises a minion of Fonseca; consequences of this chastisement; sets sail; his opinion in respect to a continent in the Southern Ocean; arrives at Gomera; retakes a Spanish ship; is seized with a fit of the gout; arrives among the Cape de Verde Islands: sees the island Bel Fuego; arrives under the line; the heat becomes intolerable, and he alters his course; discovers Trinidad; discovers Terra Firma; steers along the coast of Trinidad; difficulty in respect to a rapid current; enters the Gulf of Paria; suffers from a complaint in the eyes; discovers the islands of Margarita and Cubagua; exchanges plates, etc., for pearls; his complaint in the eyes increases; arrives at Hispaniola; his brother soils to meet him; his constitution seems to give way; his speculations relative to the coast of Paria; polar star augmentation; doubts the received theory of the earth; accounts for variation of the needle; difference of climate, etc.; arrives at San Domingo; state of his health, on arriving at Hispaniola; state of the colony; negotiates with the rebels; offers free passage to all who desire to return to Spain; offers a pardon to Roldan, which is received with contempt; writes to Spain an account of the rebellion, etc., and requires a judge and some missionaries to be sent out: writes a conciliating letter to Roldan; interviews with Roldan; issues a proclamation of pardon; receives proposals, which he accedes to; goes on a tour to visit the various stations; receives a cold letter from the sovereigns, written by Fonseca; the former arrangement with Roldan not having been carried into effect, enters into a second; grants lands to Roldan's followers; considers Hispaniola in the light of a conquered country; reduces the natives to the condition of villains or vassals: grants lands to Roldan; determines on returning to Spain; but is prevented by circumstances; writes to the sovereigns, entreating them to inquire into the truth of the late transactions; requests that his son, Diego, might be sent out to him; sends Roldan to Alonzo de Ojeda, who has arrived on the western coast on a voyage of discovery; his indignation at the breach of prerogative implied by this voyage; hears of a conspiracy entered into against him by Guevara and Moxica; seizes Moxica; and orders him to be flung headlong from the battlements of Fort Conception; vigorous proceedings against the rebels; beneficial consequences; visionary fancy at night; representations at court against him; his sons insulted at Granada; the queen is offended at his pertinacity in making slaves of those taken in warfare; and consents to the sending out a commission to investigate his conduct; Bobadilla is sent out; and arrives at St. Domingo; his judgment formed before he leaves his ship; he seizes upon the government before he investigates the conduct of Columbus; Columbus is summoned to appear before Bobadilla; goes to St. Domingo without guards or retinue, and is put in irons and confined in the fortress; his magnanimity; charges against him; jubilee of miscreants on his degradation; his colloquy with Villejo, previous to their sailing; sails; arrives at Cadiz; sensation in Spain on his arrival in irons; sends a letter to Dona Juana de la Torre, with an account of his treatment; indignation of the sovereigns at reading this account; is invited to court; his gracious reception there; his emotion; is promised a full restitution of his privileges and dignities; disappointed in receiving them; causes; his interests ordered to be respected in Hispaniola by Ovando; remembers his vow to furnish an army wherewith to recover the Holy Sepulchre; endeavors to incite the sovereigns to the enterprise; forms a plan for a fourth voyage, which is to eclipse all former ones; writes to Pope Alexander VII.; manuscript copy of, note; takes measures to secure his fame by placing it under the guardianship of his native country; sails from Cadiz; arrives at Ercilla; at the Grand Canary; at St. Domingo; requests permission to shelter in the harbor, as he apprehends a storm; his request refused; a violent hurricane soon after sweeps the sea, in which he and his property are preserved, and several of his bitterest enemies overwhelmed; encounters another storm; discovers Guanaga; a Cacique eomes on board his ship with a multitude of articles, the produce of the country; selects some to send them to Spain; is within two days' sail of Yucatan; natives different from any he had yet seen; voyages along the coast of Honduras; encounters violent storms of thunder and lightning; voyage along the Mosquito shore; passes a cluster of islands, to which he gives the name of Limonares; comes to an island, to which he gives the name of La Huerta, or the Garden; transactions at Cariari; voyage along Costa Rica; speculations concerning the isthmus of Veragua; discovery of Puerto Bello; discovery of El Retrete; disorders of his men at this port, and the consequences; relinquishes the further prosecution of his voyage eastward; returns to Puerto Bello; encounters a furious tempest; is near being drowned by a water-spout; returns to Veragua; regards gold as one of the mystic treasures, note; is nearly being wrecked in port; gives his name to the mountains of Veragua; sends his brother to explore the country; which appears to be impregnated with gold; believes that he has reached one of the most favored ports of the Asiatic continent; commences a settlement on the river Belen; determines on returning to Spain for reinforcements; is stopped by discovering a conspiracy of the natives; sends his brother to surprise Quibian; who is seized; and afterwards escapes; disasters at the settlement stop his sailing; some of his prisoners escape, and others destroy themselves; his anxiety produces delirium; is comforted by a vision; the settlement is abandoned, and the Spaniards embark for Spain; departure from the coast of Veragua; sails for Hispaniola; arrives at Puerto Bello: at the entrance of the Gulf of Darien; at the Queen's Gardens; encounters another violent tempest; arrives at Cape Cruz; at Jamaica; runs his ships on shore; arranges with the natives for supplies of provisions; his conversation with Diego Mendez to induce him to go in a canoe to St. Domingo; Mendez offers to go; Columbus writes to Ovando for a ship to take him and his crew to Hispaniola; writes to the sovereigns; Mendez embarks; the Porras engage in a mutiny; the mutiny becomes general; is confined by the gout; rushes out to quell the mutiny, but is borne back to the cabin by the few who remain faithful; the mutineers embark on board ten Indian canoes; provisions become exceedingly scarce; employs a stratagem to obtain supplies from the natives; another conspiracy is formed; arrival of Diego de Escobar from Hispaniola on a mission from the governor, promising that a ship shall soon be sent to his relief; overtures of the admiral to the mutineers; not accepted; they send a petition for pardon; it is granted; two ships arrive from Hispaniola; departure of Columbus; arrives at Beata; anchors in the harbor of St. Domingo; is enthusiastically received by the people; is grieved at the desolation he sees everywhere around him; finds that his interests had been disregarded; sets sail for Spain; encounters several tempests; anchors in the barbor of St. Luear; finds all his affairs in confusion; is compelled to live by borrowing; writes to King Ferdinand; but, receiving unsatisfactory replies, would have set out for Seville, but is prevented by his infirmities: death of Queen Isabella; is left to the justice of Ferdinand; employs Vespucci; goes with his brother to court, then held at Segovia; is received in a very cold manner; Don Diego de Deza is appointed arbitrator between the king and the admiral; his claims are referred to the Junta de Descargos; is confined with a violent attack of the gout; petitions the king that his son Diego may be appointed, in his place, to the government of which lie bad been so long deprived; his petition remains unattended to; writes to the new king and queen of Castile; who promise a speedy and prosperous termination to his suit; his last illness; writes a testamentary codicil on the blank page of a little breviary; writes a final codicil; receives the sacrament; dies; his burial; his remains removed to Hispaniola, disinterred and conveyed to the Havana; epitaph; observations on his character; his remains removed with great ceremony to Cuba; reflections thereon; historical account of his descendants; an important lawsuit relative to the beirship (in the female line) to the family titles and property; decided in favor of Don Nuno Golves do Portugallo; an account of his lineage; an account of his birthplace; an account of the ships he used; an examination of his route in the first voyage; the effect of the travels of Marco Polo on his mind; his belief in the imaginary island of St. Brandan; an account of the earliest narratives of his first and second voyages; his ideas relative to the situation of the terrestrial paradise; his will; his signature.

Columbus, Don Diego, character of; intrusted with the command of the ships during the expedition of Columbus to the mountains of Cibao; made president of the junta; reproves Pedro Margarito for his irregularities; the Hidalgos form a faction against him during the absence of his brother; returns to Isabella; a conspiracy formed against him by Roldan; left in command at St. Domingo, during the tour of Columbus; his conduct on the arrival of Bobadilla; seized by order of Bobadilla, thrown in irons, and confined on board of a caravel.

——, Don Diego (son to Christopher), appointed page to Queen Isabella: embarks with his father on his second expedition; left in charge of his father's interests in Spain; his ingratitude to Mendez, and falsification of his promise; his character; succeeds to the rights of his father, as viceroy and governor of the New World; urges the king to give him those rights; commences a process against the king before the council of the Indies; the defence set up: the suit lasts several years; becomes enamored of Dona Maria Toledo; a decision, in respect to part of his claim, raises him to great wealth; marries Dona Maria, niece to the Duke of Aiva; through this connection he obtains the dignities and powers enjoyed by Nicolas de Ovando; embarks for Hispaniola; keeps up great state; becomes embroiled with some of his father's enemies; the court of royal audience established as a check upon him; opposes the repartimientos; his virtues make him unpopular, subjugates and settles the island of Cuba without the loss of a single man; sails for Spain to vindicate his conduct; is well received; the death of Ferdinand; obtains a recognition of his innocence of all charges against him from Charles V.: and has his right acknowledged to exercise the office of viceroy and governor in all places discovered by his father; sails for St. Domingo, where he arrives; difficulties he has to encounter; African slaves having been introduced and most cruelly used, they revolt; are subdued; is accused of usurping too much power; receives in consequence a severe letter from the council of the Indies; and is desired to repair to court to vindicate himself; sails, lands, and appears before the court at Victoria; clears himself; prosecutes his claims, follows the court from city to city; is attacked by a slow fever; dies; his family.

Columbus, Fernando (son to Christopher), accompanies his father on his fourth voyage; his father's encomium on him; embarks for Hispaniola with Don Diego; an account of him; writes a history of his father.

——, Don Luis (son to Don Diego), prosecutes the claims of his father and grandfather; compromises all claims for two titles and a pension; dies.

Commerce, despotic influence of the Spanish crown in respect to.

Compass, the, brought into more general use.

Conception, Santa Maria de la, discovery of.

—— Fort, erected by Columbus; present state of, note.

Contradictions, the coast of.

Convicts who had accompanied Columbus, conduct of, in Hispaniola.

Copper hatchets seen among the Indians of Guanaca.

Coral found in Veragua.

Cormorants, large nights of, seen on the south coast of Cuba.

Coronel, Pedro Fernandez, sails for Hayti with two ships; arrives at St. Domingo with supplies; is sent to persuade Roldan to return to his duty.

Correo, Pedro, a navigator of note, with whom Columbus becomes acquainted.

Cortez, Hernando, conduct of Fonseca to.

Costa Rica, Columbus sails along the.

Cotabanama, Cacique of Higuey; massacres eight Spaniards; Ovando marches against him; sues for peace; visits the Spanish camp; another war ensues; cruelty to his tribe; takes shelter with his wife and children in a large cavern; his rencounter with Juan Lopez; is overpowered and chained; sent to St. Domingo and hanged.

Cotton, where first seen in the Western hemisphere; seen in large quantities in Cuba; tribute of.

Cranes, flocks of large, seen in Cuba.

Creation, ideas in respect to the, entertained by the Haytiens.

Crocodiles found at El Betrete similar to those of the Nile.

Crosses erected by Columbus to denote his discoveries. Crusade to recover the holy sepulchre proposed by Columbus.

Cruz, Cabo de la, so named by Columbus.

Cuba, island of, Columbus bears of; sails in quest of it; discovery of; description of its appearance: hurricanes seldom known in; belief of the inhabitants in a future state; Columbus revisits the consts of; natives of; Columbus coasts along the southern side; natives; subjugated and settled by Don Diego Columbus; the remains of Columbus removed to. Cubagua, Isle of, discovery of; natives; pearl fisheries on the coast of, established. Cubiga, a village in Veragua where the country of gold was supposed to terminate.

Cucumbers first seen in Hayti.

Currency, principles on which the sums mentioned in this work have been reduced to modern currency.



D.

Dances of the Haytiens.

Darien, Gulf of.

Dead and dying, manner of treating the, by the Haytiens.

Delphin, island of.

Deluge, universal, ideas entertained by the Haytiens in respect to. 323.

Deza, Diego de, character of; coincides with Columbus at the council of Salamanca; assists him with his purse; made archbishop of Seville; is chosen arbitrator between the king and Columbus.

Diaz, Bartholomew, account of his discoveries.

——, Miguel, his romantic history; discovers the gold mines of Hayna; commands the fortress of St. Domingo at the time Bobadilla arrives; his conduct on being desired to give up his prisoners.

——, de Pisa, mutiny of; confined on board one of the ships.

Disaster, river of.

Discovery, progress of, under prince Henry of Portugal.

Dogs, dumb, found at Santa Marta.

Domingo, San, foundation of the city of.

Dominica, island of, discovered.

Doves, stock, presented to Columbus by the natives of Cuba.

Drogeo, a vast country, fabled to have been discovered by some fishermen of Friseland.

Drum, a species of, used by the Haytiens.

Dying, manner of treating the.



E.

Ear, coast of the.

Eden, garden of, speculation of Columbus in respect to.

Egg, anecdote of the.

Egypt, soldan of, his message to Ferdinand.

Elmo, St., electrical lights seen by Columbus.

Enchanters, the natives of Cariari taken to be.

Enriqueis, Beatrix, her connnection with Columbus; Columbus's legacy to, ii.

Escobar, Diego de, arrives at Jamaica on a mission to Columbus from the governor of Hispaniola; returns to his ship immediately.

——, Rodrigo de, chief notary to Columbus's first expedition.

Escobedo, Rodrigo de, his conduct after the departure of Columbus; death of.

Espinal, Antonio de, the first prelate sent to the New World.

Esquibel, Juan de, employed against the natives of Higuey; his atrocious conduct to his prisoners; causes the natives to be hunted like wild beasts.

Estotiland, a supposed island on the coast of North America, said to have been discovered by some fishermen of Friseland.

Eudoxus, remarks on his voyage. Evangelista, island of, discovered by Columbus.

Exuma, discovery of; named Fernandina by Columbus.



F.

Farol, Cape, at Jamaica.

Ferdinand, king of Aragon and Castile, character of; engagements of, on the arrival of Columbus at Cordova; lays siege to the city of Loxa; grants an audience to Columbus; desires the prior of Prado to assemble men of science to consider his plan; attempt to assassinate him; takes Malaga; forms an alliance with Henry VII. of England; one of the rival kings of Granada surrenders his pretensions; receives a message from the soldan of Egypt; his message to Columbus on learning the unfavorable decision of the council; refers his plan to persons of confidence; his reluctance to the plan after the queen has consented; his joy on learning the success of Columbus; his reception of him; prepares a second expedition; his negotiations with John II. in respect to the new discoveries; listens to the charges against Columbus; his conduct; his reception of Columbus on his second return; lays the foundation of the power of Charles V.; promises Columbus to furnish him with ships for a third voyage; disappointed that his newly-discovered possessions have not become a source of profit; assaulted by the clamors of ruffians who had returned from Hispaniola; his ingratitude to Columbus becomes evident; listens to the rebels who had been permitted to return to Spain: sends out a commission to inquire into the conduct of Columbus; reprobates the conduct pursued against Columbus, and invites him to court; promises to restore him to all his rights and privileges; his jealousy awakened at the discoveries of the English and Portuguese. 131; his ingratitude to Columbus; listens to the project of Columbus for a fourth voyage; his ingratitude more evinced on the return of Columbus from his last voyage; erects a monument over Columbus; his conduct to Don Diego Columbus's son; consents that Don Diego should commence a process against him before the council of the Indies; the defence set up; separates the Isthmus of Darien into two great provinces; death.

Fernandez, Garcia, physician of Palos, his account of Columbus at the gate of the convent on his first arrival in Spain; testimony of, relative to Pinzon.

Ferrer, Jayme, an eminent lapidary, substance of his letter to Columbus, note.

Festival, religious, of a Haytien Cacique, description of.

Fiesco, Bartholomew, embarks with Mendez from Jamaica to Hispaniola; attends the last moments of Columbus.

Fish, curious.

Fishing, curious method of.

Fonseca, Juan Rodriguez de, appointed superintendent of Indian affairs; his character; his difference with Columbus; impedes the affairs of Columbus; writes a cold letter to Columbus, by order of the sovereigns; shows Columbus's letter to Alonzo de Ojeda; his baseness fully displayed; supposed to have instigated the violent measures of Bobadilla; throws impediments in the way of Columbus's fourth voyage; supposed to have been the cause of Ovando's disgrace; by order of Ferdinand, establishes a court, called the Royal Audience; becomes interested in continuing the slave trade; his opposition to Las Casas; an account of; character of; his conduct to Cortez; accused of having fomented a conspiracy to assassinate Cortez.

Fountain of pure water in the sea, note.

Franciscans, the order first introduced into the New World.

Fuego, del, island of, seen by Columbus.



G.

Galleys, Venetian, capture of, by Colombo the younger.

Gama, Vasquez de, doubles the Cape of Good Hope, and opens a new road for the trade of the East.

Garcia de Barrantee, his conduct during the conspiracy of Boldan.

Gardens, the, coast so called.

—— King's islands.

—— Queen's, islands of.

—— the Hesperian, observations in respect to.

Gato, Paulo, a species of monkey.

Genoa, Columbus shows great respect to.

Gentlemen, the pass of, a road so called.

Geraldini, Alexandria and Antonio, warmly enter into the views of Columbus; they introduce him to the archbishop of Toledo.

Gold (Western), discovered first in St. Salvador; specimens of virgin ore found in the interior of Hispaniola; particles found in the streams; and pieces.

——, tribute of.

—— mine discovered in Hayti; a solid mass of, which weighed 3600 castellanos: superstitious notions in respect to, note: gathered from the roots of the trees in Veragua.

Golden river, arrival at, in second voyage.

Gods of the Haytiens.

Goinarn, Fernando Lopez de, examination of his chargo relative to a pilot's having died in the house of Columbus.

Gorvalan explores part of the interior of Hispaniola; returns to Spain

Gourds introduced into Hayti.

Gracias a Dios, cape of.

Granada, discovery of.

Grape-vines, very luxuriant, found in Cuba.

Greenland, assertions relative to its discovery by the Scandinavians. 379.

Granada, surrender of.

Guadaloupe, island of, discovered; houses, furniture, etc. of the natives; supposed to be cannibals; description of the island; Columbus revisits it; women of.

Guacanagari, Cacique of Hispaniola, sends a message to Columbus, receives the Spaniards with great courtesy; sheds tears on learning the shipwreck of Columbus; his assistance; and kindness; invites Columbus to his residence; manners of; hospitality; procures a great quantity of gold for the Admiral previous to his departure for Spain; sends his cousin to greet Columbus on his second arrival; his suspicious conduct during the disaster at La Navidad; visits Columbus's ships; admires a captive Carib woman; his flight into the interior; his mysterious conduct continued; refuses to partake in the plan formed by Caonabo, of exterminating the Spaniards; incurs the hostility of his fellow Caciques; visits Columbus during his sickness, and informs him of a league formed against him: assists Columbus in his expedition against the Indians of the Vega: is present at a battle; incurs the hatred of all the Caciques; is nevertheless compelled to pay tribute; takes refuge in the mountains and dies in misery; his character.

Guana, regarded with disgust by the Spaniards; they conquer their prejudice.

Guanaja, discovery of.

Guaora, Cacique, hunted like a wild beast, and afterwards hanged.

Guarionex, Cacique of the royal Vega; visits Columbus, and is prevailed on to give his daughter to Diego Colon, the interpreter; permits Columbus to build a fortress; character of; submits to the domination of the Spaniards; compelled to pay tribute; offers to cultivate grain; refused; learns the Pater-noster, Ave-Maria, etc.: relapses, and the cause of it; becomes incensed at several Indians being burnt for destroying some images; takes arms; conspires to assassinate the Spaniards; is seized; is pardoned; enters into a conspiracy with Roldan against the Adelantado; puts a Cacique to death; flies to the mountains of Ciguay; is compelled to retire into the most desolate places; is seized and taken in chains to Fort Conception; lost in a hurricane.

Guatiguana, a Cacique of Hayti, puts ten Spaniards to death, and sets fire to a house.

Guevara, Don Hernando de, falls in love with Higuamota; is seized in the dwelling of Anacaona; and sent to San Domingo.

Gulf stream.

Gutierrez, Pedro, his conduct after the departure of Columbus; death of.



H.

Hamacs, used by the natives of Exuma.

Hanno, remarks on the Periplus of.

Haro, Bernaldo de, his evidence relative to the discovery of the coast of Paria by Columbus.

Hatchets of iron, said to be found at Guadaloupe.

Hawk's bells, delight of the Haytiens on wearing.

Hayna, mines of, discovered.

Henry, prince of Portugal, progress of discovery under; account of; considers Africa to be circumnavigable; conceives the idea of turning the trade of the East; establishes a naval college at Sagres; death.

Henry VII. of England, writes a favorable letter to Columbus.

Herbs, European, introduced in Hispaniola.

Herrera, Antonio de, a short account of his life and writings; Vossius's eulogium on.

Herrera, Don Lepo de, his mission to the court of Lisbon.

Hayti (see Hispaniola), discovery of.

Haytiens, description of their manners, customs, religion, etc.; their character; defeated in the battle of the Vega; subjugated; a tribute imposed upon them; their despair; they enter into an association to destroy the crops; the evils fall upon themselves.

Hidalgos, compelled at Hayti to share the common labors of the settlement; character of the; form a faction against Diego Columbus, during the absence of his brother.

Higuamota, daughter of Caonabo, falls in love with Don Hernando de Guevara.

Higuanama, a female Cacique, hanged by order of Ovando.

Higuey, domain of: character of its inhabitants; Ovando's war with the natives; martial character of the people; multitudes of them destroyed; sue for peace; again revolt; and slaughter their tyrants; situation of their towns; are defeated and compelled to conceal themselves in the fastnesses; are hunted like wild beasts.

Hipparchus, error of, in respect of Africa, and India. Hispaniola, discovery of; cause of its being so called; description of the inhabitants; of the country; transactions with the natives; form of government; alarm created by a discharge of cannon; general description of; domains into which it was divided; made the metropolis of the New World: thought to have been the ancient Ophir; an account of the numbers of the natives who perished, victims to the avarice of the whites; ceded to the French. 317. Honduras, cape of, discovered by Columbus.; inhabitants.

Honey and wax found at Guadaloupe.

Horses, fear of the Haytiens of; terror inspired by them at the battle of the Vega; a remarkable one which moved in curvets to the music of a viol.

Huelva, Alonzo Sanchez de, the pilot, fabled to have died in the house of Columbus.

Huerta, La, delightful island of, H. 167; inhabitauts of.

Humboldt, his account of the present condition of the southern side of Cuba; account of the route of Columbus, note.

Hurricanes, seldom known in Cuba; a violent one in Hayti; reflections of the Haytiens previous to it.



I.

Iceland, Columbus supposed to have visited; assertions relative to its discovery by the Scandinavians.

Impressment resorted to on Columbus's third voyage.

Indians, six taken from the New World; arrival of in Spain; are baptized; an Indian, of Jamaica, desires Columbus to take him to Spain.

Iron, a pan of, seen at Guadaloupe.

Isabella, discovery of the island of.

——, princess, marriage of, with the heir-apparent of Portugal.

——, queen of Aragon and Castile, character of; engagements of, on the arrival of Columbus in Spain: repairs to the seat of war in Granada; thence to Gallicia and Salamanca; an attempt to assassinate her; Columbus recommended to her by the marchioness of Moya; her ability in military affairs; receives a letter from the prior of La Rabida; invites Columbus to court; Luis de St. Angel reasons with her; signifies her assent; declares her resolution to pawn her jewels to defray the expenses; her enthusiasm in the cause; her motives; her joy at learning the success of Columbus; her reception of him; her zeal for the welfare of the Indians; her anxiety in respect to the conversion of the Haytiens; humanely prevents the Haytien slaves from being sold to slavery; orders them to be sent back to Hayti; enters into the views of Columbus in respect to a third voyage; her humane directions; death of her son, Prince Juan; makes Columbus's two sons her pages; begins to doubt the conduct of Columbus; offended at his pertinacity in making slaves of the Indians taken in war; orders all those sent to Spain to be restored to their country and friends; consents to the sending out a commission to investigate his conduct; filled with sympathy and indignation on reading Columbus's letter to Dona de la Torre; invites him to court; is moved to tears at beholding him; her concern for the welfare of the Indians; listens with complacency to the proposition of Columbus for a fourth voyage; receives the news of the sanguinary acts of Ovando with horror and indignation; exacts a promise from the king that he shall be superseded in the government; causes of the melancholy under which she labored; her death; and character.



J.

Jamaica discovered by Columbus; the natives receive Columbus in a hostile manner; Columbus takes possession of it; amicable intercourse with the natives; their character; their canoes; subjugated by Don Diego.

——, Cacique of, visits Columbus, and oifers to go and do homage to the king and queen of Spain; this offer evaded by Columbus.

Japan (Cipango), Marco Polo's account of it.

Jasper, specimens found among the mountains of Cibao.

Jerez, Rodrigo de, sent up the island of Cuba by Columbus; account of his journey.

Jews not allowed to establish themselves in the colonies, or undertake voyages of discovery.

John of Anjou, an account of his expedition against Naples.

—— II. king of Portugal, the passion for maritime discovery revives under; sends missions in quest of Prester John; receives a proposition of a voyage of discovery from Columbus; refers it to a junto and his council, who report it to be visionary; consents to use an unwarrantable stratagem; desires to renew the negotiation with Columbus; who refuses and quits Portugal; invites Columbus to Portugal, and promises protection; invites Columbus on his return from the New World; his jealousy excited; his armament; his negotiations with Ferdinand in respect to the new discoveries; his idea in respect to a continent in the southern ocean.

Josephus, his opinion relative to the gold used in the temple of Jerusalem.

Juan, prince, his nuptials; his death.

Juana, queen of Castile, arrival of; promises a prosperous termination to the suit of Columbus.

Junta de Descargos, the claims of Columbus referred to the.



K.

Kings, Moorish, of Granada, one of them surrenders hie pretensions to Ferdinand; the other surrenders Granada.

Kircher, Athanasius, his opinion relative to the travels of Marco Polo.



L.

Labrador, discovered by Sebastian Cabot.

Lactantius, passage quoted from, to prove the impossibility of their being antipodes.

Lapis lazuli, specimens found among the mountains of Cibao.

Ledesma, Pedro, his gallant conduct; involves himself in Porra's mutiny, and receives a multitude of wounds; is assassinated.

Lepe, Diego de, discovers more of the southern continent than any voyager of his day. Lineage of Christopher Columbus, an account of.

Lombards, the extent of their trade.

Lopez, Juan, his rencontre with Cotabanaina.

Lots for Pilgrimages, drawing of.

Luxan, Juan de, hie excursion among the mountains of Cibao.



M.

Macham, his discovery of Madeira; an account of his adventures.

Madeira, an account of the discovery of the island of.

Magellan, electrical lights seen during his voyage on the masts of ships.

Maguana, domain of, an account of.

Mahogany, canoes made of.

Maize, cultivated in Ilayti.

Maladies of the Spaniards in Hayti,330.

Malaga, eiege and capture of.

Maldonado, Don Alonzo, appointed Alguazil-mayor in the place of Roldan, in Hispaniola.

Maldonado, Melchor, visits Guacanagari; proceeds along the coast.

Malte-Brun, his conjecture relative to Columbus considered.

Man, origin of, according to the Haytiens.

Manicaotex, succeeds Caonabo; commands in a battle; is conquered and sues for peace; compelled to pay half a calabash of gold every three months; assembly of the Caciques at his house to prefer complaints against Columbus.

Mandeville, Sir John, a short account of his travels; held in great authority by Columbus.

Mangon, a province of Cuba.

Map, Paulo Toscanelli's, used by Columbus on hia first voyage.

Maps, a great improvement made in.

Marble, masses of, found among the mountains of Cibao.

Marcolini, his account of Estotiland and Drogeo.

Margarita, island of, discovery of.

of Austria, her nuptials with prince Juan.

Margnrite, Pedro, recommended to a command by Columbus; made commander of the fortress of St. Thomas; sends an account of the conduct of his colony, etc.; is invested with the command of the forces; disregards his instructions; his misconduct during the absence of Columbus; is censured by Diego Columbus; forms a plan of returning to Spain; sets sail; his accusations of Columbus at Madrid.

Marque, Diego, missed at Guadaloupe; his return; is placed under arrest.

Maria, Santa, discovery of.

Marien, domain, account of.

Martin V., Pope, concedes to the crown of Portugal all the lands it might discover from Cape Bajador to the Indies.

Marta, Santa, discovery of.

Martin, San, island of, discovered.

Martyr, Peter, his account of Cuba; his description of the natives of Hispaniola; sent to the soldan of Egypt to make arrangements for the conservation of the holy sepulchre: short account of his life and writings; passages from his letters relative to Columbus; his character of Amerigo Vespucci.

Marigalante, island of, discovery of.

Mateo, Juan, a Haytien converted to Christianity.

Mauro, constructs a celebrated map, note.

Mayobanex, Cacique of the Cignayens; Guarionex flies to him for refuge; his answer to the Adelantado, when desired to give up Guarionex; is deserted in his need; compelled to fly; is seized with his wife and children.

Medina Celi, duke of, entertains Columbus; application of Columbus to; writes to the queen.

——, Sidonia, duke of, application of Columbus to; plan rejected.

Melons introduced into Hayti.

Mendez, Diego, his bold conduct at Veragua; his reward; his meritorious conduct at Jamaica; his conversation with Columbus; undertakes to go in a canoe to St. Domingo; departs with one Spaniard and six Indians; narrowly escapes being murdered by the Indians of the coast and returns; account of his voyage; sails for Spain; his subsequent history, note. Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de. See Toledo, Archbishop of. Meneses, Don Pedro de, his answer to the bishop of Ceuta in respect to the propriety of maritime discoveries.

Mermaids, three supposed, seen by Columbus.

Mexiatrillo, Rodrigo, commands the soldiery at the massacre of Xaragua. ii. 264.

Misa, Rio de la, so called from mass performed on its banks.

Monis de Palestrello, Dona Felipa, her marriage with Columbus.

Monte Christi, description of; Columbus founds the city of Isabella.

Montserrat, discovery of.

Moors, war against the.

——, none permitted to establish themselves in the colonies or go on voyages of discovery.

Morales, Francisco, his evidence relative to the discovery of the coast of Paria by Columbus.

Mother-of-pearl found on the coast of Paria.

Moxica, Adrian de, conspiracy of; meditates the death of the Admiral and Roldan; is seized; and flung headlong froin the battlements of Fort Conception.

Moya, marchioness of, becomes a friend to Columbus; and recommends his suit to the queen; also.

Mulatas, islands of, discovered.

Mules, the employment of, under the saddle, prohibited in Spain.

Music of the Haytiens.

Musicians sent to Hayti to enliven the spirits of the colony.



N.

Names, exchanging, an Indian league of fraternity.

Navarrete, his opinion relative to the island first discovered by Columbus.

Navasa, island of; fountain near.

Navidad, La, or the Nativity, construction of the fortress of; disasters at the fortress; abandoned by Columbus.

Needle, variation of the, first noticed; inclines a whole point; Columbus's speculation in respect to.

Negroes of Africa introduced into Hispaniola; their first revolt.

Negotiations, diplomatic, between the courts of Spain and Portugal, with respect to the new discoveries.

Newfoundland, assertions relative to the discovery of, by the Scandinavians.

Nicholas, St., harbor of.

Nicuesa, Diego de, appointed governor of Golden Castile.

Nino, Pedro Alonzo, sails for Hayti; arrives at Cadiz from Hispaniola, with a number of Indian prisoners.

Noya, Juan de, his escape by diving.



O.

Ocean, line of demarkation of the, between Spain and Portugal.

Oderigo, documents in the possession of the family of, relative to Columbus.

Ojeda, Don Alonzo de, goes in search of Diego Marque, at Guadaloupe; his expedition to explore the interior of Iliwpaniola; sallies from Isabella; character of; his conduct in respect to some Haytien thieves; character of; is besieged by Caonabo; anecdote of; undertakes to seize Caonabo, and deliver him alive into the hands of Columbus; visits him; offers him the bell of Isabella; his stratagem to take him off; conquers in an engagement with a brother of Caonabo; his conduct at the battle of the Vega; arrives at the western part of Hispaniola on a voyage of discovery; cause of his voyage; his manoeuvres with Roldan; leaves the inland with a threat; returns to Spain with a drove of slaves; appointed governor of New Andalusia; fails in his undertaking to colonize that country; his evidence relative to the discovery of the coast of Paria by Columbus.

Oro, Rio del, or Santiago, discovered.

Otto, Mons., remarks on his letter to Dr. Franklin relative to Martin Behem.

Ovando, Don Nicholas de, chosen to supersede Bobadilla; character of; great privileges granted to; his fleet; allowed to wear silk, precious stones, etc.; sails; reaches St. Domingo and assumes the government; refuses to let Columbus take shelter; his mysterious conduct to Columbus in his distress as Jamaica; an account of his administration and oppression; sufferings of the natives under the civil policy of; view of the military operations of: visits Anneaona: takes it into his head that she intends to massacre him and all his attendants; seizes Anacaona and burns all the Caciques: massacres the populace; and causes Anacaona to be ignominiously hanged; his further atrocious conduct, to the unfortunate Indians; founds Santa Maria in commemoration of his atrocities. 267; wages war against the natives of Higuey; causes many of them to be slaughtered and their chieftains to be burnt; hangs a female Cacique of distinction; causes 600 Indians of Saona to be imprisoned in one dwelling and put to the sword; receives Columbus on his arrival at St. Domingo with a hypocritical politeness.

Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernandez de, a short account of his life and writings.

Oysters, in the Gulf of Paria, round the roots of the Mangrove trees.

Ozema, river of, and the country through which it flows.



P.

Palos, the port whence Columbus sailed on his first expedition; present state of; visit to.

Palms, Cape of, discovered.

Pane, Roman, labors to convert the Haytiens.

Paradise, observations on the situation of the terrestrial; of the Haytiens.

Paria., Gulf of, Columbus's voyage through the; description of the coast of; manners of the natives; current of the sea.

Parrots, first seen in the western hemisphere; large flights of, seen; found on the coast of Paria.

Partition, papal bull of; line of, removed.

Pasamonte, Miguel, becomes an enemy to Don Diego Columbus.

Pearls, the Gulf of.

—— of Cubagua. Pepper, Agi.

Perez, Alonzo, discovers land in Columbus's third voyage.

——, Pray Juan, prior of the convent of La Raibida, entertains Columbus on his first entry into Spain; gives him letters of introduction to the queen's confessor, and educates his son; reception of Columbus; writes to Queen Isabella; invited to court; pleads the cause of Columbus; receives a visit from Columbus after his success.

Philip, king of Castile, listens to the request of Columbus, and promises a prosperous termination to his suit.

Pigeons, wood, vast numbers seen on the south side of Cuba.

Pilgrimages, lots for, drawing of.

Pilot, observations on the rumor of a pilot having died in the house of Columbus.

Pine-apple first met with.

Pines, island of, discovered by Columbus.

Pinos, Isla de, discovery of.

Pinta, desertion of.

Pinzons, family of, they enable Columbus to offer to bear one-eighth of the charge of the expedition, and to add a third ship to the armament. 100; their activity and interest in the voyage; furnish Columbus with money to defray the eighth share of the expense; account of their family, note. Pinzon, Martin Alonzo, offers to bear the expenses of Columbus in a renewed application to the court; his opinion relative to the nearness of land; begins to lose confidence in the course they are pursuing; crediting the accounts of the Indians in respect to a very rich island, deserts and goes in search of it; Columbus meets him; his apology: account of his proceedings; his duplicity becomes more evident: his arrival at Palos; effect of his treacherous conduct; his death; reflections on; observations relative to the supposed idea of Columbus owing to him the success of his great enterprise: his character.

——, Vicente Yanes, obtains a license for voyages of discovery; sails on a voyage of discovery; discovers the Brazils; discovers the river of Amazons; is allowed, as a reward, to colonize and govern the lands which he had discovered.

Planisphere of Martin Behein. Pliny, his notice of electrical lights on the masts of ships.

Poetry of the Haytiens.

Polo, Nicholas and Matteo, an account of their travels into the east; their first journey; return: their second journey: their return; invite their relatives to a splendid banquet.

——, Marco, influence of his travels upon the mind of Columbus; ii. 406; short account of his travels; his return; commands a galley at the battle of Cuzzola: is taken prisoner and sent in chains to Genoa; writes an account of his travels; is liberated and returns to Venice; an account of his work.

Porras, Francisco de, engages in a mutiny at Jamaica; they embark with most of Columbus's erew in ten Indian canoes; are driven back; and with their companions rove about the island; refuses an offer of pardon; attacks the Admiral and Adelantado; taken prisoner: is set at liberty by Ovando; and sent to Spain to be examined by the Indian board. 284.

Porto Rico, or Boriquen, discovery of.

Portugal and Spain, diplomatic negotiations between the courts of, with respect to the new discoveries.

Potato in Hayti.

Prado, prior of. See Talavera.

Prester John, an imaginary Christian king; account of.

Priests of the Haytiens.

Ptolemy, difficulty at the council of Salamanaca to reconcile the theory of Columbus with that of.

Puerto de Bastimento, harbor of.

—— Bello, discovery of, by Columbus.

—— Santo, Columbus's description of.



Q.

Queen's Gardens, Columlms's arrival at, in his third voyage; archipelago of, discovered.

Question, the territorial, how settled.

Quibian, Cacique of Veragua, interview with Bartholomew Columbus: second interview; determines on preventing the Spaniards from obtaining a settlement in his territories; conspires to burn their houses and murder them; is seized by the Adelantado with his wives and children; escapes in a very extraordinary manner 199; attacks the Spaniards and is defeated.

Quinsai, Marco Polo's account of.

Quintanilla, Alonzo de, receives Columbus into his house.



R.

Rabida, La, convent of, Columbus is entertained at, on his first arrival in Spain; present state.

Reeds, river of.

——, immense, seen on the Mosquito coast.

Reinier, king of Naples, Columbus engages in his service.

Religion of the natives of Hayti.

Repartimientos, origin of: opposition of Don Diego Columbus to the.

Rewards and punishments, ideas of the Haytiens in respect to.

Rio Verde, or the green river.

Riquelme, Pedro, makes his house the headquarters of the rebels at Hispaniola; made Alcalde by Roldan: joins in a conspiracy with Adrian de Moxica; is taken.

Road, the first constructed by Europeans in the New World.

Rodriguez, Sebastian, takes a letter from the prior Perez to the queen. 91.

Roldan, Francisco, history and character of: an account of his conspiracy; takes possession of Xaragua; his conduct in respect to the ships sent forward by Columbus: promises to repair to St. Domingo on the arrival of Columbus; his interview with Ballester; rejects an offer of pardon; demands his discharge; his interview with Carvajal, etc.; determines on going to the admiral; correspondence with the admiral; sends propositions by Carvajal; which are accepted; circumstances prevent their being acted upon; makes a second arrangement with the admiral; is permitted to resume his office of Alcalde-mayor; receives a grant of lands; visits his lands; assumes new authority; is sent to meet Alonzo de Ojeda; his manoeuvres with him; his rivalship with Guevara; seizes him in the dwelling of Anacaona; treated with confidence by Bobadilla; his conduct investigated by Ovando; sails for Spain, and is lost in a violent hurricane.

Roman, Friar, his account of the natives of Hispauiola.



S.

Sabellicus, his account of the capture of the Venetian galleys.

Salamanca, the learned assemble at, to consider the proposition of Columbus; pronounce the plan to be vain and impossible.

Salcedo, Diego de, arrives at Jamaica with succors from Ovando.

Salvador, St., discovery of; awe and surprise of the natives on first beholding the ships of Columbus; description of them; gold first discovered in this island.

Samana, Gulf of, discovered.

San Rafael, discovery of.

Sanchez, Juan, takes charge of Quibian. ii. 196; who escapes; killed in battle by the Adelantado.

Sande, Don Ruy do, his mission to the Spanish court.

Santa Marta, island of, discovered.

Santa, La Isla, discovery of.

Santa Cruz, island of, discovery of.

Santa Gloria, (St. Ann's Bay), discovered by Columbus.

Santiago. See Jamaica; letter of Heneken, note.

——, river of, discovered.

Saometa, discovery of.

Saona, island of, discovered; difference of longitude between, and Cadiz

Scandinavians, an essay relative to the voyages of.

Schedel, remarks on an interpolation in his chronicle.

Seneca, his notice of electrical lights on the masts of ships.

Serafin Point.

Sharks, a multitude of, seen on the coast of Veragua; curious method of taking them; superstition concerning.

Ships, observation relative to the size of those employed by Columbus.

Slaves, five hundred are sent to Spain; three hundred sent by Bartholomew Columbus; arrival in Spain; Queen Isabella interests herself in their favor; orders them to be sent back to Hayti; negroes first introduced to the New World; revolt of; Hispaniola the first island to exhibit an awful retribution; regulations in respect to.

Solomon, the gold used in the temple of.

Soria, Juan de, his insolence to Columbus.

Soul, ideas of the Haytiens in respect to the; the after-state of, believed by the natives of Cuba.

Spain and Portugal, diplomatic negotiations between the courts of, with respect to the new discoveries.

Spotorno, Gio, publishes documents relative to Columbus, note.

Sugar-cane introduced into Hayti.

Superstition of St. Elmo lights.

Swallow, a, encircles the ships of Columbus.



T.

Talavera, Fernando de, prior of Prado and confessor to Queen Isabella. 85; esteems Columbus's plan impossible; he is desired by the king to assemble men of science to consider the matter; reports to the king that the council had pronounced the plan vain and impossible; takes a message from the king;' disgusted at the high terms insisted on by Columbus.

Teneriffe, fears of the crew at beholding Mount.

Territory, question of, how settled.

Thomas, St., fortress of, erected; see note; conduct of the colonists there; attacks of.

Tobacco, first seen in the island of Cuba.

Tobago, discovery of.

Toledo, archbishop of, his character; gives Columbus an attentive hearing; and procures him an audience of the king.

Toledo, Dona Maria de, Don Diego Columbus becomes enamored of: their marriage; and embarkation for Hispaniola; is left as vice-queen at St. Domingo on the sailing of Don Diego for Spain; becomes a widow.

Torre, Dona Juana de la, receives a letter from Columbus with an account of his treatment.

Torres, Antonio de, dispatched from Hispaniola, with twelve ships, to Spain; arrives at Cadiz; dismissed from office.

——, Luis de, sent up the island of Cuba by Columbus; an account of his journey.

Tortoises, sea covered with, on the southern coast of Cuba; curious method of taking; a living one taken out of the maw of a shark.

Tortugas, beautiful island of, discovery of.

Toscanelli, Paulo, his correspondence with Columbus.

Trade of the colonies monopolized by the crown of Spain; the Spanish system the scoff of modern times.

Trasierra, Juan de.

Triana, Rodrigo de, first sees the land of the western world; account of.

Tribute imposed upon the Haytiens.

Trinidad, island of, discovered; description of its appearance; curious account of the natives.

Tristan, Diego; is killed.

Tudela, Benjamin, travels of.

Turk's island, observations relative to.



U.

Ursula, Santa, island of, discovered.



V.

Vassals, natives of Hispaniola reduced to the condition of.

Vega, Garcilasso de la, his tale relative to a pilot having died in the house of Columbus.

——, river; called by the natives Yagui.

——, Real, the royal plain.

Velasco, Francisco.

Velasquez, Diego, commands the soldiery at the massacre of Xaragua.

Veragua, coast of, discovery of; warlike spirit of the inhabitants; soil appears to be impregnated with gold; Golden Castile.

Voraguas, duke of, consents to have the remains of Columbus removed to Cuba.

——, the heirship to Columbus decided in his favor.

Verde, Cape de, discovery of.

Vespucci, Amerigo, first notice of his expedition; employed by Columbus at court; an account of; a summary view of his claim to the title of a discoverer; the voyage whence his name was given to the American continent; Columbus's letter to his son relative to the merit and misfortunes of; Peter Martyr's character of: his letter to Rene, duke of Lorraine; observations relative to the points in controversy; author's conclusion, that the voyage asserted to have been made by Amerigo Vespucci never took place.

Vessel, stern-post of a, found in one of the houses at Guadaloupe.

Villains, natives of Hispaniola reduced to the condition of.

Villego, Alonzo de, appointed to carry Columbus to Spain; character of; his colloquy with Columbus previous to their sailing.

Vines introduced into Hayti.

Vinland, a supposed discovery.

Virgins, the eleven thousand, islands of, discovered.

Vows made in a storm by Columbus and his crew; attempt at fulfilment.



W.

Waterspout, a remarkable, seen on the coast of Veragua.

Wax, cake of, presented to the sovereigns by Columbus.

Wheat, introduced into Hayti.

Wolves, sea, several killed on the coast of Hispaniola.

Woman, account of a very strong, of Guadaloupe; taken to Columbus's ship; falls in love with Caonabo, and refuses to return on shore.

Women, origin of, according to the Haytiens.

Writing, fear of the Indians of Cariari at seeing the Spaniards write.



X.

Xagua, gulf of.

Xaragua, domain of, an account of; description of its inhabitants; Roldan takes possession of; massacre at.

Xerif al Edrizi, his description of the Atlantic.

Ximenes, cardinal; prohibits licenses to import slaves from Africa to the colonies.



Y.

Yanique, river of.



Z.

Zemes, inferior deities of the Haytiens.

Zipangu (Japan), Marco Polo's account of.

Zones, the, observations relative to.



Footnotes



[1]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. iv.

[2]: Ibid., lib. v.

[3]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. v.

[4]: Charlevoix, Hist. St. Domingo, lib. ii. p. 147. Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, lib. vi. Sec. 6.

[5]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. v.

[6]: "These serpentes are lyke unto crocodiles, saving in bygness; they call them guanas. Unto that day none of owre men durste adventure to taste of them, by reason of theyre horrible deformitie and lothsomnes. Yet the Adelantado being entysed by the pleasantnes of the king's sister, Anacaona, determined to taste the serpentes. But when he felte the flesh thereof to be so delycate to his tongue, he fel to amayne without al feare. The which thyng his companions perceiving, were not behynde hym in greedynesse: insomuche that they had now none other talke than of the sweetnesse of these serpentes, which, they affirm to be of more pleasant taste, than eyther our phesantes or partriches." Peter Martyr, decad. i. book v. Eden's Eng. Trans.

[7]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., tom. i. cap. 113.

[8]: Ibid, lib. i. cap. 114.

[9]: P. Martyr, decad. i. lib. v. Of the residence of Guarionex, which must have been a considerable town, not the least vestige can be discovered at present. Vol. II.—2.

[10]: Escritura de Fr. Roman, Hist. del Almirante.

[11]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. ix.

[12]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 121.

[13]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 65. Peter Martyr, decad. vi. lib. v.

[14]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 7.

[15]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. v. Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 6.

[16]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. v. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 6.

[17]: Ramusio, vol. iii. p. 9.

[18]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 1.

[19]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 118.

[20]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 73.

[21]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 73.

[22]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 7. Hist, del Almirante, cap. 74.

Extract of a letter from T. S. Heneken, Esq., 1847.—Fort Conception is situated at the foot of a hill now called Santo Cerro. It is constructed of bricks, and is almost as entire at the present day as when just finished. It stands in the gloom of an exuberant forest which has invaded the scene of former bustle and activity; a spot once considered of great importance and surrounded by swarms of intelligent beings.

What has become of the countless multitudes this fortress was intended to awe? Not a trace of them remains excepting in the records of history. The silence of the tomb prevails where their habitations responded to their songs and dances. A few indigent Spaniards, living in miserable hovels, scattered widely apart in the bosom of the forest, are now the sole occupants of this once fruitful and beautiful region.

A Spanish town gradually grew up round the fortress; the ruins of which extend to a considerable distance. It was destroyed by an earthquake, at nine o'clock of the morning of Saturday, 20th April, 1564, during the celebration of mass. Part of the massive walls of a handsome church still remain, as well as those of a very large convent or hospital, supposed to have been constructed in pursuance of the testamentary dispositions of Columbus. The inhabitants who survived the catastrophe retired to a small chapel, on the banks of a river, about a league distant, where the new town of La Vega was afterwards built.

[23]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 7. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 74.

[24]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 74. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 7.

[25]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 118.

[26]: Ibid., cap. 119.

[27]: Las Casas. Herrera. Hist. del Almirante.

[28]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 8.

[29]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., cap. 121, MS. Peter Martyr, decad. i. cap. 5.

[30]: The particulars of this chapter are chiefly from P. Martyr, decad. i. lib. vi.; the manuscript history of Las Casas, lib. i. cap. 121; and Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 8, 9.

[31]: Las Casas, lib. i. cap. 149,150. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 12. Hist, del Almirante, cap. 77.

[32]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 153.

[33]: Hist, del Almirante, cap. 78.

[34]: In one of these ships sailed the father of the venerable historian Las Casas, from whom he derived many of the facts of his history. Las Casas, lib. i. cap. 153.

[35]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 157.

[36]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 78.

[37]: Ibid., cap. 79. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap 13.

[38]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 153.

[39]: Ibid., cap. 158.

[40]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 79.

[41]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 80.

[42]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[43]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[44]: Herrera, decad. I. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[45]: Idem. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 38.

[46]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[47]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii cap. 16.

[48]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[49]: Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, lib. vi. Sec. 50.

[50]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 84.

[51]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[52]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 83, 84.

[53]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[54]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iii. cap. 16.

[55]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 3.

[56]: Las Casas.

[57]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 4. Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, part in MS. unpublished.

[58]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 84.

[59]: Hist. del Almirante, ubi sup.

[60]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 169, MS.

[61]: Letter of Columbus to the nurse of Prince Juan.

[62]: Las Casas, lib. i. cap. 169.

[63]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 5.

[64]: Lag Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 170, MS. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 7.

[65]: Letter of Columbus to the nurse of Prince Juan. Hist, del Almirante, cap. 84.

[66]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 85.

[67]: Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, part unpublished.

[68]: Las Casas, lib. i.

[69]: Oviedo, Cronica, lib. iii. cap. 6.

[70]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 7.

[71]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib i. cap. 169. Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 8.

[72]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 179.

[73]: Las Casas, ubi sup. Herrera, ubi sup.

[74]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 85. Las Casas. Herrera, ubi sup.

[75]: Letter of Columbus to the nurse of Prince Juan.

[76]: Ibid.

[77]: Letter of Columbus to the nurse of Prince Juan.

[78]: Idem. Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv.

[79]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 9. Letter to the nurse of Prince Juan.

[80]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 180.

[81]: Idem, lib. i. cap. 180.

[82]: Peter Martyr mentions a vulgar rumor of the day, that the admiral, not knowing what might happen, wrote a letter in cipher to the Adelantado, urging him to come with arms in his hands to prevent any violence that might be contrived against him; that the Adelantado advanced, in effect, with his armed force, but having the imprudence to proceed some distance ahead of it, was surprised by the governor, before his men could come to his succor, and that the letter in cipher had been sent to Spain. This must have been one of the groundless rumors of the day, circulated to prejudice the public mind. Nothing of the kind appears among the charges in the inquest made by Bobadilla, and which was seen, and extracts made from it, by Las Casas, for his history. It is, in fact, in total contradiction to the statements of Las Casas, Herrera, and Fernando Columbus.

[83]: Charlevoix, in his History of San Domingo (lib. iii. p. 199), states that the suit against Columbus was conducted in writing; that written charges were sent to him, to which he replied in the same way. This is contrary to the statements of Las Casas, Herrera, and Fernando Columbus. The admiral himself, in his letter to the nurse of Prince Juan, after relating the manner in which he and his brothers had been thrown into irons, and confined separately, without being visited by Bobadilla, or permitted to see any other persons, expressly adds, "I make oath that I do not know for what I am imprisoned." Again, in a letter written some time afterwards from Jamaica, he says, "I was taken and thrown with two of my brothers in a ship, loaded with irons, with little clothing and much ill-treatment, without being summoned or convicted by justice."

[84]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 10. Oviedo, Cronica. lib. iii. cap. 6.

[85]: Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, part unpublished.

[86]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 86.

[87]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 180, MS.

[88]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 180, MS.

[89]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 86.

[90]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 182.

[91]: Oviedo, Cronica, lib. iii. cap. 6.

[92]: Las Casas, lib. i. cap. 182. Two thousand ducats, or two thousand eight hundred and forty-six dollars, equivalent to eight thousand five hundred and thirty-eight dollars of the present day.

[93]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 10.

[94]: Peter Martyr, decad. i. lib. ix.

[95]: Herrera, decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 12. Munoz, Hist. N. Mundo, part unpublished.

[96]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 2. Munoz, part unpublished.

[97]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 2 Munoz, part unpublished.

[98]: Hakluyt's Collection of Voyages, vol. iii. p. 7. Vol. II.-9

[99]: Lafiteau, Conquetes des Portugais, lib. ii.

[100]: Robertson, Hist. America, book ii.

[101]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 3.

[102]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 1, MS.

[103]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind. lib. ii. cap. 3, MS.

[104]: Herrera, Hist. Ind., decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 12.

[105]: Munoz, part inedit. Las Casas says the fleet consisted of thirty-two sail. He states from memory, however; Munoz from documents.

[106]: Munoz, H. N. Mundo, part inedit.

[107]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 3, MS.

[108]: Garibay, Hist. Espana, lib. xix. cap. 6. Among the collections existing in the library of the late Prince Sebastian, there is a folio which, among other things, contains a paper or letter, in which is a calculation of the probable expenses of an army of twenty thousand men, for the conquest of the Holy Land. It is dated in 1509 or 1510, and the handwriting appears to be of the same time.

[109]: Columbus was not singular in his belief; it was entertained by many of his zealous and learned admirers. The erudite lapidary, Jayme Ferrer, in the letter written to Columbus in 1495, at the command of the sovereigns, observes: "I see in this a great mystery: the divine and infallible Providence sent the great St. Thomas from the west into the east, to manifest in India our holy and Catholic faith; and you, Senor, he sent in an opposite direction, from the east into the west, until you have arrived in the Orient, into the extreme part of Upper India, that the people may hear that which their ancestors neglected of the preaching of St. Thomas. Thus shall be accomplished what was written, in omnem terram exibit sonus eorum." ... And again, "The office which you hold, Senor, places you in the light of an apostle and ambassador of God, sent by his divine judgment, to make known his holy name in unknown lands."—Letra de Mossen, Jayme Ferrer, Navarrete, Coleccion, tom. ii. decad. 68. See also the opinion expressed by Agostino Giustiniani, his contemporary, in his Polyglot Psalter.

[110]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 4. Las Casas specifics the vicinity of Nombre de Dios as the place.

[111]: Navarrete, Colec. Viag., tom. ii. p. 145.

[112]: A manuscript volume containing a copy of this letter and of the collection of prophecies is in the Columbian Library, in the Cathedral of Seville, where the author of this work has seen and examined it since publishing the first edition. The title and some of the early pages of the work are in the handwriting of Fernando Columbus; the main body of the work is by a strange hand, probably by the Friar Gaspar Gorricio, or some brother of his Convent. There are trifling marginal notes or corrections, and one or two trivial additions in the handwriting of Columbus, especially a passage added after his return from his fourth voyage, and shortly before his death, alluding to an eclipse of the moon which took place during his sojourn in the island of Jamaica. The handwriting of this last passage, like most of the manuscript of Columbus which the author has seen, is small and delicate, but wants the firmness and distinctness of his earlier writing, his hand having doubtless become unsteady by age and infirmity.

This document is extremely curious as containing all the passages of Scripture and of the works of the fathers which had so powerful an influence on the enthusiastic mind of Columbus, and were construed by him into mysterious prophecies and revelations. The volume is in good preservation, excepting that a few pages have been cut out. The writing, though of the beginning of the fifteenth century, is very distinct and legible. The library-mark of the book is Estante Z. Tab. 138, No. 25.

[113]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 4.

[114]: These documents lay unknown in the Oderigo family until 1670, when Lorenzo Oderigo presented them to the government of Genoa, and they were deposited in the archives. In the disturbances and revolutions of after times, one of these copies was taken to Paris, and the other disappeared. In 1816 the latter was discovered in the library of the deceased Count Michel Angelo Cambiaso, a senator of Genoa. It was procured by the king of Sardinia, then sovereign of Genoa, and given up by him to the city of Genoa in 1821. A custodia, or monument, was erected in that city for its preservation, consisting of a marble column supporting an urn, surmounted by a bust of Columbus. The documents were deposited in the urn. These papers have been published, together with an historical memoir of Columbus, by D. Gio. Battista Spotorno, Professor of Eloquence, etc. in the University of Genoa.

[115]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 88.

[116]: Senor Navarrete supposes this island to be the same at present called Santa Lucia. From the distance between it and Dominica, as stated by Fernando Columbus, it was more probably the present Martinica.

[117]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 88.

[118]: Letter of Columbus from Jamaica. Journal of Porras, Navarrete, tom. i.

[119]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 88. Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 5.

[120]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 3.

[121]: Las Casas, cap. 5.

[122]: Las Casas, cap. 5.

[123]: Las Casas ubi sup.

[124]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 5. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 88.

[125]: Supposed to be the Morant Keys.

[126]: Called in some of the English maps Bonacca.

[127]: Journal of Porras, Navarrete, tom. i.

[128]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 20. Letter of Columbus from Jamaica.

[129]: Journal of Porras, Navarrete, Colec., tom. i.

[130]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 21. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 90.

[131]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 80.

[132]: Letter from Jamaica. Navarrete, Colec., tom. i.

[133]: Las Casas, lib ii. cap. 21. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 91.

[134]: P. Martyr, decad. iii. lib. iv. These may have been the lime, a small and extremely acid species of the lemon.

[135]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 21. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 91. Journal of Porras.

[136]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 91.

[137]: Letter from Jamaica.

[138]: Note.—We find instances of the same kind of superstition in the work of Marco Polo, and as Columbus considered himself in the vicinity of the countries described by that traveler, he may have been influenced in this respect by his narrations. Speaking of the island of Soccotera (Socotra), Marco Polo observes: "The inhabitants deal more in sorcery and witchcraft than any other people, although forbidden by their archbishop, who excommunicates and anathematizes them for the sin. Of this, however, they make little account, and if any vessel belong to a pirate should injure one of theirs, they do not fail to lay him under a spell, so that he cannot proceed on his cruise until he has made satisfaction for the damage; and even although he should have a fair and leading wind, they have the power of causing it to change, and thereby obliging him, in spite of himself, to return to the island. They can, in like manner, cause the sea to become calm, and at their will can raise tempests, occasion ship-wrecks, and produce many other extraordinary effects that need not be particularized."—Marco Polo, Book iii. cap. 35, Eng. translation by W. Marsden.

[139]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 21. Hist. del Almirante cap. 91.

[140]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 21. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 91. Letter of Columbus from Jamaica.

[141]: In some English maps this bay is called Almirante, or Carnabaco Bay. The channel by which Columbus entered is still called Boca del Almirante, or the mouth of the Admiral.

[142]: Journal of Porras, Navarrete, tom. i.

[143]: P. Martyr, decad. iii. lib. v.

[144]: Columbus' Letter from Jamaica.

[145]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 92.

[146]: Idem.

[147]: Letter of Columbus from Jamaica. Navarrete, Colec., tom. i. Vol. II.—12.

[148]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 23. Hist. del Almirante.

[149]: Peter Martyr, decad. iii. lib. iv.

[150]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 23. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 92.

[151]: Las Casas. lib. ii. cap. 23. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 92.

[152]: It appears doubtful whether Columbus was acquainted with the exact particulars of that voyage, as they could scarcely have reached Spain previously to his sailing. Bastides had been seized in Hispaniola by Bobadilla, and was on board of that very fleet which was wrecked at the time that Columbus arrived off San Domingo. He escaped the fate that attended most of his companions, and returned to Spain, where he was rewarded by the sovereigns for his enterprise. Though some of his seamen had reached Spain previous to the sailing of Columbus, and had given a general idea of the voyage, it is doubtful whether he had transmitted his papers and charts. Porras, in his journal of the voyage of Columbus, states that they arrived at the place where the discoveries of Bastides terminated; but this information he may have obtained subsequently at San Domingo.

[153]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 24. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 90.

[154]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 94.

[155]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 94.

[156]: A superstitious notion with respect to gold appears to have been very prevalent among the natives. The Indians of Hispaniola observed the same privations when they sought for it, abstaining from food and from sexual intercourse. Columbus, who seemed to look upon gold as one of the sacred and mystic treasures of the earth, wished to encourage similar observances among the Spaniards; exhorting them to purify themselves for the research of the mines by fasting, prayer, and chastity. It is scarcely necessary to add, that his advice was but little attended to by his rapacious and sensual followers.

[157]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 95.

[158]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 25. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 95.

[159]: Peter Martyr, decad. iii. lib. iv.

[160]: Letter of the Admiral from Jamaica.

[161]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 25. Hist. del Almirante, cap. 95.

[162]: Letter of Columbus from Jamaica.

[163]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 96.

[164]: Letter from Jamaica.

[165]: Equivalent to one thousand two hundred and eighty-one dollars at the present day.

[166]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 98. Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 27. Many of the particulars of this chapter are from a short narrative given by Diego Mendez, and inserted in his last will and testament. It is written in a strain of simple egotism, as he represents himself as the principal and almost the sole actor in every affair. The facts, however, have all the air of veracity, and being given on such a solemn occasion, the document is entitled to high credit. He will be found to distinguish himself on another hazardous and important occasion in the course of this history.—Vide Navarrete, Colec., tom. i.

[167]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 98. Las Casas, lib. ii. Letter of Columbus from Jamaica. Relation of Diego Mendez, Navarrete, tom. i. Journal of Porras, Navarrete, tom. i.

[168]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 99.

[169]: Letter of Columbus from Jamaica.

[170]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 99, 100. Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 29. Relacion por Diego Mendez. Letter of Columbus from Jamaica. Journal of Porras, Navarrete, Colec., tom. i.

[171]: Hist. del Almirante. Letter from Jamaica.

[172]: Journal of Porras, Navarrete, Colec., tom. i.

[173]: Letter from Jamaica.

[174]: Testimony of Pedro de Ledesma. Pleito de los Colones.

[175]: Letter from Jamaica.

[176]: Idem.

[177]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 100. Letter of Columbus from Jamaica.

[178]: Hist. del Almirante. Journal of Porras.

[179]: Relacion por Diego Mendez. Navarrete, torn. i.

[180]: Relacion por Diego Mendez. Navarrete, Colec, torn. i.

[181]: Joachim, native of the burgh of Celico, near Cozenza, traveled in the Holy Land. Returning to Calabria, he took the habit of the Cistercians in the monastery of Corazzo, of which he became prior and abbot, and afterwards rose to higher monastic importance. He died in 1202, having attained 72 years of age, leaving a great number of works; among the most known are commentaries on Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Apocalypse. There are also prophecies by him, "which," (says the Dictionnaire Historique,) "during his life, made him to be admired by fools, and despised by men of sense; at present the latter sentiment prevails. He was either very weak or very presumptuous, to flatter himself that he had the keys of things of which God reserves the knowledge to himself."—Dict. Hist., tom. 5, Caen, 1785.

[182]: Hist, del Almirante, cap. 101.

[183]: Hist, del Almirante, cap. 102.

[184]: Letter of Columbus to his son Diego. Navarrete, Colec. Vol. II.-15

[185]: Hist, del Almirante, cap. 102.

[186]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 32. Hist, del Almirante, cap. 102.

[187]: Hist, del Almirante, cap. 102.

[188]: Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 32.

[189]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 102. Las Casas, lib. ii. cap. 32.

[190]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 103. Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 33.

[191]: Hist. del Almirante, cap. 104.

[192]: Las Casas, Hist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 33.

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