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The Lady's Own Cookery Book, and New Dinner-Table Directory;
by Charlotte Campbell Bury
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Leg of Lamb, with forcemeat.

Slit a leg of lamb on the wrong side, and take out as much meat as possible, without cutting or cracking the outward skin. Pound this meat well with an equal weight of fresh suet: add to this the pulp of a dozen large oysters, and two anchovies boned and clean washed. Season the whole with salt, black-pepper, mace, a little thyme, parsley, and shalot, finely shred together; beat them all thoroughly with the yolks of three eggs, and, having filled the skin tight with this stuffing, sew it up very close. Tie it up to the spit and roast it. Serve it with any good sauce.

Shoulder of Lamb, grilled.

Half roast, then score, and season it with pepper, salt, and cayenne. Broil it; reserve the gravy carefully; pass it through a sieve to take off all fat. Mix with it mushroom and walnut ketchup, onion, the size of a nut, well bruised, a little chopped parsley, and some of the good jelly reserved for sauces. Put a good quantity of this sauce; make it boil, and pour it boiling hot on the lamb when sent to table.

Lamb, to ragout.

Roast a quarter of lamb, and when almost done dredge it well with grated bread, which must be put into the dish you serve it up in; take veal cullis, salt, pepper, anchovy, and lemon juice; warm it, lay the lamb in it, and serve it up.

Lamb, to fricassee.

Cut the hind quarter of lamb into thin slices, and season them with spice, sweet-herbs, and a shalot; fry and toss them up in some strong broth, with balls and palates, and a little brown gravy to thicken it.

Miscellaneous directions respecting Meat.

A leg of veal, the fillet without bone, the knuckle for steaks, and a pie; bone of fillet and knuckle for soup.—Shoulder of veal, knuckle cut off for soup.—Breast of veal, thin end stews, or re-heats as a stew.—Half a calf's head boils, then hashes, with gravy from the bones.—For mock turtle soup, neats' feet instead of calf's head, that is, two calves' feet and two neats' feet.—Giblets of all poultry make gravy.—Ox-cheek, for soup and kitchen.—Rump of beef cut in two, thin part roasted, thick boiled: or steaks and one joint, the bone for soup.—The trimmings of many joints will make gravy.—To boil the meat white, well flour the joint and the cloth it is boiled in, not letting any thing be boiled with it, and frequently skimming the grease.—Lamb chops fried dry and thin make a neat dish, with French beans in cream round them. A piece of veal larded in white celery sauce, to answer the chops.—Dressed meat, chopped fine, with a little forcemeat, and made into balls about the size of an egg, browned and fried dry, and sent up without any sauce.—Sweetbreads larded in white celery sauce.—To remove taint in meat, put the joint into a pot with water, and, when it begins to boil, throw in a few red clear cinders, let them boil together for two or three minutes, then take out the meat, and wipe it dry.—To keep hams, when they are cured for hanging up, tie them in brown paper bags tight round the hocks to exclude the flies, which omission occasions maggots.—Ginger, where spice is required, is very good in most things.

Meat, general rule for roasting and boiling.

The general rule for roasting and boiling meat is as follows: fifteen minutes to a pound in roasting, twenty minutes to a pound in boiling.

On no account whatever let the least drop of water be poured on any roast meat; it soddens it, and is a bad contrivance to make gravy, which is, after all, no gravy, and totally spoils the meat.

Meat, half-roasted or under-done.

Cut small pieces, of the size of a half-crown, of half-roasted mutton, and put them into a saucepan with half a pint of red wine, the same quantity of gravy, one anchovy, a little shalot, whole pepper, and salt; let them stew a little; then put in the meat with a few capers, and, when thoroughly hot, thicken with butter rolled in flour.

Mustard, to make.

Mix three table-spoonfuls of mustard, one of salt, and cold spring water sufficient to reduce it to a proper thickness.

Chine of Mutton, to roast.

Let the chine hang downward, and raise the skin from the bone. Take slices of lean gammon of bacon, and season it with chives, parsley, and white pepper; spread them over the chine, and lay the bacon upon them. Turn the skin over them, and tie it up; cover with paper, and roast. When nearly done, dredge with crumbs of bread, and serve up, garnishing with mutton cutlets.

Mutton chops, to stew.

Put them in a stewpan, with an onion, and enough cold water to cover them; when come to a boil, skim and set them over a very slow fire till tender; perhaps about three quarters of an hour.

Turnips may be boiled with them.

Mutton cutlets.

Cut a neck of mutton into cutlets; beat it till very tender; wash it with thick melted butter, and strew over the side which is buttered some sweet-herbs, chopped small, with grated bread, a little salt, and nutmeg. Lay it on a gridiron over a charcoal fire, and, turning it, do the same to that side as the other. Make sauce of gravy, anchovies, shalots, thick butter, a little nutmeg, and lemon.

Mutton cutlets, with onion sauce.

Cut the cutlets very small; trim all round, taking off all the fat; cut off the long part of the bone; put them into a stewpan, with all the trimmings that have been cut off, together with one onion cut in slices; add some parsley, a carrot or two, a pinch of salt, and six table-spoonfuls of mutton or veal jelly, and let them stew till the cutlets are of a brown colour all round, but do not let them burn. Take out the cutlets, drain them in a sieve, and let them cool; then strain the sauce till it becomes of a fine glaze, and re-warm them. Have ready some good onion sauce; put it in the middle of the dish; place the cutlets—eight, if they are small—round it, and serve the glaze with them; take care it does not touch the onion sauce, but pour it round the outside part.

Mutton hams, to make.

Cut a hind quarter of mutton like a ham. Take one ounce of saltpetre, one pound of coarse sugar, and one pound of common salt; mix them together, and rub the ham well with them. Lay it in a hollow tray with the skin downward; baste it every day for a fortnight; then roll it in sawdust, and hang it in wood smoke for a fortnight. Boil and hang it in a dry place; cut it out in rashers. It does not eat well boiled, but is delicious broiled.

Haricot Mutton.

Take a neck of mutton, and cut it in the same manner as for mutton chops. When done, lay them in your stewpan, with a blade of mace, some whole peppercorns, a bunch of sweet-herbs, two onions, one carrot, one turnip, all cut in slices, and lay them over your mutton. Set your stewpan over a slow fire, and let the chops stew till they are brown; turn them, that the other side may be the same. Have ready some good gravy, and pour on them, and let them stew till they are very tender. Your ragout must be turnips and carrots cut into dice, and small onions, all boiled very tender, and well stirred up in the liquor in which your mutton was stewed.

Another way.

Fry mutton chops in butter till they are brown, but not done through. Lay them flat in a stewpan, and just cover them with gravy. Put in small onions, whole carrots, and turnips, scooped or cut into shapes; let them stew very gently for two hours or more. Season the chops before you fry them with pepper and salt.

Leg of Mutton.

To give a leg of mutton the taste of mountain meat, hang it up as long as it will keep fresh; rub it every day with ginger and coarse brown sugar, leaving it on the meat.

Leg of Mutton in the French fashion.

A leg of mutton thus dressed is a very excellent dish. Pare off all the skin as neatly as possible; lard the leg with the best lard, and stick a few cloves here and there, with half a clove of garlic, laid in the shank. When half roasted, cut off three or four thin pieces, so as not to disfigure it, about the shank bone; mince these very fine with sage, thyme, mint, and any other sweet garden herbs; add a little beaten ginger, very little, three or four grains; as much cayenne pepper, two spoonfuls of lemon juice, two ladlefuls of claret wine, a few capers, the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs: stew these in some meat jelly, and, when thoroughly stewed, pour over your roast, and serve it up. Do not spare your meat jelly; let the sauce be in generous quantity.

Leg of Mutton or Beef, to hash.

Cut small flat pieces of the meat, taking care to pare the skin and sinews, but leaving as much fat as you can find in the inside of the leg; season with a little salt and cayenne pepper and a little soup jelly; put in two whole onions, two bunches of parsley, the same of thyme, and a table-spoonful of mushroom-powder. Take two or three little balls of flour and butter, of the size of a nut, to thicken the sauce; beat it well together; let this simmer a little while; take off the scum; put in the meat, and let it boil. Serve up hot, with fried bread round it.

Another way.

Take the mutton and cut it into slices, taking off the skin and fat; beat it well, and rub the dish with garlic; put in the mutton with water, and season with salt, an onion cut in half, and a bundle of savoury herbs; cover it, and set it over a stove and stew it. When half stewed, add a little white wine (say two glasses) three blades of mace, and an anchovy; stew it till enough done; then take out the onion and herbs, and put the hash into the dish, rubbing a piece of butter in flour to thicken it, and serve it up.

Loin of Mutton, to stew.

Cut your mutton in steaks, and put it into as much water as will cover it. When it is skimmed, add four onions sliced and four large turnips.

Neck of Mutton, to roast.

Draw the neck with parsley, and then roast it; and, when almost enough, dredge it with white pepper, salt, and crumbs; serve it with the juice of orange and gravy.

Neck of Mutton, to boil.

Lard a neck of mutton with lemon-peel, and then boil it in salt and water, with sweet-herbs. While boiling, stew a pint of oysters in their own liquor, half a pint of white wine, and the like quantity of broth; put in two or three whole onions and some anchovies, grated nutmeg, and a little thyme. Thicken the broth with the yolks of four eggs, and dish it up with sippets. Lay the oysters under the meat, and garnish with barberries and lemon.

Neck of Mutton, to fry.

Take the best end of a neck of mutton, cut it into steaks, beat them with a rolling-pin, strew some salt on them, and lay them in a frying-pan: hold the pan over a slow fire that may not burn them: turn them as they heat, and there will be gravy enough to fry them in, till they are half done. Then put to them some good gravy; let them fry together, till they are done; add a good bit of butter, shake it up, and serve it hot with pickles.

Saddle of Mutton and Kidneys.

Raise the skin of the fore-chine of mutton, and draw it with lemon and thyme; and with sausage-meat farce part of it. Take twelve kidneys, farce, skewer, and afterwards broil them; and lay round horseradish between, with the gravy under.

Shoulder of Mutton, to roast in blood.

Cut the shoulder as you would venison; take off the skin, and let it lie in blood all night. Take as much powder of sweet-herbs as will lie on a sixpence, a little grated bread, pepper, nutmeg, ginger, and lemon-peel, the yolks of two eggs boiled hard, about twenty oysters, and some salt; temper these all together with the blood; stuff the meat thickly with it, and lay some of it about the mutton; then wrap the caul of the sheep about the shoulder; roast it, and baste it with blood till it is nearly done. Take off the caul, dredge, baste it with butter, and serve it with venison sauce. If you do not cut it venison fashion, yet take off the skin, because it will eat tough; let the caul be spread while it is warm, and, when you are to dress it, wrap it up in a cloth dipped in hot water. For sauce, take some of the bones of the breast; chop and put to them a whole onion, a little lemon-peel, anchovies, and a little spice. Stew these; add some red wine, oysters, and mushrooms.

Shoulder, or Leg of Mutton, with Oysters.

Make six holes in either a shoulder or leg of mutton with a knife: roll in eggs with your oysters, with crumbs and nutmeg, and stuff three or four in every hole. If you roast, put a caul over it; if for boiling, a napkin. Make some good oyster sauce, which lay under, and serve up hot.

Roasted Mutton, with stewed Cucumbers.

Bone a neck and loin of mutton, leaving on only the top bones, about an inch long; draw the one with parsley, and lard the other with bacon very closely; and, after skewering, roast them. Fry and stew your cucumbers; lay them under the mutton, and season them with salt, pepper, vinegar, and minced shalot, and put the sauce under the mutton, garnishing with pickled cucumbers and horseradish.

Mutton to eat like Venison.

Boil and skin a loin of mutton; take the bones, two onions, two anchovies, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some pepper, mace, carrot, and crust of bread; stew these all together for gravy; strain it off, and put the mutton into a stewpan with the fat side downward; add half a pint of port wine. Stew it till thoroughly done.

Mutton in epigram.

Roast a shoulder of mutton till it is three parts done, and let it cool; raise the skin quite up to the knuckle, and cut off all to the knuckle. Sauce the blade-bone; broil it, and hash the rest, putting in some capers, with good gravy, pickled cucumbers, and shalots. Stir them well up, and lay the blade-bone on the skin.

Mushrooms, to stew brown.

Take some pepper and salt, with a little cayenne and a little cream; thicken with butter and flour. To do them white, cut out all the black inside.

Newmarket John.

Cut the lean part of a leg of mutton in little thin collops; beat them; butter a stewpan, and lay the collops all over. Have ready pepper, salt, shalot or garlic, and strew upon them. Set them over a very slow fire. As the gravy draws, turn over the collops, and dredge in a very little flour; have ready some good hot gravy. Shake it up all together, and serve with pickles.

Ox-cheek, to stew.

Choose one that is fat and young, which may be known by the teeth; pick out the eye-balls; cut away the snout and all superfluous bits. Wash and clean it perfectly; well dry it in a cloth, and, with the back of a cleaver, break all the bones in the inside of the cheek; then with a rollingpin beat the flesh of the outside. If it is intended for the next day's dinner, proceed in this manner:—quarter and lard it with marrow; then pour on it garlic or elder vinegar so gently that it may sink into the flesh; strew salt over it, and let it remain so till morning. Then put it into a stewpan, big enough, if you do both cheeks, to admit of their lying flat close to one another; but first rub the pan well with garlic, and with a spoon spread a pound of butter and upwards at the bottom and sides of the pan. Strew cloves and beaten mace on the cheeks, also thyme and sweet marjoram, finely chopped; then put in as much white wine as will cover them an inch or more above the meat, but wash not off the other things by pouring it on. Rub the lid of the pan with garlic, and cover it so close that no steam can escape. Make a brisk fire under it, and, when the cover is so hot that you cannot bear your hand on it, then a slack fire will stew it, but keep it so that the cover be of the same heat as long as it is stewing. It must not be uncovered the whole time it is doing: about three hours will be sufficient. When you take it up, be careful not to break it; take out the loose bones; pour the liquor on the cheek; clear from the fat and the dross, and put lemon-juice to it. Serve it hot.

Another way.

Soak it in water, and make it very clean; put it in a gallon of water, with some potherbs, salt, and whole pepper. When stewed, so that the bones will slip out easily, take it up and strain off the soup; put a bit of butter in the frying-pan with some flour, and fry the meat brown, taking care not to burn it. Put some of the soup to the flour and butter, with ketchup, mushrooms, anchovy, and walnut liquor. Lay the cheek in a deep dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Ox-tail ragout.

Some good gravy must first be made, and the tail chopped through every joint, and stewed a long time in it till quite tender, with an onion stuck with cloves, a table-spoonful of port or Madeira wine, a tea-spoonful of soy, and a little cayenne. Thicken the gravy with a little flour.

Another.

Take two or three ox-tails; put them in a saucepan, with turnips, carrots, onions, and some black peppercorns; stew them for four hours. Take them out; cut them in pieces at every joint; put them into a stewpan with some good gravy, and scraped turnip and carrot; or cut them into the shape of a ninepin; pepper and salt to your taste; add the juice of half a lemon; and send it to table very hot.

Peas, to stew.

Take a quart of fine peas, and two small or one large cabbage lettuce; boil the lettuce tender; take it out of the water, shake it well, and put it into the stewpan, with about two ounces of butter, three or four little onions cut small, and the peas. Set them on a very slow fire, and let them stew about two hours; season them to your taste with pepper and a tea-spoonful of sugar; and, instead of salt, stew in some bits of ham, which you may take out or leave in when you serve it. There should not be a drop of water, except what inevitably comes from the lettuce.

Another way.

To your peas, add cabbage lettuces cut small, a small faggot of mint, and one onion; pass them over the fire with a small bit of butter, and, when they are tender and the liquor from them reduced, take out the onion and mint, and add a little white sauce. Take care it be not too thin; season with a little pepper and salt.

Green Peas, to keep till Christmas.

Gather your peas, when neither very young nor old, on a fine dry day. Shell, and let two persons holding a cloth, one at each end, shake them backward and forward for a few minutes. Put them into clean quart bottles; fill the bottles, and cork tight. Melt some rosin in a pipkin, dip the necks of the bottles into it, and set them in a cool dry place.

Another way.

Shell the peas, and dry them in a gentle heat, not much greater than that of a hot summer's day. Put them when quite dry into linen bags, and hang them up in a dry place. Before they are boiled, at Christmas or later, steep them in half milk, half water, for twelve or fourteen hours; then boil them as if fresh gathered. Beans and French beans may be preserved in the same manner.

Red Pickle, for any meat.

A quarter of a pound of saltpetre, a large common basinful of coarse sugar, and coarse salt. A leg of pork to lie in it a fortnight.

Beef Steak Pie.

Rump steaks are preferable to beef; season them with the usual seasoning, puff-paste top and bottom, and good gravy to fill the dish.

Calf's Head Pie.

Parboil the head; cut it into thin slices; season with pepper and salt; lay them into a crust with some good gravy, forcemeat balls, and yolks of eggs boiled hard. Bake it about an hour and a half; cut off the lid; thicken some good gravy with a little flour; add some oysters; serve it with or without a lid.

Mutton or Grass Lamb Pie.

Take a loin of mutton or lamb, and clear it from fat and skin; cut it into steaks; season them well with pepper and salt; almost fill the dish with water; lay puff paste at top and bottom.

Veal Pie (common).

Make exactly as you would a beef-steak pie.

Veal Pie (rich).

Take a neck, a fillet, or a breast of veal, cut from it your steaks, seasoned with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a few cloves, truffles, and morels; then slice two sweetbreads; season them in the same manner, and put a layer of paste round the dish; then lay the meat, yolks of eggs boiled hard, and oysters at the top: fill it with water. When taken out of the oven, pour in at the top through a funnel some good boiled gravy, thickened with cream and flour boiled up.

Veal and Ham Pie.

Take two pounds of veal cutlets, or the best end of the neck, cut them in pieces about half the size of your hand, seasoned with pepper and a very little salt, and some dressed ham in slices. Lay them alternately in the dish with forcemeat or sausage meat, the yolks of three eggs boiled hard, and a gill of water.

Veal Olive Pie.

Make your olives as directed in the receipt for making olives; put them into a crust; fill the pie with water: when baked, pour in some good gravy, boiled and thickened with a little good cream and flour boiled together. These ingredients make an excellent pie.

Beef Olive Pie.

Make your olives as you would common beef olives; put them into puff paste, top and bottom; fill the pie with water, when baked, pour in some good rich gravy.

Pig, to barbicue.

The best pig for this purpose is of the thick neck breed, about six weeks old. Season the barbicue very high with cayenne, black pepper, and sage, finely sifted; which must be rubbed well into the inside of the pig. It must then be sewed up and roasted, or, if an oven can be depended upon, it will be equally good baked. The sauce must be a very high beef gravy, with an equal quantity of Madeira wine in it. Send the pig to table whole. Be careful not to put any salt into the pig, as it will change its colour.

Pig, to collar.

Have your pig cut down the back, and bone and wash it clean from the blood; dry it well, and season it with spice, salt, parsley, and thyme, and roll it hard in a collar; tie it close in a dry cloth and boil it with the bones, in three pints of water, a quart of vinegar, a handful of salt, a faggot of sweet-herbs, and whole spice. When tender, let it cool and take it off; take it out of the cloth, and keep it in the pickle.

Pig, to collar in colours.

Boil and wash your pig well, and lay it on a dresser: chop parsley, thyme, and sage, and strew them over the inside of the pig. Beat some mace and cloves, mix with them some pepper and salt, and strew that over. Boil some eggs hard, chop the yolks, and put them in layers across your pig; boil some beet-root, and cut that into slices, and lay them across; then roll it up in a cloth and boil it. Before it is cold, press it with a weight, and it will be fit for use.

Pig, to pickle or souse.

Take a fair fat pig, cut off his head, and cut him through the middle. Take out the brains, lay them in warm water, and leave them all night. Roll the pig up like brawn, boil till tender, and then throw it into an earthen pan with salt and water. This will whiten and season the flesh; for no salt must be put into the boiling for fear of turning it black. Then take a quart of this broth and a quart of white wine, boil them together, and put in three or four bay-leaves: when cold, season your pig, and put it into this sauce. It will keep three months.

Pig, to roast.

Chop the liver small by itself: mince blanched bacon, capers, truffles, anchovy, mushrooms, sweet-herbs and garlic. Season and blanch the whole. Fill your pig with it; tie it up; sprinkle some good olive oil over it; roast and serve it up hot.

Another way.

Put a piece of bread, parsley, and sage, cut small, into the belly with a little salt; sew up the belly; spit the pig, and roast it; cut off the ears and the under-jaws, which you will lay round; making a sauce with the brains, thick butter and gravy, which lay underneath.

Pig, to dress lamb fashion.

After skinning the pig, but leaving the skin quite whole, with the head on, chine it down, as you would do mutton, larding it with thyme and lemon-peel; and roast it in quarters like lamb. Fill the other part with a plum-pudding; sew the belly up, and bake it.

Pigs' Feet and Ears, fricassee of.

Clean the feet and ears, and boil them very tender. Cut them in small shreds, the length of a finger and about a quarter of an inch in breadth; fry them in butter till they are brown but not hard; put them into a stewpan with a little brown gravy and a good piece of butter, two spoonfuls of vinegar, and a good deal of mustard—enough to flavour it strong. Salt to your taste; thicken with very little flour. Put in half an onion; then take the feet, which should likewise be boiled as tender as for eating; slit them quite through the middle; take out the large bones; dip them in eggs, and strew them over with bread crumbs, seasoned with pepper and salt; boil or fry them, and put them on the ragout, into which squeeze some lemon-juice.

Pigs' Feet and Ears, ragout of.

Split the feet, and take them out of souse; dip them in eggs, then in bread-crumbs and chopped parsley; fry them in lard. Drain them; cut the ears in long narrow slips; flour them; put them into some good gravy; add ketchup, morels, and pickled mushrooms; stew them into the dish, and lay on the feet.

Pig's Head, to roll.

Take the belly-piece and head of pork, rub it well with saltpetre and a very little salt; let it lie three or four days; wash it clean; then boil the head tender, and take off all the meat with the ears, which cut in pieces. Have ready four neats' feet, also well boiled; take out the bones, cut the meat in thin slices, mix it with the head, and lay it with the belly-piece: roll it up tight, and bind it up, and set it on one end, with a trencher upon it; set it within the tin, and place a heavy weight upon that, and let it stand all night. In the morning take it out, and bind it with a fillet; put it in some salt and water, which must be changed every four or five days. When sliced, it looks like brawn. It is also good dipped in butter and fried, and eaten with melted butter, mustard, and vinegar: for that purpose the slices should be only about three inches square.

Pilaw, an Indian dish.

Take six or eight ribs of a neck of mutton; separate and take off all the skin and fat, and put them into a stewpan with twelve cloves, a small piece of ginger, twelve grains of black pepper, and a little cinnamon and mace, with one clove of garlic. Add as much water as will serve to stew these ingredients thoroughly and make the meat tender. Then take out the mutton, and fry it in nice butter of a light brown, with some small onions chopped fine and fried very dry; put them to the mutton-gravy and spice in which it was stewed, adding a table-spoonful of curry-powder and half an ounce of butter. After mixing all the above ingredients well together, put them to the rice, which should be previously half boiled, and let the whole stew together, until the rice is done enough and the gravy completely absorbed. When the pilaw is dished for table, it should be thinly covered with plain boiled rice to make it look white, and served up very hot.

Pork, to collar.

Bone and season a breast of pork with savoury spice, parsley, sage, and thyme; roll it in a hard collar of cloth; tie it close, and boil it, and, when cold, keep it in souse.

Pork, to pickle.

Having boned your pork, cut it into such pieces as will lie most conveniently to be powdered. The tub used for this purpose must be sufficiently large and sound, so as to hold the brine; and the narrower and deeper it is the better it will keep the meat. Well rub the meat with saltpetre; then take one part of bay and two parts of common salt, and rub every piece well, covering it with salt, as you would a flitch of bacon. Strew salt in the bottom of the tub; lay the pieces in it as closely as possible, strewing salt round the sides of the tub, and if the salt should even melt at the top strew no more. Meat thus cured will keep a long time.

Another way.

Cut your pork into small pieces, of the size you would boil at one time; rub all the pieces very well with salt, and lay them on a dresser upon boards made to slope that the brine may run off. After remaining three or four days, wipe them with a dry cloth; have ready a quantity of salt mixed with a small portion of saltpetre: rub each piece well with this mixture, after which cover them all over with salt. Put them into an earthen jar, or large pan, placing the pieces as close together as possible, closing the top of the jar or pan, so as to prevent all external air from getting in; put the shoulder pieces in a pan by themselves. Pork prepared in this manner will keep good a year.

Chine of Pork, to stuff and roast.

Make your stuffing of parsley, sage, thyme, eggs, crumbs of bread, and season it with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and shalot; stuff the chine thick, and roast it gently. When about a quarter roasted, cut the skin in slips, making your sauce with lemon-peel, apples, sugar, butter, and mustard, just as you would for a roast leg.

Another way.

Take a chine of pork that has hung four or five days; make holes in the lean, and stuff it with a little of the fat leaf, chopped very small, some parsley, thyme, a little sage, and shalot, cut very fine, and seasoned with pepper and salt. It should be stuffed pretty thick. Have some good gravy in the dish. For sauce, use apple sauce.

Pork Cutlets.

Cut off the skin of a loin or neck of pork and make cutlets; season them with parsley, sage, and thyme, mixed together with crumbs of bread, pepper, and salt; broil them, and make sauce with mustard, butter, shalot, and gravy, and serve up hot.

Gammon, to roast.

Let the gammon soak for twenty-four hours in warm water. Boil it tender, but not too much. When hot, score it with your knife; put some pepper on it, and then put it into a dish to crisp in a hot oven; but be mindful to pull the skin off.

Leg of Pork, to broil.

After skinning part of the fillet, cut it into slices, and hack it with the back of your knife; season with pepper, salt, thyme, and sage, minced small. Broil the slices on the gridiron, and serve with sauce made with drawn butter, sugar, and mustard.

Spring of Pork, to roast.

Cut off the spring of a knuckle of pork, and leave as much skin on the spring as you can, parting it from the neck, and taking out the bones. Rub it well with salt, and strew it all over with thyme shred small, parsley, sage, a nutmeg, cloves, and mace, beaten small and well mixed together. Rub all well in, and roll the whole up tight, with the flesh inward. Sew it fast, spit it lengthwise, and roast it.

Potatoes, to boil. No. 1.

The following is the celebrated Lancashire receipt for cooking potatoes:—Cleanse them well, put them in cold water, and boil them with their skins on exceedingly slow. When the water bubbles, throw in a little cold water. When they are done, drain the water completely away through a colander; return them into a pot or saucepan without water; cover them up, and set them before the fire for a quarter of an hour longer. Do not pare the potatoes before they are boiled, which is a very unwholesome and wasteful practice.

Potatoes, to boil. No. 2.

Scrape off the rind; put them into an iron pot; simmer them till they begin to crack, and allow a fork to pierce easily; then pour off the water, and put aside the lid of the pot, and sprinkle over some salt. Place your pot at the edge of the fire, and there let it remain an hour or more, and during this time all the moisture of the potatoes will gradually exhale in steam, and you will find them white or flaky as snow. Take them out with a spoon or ladle.

Potatoes, to boil. No. 3.

Boil them as usual; half an hour before sending to table, throw away the water from them, and set the pot again on the fire; sufficient moisture will come from the potatoes to prevent the pot from burning; let them stand on the half stove, and not be peeled until sent to table.

Potatoes, to bake.

Wash nicely, make into balls, and bake in the Dutch oven a light brown. This forms a neat side or corner dish.

Potato balls.

Pound some boiled potatoes in a mortar, with the yolks of two eggs, a little pepper, and salt; make them in balls about the size of an egg; do them over with yolk of egg and crumbs of bread; then fry them of a light brown for table; five balls for a corner dish.

Croquets of Potatoes.

Boil some potatoes in water, strain them, and take sufficient milk to make them into a mash, rather thick; before you mix the potatoes put the peel of half a lemon, finely grated, one lump of sugar, and a pinch of salt; strain the milk after heating it, and add the potatoes; mash them well together; let the mash cool; roll it into balls of the shape and size of an egg; let there be ten or twelve of them; brush them over with the yolk of egg, and roll them in crumbs of bread and a pinch of salt. Do this twice over; then fry them of a fine brown colour, and serve them with fried parsley round.

Potatoes, to fry.

After your potatoes are nicely boiled and skinned, grate them, and to every large table-spoonful of potatoes add one egg well beat, and to each egg a small spoonful of cream, with some salt. Drop as many spoonfuls as are proper in a pan in which is clarified butter.

Potatoes, to mash.

After the potatoes are boiled and peeled, mash them in a mortar, or on a clean board, with a broad knife, and put them into a stewpan. To two pounds of potatoes put in half a pint of milk, a quarter of a pound of butter, and a little salt; set them over the fire, and keep them stirred till the butter is melted; but take care they do not burn to the bottom. Dish them up in what form you please.

Potatoes, French way of cooking.

Boil the potatoes in a weak white gravy till nearly done; stir in some cream and vermicelli, with three or four blades of mace, and let it boil till the potatoes are sufficiently done, without being broken.

Potatoes, a-la-Maitre d'hotel.

Cut boiled potatoes into slices, not too thin; simmer them in a little plain gravy, a bit of butter rubbed in a little flour, chopped parsley, pepper, and salt, and serve hot.

Rice, to boil.

To boil rice well, though a simple thing, is rarely well done. Have two quarts of water boiling, while you wash six ounces of rice, picked clean. Change the water three or four times. When the rice is clean, drain and put it into the boiling water. Boil twenty minutes; add three quarters of a table-spoonful of salt. Drain off the water well—this is the most essential point—set it before the fire, spread thin to dry. When dry, serve it up. If the rice is not dry, so that each grain separates easily from the others, it is not properly boiled.

Another way.

Put one pound of rice into three quarts of boiling water; let it remain twenty minutes. Skim the water, and add one ounce of hog's lard and a little salt and pepper. Let it simmer gently over the fire closely covered, for an hour and a quarter, when it will be fit for use. This will produce eight pounds of savoury rice.

Rissoles. No. 1.

Take a roasted fowl, turkey, or pullet; pull it into shreds; there must be neither bone nor skin. Cut some veal and ham into large dice; put it into a stewpan, with a little thyme, carrots, onions, cloves, and two or three mushrooms. Make these ingredients simmer over a slow fire for two hours, taking care they do not burn; put in a handful of flour, and stir well, with a pint of cream and as much good broth; let the whole then stew for a quarter of an hour; continue to stir with a wooden spoon to prevent its burning. When it is done enough, strain it through a woollen strainer; then put in the whole meat of the poultry you have cut, with which you must make little balls of the size of pigeons' eggs. Dip them twice in very fine crumbs of bread; wrap them in paste, rolled very thin; then fry them in lard, which should be very hot.

Rissoles. No. 2.

Take the fleshy parts and breasts of two fowls, which cut into small dice, all of an equal size; then throw them into some white sauce, and reduce it till it becomes very thick and stiff. When this is cold, cut it into several pieces, and roll them to the size and shape of a cork; then roll them in crumbs of bread very fine; dip them into some white and yolks of eggs put up together with a little salt, and roll them again in bread. If they are not stiff enough to keep their shape, this must be repeated; then fry them of a light brown colour, drain them, wipe off the grease, and serve them with fried parsley between them.

Rissoles. No. 3.

Take of the pure made as directed for pheasant, veal, or game, (see Pheasant under the head Game) a sufficient quantity for eight rissoles, then a little of the jelly of veal, say about half a pint; put in it a pinch of salt and of cayenne pepper, two table-spoonfuls of cream, the yolk of one egg, and a piece of butter of the size of a walnut; mix this sauce well together over the fire, strain it, and then add the pure. Let it cool, and prepare a little puff-paste sufficient to wrap the rissoles once over with it, taking care to roll the paste out thin. Fry them, and send them up with fried parsley, without sauce. The rissoles must be made stiff enough not to break in the frying.

Rice.

One pound of veal or fowl, chopped fine; have ready some good bechamel sauce mixed with parsley and lemon-juice; mix it of a good thickness. When cold, make it up into balls, or what shape you please; dip them in yolks of eggs and bread crumbs, and fry them a few minutes before they go to table. They should be of a light brown, and sent up with fried parsley.

A Robinson, to make.

Take about eight or ten pounds of the middle of a brisket of beef; let it hang a day; then salt it for three days hung up; afterwards put it in strong red pickle, in which let it remain three weeks. Take it out, put it into a pot with plenty of water, pepper, a little allspice, and onion; let it simmer for seven or eight hours, but never let it boil. When quite tender, take out all the bones, spread it out on a table to cool, well beat it out with a rollingpin, and sprinkle with cayenne, nutmeg, and very little cloves, pounded together. Put it in a coarse cloth after it is rolled; twist it at each end to get out the fat, and bind it well round with broad tape; in that state let it remain three days.

Salad, to dress.

Two or three eggs, two or three anchovies, pounded, a little tarragon chopped very fine, a little thick cream, mustard, salt, and cayenne pepper, mixed well together. After these are all well mixed, add oil, a little tarragon, elder, and garlic vinegar, so as to have the flavour of each, and then a little of the French vinegar, if there is not enough of the others to give the requisite taste.

Bologna Sausages.

Have the fillets of young, tender porkers, and out of the weight of twenty-five pounds three parts are to be lean and one fat; season them well in the small shredding with salt and pepper, a little grated nutmeg, and a pint of white wine, mixed with a pint of hog's blood; stirring and beating it well together, with a little of the sweet-herbs finely chopped; with a funnel open the mouths of the guts, and thrust the meat gently into it with a clean napkin, as by forcing it with your hands you may break the gut. Divide them into what lengths you please; tie them with fine thread, and let them dry in the air for two or three days, if the weather be clear and a brisk wind, hanging them in rows at a little distance from each other in the smoke-loft. When well dried, rub off the dust they contract with a clean cloth; pour over them sweet olive-oil, and cover them with a dry earthen vessel.

English Sausages.

Chop and bruise small the lean of a fillet of young pork; to every pound put a quarter of a pound of fat, well skinned, and season it with a little nutmeg, salt, and pepper, adding a little grated bread; mix all these well together, and put it into guts, seasoned with salt and water.

Another way.

Take six pounds of very fine well fed pork, quite free from gristle and fat; cut it very small, and beat it fine in a mortar; shred six pounds of suet, free from skin, as fine as possible. Take a good deal of sage, the leaves picked off and washed clean, and shred fine as possible; spread the meat on a clean table; then shake the sage, about three large spoonfuls, all over; shred the yellow part of the rind of a lemon very fine, and throw that over, with as much sweet-herbs, when shred fine, as will fill a large spoon; grate two nutmegs over it, with two tea-spoonfuls of bruised pepper, and a large spoonful of salt. Then throw over it the suet, and mix all well together, and put it down close in a pot. When you use it, roll it up with as much beaten egg as will make the sausages roll smooth; let what you fry them in be hot before you put them into the pan; roll them about, and when they are thoroughly hot, and of a fine light brown colour, they are done. By warming a little of the meat in a spoon when you are making it, you will then taste if it is seasoned enough.

Oxford Sausages.

Take the best part of a leg of veal and of a leg of pork, of each three pounds; skin it well, and cut it into small dice. Take three pounds of the best beef suet (the proportion of which you may increase or diminish according to your taste,) skin it well; add a little sage, and chop it all together as fine as forcemeat. When chopped, put in six or seven eggs and a quarter of a pound of cold water, and season to your liking with pepper and salt. Work it up as if you were kneading dough for bread; roll it out in the form of sausages, and let the pan you fry them in be hot, with a bit of butter in it.

Sausages for Scotch collops.

Take beef suet and some veal, with a little winter savory, sage, thyme, and some grated nutmeg, beaten cloves, mace, and a little salt and pepper. Let these be well beaten together; then add two eggs beat, and heat all together. Roll them up in grated bread, fry, and send them up.

Veal Sausages.

Take half a pound of the lean of a leg of veal; cut it in small pieces, and beat it very fine in a stone mortar, picking out all the little strings. Shred one pound and half of beef-suet very small; season it with pepper, salt, cloves, and mace, but twice as much mace as cloves, some sage, thyme, and sweet marjoram, according to your palate. Mix all these well with the yolks of twelve eggs; roll them to your fancy, and fry them in lard.

Sausages without skins.

Take a pound and quarter of the lean of a leg of veal and a pound and quarter of the lean of a hind loin of pork; pick the meat from the skins before you weigh it; then take two pounds and half of fresh beef-suet picked clean from the skins, and an ounce and half of red sage leaves, picked from the stalks; wash and mince them as fine as possible; put them to the meat and suet, and mince as fine as you can. Add to it two ounces of white salt and half an ounce of pepper. Pare all the crust from a stale penny French roll, and soak the crumb in water till it is wet through; put it into a clean napkin, and squeeze out all the water. Put the bread to the meat, with four new-laid eggs beaten; then with your hands work all these things together, and put them into a clean earthen pan, pressed down close. They will keep good for a week. When you use this meat, divide a pound into eighteen parts; flour your hands a little, and roll it up into pretty thick sausages, and fry them in sweet butter; a little frying will do.

Spinach, the best mode of dressing.

Boil the spinach, squeeze the water from it completely, chop it a little; then put it and a piece of butter in a stewpan with salt and a very little nutmeg; turn it over a brisk fire to dry the remaining water. Then add a little flour; mix it well, wet it with a little good broth, and let it simmer for some time, turning it now and then to prevent burning.

To dress it maigre, put cream instead of broth, and an onion with a clove stuck in it, which you take out when you serve the spinach. Garnish with fried bread. Observe that if you leave water in it, the spinach cannot ever be good.

Another way.

Clean it well, and throw it into fresh water; then squeeze and drain it quite dry. Chop it extremely small, and put it into a pan with cream, fresh butter, salt, and a very small quantity of pepper and nutmeg: add an onion with two cloves stuck in it, and serve it up very hot, with fried bread sippets of triangular shape round the dish.

Spinach, to stew.

Pick the spinach very carefully; put it into a pan of water; boil it in a large vessel with a good deal of salt to preserve the green colour, and press it down frequently that it may be done equally. When boiled enough to squeeze easily, drain it from the water, and throw it into cold water. When quite cold, make it into balls, and squeeze it well. Then spread it on a table and chop it very fine; put a good piece of butter in a stewpan, and lay the spinach over the butter. Let it dry over a slow fire, and add a little flour; moisten with half a pint of beef jelly and a very little warm water: add a little cayenne pepper. This spinach should be very like thick melted butter, and as fine and smooth as possible.

Another way.

Take some fine spinach, pick and wash it extremely clean. When well boiled, put it into cold water, and squeeze it in a cloth very dry; chop it very small; put it in a stewpan with a piece of butter and half a pint of good cream; stir it well over the fire, that it may not oil; and put in a little more cream just as you are going to dish it.

Sweetbreads, ragout of.

Wash your sweetbreads; put them into boiling water, and, after blanching them, throw them into cold water; dry them with a linen cloth; and put them in a saucepan over the fire with salt, pepper, melted bacon, and a faggot of sweet-herbs. Shake them together, and put some good gravy to moisten them; simmer over the fire, and thicken to your liking.

Another.

Take sweetbreads and lamb's fry, and parboil them, cutting them into slices, and cocks'-combs sliced and blanched, and season them with pepper and salt, and other spices; fry them in a little lard; drain and toss them in good gravy, with two shalots, a bunch of sweet-herbs, mushrooms, and truffles. Thicken it with a glass of claret; garnish with red beet root.

Savoury Toasts, to relish Wine.

Cut six or seven pieces of bread about the size of two fingers, and fry them in butter till they are of a good colour; cut as many slices of ham of the same size, and put them into a stewpan over a slow fire, for an hour; when they are done take them out, and stir into the stewpan a little flour; when of a good colour moisten it with some broth, without salt; then skim off the fat, and strain the sauce through a sieve. Dish the ham upon the fried bread, and pour the sauce over.

Another.

Rasp some crumb of bread; put it over the fire in butter; put over it a minced veal kidney, with its fat, parsley, scallions, a shalot, cayenne pepper and salt, mixed with the whites and yolks of four eggs beat: put this forcemeat on fried toasts of bread, covering the whole with grated bread, and passing the salamander over it. Serve it with a clear beef gravy sauce under it.

Tomata to eat with roast meat.

Cover the bottom of a flat saucepan with the tomatas, that they may lie one upon another; add two or three spoonfuls of water, a little salt and pepper, to your taste; cover the pan, and stew them; in six or seven minutes turn them, and let them stew till they are soft. Send them up with their liquor.

Tongues, to cure. No. 1.

Take two fine bullocks' tongues; wash them well in spring water; dry them thoroughly with a cloth, and salt them with common salt, a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, a quarter of a pound of treacle, and a quarter of a pound of gunpowder. Let them lie in this pickle for a month; turn and rub them every day; then take them out and dry them with a cloth; rub a little gunpowder over them, and hang them up for a month, when they will be fit to eat, previously soaking a few hours as customary.

Tongues, to cure. No. 2.

One pound of bay salt, half a pound of saltpetre, two ounces of sal prunella, two pounds of coarse sugar; make your brine strong enough with common salt to float an egg. The quantity of water is seven quarts, boil all together, and scum it well for half an hour. When cold, put the tongues in, and wash them in warm water before dressing. For table be sure never to let them boil, but simmer slowly for four or five hours.

Tongues, to cure. No. 3.

Take two fine neats' tongues; cut off the roots, and cut a nick in the under side; wash them clean, and dry with a cloth. Rub them with common salt, and lay them on a board all night. Next day take two ounces of bay salt, one of sal prunella, and a handful of juniper-berries, all bruised fine; mix them with a quarter of a pound of coarse sugar and one pound of common salt. Rub the tongues well with this mixture; lay them in a long pan, and turn and rub them daily for a fortnight. Take them out of the pickle, and either dry or dress them.

Tongues, to cure. No. 4.

Mix some well bruised bay salt, and a little saltpetre, with common salt, and with a linen cloth rub the tongues and salt them, most particularly the roots; and as the brine consumes put some more, till the tongues are hard and stiff. When they are salted, roll them up, and dry them in bran.

Tongues, to cure. No. 5.

Have the roots well cleansed from the moisture, and with warm water wash and open the porous parts, that the salt may penetrate, and dry them well. Cover them for a week with a pickle made of common salt, and bay salt well boiled in it; then rub them with saltpetre, and to make them of a good red colour you must take them out, and rub and salt them well so that the salt penetrates, pressing them down hard with a board that, when they are put to dry, they may keep their due proportion. The usual way of drying them is with burnt sawdust, which, with the salt, gives the dusky colour that appears on the outside before they are boiled.

Tongues, to cure. No. 6.

Well rub into the tongue two ounces of saltpetre, a pound of common salt, and a quarter of a pound of treacle; and baste every day for three weeks.

Tongue, to smoke.

Wipe the tongue dry, when taken out of the pickle; glaze it over with a brush dipped in pyroligneous acid, and hang it up in the kitchen.

Tongue, to bake.

Season your tongues with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; lard them with large lardoons, and have them steeped all night in vinegar, claret, and ginger. Season again with whole pepper, sliced nutmeg, whole cloves, and salt. Bake them in an earthen pan; serve them up on sippets, and lay your spice over them, with slices of lemon and some sausages.

Tongue, to boil.

Put a good quantity of hay with your tongues, tying them up in a cloth, or else in hay. Boil them till they are tender and of a good colour, and they will eat short and mellow.

Tongue, to pot.

Prick the tongues with a skewer, and salt them with bay-salt and saltpetre, to make them red. Boil them till they will just peel; season with mace and a little pepper, to your liking; bake them in a pot well covered with butter, and they will keep as long as any potted meat.

Tongue and Udder, to roast.

Have the tongue and udder boiled and blanched, the tongue being salted with saltpetre; lard them with the whole length of large lardoons, and then roast them on a spit, basting them with butter: when roasted, dress them with grated bread and flour, and serve up with gravy, currant-jelly by itself, and slices of lemon.

Sheep's Tongue, or any other, with Oysters.

Boil six tongues in salt and water till they are sufficiently tender to peel. Slice them thin, and with a quart of large oysters put them in a dish, with some whole spice and a little claret, and let them stew together. Then put in some butter, and three yolks of eggs well beaten. Shake them all well together, and put some sippets and lay your tongues upon them.

Tripe, to dress.

Take of the finest tripe, and, when properly trimmed, cut it in pieces about four inches square; put it in a stewpan, with as much white wine as will almost cover it: slice in three or four race of ginger, quarter in a nutmeg, put in a good deal of salt, a bundle of herbs, rosemary, thyme, sweet marjoram, and onion. When this has stewed gently a good while, take out a pint of the clearest liquor, free from fat or dross, and dissolve in it some anchovies finely picked. Take up the tripe, a bit at a time, with a fork, and lay it in a warmed dish; pour on it the liquor in which the anchovies were dissolved. Sprinkle on it a little lemon juice. Those who are fond of onions or garlic may make either the prevailing ingredient.

Tripe, to fricassee.

Cut into slices the fat part of double tripe; dip them into eggs or batter, and fry them to lay round the dish. Cut the other part into long slips, and into dice, and toss them up with onion, chopped parsley, melted butter, yolks of eggs, and a little vinegar. Season with pepper and salt, and serve up.

Truffles and Morels, to stew.

Well wash the truffles, cut them into slices, of the size and about the thickness of half-a-crown; put them into a stewpan, with a pinch of salt and cayenne pepper, and a little butter, to prevent their being burnt. Let them stew ten minutes; have ready a good brown sauce of half a pint of beef and the same of veal jelly, thickened with a little butter and flour; add to it any trimmings of the truffles or morels, and boil them also in it; put in one pinch of cayenne pepper. Strain the truffles or morels from the butter they were first stewed in; throw them into the sauce; warm the whole again, and serve hot.

Veal, to boil.

Veal should be boiled well; a knuckle of six pounds will take very nearly two hours. The neck must be also well boiled in a good deal of water; if boiled in a cloth, it will be whiter. Serve it with tongue, bacon, or pickled pork, greens of any sort, brocoli, and carrots, or onion sauce, white sauce, oyster sauce, parsley and butter, or white celery sauce.

Veal, to collar.

Bone and wash a breast of veal; steep it in three waters, and dry it with a cloth; season it with savoury spice, some slices of bacon, and shred sweet-herbs; roll them in a collar of cloth, and boil it in salt and water, with whole spice; skim it clean and take it up, and when cold put it in the pickle.

Another way.

Take the meat of a breast of veal; make a stuffing of beef-suet, crumb of bread, lemon peel, parsley, pepper, and salt, mixed up with two eggs; lay it over the meat, and roll it up. Boil an hour and a half, and send it to table with oyster sauce.

Veal, to roast.

Veal will take a quarter of an hour to a pound: paper the fat of the loin and fillet; stuff the fillet and shoulder with the following ingredients: a quarter of a pound of suet, chopped fine, parsley, and sweet-herbs chopped, grated bread, lemon-peel, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and yolk of egg; butter may supply the want of suet. Roast the breast with the caul on it till almost done; take it off, flour and baste it. Veal requires to be more done than beef. For sauce use salad pickles, brocoli, cucumbers, raw or stewed, French beans, peas, cauliflower, celery, raw or stewed.

Veal, roasted, ragout of.

Cut slices of veal about the size of two fingers and at least as long as three; beat them with a cleaver till they are no thicker than a crown-piece; put upon every slice some stuffing made with beef-suet, ham, a little thyme, parsley, scallions, and a shalot. When the whole is minced, add the yolks of two eggs, half a table-spoonful of brandy, salt, and pepper; spread it on the veal and roll it. Cover each piece with a thin slice of bacon, and tie it carefully. Then put them on a small delicate spit covered with paper; and, when they are done, take off the paper carefully, grate bread over them, and brown them at a clear fire. Serve them with a gravy sauce.

Veal, to stew.

Cut the veal into small pieces; season with an onion, some salt and pepper, mace, lemon-peel, and two or three shalots; let them stew in water, with a little butter, or port wine, if you like. When enough done, put in some yolks of eggs beaten, and boil them quick. Dish and serve them up.

Veal, with Rice, to stew.

Boil half a pound of rice in three quarts of water in a small pan with some good broth, about a pint, and slices of ham at the bottom, and two good onions. When it is almost done, spread it, about twice the thickness of a crown-piece, over a silver or delft dish in which it is to be served [it must be a dish capable of bearing the fire]. Lay slices of veal and ham alternately—the veal having already been dressed brown. Cover the meat with rice in such a manner that it cannot be seen; put your dish upon a hot stove; brown the rice with a salamander; drain off the fat that may be in the dish, and serve it dry, or, if it is preferred, with any of the good sauces, for which there are directions, poured under it.

Veal served in paper.

Cut some slices of veal from the fillet, about an inch thick, in a small square, about the size of a small fricandeau; make a box of paper to fit neatly; rub the outside with butter, and put in your meat, with sweet oil or butter, parsley, scallions, shalots, and mushrooms, all stewed very fine, salt, and whole pepper. Set it upon the gridiron, with a sheet of oiled paper under it, and let it do by a very slow fire, lest the paper burn. When the meat is done on one side turn it on the other. Serve it in the box, having put over it very gently a dash of vinegar.

Bombarded Veal.

Take a piece of a long square of bacon; cut it in thin slices; do the same with veal, and lay the slices on your bacon. Having made a piece of good forcemeat, spread it thin on your veal, having previously seasoned the latter with pepper and salt. Roll these up one by one; spit them on a lark spit, quite even; wash them over with eggs and crumbs of bread; then roast them, and serve up with a good ragout.

Veal Balls.

Take two pounds of veal; pick out the skin and bones; mix it well with the crust of a French roll, soaked in hot milk, half a pound of veal suet, two yolks of eggs, onion, and chopped parsley; season with pepper and salt. Roll the balls in raspings; fry them of a gold colour: boil the bones and the bits of skin to make the gravy for them.

Breast of Veal.

To fricassee it like fowls, parboil it; turn it a few times over the fire with a bit of butter, a bunch of parsley, scallions, some mushrooms, truffles, and morels. Shake in a little flour; moisten with some good stock broth; and when the whole is done and skimmed, thicken it with the yolks of three eggs beat with some milk; and, before it is served, add a very little lemon juice.

Breast of Veal, with Cabbage and Bacon.

Cut the breast of veal in pieces, and parboil it; parboil also a cabbage and a bit of streaked bacon, cut in slices, leaving the rind to it. Tie each separately with packthread, and let them stew together with good broth; no salt or pepper, on account of the bacon. When the whole is done, take out the meat and cabbage, and put them into the terrine you serve to table. Take the fat off the broth, put in a little cullis, and reduce the sauce over the stove. When of a proper thickness pour it over the meat, and serve up.

Breast of Veal en fricandeau.

Lard your veal, and take a ragout of asparagus, (for which see Ragouts,) and lay your veal, larded or glazed, upon the ragout. The same may be done with a ragout of peas.

Breast of Veal, glazed brown.

Take a breast of veal, cut in pieces, or whole if you prefer it. Stir a bit of butter and a spoonful of flour over the fire, and, when it is of a good colour, put in a pint of broth, and afterwards the veal. Stew it over a slow fire, and season with pepper and salt, a bunch of parsley, scallions, cloves, thyme, laurel, basil, and half a spoonful of vinegar. When the meat is done and well glazed, skim the sauce well, and serve it round it.

Breast of Veal, to stew with Peas.

Cut the nicest part of the breast of veal, with the sweetbread; roast it a little brown; take a little bit of the meat that is cut off the ends, and fry it with butter, salt, pepper, and flour; take a little hot water just to rinse out the gravy that adheres to the frying-pan, and put it into a stewpan, with two quarts of hot water, a bundle of parsley, thyme, and marjoram, a bit of onion or shalot, plenty of lemon-peel, and a pint of old green peas, the more mealy the better. Let it stew two or three hours, then rub it through a sieve with a spoon; it should be all nice and thick; then put it again in the stewpan with the meat, having ready some hot water to add to the gravy in case it should be wanted. A thick breast will take two hours, and must be turned every now and then. Boil about as many nice young peas as would make a dish, the same as for eating; put them in about ten minutes before you take it up, skimming all the fat nicely off; and season it at the same time with salt and cayenne to your taste.

Another way.

Cut your veal into pieces, about three inches long; fry it delicately; mix a little flour with some beef broth, with an onion and two cloves; stew this some time, strain it, add three pints or two quarts of peas, or heads of asparagus, cut like peas. Put in the meat; let it stew gently; add pepper and salt.

Breast of Veal ragout.

Bone and cut out a large square piece of the breast of veal; cut the rest into small pieces, and brown it in butter, stewing it in your ragout for made dishes; thicken it with brown butter, and put the ragout in the dish. Lay diced lemon, sweetbreads, sippets, and bacon, fried in batter of eggs; then lay on the square piece. Garnish with sliced oranges.

Veal Collops, with Oysters.

Cut thin slices out of a leg of veal, as many as will make a dish, according to the number of your company. Lard one quarter of them, and fry them in butter; take them out of the pan and keep them warm. Clean the pan, and put into it half a pint of oysters, with their liquor, and some strong broth, one or two shalots, a glass of white wine, two or three anchovies minced, and some grated nutmeg; let these have a boil up, and thicken with five eggs and a piece of butter. Put in your collops, and shake them together till the sauce is tolerably thick. Set them on the stove again to stew a little; then serve up.

Veal Collops, with white sauce.

Cut veal that has been already roasted into neat small pieces, round or square; season them with a little pepper and salt; pass them quick of a pale colour in a bit of butter of the size of a walnut; add the yolks of five eggs, and half a pint of cream, with a very small onion or two, previously boiled; toss them up quick, and serve hot.

Veal Cutlets, to dress.

Cut the veal steaks thin; hack and season them with pepper, salt, and sweet-herbs. Wash them over with melted butter, and wrap white paper buttered over them. Roast or bake them; and, when done, take off the paper, and serve them with good gravy and Seville orange-juice squeezed on.

Another way.

Take the best end of a neck of veal and cut your cutlets; four ribs will make eight cutlets. Beat them out very thin, and trim them round. Take chopped parsley, thyme, shalots, and mushrooms, pass them over the fire, add a little juice of lemon, lemon-peel, and grated nutmeg. Dip in the cutlets, crumb them, and boil them over a gentle fire. Save what you leave from dipping them in, put some brown sauce to it, and put it under them when going to table, first taking care to remove the grease from it. Lamb cutlets are done the same way.

Veal Cutlets, larded.

Cut a neck of veal into bones; lard one side, and fry them off quick. Thicken a piece of butter, of the size of a large nut, with a little flour, and whole onion. Put in as much good gravy as will just cover them, and a few mushrooms and forcemeat balls. Stove them tender; skim off all grease; squeeze in half a lemon, and serve them up.

Fillet of Veal, to farce or roast.

Mince some beef suet very small, with some sweet marjoram, winter savory, and thyme; season with salt, cloves, and mace, well beaten; put in grated bread; mix them all together with the yolk of an egg; make small holes in the veal, and stuff it very thick with these. Put it on the spit and roast it well. Let the sauce consist of butter, gravy, and juice of lemon, very thick. Dish the veal, and pour the sauce over it, with slices of lemon laid round the dish.

Fillet of Veal, to boil.

Cut out the bone of a fillet of veal; put it into good milk and water for a little while: make some forcemeat with boiled clary, raw carrots, beef suet, grated bread, sweet-herbs, and a good quantity of shrimps, nutmeg, and mace, the yolks of three eggs boiled hard, some pepper and salt, and two raw eggs; roll it up in butter, and stuff the veal with it. Boil the veal in a cloth for two hours, and scald four or five cucumbers, in order to take out the pulp the more easily. This done, fill them with forcemeat, and stew them in a little thin gravy. For sauce take strong white gravy, thickened with butter, a very little flour, nutmeg, mace, and lemon-peel, three anchovies dissolved in lemon-juice, some good cream, the yolk of an egg beaten, and a glass of white wine. Serve with the cucumbers.

Half a Fillet of Veal, to stew.

Take a stewpan large enough for the piece of veal, put in some butter, and fry it till it is firm, and of a fine brown colour all round; put in two carrots, two large onions, whole, half a pound of lean bacon, a bunch of thyme and of parsley, a pinch of cayenne pepper and of salt: add a cupful of broth, and let the whole stew over a very slow fire for one hour, or according to the size of your piece of veal, until thoroughly done. Have ready a pint of jelly soup, in which stew a table-spoonful of mustard and the same of truffles cut in small pieces; add one ounce of butter and a dessert spoonful of flour to thicken; unite it well together; put in a glass of white wine, and boil. When ready to serve, pour it over the veal; let there be sauce sufficient to fill the dish; the veal must be strained from the vegetables, and great care taken that the sauce is well passed through the sieve, to keep it clear from grease.

Knuckle of Veal, white.

Boil a knuckle of veal in a little water kept close from the air, with six onions and a little whole pepper, till tender. The sauce to be poured over it, when dished in a little of its own liquor—two or three anchovies, a little mace, half a pint of cream, and the yolk of an egg, thickened with a little flour.

Knuckle of Veal ragout.

Cut the veal into slices half an inch thick; pepper, salt, and flour them; fry them of a light brown; put the trimmings, with the bone broken, an onion sliced, celery, a bunch of sweet-herbs; pour warm water to cover them about an inch. Stew gently for two hours; strain it, and thicken with flour and butter, a spoonful of ketchup, a glass of wine, and the juice of half a lemon. Give it a boil, strain into a clean saucepan, put in the meat, and make it hot.

Leg of Veal and Bacon, to boil.

Lard the veal with bacon and lemon-peel; boil it with a piece of bacon, cut in slices; put the veal into a dish, and lay the bacon round it. Serve it up with green sauce made thus: beat two or more handfuls of sorrel in a mortar, with two pippins quartered, and put vinegar and sugar to it.

Loin of Veal, to roast.

Roast, and baste with butter; set a dish under your veal, with vinegar, a few sage leaves, and a little rosemary and thyme. Let the gravy drop on these, and, when the veal is roasted, let the herbs and gravy boil once or twice on the fire: serve it under the veal.

Loin of Veal, to roast with herbs.

Lard the fillet of a loin of veal; put it into an earthen pan; steep it three hours with parsley, scallions, a little fennel, mushrooms, a laurel-leaf, thyme, basil, and two shalots, the whole shred very fine, salt, whole pepper, a little grated nutmeg, and a little sweet oil. When it has taken the flavour of the herbs, put it upon the spit, with all its seasoning, wrapt in two sheets of white paper well buttered; tie it carefully so as to prevent the herbs falling out, and roast it at a very slow fire. When it is done take off the paper, and with a knife pick off all the bits of herbs that stick to the meat and paper, and put them into a stewpan, with a little gravy, two spoonfuls of verjuice, salt, whole pepper, and a bit of butter, about as big as a walnut, rolled in flour. Before you thicken the sauce, melt a little butter; mix it with the yolk of an egg, and rub the outside of the veal, which should then be covered with grated bread, and browned with a salamander. Serve it up with a good sauce under, but not poured over so as to disturb the meat.

Loin of Veal, fricassee of.

Well roast a loin of veal, and let it stand till cold. Cut it into slices; in a saucepan over the stove melt some butter, with a little flour, shred parsley, and chives. Turn the stewpan a little for a minute or so, and pepper and salt the veal. Put it again into the pan, and give it three or four turns over the stove with a little broth, and boil it a little: then put three or four yolks of eggs beaten up to a cream, and some parsley shred, to thicken it, always keeping it stirred over the fire till of sufficient thickness; then serve it up.

Loin of Veal Bechamel.

When the veal is nicely roasted, cut out part of the fillet down the back; cut it in thin slices, and put some white sauce to what you have cut out. Season it with the juice of lemon and a little pepper and salt; put it into the veal, and cover the top with crumbs of bread that has been browned, or salamander it over with crumbs, or leave the skin of the veal so that you can turn it over when the seasoning part is put in.

Neck of Veal, stewed with Celery.

Take the best end of a neck, put it into a stewpan with beef broth, salt, whole pepper, and two cloves, tied in a bit of muslin, an onion, and a piece of lemon-peel. Add a little cream and flour mixed, some celery ready boiled, and cut into lengths; and boil it up.

Veal Olives. No. 1.

are done the same way as the beef olives, only cut off a fillet of veal, fried of a fine brown. The same sauce is used as for beef, and, if you like, small bits of curled bacon may be laid in the dish. Garnish with lemon and parsley.

Veal Olives. No. 2.

Wash eight or ten Scots collops over with egg batter; season and lay over a little forcemeat; roll them up and roast them; make a good ragout for them; garnish with sliced orange.

Veal Olives. No. 3.

Take a good fillet of veal, and cut large collops, not too thin, and hack them well; wash them over with the yolk of an egg; then spread on a good layer of forcemeat, made of veal pretty well seasoned. Roll them up, and wash them with egg; lard them over with fat bacon, tie them round, if you roast them; but, if to be baked, you need only wash the bacon over with egg. Garnish with slices of lemon, and for sauce take thick butter and good gravy, with a piece of lemon.

Veal Olives. No. 4.

Lay over your forcemeat; first lard your collops, and lay a row of large oysters; and then roll them up, and roast or bake them. Make a ragout of oysters, sweetbreads fried, a few morels and mushrooms, and lay in the bottom of your dish, and garnish with fried oysters and grated bread.

Veal Rumps.

Take three veal rumps; parboil and put them into a little pot, with some broth, a bunch of parsley, scallions, a clove of garlic, two shalots, a laurel leaf, thyme, basil, two cloves, salt, pepper, an onion, a carrot, and a parsnip: let them boil till they are thoroughly done, and the sauce is very nearly consumed. Take them out, let them cool, and strain the sauce through a rather coarse sieve, that none of the fat may remain. Put it into a stewpan, with the yolks of three eggs beat up, and a little flour, and thicken it over the fire. Then dip your veal rumps into it, and cover them with grated bread; put them upon a dish, and brown them with a salamander. Serve them with sour sauce, for which see the part that treats of Sauces.

Shoulder of Veal, to stew.

Put it in an earthen pan, with a gill of water, two spoonfuls of vinegar, salt, whole pepper, parsley and scallions, two cloves of garlic, a bay leaf, two onions, two heads of celery, three cloves, and a bit of butter. Cover the pan close, and close the edges with flour and water. Stew it in an oven three hours; then skim and strain the sauce, and serve it over the veal.

Veal Steaks.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, and beat them on both sides: beat up an egg, and with a feather wet your steaks on both sides. Add some parsley, thyme, and a little marjoram, cut small, and seasoned with pepper and salt. Sprinkle crumbs of bread on both sides of the steaks, and put them up quite tight and close into paper which has been rubbed with butter. They may be either broiled or baked in a pan.

Veal Sweetbreads, to fry.

Cut each of your sweetbreads in three or four pieces and blanch them: put them for two hours in a marinade made with lemon-juice, salt, pepper, cloves, a bay leaf, and an onion sliced. Take the sweetbreads out of the marinade, and dry them with a cloth; dip them in beaten yolk of eggs, with crumbs of bread; fry them in lard till they are brown; drain them; fry some parsley, and put it in the middle of the dish, and serve them.

Veal Sweetbreads, to roast.

Lard your sweetbreads with small lardoons of bacon, and put them on a skewer; fasten them to the spit and roast them brown. Put some good gravy into a dish; lay in the sweetbreads, and serve them very hot. You ought to set your sweetbreads and spit them; then egg and bread them, or they will not be brown.

Vegetables, to stew.

Cut some onions, celery, turnips, and carrots, into small squares, like dice, but not too small; stew them with a bunch of thyme in a little broth and butter; fry them till they are of a fine brown colour; turn them with a fork, till quite soft; if they are not done enough, put a little flour from the dredging-box to brown them; skim the sauce well, and pass it through a sieve; add a little cayenne pepper and salt; put the vegetables in, and serve them up.

Haunch of Venison, to roast. No. 1.

Butter and sprinkle your fat with salt; lay a sheet of paper over it; roll a thin sheet of paste and again another sheet of paper over the paste, and with a packthread tie and spit it. Baste the sheet of paper with butter, and let the venison roast till done enough. Be careful how you take off the papers and paste, basting it with some butter during that time, and dredge up: then let it turn round some time to give the fat a colour. The object of pasting is to save the fat. Have currant-jelly with it, and serve it up.

Haunch of Venison, to roast. No. 2.

Let your haunch be well larded with thick bacon; seasoning it with fine spices, parsley, sweet-herbs, cut small, pepper, and salt. Pickle it with vinegar, onions, salt, pepper, parsley, sweet basil, thyme, and bay-leaves: and, when pickled enough, spit it, and baste it with the pickle. When roasted, dish it up with vinegar, pepper, and thick sauce.

Haunch of Venison, to roast. No. 3.

Have the haunch well and finely larded with bacon, and put paper round it: roast and serve it up with sauce under it, made of good cullis or broth, gravy of ham, capers, anchovies, salt, pepper, and vinegar.

Venison, to boil.

Have your venison a little salted, and boil it in water. Meanwhile boil six cauliflowers in milk and water; and put them into a large pipkin with drawn butter; keep them warm, and put in six handfuls of washed spinach, boiled in strong broth; pour off the broth, and put some drawn butter to it; lay some sippets in the dish, and lay your spinach round the sides; have the venison laid in the middle, with the cauliflower over it; pour your butter also over, and garnish with barberries and minced parsley.

Haunch of Venison, to broil.

Take half a haunch, and cut it into slices of about half an inch thick; broil and salt them over a brisk fire, and, when pretty well soaked, bread and serve them up with gravy: do the same with the chine.

Venison, to recover when tainted.

Boil bay salt, ale, and vinegar together, and make a strong brine; skim it, and let it stand till cool, and steep the venison for a whole day. Drain and press it dry: parboil, and season it with pepper and salt.

Another way.

Tie your venison up in a clean cloth; put it in the earth for a whole day, and the scent will be gone.

Red Deer Venison, to pot.

Let the venison be well boned and cut into pieces about an inch thick, and round, of the diameter of your pot. Season with pepper and salt, something higher than you would pasty, and afterwards put it into your pots, adding half a quarter of butter, and two sliced nutmegs, cloves and mace about the same quantity of each, but rather less of the cloves. Then put into your pots lean and fat, so that there may be fat and lean mixed, until the pots are so nearly filled as to admit only a pint of butter more to be put into each. Make a paste of rye-flour, and stop your pots close on the top. Have your oven heated as you would for a pasty; put your pots in, and let them remain as long as for pasty; draw them out, and let them stand half an hour; afterwards unstop them, and turn the pots upside down; you may remove the contents, if you like, into smaller pots; in which case take off all the butter, letting the gravy remain, and using the butter for the fresh pots; let them remain all night; the next day fill them with fresh butter. To make a pie of the same, proceed in the same way with the venison, only do not season it so high; but put in a liberal allowance of butter.

Venison, excellent substitute for.

Skin a loin of mutton; put to it a quarter of a pint of port wine, half a pint of spring water, two spoonfuls of vinegar, an onion with three cloves, a small bunch of thyme and parsley, a little pepper and salt, to your taste. Stew them with the mutton very slowly for two hours and a half; baste it with the liquor very often; skim off the fat, and send the gravy in the dish with the mutton. Sauce—the same as for venison.

Water Cresses, to stew.

When the cresses are nicely picked and well washed, put them into a stewpan with a little butter under them. Let them stew on a clear fire until almost done; then rub them through a sieve; put them again into a pan, with a dust of flour, a little salt, and a spoonful of good cream: give it a boil, and dish it up with sippets. The cream may be omitted, and the cresses may be boiled in salt and water before they are rubbed through the sieve, and afterwards stewed, but it takes the strength out, therefore it is best not to boil them first.



POULTRY.

Chicken, to make white.

Feed them in the coop on boiled rice; give them no water at all to drink. Scalded oatmeal will do as well.

Chicken, to fricassee. No. 1.

Empty the chicken, and singe it till the flesh gets very firm. Carve it as neatly as possible; divide the legs at the joints into four separate pieces, the back into two, making in all ten pieces. Take out the lungs and all that remains within; wash all the parts of the chicken very thoroughly in lukewarm water, till all the blood is out. Put the pieces in boiling water, sufficient to cover them, about four tea-cupfuls, and let them remain there ten minutes; take them out, preserve the water, and put them into cold water. When quite cool, put two ounces of fresh butter into a stewpan with half a pint of mushrooms, fresh or pickled; if pickled, they must be put into fresh cold water two or three hours before; the water to be changed three times; put into the stewpan two bunches of parsley and two large onions; add the chicken, and set the stewpan over the fire. When the chickens have been fried lightly, taking care they are not in the least browned, dust a little salt and flour over them; then add some veal jelly to the water in which they were blanched; let them boil about three quarters of an hour in that liquor, skimming off all the butter, and scum very cleanly; then take out the chicken, leaving the sauce or liquor, and lay it in another stewpan, which place in a basin of hot water near the fire. Boil down the sauce or liquor, adding some more veal jelly, till it becomes strong, and there remains sufficient sauce for the dish; add to this the yolk of four eggs and three table-spoonfuls of cream: boil it, taking great care to keep it constantly stirring; and, when ready to serve, having placed the chicken in a very hot dish, with the breast in the middle, and the legs around, pour the sauce well over every part. The sauce should be thicker than melted butter, and of a yellow colour.

Chicken, to fricassee. No. 2.

Cut the chicken up in joints; put them into cold water, and set them on the fire till they boil; skim them well. Save the liquor. Skin, wash, and trim the joints; put them into a pan, with the liquor, a small bunch of parsley and thyme, a small onion, and as much flour and water as will give it a proper thickness, and let them boil till tender. When going to table, put in a yolk of egg mixed with a little good cream, a little parsley chopped very fine, juice of lemon, and pepper and salt to your taste.

Chicken, to fricassee. No. 3.

Take two chickens and more than half stew them; cut them into limbs; take the skin clean off, and all the inside that is bloody. Put them into a stewpan, with half a pint of cream, about two ounces of butter, into which shake a little flour, some mace, and whole pepper, and a little parsley boiled and chopped fine. Thicken it up with the yolks of two eggs; add the juice of a lemon, and three spoonfuls of good white gravy.

Chicken, to fricassee. No. 4.

Have a frying-pan, with sufficient liquor to cover your chicken cut into pieces; half of the liquor to be white wine and water. Take one nutmeg sliced, half a dozen cloves, three blades of mace, and some whole pepper; boil all these together in a frying-pan; put half a pound of fresh butter and skim it clean; then put in your chickens, and boil them till tender; add a small quantity of parsley. Take four yolks and two whites of eggs; beat them well with some thick butter, and put it to your chicken in the pan; toss it over a slow fire till thick, and serve it up with sippets.

Chicken, white fricassee of.

Cut in pieces chickens or rabbits; wash and dry them in a cloth; flour them well, and fry in clarified butter till they are a little brown, but, if not enough done, put them in a stewpan, and just cover them with strong veal or beef broth. Put in with them a bunch of thyme, an onion stuck with cloves, a little pepper and salt, and a blade of mace. Cover and stew till tender, and till the liquor is reduced about one half. Put in a quarter of a pound of butter, the yolk of two eggs beat, and a quarter of a pint of cream. Stir well; let it boil; if not thick enough, shake in some flour; and then put in juice of lemon.

Cream of Chicken, or Fowl.

For this purpose fowls are preferable, because the breasts are larger. Take two chickens, cut off the breast, and roast them; the remainder put in a stewpan with two pounds of the sinewy part of a knuckle of veal. Boil the whole together to make a little clear good broth: when the breasts are roasted, and your broth made, take all the white of the breast, put it in a small stewpan, and add to it the broth clean and clear. It will be better to cut the white of the chickens quite fine, and, when you find that it is boiled soft, proceed in the same manner as for cream of rice and pass it. Just in the same way, make it of the thickness you judge proper, and warm in the same manner as the cream of rice: put in a little salt if it is approved of.

Chickens, to fry.

Scald and split them; put them in vinegar and water, as much as will cover them, with a little pepper and salt, an onion, a slice or two of lemon, and a sprig or two of thyme, and let them lie two hours in the pickle. Dry them with a cloth; flour and fry them in clarified butter, with soft bread and a little of the pickle.

Chickens, to heat.

Take the legs, wings, brains, and rump, and put them into a little white wine vinegar and claret, with some fresh butter, the water of an onion, a little pepper and sliced nutmeg, and heat them between two dishes.

Chickens, dressed with Peas.

Singe and truss your chickens; boil one half and roast the other. Put them into a small saucepan, with a little water, a small piece of butter, a little salt, and a bundle of thyme and parsley. Set them on the fire, and put in a small lump of sugar. When they boil, set them over a slow fire to stew. Lay your boiled chickens in a dish; put your peas over them; then lay the roasted ones between, and send to table.

Chicken and Ham, ragout of.

Clear a chicken which has been dressed of all the sauce that may be about it. If it has been roasted, pare off the brown skin, take some soup, veal jelly, and cream, and a table-spoonful of mushrooms; if pickled, wash them in several waters to take out the vinegar: put them in the jelly, and keep this sauce to heat up. Cut up the chicken, the wings and breast in slices, the merrythought also, and divide the legs. Heat the fowl up separately from the sauce in a little thin broth: prepare six or eight slices of ham stewed apart in brown gravy; dip each piece of the fowl in the white sauce, and lay them in the middle of the dish with a piece of the ham alternately one beside another, taking care that as little of the white sauce as possible goes on the ham, to preserve its colour. Lay the legs one on each side of the meat in the middle; and pour the sauce in the middle, taking care not to pour it over the ham.

Chicken, or Ham and Veal pates.

Cut up into small dice some of the white of the chicken, or the most delicate part of veal already dressed; take sufficient white sauce, with truffles, morels, and mushrooms, and heat it up to put in the pates. When ready, pour it amply into them, and serve up hot.

Another.

Take the white of a chicken or veal, cut it up in small dice; do the same with some ham or tongue; warm it in a little broth, and take a good white sauce, such as is used for pheasants, and heat it up thoroughly.

Duck, to boil.

Pour over it boiling milk and water, and let it lie for an hour or two. Then boil it gently for a full half hour in plenty of water. Serve with onion sauce.

Duck, to boil, a la Francaise.

To a pint of rich beef gravy put two dozen of roasted peeled chesnuts, with a few leaves of thyme, two small onions if agreeable, a race of ginger, and a little whole pepper. Lard a fine tame duck, and half roast it; put it into the gravy; let it stew ten minutes, and add a pint of port wine. When the duck is done, take it out; boil up your gravy to a proper thickness, but skim it very clean from the fat; lay your duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Duck a la braise.

Lard the duck; lay a slice or two of beef at the bottom of the pan, and on these the duck, a piece of bacon, and some more beef sliced, an onion, a carrot, whole pepper, a slice of lemon, and a bunch of sweet-herbs. Cover this close, and set it over the fire for a few minutes, shaking in some flour: then pour in a quart of beef broth or boiling water, and a little heated red wine. Stew it for half an hour; strain the sauce, and skim it; put to it some more wine if necessary, with cayenne, shalot, a little mint, juice of a lemon, and chopped tarragon. If agreeable to your taste, add artichoke bottoms boiled and quartered.

Duck, to hash.

When cut in pieces, flour it; put it into a stewpan with some gravy, a little red wine, shalot chopped, salt and pepper; boil these; put in the duck; toss it up, take out the lemon, and serve with toasted sippets.

Duck, to stew with Cucumbers.

Half roast the duck, and stew it as before. Slice some cucumbers and onions; fry and drain them very dry; put them to the duck, and stew all together.

Duck, to stew with Peas.

Half roast the duck, put it into some good gravy with a little mint and three or four sage-leaves chopped. Stew this half an hour; thicken the gravy with a little flour; throw in half a pint of green peas boiled, or some celery, in which case omit the mint.

Fowls, to fatten in a fortnight.

Gather and dry, in proper season, nettle leaves and seed; beat them into powder, and make it into paste with flour, adding a little sweet olive-oil. Make this up into small crams: coop the birds up and feed them with it, giving them water in which barley has been boiled, and they will fatten in the above-mentioned time.

Fowl, to make tender.

Pour down the throat of the fowl, about an hour before you kill it, a spoonful of vinegar, and let it run about again. When killed, hang it up in the feathers by the legs in a smoky chimney; then pluck and dress it. This method makes fowls very tender.

Fowl, to roast with Anchovies.

Put a bit of butter in your stewpan with a little flour; keep stirring this over the fire, but not too hot, till it turns of a good gold colour, and put a little of it into your gravy to thicken it.

Fowl with Rice, called Pilaw.

Boil a pint of rice in as much water as will cover it. Put in with it some whole black pepper, a little salt, and half a dozen cloves, tied up in a bit of cloth. When the rice is tender take out the cloves and pepper, and stir in a piece of butter. Boil a fowl and a piece of bacon; lay them in a dish, and cover them with the rice. Lay round the dish and upon the rice hard eggs cut in halves and quarters, and onions, first boiled and then fried.

Fowl, to hash.

Cut the fowl in pieces; put it in some gravy, with a little cream, ketchup, or mushroom-powder, grated lemon-peel, a few oysters and their liquor, and a piece of butter mixed with flour. Keep stirring it till the butter is melted. Lay sippets in the dish.

Fowl, to stew.

Take a fowl, two onions, two carrots, and two turnips; put one onion into the fowl, and cut all the rest into four pieces each. Add two or three bits of bacon or ham, a bay-leaf, and as much water as will prevent their burning when put into an earthen vessel; cover them up close, and stew them for three hours and a half on a slow fire. Serve up hot or cold.

Goose, to stuff.

Having well washed your goose, dry it, and rub the inside with pepper and salt. Crumble some bread, but not too fine; take a piece of butter and make it hot; cut a middle-sized onion and stew in the butter. Cut the liver very small, and put that also in the butter for about a minute just to warm, and pour it over the head. It must then be mixed up with an egg and about two spoonfuls of cream, a little nutmeg, ginger, pepper and salt, and a small quantity of summer savory.

Another way.

Chop fine two ounces of onions, and an ounce of green sage leaves; add four ounces of bread crumbs, the yolk and white of an egg, a little salt and pepper, and sometimes minced apples.

Goose's liver, to dress.

When it is drawn, leave the gall sticking to it; lay it in fresh water for a day, and change the water several times. When you use it, wipe it dry, cut off the gall, and fry it in butter, which must be made very hot before the liver is put in: it must be whole and fried brown—no fork stuck in it. Serve with a little ketchup sauce.

Pigeons, to boil.

Chop sweet-herbs and bacon, with grated bread, butter, spice, and the yolk of an egg; tie both ends of the pullets, and boil them. Garnish with sliced lemon and barberries.

Pigeons, to broil.

Cut their necks and wings close, leaving the skin of the neck to enable you to tie close, and with some grated bread put an anchovy, the two livers of pigeons, half a grated nutmeg, a quarter of a pound of butter, a very little thyme, a little pepper and salt, and sweet marjoram shred. Mix all together, and into each bird put a piece of the size of a walnut, after sewing up the vents and necks, and, with a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, strewed over them, broil them on a slow charcoal fire, basting and turning very often. Use rich gravy or melted butter for sauce, and season to your taste.

Pigeons, to jug.

Pick and draw the pigeons, and let a little water pass through them; parboil and bruise the liver with a spoon; mix pepper, salt, grated nutmeg, parsley shred fine, and lemon-peel, suet cut small, in quantity equal to the liver, the yolks of two eggs boiled hard and also cut fine; mix these with two raw eggs, and stuff the birds, tying up the necks and vents. After dipping the pigeons into water, season them with salt and pepper; then put them into a jug, with two or three pieces of celery, stopping it very close, to prevent the steam escaping. Set them in a kettle of cold water; lay a tile on the top, and boil three hours; take them out, and put in a piece of butter rolled in flour; shake it round till thick, and pour it over the pigeons.

Pigeons, to pot.

Truss and season them with savoury spice; put them into a a pot or pan, covering them with butter, and bake them. Take out, drain, and, when cold, cover them with clarified butter. Fish may be potted in the same way, but always bone them when baked.

Pigeons, to stew. No. 1.

Truss your pigeons as for boiling. Take pepper, salt, cloves, mace, some sweet-herbs, a little grated bread, and the liver of the birds chopped very fine; roll these up in a bit of butter, put it in the stomach of the pigeons, and tie up both ends. Make some butter hot in your stewpan, fry the pigeons in it till they are brown all over, putting to them two or three blades of mace, a few peppercorns, and one shalot. Take them out of the liquor, dust a little flour into the stewpan, shaking it about till it is brown. Have ready a quart of small gravy and a glass of white wine; let it just boil up: strain out all the spice, and put the gravy and pigeons into the stewpan. Let them simmer over the fire two hours; put in some pickled mushrooms, a little lemon juice, a spoonful of ketchup, a few truffles and morels. Dish and send to table with bits of bacon grilled. Some persons add forcemeat balls, but they are very rich without.

Pigeons, to stew. No. 2.

Shred the livers and gizzards, with as much suet as there is meat; season with pepper, salt, parsley, and thyme, shred small; fill the pigeons with this stuffing; lay them in the stewpan, breasts downward, with as much strong broth as will cover them. Add pepper, salt, and onion, and two thin rashers of bacon. Cover them close; let them stew two hours or more, till the liquor is reduced to one half, and looks like gravy, and the pigeons are tender; then put them in a dish with sippets. If you have no strong broth, you may stew in water; but you must not put so much water as broth, and they must stew more slowly.

Pigeons, to stew. No. 3.

Cut six pigeons with giblets into quarters, and put them into a stewpan, with two blades of mace, salt, pepper, and just water sufficient to stew them without burning. When tender, thicken the liquor with the yolk of an egg and three spoonfuls of fresh cream, a little shred thyme, parsley, and a bit of butter. Shake all together, and garnish with lemon.

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