BASKET STITCH.—This is the same as Irish stitch, but the arrangement is different. Work three stitches over two threads; these are called short stitches; and then the long ones are formed by working three over six threads, the centre of which are the two on which the short stitches were worked. Thus you must continue the short and long stitches alternately, until you have finished the row. In the next, the long stitches must come under the short ones; and this diversity must be kept up until all the rows are completed. To finish the pattern, you have only to run a loose film of wool under the long stitches on each of the short ones, and the task is done.
IRISH STITCH.—This is the production of an Irish lady of high rank. Bring your needle up No. 1 over four threads down 41, one stitch back two threads, up 22 down 62, up 43 (observe this is in a line with 41) down 83, up 64 (in a line with 62) down 104, up 102 down 62, up 81 down 41, continuing thus over the square. The spaces left between every other stitch must be filled up with half stitches; for instance, up 81 down 101, up 83 down 103. It is also sometimes worked covering six and eight threads of the canvas at a time, coming back three or four threads, in the same proportion as the directions given. This stitch is proper for grounding, when the design is worked in tent or cross stitch; and the effect would be heightened by two strongly contrasted shades of the same color. It can be applied to a great variety of devices, diamonds and vandykes for example, and many others which will suggest themselves to the fair votaries of this delightful art. It looks pretty, and is easy of execution.
FEATHER STITCH.—This, as its name implies, has a light and feathery appearance, and will be found proper for any work in which lightness should predominate. You must proceed as in tent stitch, and work over twelve threads or less, but not more; then bring your needle out one thread below, and cross on each side of your straight stitch: you must so continue, taking care to drop a thread in height and keeping the bottom even with the long stitch with which you began. Thus proceed until you have ten threads on the cross, which will make a square: of course you must, in the same manner, form all the squares necessary to complete the row. You can vary the pattern considerably by making the edges irregular, which is done by lowering your slant stitches, the first one two, and the next one thread, and so proceeding. This will, in our opinion, improve the appearance of the work. You can introduce as many shades as you please, only taking care that a proper contrast is duly preserved. You finish by stitching up the centre of each row on a single thread. For this purpose, silk or gold thread may be introduced with advantage. It should be remarked, that each row must be worked the contrary way to the one that preceded it, so that the wide and narrow portions may meet and blend with each other.
POINT STITCH.—To work this stitch, take four threads straight way of the canvas, and bring the needle three steps up, and so proceed until your point is of a sufficient depth. This stitch looks pretty, worked in different and well contrasted shades, and may be applied to many useful and ornamental purposes.
QUEEN STITCH.—Work over four threads in height and two in width, crossing from right to left, and back again. Finish each row by a stitch across, between them, taking a thread of each, and, of course, working upon two threads. This is a very neat stitch.
QUEEN'S VANDYKE.—This is supposed to be the invention of Princess Clementina, one of the daughters, we believe of a king of France. Take twelve threads, and reduce two each stitch, until the length and breadth are in conformity. It can be introduced into a variety of work, and looks well.
SINGLE PLAIT STITCH.—Pass the needle across the canvas through two threads, from right to left; you then cross four threads downward, and pass the needle as before; then cross upward over two threads aslant, and again pass over four threads, always working downward, and passing the needle from right to left, across two threads, until the row is completed as far as you desire.
DOUBLE PLAIT STITCH.—This stitch is from left to right across four threads aslant downward, and crossed from right to left, the needle passing out at the left, in the middle of the four threads just crossed, and so continue working downward, until you have finished the pattern.
VELVET STITCH.—This is a combination of cross stitch and queen stitch, and is very ornamental when properly done. You work in plain cross stitch three rows, then leave three threads, and again work three rows as before; thus proceed until your canvas is covered, leaving three threads between every triple row of cross stitch. Then across the rows work in queen stitch with double wool; but instead of taking two distinct threads for each stitch, you may take one thread of the preceding stitch; this will give an added thickness to your work. It will be advisable to work the wool over slips of card or parchment, as doing so will make it better to cut. If you work it in squares, they should not be larger than seventeen stitches; and to look well, they must each be placed the contrary way to the other.
ALGERINE WORK.—This work much resembles a Venetian carpet, but is finer; it looks best done in very small patterns. It is worked over cotton piping cord, the straight way of the corners; the stitches are over three threads. Your work as in raised work, putting the colors in as you come to them, and counting three stitches in width, as one stitch when you are working Berlin pattern. The paper canvas is No. 45 and the cord No. 00. It is proper for table mats and other thick kinds of work.
TO FILL UP CORNERS.—Work in any stitch you prefer and shade in accordance with the subject. In these, and ornamental borders, &c., there is much room for the development of taste and judgment. In all that, you undertake, it will be well for you to recollect, that nothing is lost by taking time to think. However trivial and unimportant our actions may be, they should always be preceded by mature deliberation. A habit of thought once established will remain through life, and protect its possessor from the countless miseries of rash actions, and the agonies of remorse and unavailable repentance.
[64-*] The presentation of an embroidered scarf was a common mark of approval in the ages of chivalry.
EXPLANATION OF PATTERNS.
THE BEAUFORT STAR.—This is a beautiful pattern, and will look well, as a centre, for any moderately-sized piece of work. Begin on the width of the canvas, and take twelve threads, reducing at every stitch, one thread for six rows, and thus continue decreasing and increasing alternately, to form squares like diamonds, to the end of the row. The next row is performed in the same manner, only you work on the long way of the canvas. Introduce gold or silver thread between where the stitches join, and so finish.
CHESS PATTERN.—Work a square in cross stitch, with three stitches, making three of a dark shade and six of white, working as many squares as you require, and leaving spaces equal to those occupied by cross stitch, which you must fill up with Irish stitch, working across the canvas. You can employ any color that will harmonize well with the cross stitch; and to complete the pattern, you must work a single stitch across each square, in Irish stitch.
DICE PATTERN.—This is formed by working rows of eight stitches, in any color you please. You must here have four shades, and work two stitches in each shade. Commence a stitch, over ten threads, and drop one each time, until you have taken eight stitches; the intermediate spaces are for the ground, which must contrast with the pattern; and the introduction of a little gold or silver thread, would be an improvement.
DOUBLE DIAMOND, IN LONG STITCH.—This pattern, when it is worked in two colors strongly contrasted, and the diamonds composed of beads, is exceedingly beautiful. The shades of scarlet and blue, on a white or black ground, produce the most agreeable effect.
GERMAN PATTERN.—There is a Gothic grandeur and sobriety about this pattern which gives to it a noble and grave aspect. It is worked in Irish stitch, six threads straight down the second row, falling about four stitches below the first; the third, the same below the second; the fourth and fifth the same number below the third; the next three the same; and then six in the same proportion. You then increase, and so render the arch uniform. The pattern then looks like the head of a Gothic column reversed; and the centre should be so disposed as to produce the best effect: those for the first and last row must be of the same tint; and the same rule applies to all the rest. A lady can, of course, choose her own colors; but care must be had to blend the alternate light and dark shades so as to produce a natural harmony.
IRISH DIAMOND.—This is beautiful, and is very easy of execution. Commence with two threads, and increase to fourteen, working across the canvas, and increasing one thread each way; then decrease to two in the same manner; and so proceed, until the row is completed. Begin the next row two threads down the canvas, and place a gold or steel bead in the centre of each diamond. Finish with a bordering of gold twist, or mother of pearl.
LACE.—This is a new invention, and is somewhat difficult of execution. The recognized material is a black Chantilly silk. It is mostly worked from Berlin patterns, and may be done either in cross stitch, or in straight stitch pattern: the edge is finished in cross stitch with wool. You may imitate a pearl border, by taking two threads directly behind the border. It is used for sofa pillows, &c., to which it forms a very pretty termination indeed.
HEART PATTERN.—This pattern looks well. Pass the wool over ten threads in the centre, then make four additional stitches of ten threads, dropping one each time from the top, and taking one up at the bottom; then take the sixth stitch, dropping a thread at the top as before, but keeping the bottom even with the fifth stitch; your seventh stitch must be in six threads, decreasing two both at the top and bottom; and your last will be on two threads, worked in the same manner: then proceed to form the other half of the pattern. The hearts may be worked in various shades of the same color, and the space between them is to filled up with a diamond, or with an ornament in gold twist, or pearl.
PRINCESS ROYAL.—Work this in rows of stitches over four and two threads alternately, leaving one thread between each stitch: begin the next row two threads down, with a stitch over two threads, and proceed as before. Work in two strongly contrasted shades, and fill in the vacancies with gold or pearl beads.
ROMAN PATTERN.—The material to be used, in working the pattern, is purse twist; and the grounding may be done in gobelin or tent stitch. The pattern is to be worked in three shades, of the same color; the centre forming a diamond in the lightest shade, then the next, and lastly the darkest to form a broad outline. This kind of work is done quickly, and presents a rich appearance.
RUSSIAN PATTERN.—This is worked in rows across the canvas, in stitches of irregular lengths, and has a pleasing effect. Pass the first stitch over sixteen threads, the second over twelve, the third over sixteen, and so proceed to the seventh row, which is the centre. Pass the stitch over eighteen threads, and proceed as before for six rows; leave a space of four threads, and commence as at first. Form the second row in the same manner, leaving four threads between the longest stitches in each row: the rows may be worked in any number of shades, taking care to preserve uniformity, and the spaces must be filled in with a diamond, worked in the same manner, but reduced in size, and in one color; or it may be worked in gold thread, which would greatly relieve the monotonous appearance of the pattern. It will be best to begin and finish each row with a half diamond.
VICTORIA PATTERN.—Pass the wool or silk for the centre stitch over six threads, the next over five, and so proceed to the corner, which will be on one thread; the other side must be done in a different shade, but the same color, and the shades of each must be turned alternately the opposite way. The corner stitch should be of some brilliant colored silk, if not of gold thread: the top of one square will be the bottom of another, and you work the three stitches between the corners in black or dark wool. The squares must be filled in with long stitch, working from corner to corner, across the canvas.
WAVE PATTERN.—These are extremely beautiful, when worked in four or five shades. They are done in Irish stitch, and the rows must be worked close together, the wool is passed over six threads, and the rows dropped a few threads below each other, so as to form a wave. The pattern may be varied almost infinitely; the following forms a beautiful specimen: work six rows of any length you choose, dropping one stitch at the top and adding one to the bottom of each row; then proceed upwards, for six rows, and you will obtain a beautiful pointed wave, the seventh row forming the centre; then work nine rows, of which the first, third, fifth seventh, and ninth, must be level with the second row of the pointed wave; and the second, fourth, sixth, and eight, must be on a level with the first and last rows, while the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, must drop two stitches, so as to produce an irregular edge; then work a pointed wave, as before, and the pattern is complete.
WINDSOR PATTERN.—In working this pattern, you must count eight threads down the canvas, and then increase one each way, until you have twelve, so as to form a diamond of six sides. The second row must be begun with twelve threads, so as to join the longest stitch in the former row. When each row is finished, the intersectional diamonds must be filled in; which may be done either in silk or gold thread, and has an extremely neat appearance.
SUGGESTIONS AS TO PATTERNS.
For bottle-stand, or any small piece of work, star patterns are very beautiful. The materials proper for working them, are silk and wool, with gold or any other kind of beads, and gold thread or twist. For foundations, you may use either velvet or silk canvas.
Small sprigs are pretty, for work that is not too large; chenille is proper for the flowers, and the stalks and leaves look best in silk; a few gold beads add to the effect.
For large pieces of work, medallion patterns are much used, and produce a good impression on the eye; the outline is to be traced in brilliant silk, and for the centre employ two shades of the same color, working half in each shade; the medallion should be placed upon a white field, and the whole grounded in a dark color, which harmonizes well with the design of the pattern.
Bags may be worked in a variety of ways, to suit taste and convenience. The border is often made to resemble black lace, and when properly executed, looks extremely well. The parts filled up, should be worked in black floss or black wool. Leaves may be worked with gold twist, or beads may be employed. The grounding should be in fine twisted silk: any color may be used. In other cases, white wool, white silk, silver and glass beads, and several other materials are in requisition; so that here is ample scope for classification and arrangement. A mourning bag looks well done to imitate lace, worked in black floss silk, and ornamented with black glass and silver beads, disposed in a tasteful and ornamental style. Sometimes a bag is worked as a shield of four squares; in such a case, two squares should be worked in feather stitch, and the others in any stitch that will form a pleasing contrast: the border should be a simple, but elegant lace pattern.
For braces and bracelets, any small border pattern may be adopted. They should be worked in two colors, highly contrasted, for bracelets: gold twist round the edge is a great addition.
These suggestions in reference to patterns, might have been greatly extended; but we wish every young lady to draw upon the resources of her own mind, and to think for herself. To one, who is desirous to excel, we have said enough; a little thought will enable her to apply the general principles, here laid down, to any particular case; and, without the employment of the thinking faculty, the most minute instructions, in this or any other art, would fail in producing their intended effects.
INSTRUCTIONS IN EMBROIDERY.
EMBROIDERY WITH SILK.—The materials used as foundations, are various, embracing silk, satin, cloth, and velvet; and the silk employed in working is purse silk, deckers, half twist, and floss; but floss is most in request.
Embroidery should always be worked in a frame, as it cannot be done well on the hand, except in very small pieces. The same careful attention to shades, before recommended, is necessary here; for small flowers two or three shades are sufficient; but in roses and others, that are large, five shades are in general required; the darker shades should be worked into the centre of the flower, (and it is often advisable to work them in French knots,)[79-*] and thence proceed with the lighter, until you come to the lightest, which forms the outline. The pattern must be correctly drawn upon the material, and in working leaves you must begin with the points, working in the lighter shades first, and veining with a shade more dark: you may soften the blending, by working each shade up, between the stitches of the preceding shade. Three, or at most four shades, are sufficient for the leaves: the introduction of more would injure the effect.
CHENILLE EMBROIDERY.—Is very beautiful for screens, &c., but must not be used for any work that is liable to pressure. Choose a needle as large as can be conveniently used, and be careful not to have the lengths of chenille too long, as it is apt to get rough in the working. For flowers, it is necessary that the shades should not be too near. The chenille must pass through the material freely, so as not to draw it. It looks well done in velvet, with occasional introductions of gold and silver thread.
RAISED EMBROIDERY.—Draw the pattern on the material as before. Work the flowers, &c., to the height required, in soft cotton, taking care that the centre is much higher than the edges. A careful study of nature is indispensable to the attainment of excellence in this kind of work. Pursue the same method with your colors, as in flat embroidery, only working them much closer. The most striking effect is produced when the flowers or animals are raised, and leaves in flat embroidery. Much in this, as in every department of this charming art, must depend upon the taste and judgment—correct or otherwise—of the fair artist. A servile copyist will never attain to excellence.
EMBROIDERY IN WOOL.—This is proper for any large piece of work. The rules for shading embroidery with silk apply here; only the work must not be quite so thick on the material; care must also be taken to bring the wool through on the right side, as near as possible to where it passes through, in order that none may appear on the wrong side, which would occasion much trouble in drawing it, even when removed from the frame. When finished, and while in the frame, it will be proper to damp the back with a little isinglass water, and press with a warm iron on the wrong side. This kind of work is appropriate for the ornamenting of various articles of dress, on which, when judiciously placed, it has a pleasing effect.
PATTERNS.—This is a part of fancy needlework to which too much attention cannot be paid, but it is one much neglected. We want to see native genius developed, and we are convinced that many a fair one could increase our stock of patterns, with new and surprising conceptions, if she could but be induced to make the trial. To draw patterns for embroidery or braid work, get a piece of cartridge paper, and having drawn out the design, trace it off upon tissue paper, or which is better, a tracing paper, properly prepared; after which you will find it easy to pierce it through with a piercer, taking care not to run one hole into another. Lay the paper so prepared upon the material which you intend to work, and dust it with a pounce bag, so that the powder may go through the holes; the paper must then be carefully removed, and if the material be dark, take a camel's hair pencil, and paint the marks with a mixture of white lead and gum water; or if you prefer it, you can trace the marks left by the pounce, with a black-lead pencil, but the other methods are preferable. A little practice and perseverance will enable you to became tolerably proficient in this department, and confer upon you the further advantage of aiding you in acquiring those habits of untiring diligence, which are so essential to the attainment of any object. Ever recollect, that anything worth doing at all, is worth doing well.
[79-*] This applies especially to the working of dahlias: begin with the centre knot and work round it as many as are required.
PREPARATION OF FRAMES.
This is a subject which must be carefully attended to, or much unnecessary trouble will be incurred in consequence.
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CROSS STITCH.—The canvas must be hemmed neatly round: then count your threads, and place the centre one exactly in the middle of the frame. The canvas must be drawn as tight as the screws or pegs will permit; and if too long, should be wrapped round the poles with tissue paper, to keep it from dust and the friction of the arms, as that is essential to the beauty of the work. It must in all cases be rolled under, or it will occasion much trouble in the working. When placed quite even in the frame, secure by fine twine passed over the stretchers, and through the canvas very closely; both sides must be tightened gradually, or it will draw to one side, and the work will be spoiled.
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CLOTH WORK.—Stretch your cloth in the frame as tight as possible, the right side uppermost.
The canvas on which you intend to work, must be of a size to correspond with the pattern, and must be placed exactly in the centre of the cloth, to which it is to be secured as smooth as possible. When the work is finished the canvas must be cut, and the threads drawn out, first one and then the other. It is necessary to be especially careful in working, not to split the threads, as that would prevent them drawing, and would spoil the appearance of the work. In all cases, it is advisable to place the cloth so as that the nap may go downward. In working bouquets of flowers, this rule is indispensable.
The patterns for cloth work should be light and open. It looks well for sofas, arm chairs, &c., but is by no means so durable as work done with wool, entirely on canvas.
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR TENT STITCH.—Prepare the frame, and brace the canvas as for cross stitch, only not quite even, but inclining the contrary way to that in which you slant your stitch. This is necessary, as tent stitch always twists a little. This method will cause the work, when taken out of the frame, to appear tolerably straight. Should it after all be crooked, it should be nailed at the edges to a square board, and the work may then be pulled even by the threads so as to become perfectly straight. The back of the work should then be slightly brushed over with isinglass water, taking care not to let the liquid come through to the right side. A sheet of paper must be placed between the work and the board, and when nearly dry, another must be laid upon it, and the whole ironed with a warm iron, not too hot, or the brilliancy of the colors will be destroyed.
Some persons use flour instead of isinglass, but it is highly improper, and should never be resorted to.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORKING.
ARMORIAL BEARINGS.—Work the arms and crest in silk, as brilliancy is the thing here principally required. It will be proper that the scroll should be worked in wool. The contrast will have a pleasing effect.
APPLIQUE.—This is a very beautiful kind of work. The material may be either silk, or cloth, or any other fabric which may be preferred. Upon this foundation, pieces of satin, velvet, &c., are to be carefully tacked down; the pattern, leaves, flowers, &c., must then be drawn, both on the foundation, and the materials of which they are to be formed; after which, they must be cut out and sewed on in the neatest manner possible. They are then to be braided with their own colors round the edges; you must also braid the tendrils and the veins of leaves; work the centre of leaves in a long stitch, and the kind of silk called purse silk, and after braiding the centre of flowers—if single—work over them with French knots, made by twining the silk twice round the needle, and passing it through the material. This kind of work, as covers for tables chairs, &c., is very elegant, and has a good effect.
BEAD WORK.—Use the canvas called bolting; and work two threads each way on the slant, with china silk, taking especial care that the beads are all turned the same way, that the whole may appear uniform. Work the pattern with thick beads and ground with transparent ones. You must, in this kind of work, have as few shades as possible.
BRAID WORK.—Trace the pattern in the material, and proceed with the various shades, from the outline or lightest, to the darkest, till the whole is completed. In this work only two shades are for leaves, and three for flowers; make the points as sharp as possible, and in turning the points, work one stitch up close to the point where you turn the braid, and another immediately afterwards to keep it in its place. Vein the leaves in a bouquet with purse silk use gold braid in finishing as taste may direct; and in fastening draw the braid through the material. The best instrument for this purpose is a chenille needle. In braid work and applique, only one stitch must be taken at a time, or else the work will appear puckered.
BRACES.—Work in silk canvas three inches broad, in silk or wool, in any pattern you prefer.
GEM, OR SET PATTERNS.—For this kind of work, ground in black or dark wool, and work the patterns in silks, as distinct and bright as possible, and with the utmost variety of colors. The beauty of these productions of the needle, depends chiefly upon their brilliant and gem-like appearance.
GOBELIN.—If you work in coarse canvas, adopt the same contrast of shades as you employ in cross stitch; if the material be fine, you must shade as in tent stitch.
GENTLEMEN'S WAISTCOATS.—To ornament the dress of a father, brother, or husband, must at all times be a pleasing employment for domestic affection. For dress waistcoats, embroider satin, either in the form of a wreath, round the edge of the waistcoat, or in small sprigs; for morning, you may work in any pattern you prefer. Patterns of the Caledonian Clans are now much admired.
LANDSCAPES.—These may be rendered extremely beautiful, if properly managed. The trees in front should be much lighter than those seen in the back ground, and great care should be taken to prevent the latter having too blue a cast, as this renders them unharmonious, when contrasted with the sky. Represent water by shades of a blue grey: the sky should be a serene blue, with much closeness, and mingled with clouds composed of varying tints of a white and a yellow drab. If mountains are seen in the distance, they should be of a grey lavender tint, and some living animal should, in nearly all cases, be introduced. The presence of a cow, sheep, &c., gives life and animation to the view.
MOSAIC WORK.—If you work with wool, cut it into short lengths, and untwist it. No wool can be procured sufficiently fine for this kind of work. If you work with silk, the finest floss is preferable to any other: split silk would be found extremely inconvenient, and the work would not look so well. Care must be taken that the shades are very distinct, or they will appear jumbled and unsightly. It will also be necessary to fasten off at every shade, and not to pass from one flower to another, as in that case the fastenings would become visible on the right side, and thus impair the beauty of the performance. In working a landscape, some recommend placing behind the canvas a painted sky, to avoid the trouble of working one. As a compliance with such advice would tend to foster habits of idleness, and thus weaken the sense of moral propriety which should in all we do be ever present with us, as well as destroy that nice sense of honor and sincerity which flies from every species of deception, we hope the fair votaries of this delightful art will reject the suggestion with the contempt it merits.
PATTERNS ON CANVAS.—Employ for canvas four or five shades, beginning with the darkest, and softening gradually into a lighter tint, till you come to the lightest, following the distinction of contrast exhibited by the Berlin patterns. If you wish to introduce silk into any part, it will be best to work it in last. Be careful to avoid taking odd threads, if you work the pattern in cross stitch.
PERFORATED CARD.—The needle must not be too large, or the holes will be liable to get broken. The smaller ones must be worked in silk: the larger patterns may be done in either silk or wool. Sometimes the flowers are worked in Chenille, and the leaves in silk; this gives to card cases, &c., a beautiful and highly ornamental appearance.
RUG BORDERING.—Use a wooden mesh, grooved, an inch and a quarter in width; pass the material over the mesh, and work in cross stitch: the material to be used, is what is called slacks, (a kind of worsted,) which must be six or eight times doubled. You must leave three threads between each row, and not more than eight rows are required to complete the border.
WIRE WORK.—For this work choose shades of a light in preference to a dark color, and work with silk. If you employ both silk and wool, silk must be used for the lighter shades, or the beauty of the work will be impaired. Sponge the whole before commencing work.
APPLICATION OF FANCY NEEDLEWORK TO USEFUL PURPOSES.
LACE.—This imitation is used as an elegant finish for carriage bags, sofa pillows, &c.; and also for ladies' work bags, to which it is both ornamental and becoming.
PRINCESS ROYAL.—This pattern is especially proper for bags or small stands.
POINT STITCH, is well adapted for working covers for hassocks, as well as for bags of a considerable size.
BASKET STITCH.—This kind of work is very elegant for flower, fruit, or work baskets; or any other of an ornamental character.
GERMAN PATTERN, is well adapted for slippers, as, when worked, it is found to be very durable, and its appearance peculiarly fits it for this application.
EMBROIDERY, is of almost universal application: that with chenille is much used in the ornamental parts of dress, and is productive of a most pleasing effect. Embroidery in wool is also much in use for the same purpose.
RUG BORDERINGS.—These may be considered as articles of domestic economy; and besides the pleasure which arises from seeing the parlor, or the side-board, adorned with the elegant productions of a daughter, or a sister, this kind of work is at all times, when properly executed, superior, considered merely as work, far superior to any similar productions emanating from the loom.
GENTLEMEN'S WAISTCOATS AND BRACES.—By being able to perform this kind of work, it is at all times in the power of the fair sex to offer an elegant present to a father, husband, or brother, and thus to increase the hallowed pleasures of the domestic circle. This reason is amply sufficient to induce our lovely countrywomen to cultivate this department of fancy needlework.
WIRE WORK.—This is a lovely material for baskets, and various kinds of ornamental fabrications.
WORKING FIGURES.—This delightful application of the needle may be rendered subservient to numerous useful and interesting purposes. By it the sister arts of painting and design may be materially promoted: the scenes of former days may be delineated on the historic canvas, or the portrait of a departed friend may be placed before us, as when blooming in all the living lustre of angelic loveliness. Let this portion of the art be especially and assiduously cultivated.
ARMORIAL BEARINGS.—These are proper for screens, and may be made of a high moral utility, by exciting in the minds of the young, an ardent desire to become acquainted with the events of history, and with the actions and principles of former times.
MOSAIC WORK, AND PERFORATED CARD.—These are used for note books, ornamental card cases, hand screens, book marks and a variety of other useful purposes.
BRAID WORK.—The application of this kind of work is well known, and is so general, that no particular cases need be pointed out.
APPLIQUE.—This is very elegant, as employed for table covers, sofas, chairs, &c.; indeed it always looks pretty, and to whatever it is applied it has a pleasing effect.
STAR PATTERNS, are proper for sofa cushions, bottle stands, or any piece of work that is small.
MEDALLION PATTERN.—Where the work is coarse, or large, these may be introduced with good effect; but especial attention must be paid to a proper combination of colors and shades.
INSTRUCTIONS IN GROUNDING.—Care must be taken in grounding to make the effect of contrast very conspicuous. Thus, if you ground in dark colors, your pattern should be worked in shades of a light and lively tint; for those in which dark shades predominate, a light ground is indispensible. The canvas for white grounding should be white; and if for dark grounding, a striped fabric is employed. The stripes will sometimes appear through the wool. To prevent this it will be necessary to rub over the surface with a little Indian ink water previous to commencing working, but care must be taken not to let the mixture run into the edges of the work, and it must be quite dry before you commence grounding. A camel's hair brush is best for this purpose. In working in cross stitch, it is best to do so on the slant, working from right to left across the canvas, and then back again. This is preferable to crossing each stitch as you proceed, and gives an improved appearance to the work.
If you work in tent stitch, work straight, or your performance will be uneven when taken out of the frame. In all cases begin to go round from the centre, and work outwards, taking care to fasten off as you finish with each needleful, which should not be too long, as the wool is liable to get rough and soiled. It is also necessary to have them irregular as to length, to prevent the fastenings coming together which they will be apt to do if this suggestion is not attended to. For working in tent stitch with single wool, the canvas must not have more than fourteen threads to an inch; for cross stitch you must have a canvas not coarser than twenty-two threads to an inch; for the former, you will for every two and a half square inches require a skein of wool; in the latter case a skein will cover two inches. Following this calculation, you can easily ascertain the quantity of wool required for any piece of work; and it is advisable to purchase all your wool at the same time, otherwise you will have much trouble in matching the shades. An attention to these instructions will soon make you a proficient in the grounding department of the art.
WORKING FIGURES.—This is at once one of the most difficult, and at the same time one of the most pleasing tasks which the votary of fancy needlework will have to perform; they generally produce the best effect when worked in wool and silk, with a judicious mixture of gold and silver beads. The hair and drapery should be worked in cross stitch; and the face, neck, and hands, in tent stitch; working four of the latter for one of the former. To obtain the proper tints for the face, &c., is no easy task; but it must be carefully attended to, as almost the whole beauty of the work depends upon it. The shades in these parts of the figure must be extremely close; indeed upon shading of the features the perfection of the performance mainly depends. The drapery also demands considerable care: the shades must be very distinct, particularly the lighter ones in the folds of the dress; and the back ground should be subdued as much as possible, that a proper prominence may be given to the figure: this object will be aided considerably by working in the lighter shades in silk: any representation of water or of painted glass, should be worked in the same material. The intention of the fair worker should be to give to her performance as near an approximation to oil painting as possible.
RAISED WORK.—This should be done with German wool, as it more nearly resembles velvet. For working flowers, you must have two meshes, one-seventh of an inch in width, and the pattern must be worked in gobelin stitch. Be careful not to take one mesh out, until you have completed the next row. You work across the flowers; and in order to save an unnecessary waste of time, as well as to facilitate your work, it will be best to thread as many needles as you require shades, taking care not to get the various shades mixed together. This is more needful, as you cannot, as in cross stitch, finish one shade before commencing another. When the pattern is worked, cut straight across each row, with a pair of scissors suitable to the purpose, and shear the flower into its proper form.
For working animals or birds, you must have three meshes; the first, one quarter; and the third, one seventh of an inch: the second must be a medium between these two. You will require the largest for the breast, and the upper parts of the wings. Cross stitch may be employed in working the beak, or feet, and is indeed preferable. You may work leaves, either in cross stitch or in gobelin stitch, as taste or fancy may direct. You may work either from a drawing on canvas, or from Berlin pattern; but the latter is decidedly to be preferred.
WORKING BERLIN PATTERNS.—For these patterns, it will be necessary to work in canvas, of eighteen or ten threads to the inch, according as you may desire the work to be a larger, or of the same size as the pattern: and, it must be borne in mind, that all the patterns are drawn for tent stitch, so that if you work in cross stitch, and wish to have it the same size as the pattern, you must count twenty stitches on the canvas, for ten on the paper. The choice of colors, for these patterns, is a matter of essential importance as the transition from shade to shade, if sudden and abrupt, will entirely destroy the beauty of the design. A natural succession of tints, softly blending into each other, can, alone produce the desired effect. In working flowers, five or six shades will be required: in a rose, or other large flower, six shades are almost indispensible; of these, the darkest should form the perfect centre, then the next (not prominently, though perceptibly) differing from it, and the next four to the lightest tint; the whole, to be so managed, as to give to the flower that fulness, and distinctness, which its position in the design demands. For small flowers, so many shades are rarely necessary. The two darkest shades should be strong, the others soft; this secures sufficiency of contrast, without impairing that harmony of tints, which is so indispensible. You must recollect, that for work done in tent stitch, a greater contrast of shade is required, than for that done in cross stitch. This remark should never be lost sight of. A proper attention to the shading of leaves, is indispensible; the kinds of green required, for this purpose, are bright grass green, for a rose; Saxon green, for lilies, convolvolus, peonies, &c.; French green, for iris, marigold, narcissus, &c.; and for poppies, tulips, &c.; a willow green, which has a rather bluer tint than French green is generally; and for leaves which stand up above the flowers, or near them, it is proper to work the tips in a very light green, as reflecting the rays of light: the next shade should be four times darker, or three at the least; the next two; then the fourth shade, two darker than the third; and the fifth, two darker than the fourth: take care that the veins of leaves be distinctly marked, and those which are in the shade should be darker than those upon which the light falls; and if of a color having a bluish tint, a few worked in olive green will have a fine effect. The stalks of roses, &c., should be worked in olive brown or a very dark green. White flowers are often spoilt, by being worked of too dark a shade; if you do not work with silk, you may obtain two distinct shades of white, by using Moravian cotton and white wool; these combined with three shades of light stone color—the second two shades darker than the first, and the third darker than the second, in the same proportions—will produce a beautiful white flower, which if properly shaded, by leaves of the proper tints, will have a most beautiful appearance. The lighter parts of all flowers, in Berlin patterns, may be worked in silk; and in many cases that is a decided improvement; but it should never be introduced in the leaves; here it would be out of place. We again repeat, beware of servile copying: try to engage your own judgment in this work, and, remember, that to become used to think and to discriminate, is one of the most valuable acquisitions that a young lady can attain.
We have now, we trust, placed before the young student of fancy needlework, such plain directions, in all things essential to the art, as cannot fail, if a proper degree of thought and attention is bestowed upon them, to make her a proficient in this delightful employment. With one or two additional remarks, we will conclude this portion of our labors. The young votary of the needle must recollect that, if she allows her fondness for this accomplishment to draw off her attention from the more serious or useful business of life, she will act decidedly wrong and had far better never learn it at all. Another thing to be especially guarded against, is, not to devote too much time to this, or any other engagement, at once; the mind and body are both injured, to a serious extent, by dwelling too long on a single object. Let it never for a moment be forgotten, relaxation and exercise are indispensible, if you wish to enjoy good health, or an even and pleasant temper. Again, take care that you never become so absorbed in the object of your pursuit, as to allow it to interfere with the calls of friendship, benevolence, or duty. The young lady who can forget her moral and domestic duties, in the fascinations of the embroidery frame, gives but little promise of excellence, in the more advanced stages of life.
Let neatness, and order, characterize all your arrangements.
Cut your silks and wools into proper lengths, and fold them in paper, writing the color on each, and numbering them according to their shades, 1, 2, 3, &c., beginning with the darkest.
Dispose all your materials so as to come at them without trouble or inconvenience, and use every possible care to prevent your work from being spoiled in the performance.
We advise every young lady to pay particular attention to painting and design; and to render every accomplishment subservient to some high and moral development of the heart, and of the character.
EXPLANATION OF STITCHES.
Before entering upon the immediate subject of this chapter, we wish to make a few remarks; which, we trust, will be acceptable to our fair readers.
The art of knitting is supposed to have been invented by the Spanish; and would doubtless form, in connection with needlework, an agreeable relaxation, amid the stiff formality and unvarying mechanical movements which made up, for the most part, the lives of the ancient female nobility of that peninsula. The Scotch also lay claim to the invention, but we think upon no sufficient authority. Knitted silk-hose were first worn in England by Henry VIII., and we are told that a present of a pair of long knitted silk stockings, of Spanish manufacture, was presented to the young prince (Edward VI.), by Sir Thomas Gresham, and was graciously received, as a gift of some importance. Clumsy and unsightly cloth-hose had been previously worn: and, though we are told by Howel, that Queen Elizabeth was presented with a pair of black knitted silk stockings, by Mistress Montague, her silk-woman, yet her maids of honor were not allowed to wear an article of dress, which her royal pride deemed only suited to regal magnificence. We believe the first pair of knitted stockings, ever made in England, were the production of one William Rider, an apprentice, residing on London Bridge; who, having accidentally seen a pair of knitted worsted stockings, while detained on some business, at the house of one of the Italian merchants, made a pair of a similar kind, which he presented to the Earl of Pembroke, 1564. The stocking-frame was the invention of Mr. W. Lee, M. A., who had been expelled from Cambridge, for marrying, in contravention to the statutes of the university. Himself and his wife, it seems, were reduced to the necessity of depending upon the skill of the latter, in the art of knitting, for their subsistence; and as necessity is the parent of invention, Mr. Lee, by carefully watching the motion of the needles, was enabled, in 1589, to invent the stocking-frame; which has been the source of much advantage to others, though there is reason to believe the contrivance was of little service to the original proprietor. Since its first introduction, knitting has been applied to a vast variety of purposes, and has been improved to an extent almost beyond belief. It has furnished to the blind, the indigent, and almost destitute Irish cottage girl, the means, pleasure and profit at the same time. Many ladies, including some in the rank of royalty, have employed their hours of leisure in the fabrication of articles, the produce of which have gone to the funds of charity, and have tendered to the alleviation of at least some of
"The numerous ills that flesh is heir to;"
and amongst those, the labors of the Hon. Mrs. Wingfield, upon the estates of Lord de Vesci, in Ireland, ought not to be forgotten.
TO CAST ON THE LOOPS OR STITCHES.—Take the material in the right hand, and twist it round the little finger, bring it under the next two, and pass it over the fore finger. Then take the end in the left hand, (holding the needle in the right,) wrap it round the little finger, and thence bring it over the thumb, and round the two fore fingers. By this process the young learner will find that she has formed a loop: she must then bring the needle under the lower thread of the material, and above that which is over the fore finger of the right hand under the needle, which must be brought down through the loop, and the thread which is in the left hand, being drawn tight, completes the operation. This process must be repeated as many times as there are stitches cast on.
KNITTING STITCH.—The needle must be put through the cast-on stitch, and the material turned over it, which is to be taken up, and the under loop, or stitch, is to be let off. This is called plain stitch, and is to be continued until one round is completed.
PEARL STITCH.—Called also seam, ribbed, and turn stitch, is formed by knitting with the material before the needle; and instead of bringing the needle over the upper thread, it is brought under it.
TO RIB, is to knit plain and pearled stitches alternately. Three plain, and three pearled, is generally the rule.
TO CAST OVER.—This means bringing the material round the needle, forward.
NARROWING.—This is to decrease the number of stitches by knitting two together, so as to form only one loop.
RAISING.—This is to increase the number of stitches, and is effected by knitting one stitch as usual, and then omitting to slip out the left hand needle, and to pass the material forward and form a second stitch, putting the needle under the stitch. Care must be taken to put the thread back when the additional stitch is finished.
TO SEAM.—Knit a pearl stitch every alternate row.
A ROW, means the stitches from one end of the needle to the other; and a ROUND, the whole of the stitches on two, three, or more needles. NOTE, in casting on a stocking, there must always be an odd stitch cast on for the seam.
TO BRING THE THREAD FORWARD, means to pass it between the needles toward the person of the operator.
A LOOP STITCH, is made by passing the thread before the needle. In knitting the succeeding loop, it will take its proper place.
A SLIP STITCH, is made by passing it from one needle to another without knitting it.
TO FASTEN ON.—This term refers to fastening the end of the material, when it is necessary to do so during the progress of the work. The best way is to place the two ends contrarywise to each other, and knit a few stitches with both.
TO CAST OFF.—This is done by knitting two stitches, passing the first over the second, and so proceeding to the last stitch, which is to be made secure by passing thread through it.
WELTS, are rounds of alternate plain and ribbed stitches, done at the top of stockings, and are designed to prevent their twisting or curling up.
Sometimes knitting is done in rows of plain and pearl stitches, or in a variety of neat and fanciful patterns. Scarcely any kind of work is susceptible of so much variety, or can be applied to so many ornamental fabrics or uses in domestic economy. The fair votary of this art must be careful neither to knit too tight or too loose. A medium, which will soon be acquired by care and practice, is the best, and shows the various kinds of work to the best advantage. The young lady should take care to preserve her needles entirely free from rust, and to handle the materials of her work with as delicate a touch as possible.
Having thus given instructions in the common rudiments of this useful art, we proceed to give plain directions for some of the most beautiful.
FANCY STITCHES IN KNITTING.
BEE'S STITCH.—In knitting a purse in this stitch, you must cast the loops on three needles, having twenty on each. The two first rows in plain knitting. The third is thus worked. Having brought the silk in front, a stitch is to be slipped, and you knit the next, pulling the one you slipped over it; you knit the next, and the succeeding one is pearled; proceed in this manner for one round. The next round you knit plain; the next is to be executed like the third. Proceed thus in alternate rounds, and you can introduce two colors, highly contrasted, knitting six or eight rounds of each.
BERLIN WIRE STITCH.—The stitches cast on must be an even number. Knit three, four, or five plain rows. Then begin the work by taking off the first stitch, knit one stitch, knit off two stitches together, and make a stitch; repeat this process to the end of the row; the next row is to be knitted plain, and so on alternately.
This work may be done either with large pins and lamb's wool, if it be intended for shawls, &c., or with fine needles and thread, in which case it forms a beautiful kind of insertion work for frocks, capes, collars, and other articles of dress. If it is intended for insertion work, the number of stitches cast on are eight, and one pattern is formed by each four stitches.
COMMON PLAIT.—This is employed for muffatees, coverlets, and various other articles. You cast on the stitches in threes: the number is unlimited. Knit one row plain, then proceed as follows. Row first, three plain stitches and three pearled. Second row the same, taking care to begin where the last is finished, that is, if you ended with plain stitches, you begin with the pearled. Proceed in the same way with the third row, and you will have a succession of squares, of inside and outside knitting, alternately. The fourth row is to be begun with the same kind of stitches as completed the first row; continue as before, and the work will be in squares, like those of a chess board. This stitch is extremely pretty.
CHAIN STITCH.—The number of loops to be cast on is thirteen. Knit the first two rows plain, and in beginning the third, knit three plain stitches, and bring the material in front, then pearl seven stitches; the material is then to be turned back, and you knit the other three stitches plain. The next row is plain knitting, and then you proceed as in the third row, and so on alternately, until you have completed sixteen rows. You then knit three stitches plain, and take off the four succeeding ones upon a spare pin. The next three stitches from behind the pin, are to be knitted so as to miss it completely, and the material is to be drawn so tight, as that the pins may be connected together as closely as possible. This done you knit the four stitches of the third pin, which completes the twist. The remaining three stitches are then to be knitted, and a fresh link begun, by knitting three stitches, pearling seven, knitting three, and so proceeding for sixteen rows, when another twist is to be made.
CROW'S-FOOT STITCH.—This stitch may be worked in two ways. If it be for a shawl, begin at the corner, and raise at the beginning and end of each row.
In the other method, you cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by three, and you must cast on one additional for the commencement. You knit the first row plain and then proceed according to the following directions: First, knit a stitch. Second, make a stitch. Third, slip the next. Fourth, knit two stitches together. Fifth, put the stitch you slipped over the two last knitted; this is to be repeated, with the exception of the first knitted stitch, to the end of the row. The next row is composed entirely of pearled stitches. This stitch is neat and elegant.
DOUBLE KNITTING.—Of this stitch there are three kinds, now in general use. In executing them proceed as follows. Having cast on any even number of stitches, knit a few rows in plain knitting; then, for the double stitch, begin the row by knitting a stitch, and pass the material in front, between the knitting pins. Then a stitch is to be taken off, being careful to put the needle inside the loop, and to pass the material back again. You then knit another stitch, and so proceed to the end of the row.
For the second kind of double knitting, you cast on an even number of stitches, as before, and the first stitch is knitted plain; the material being put twice over the pin. Then, as in the first kind, pass the material between the needles; a stitch is to be slipped, and the material passed again behind. This process is repeated in every stitch to the end of the row. In the next row, you reverse the work, knitting the stitches that were before slipped, and slipping the knitted ones. The third kind is very simple, and can be done quicker than the others. It is worked on the wrong side, and when completed must be turned inside out; hence it is necessary to knit plain at the sides or ends. The number of stitches must be even, as in the previous methods. No plain row is needed; but you commence by putting the material in front of the pins, and being careful to keep it constantly in that position. Turn the first stitch, take off the second, and so on alternately, till the row is finished.
DUTCH COMMON KNITTING.—This is the common knitting stitch, performed in a more expeditious manner than that in general practised. The needle filled with stitches, is held in the left hand, and the material also, which is to be wrapped round the little finger once or twice. It passes to the needles over the fore finger. To form the loop on the needle held in the right hand, it is only necessary to put it into the stitch from behind, and knit off by putting the material round the needle.
EMBOSSED DIAMOND.—You cast on any number of stitches which can be divided by seven. The first row is plain: for the second, pearl one stitch, knit five, and pearl two; thus proceed, alternately, to complete the row: for the third, knit two, pearl three, and knit four, and so proceed. The fourth row you pearl three, knit one, and pearl six, alternately. The fifth row is plain knitting. The next row you pearl two, knit two, pearl five, and so on to the end. Next knit two, pearl four and knit three, alternately. Next knit six, and pearl one, successively. Reverse the next, pearling six, and knitting one. Then in the succeeding row, knit five and pearl three, and knit four in succession. Next knit three, pearl two, and knit five, alternately. The succeeding row is plain.
EMBOSSED HEXAGON STITCH.—You can work with any number of stitches you choose, which can be divided by six. The first row is plain, the next pearled throughout; the third row is plain. For the first knit four stitches, and slip two at the end; then pearl a row, taking care to slip the stitches that were slipped before. Next knit a row slipping the two stitches as before. The next row is pearled still slipping the two stitches. The succeeding two rows are knitted and pearled like the others, and the two stitches are still to be slipped. The next row is pearled, and you take up all the stitches; then a row is to be knitted plain, and a row pearled, which completes the pattern. In beginning the next pattern, you pearl a row, slipping the fifth and sixth stitches, so that they shall be exactly in the centre of the previously worked pattern; you then proceed as before.
ELASTIC RIB.—This as its name implies, is the proper stitch for garters, or any kind of an article which is wanted to fit easily yet firmly. You are to set on any number of loops you please, and knit one row plain; the next is pearled, the two next are plain; then one pearled, and so on alternately to the end.
FANTAIL STITCH.—The application of this stitch is in the preparation of mitts, gloves, &c., and sometimes it is used for purses, in which it looks extremely pretty. The material generally employed is cotton, and you begin by setting on any even number of stitches you require. A loop is made, by throwing the cotton over the pin; you then knit a loop, and make and knit alternately; each of the two last are knitted plain, and you narrow the commencement and conclusion of each row, at the second and third loops, until you have reduced it to the number originally cast on. The usual number of stitches cast on is fourteen.
FRENCH STITCH.—You set on the loops in fours, and must have two over. The first stitch is pearled, then turn the thread back, and knit two stitches together. Form a new stitch by bringing the thread in front, and knit a stitch; the thread is again to be brought in front, and the last stitch pearled, which completes the pattern. The next row is begun in a similar manner, the thread is turned back, two stitches are knitted together at the end, the thread is turned, and you knit the last stitch.
GERMAN KNITTING.—You cast on twenty-one stitches, and proceed as follows. First row, the material is to be passed forward, one stitch slipped, then knit one, and pass the slipped one over; three stitches are then to be knitted, and two taken as one; again pass the material forward, and knit one stitch. Second row, the same, except that when in the first you knitted three stitches, knit one; and when one, you knit three. For the third row, you pass the material as before, and slip one stitch, then two are taken as one, and the slipped one is passed over again; repeat this, except that in taking two stitches together, you knit one, and pass the slipped one over; finish by knitting two stitches.
HONEYCOMB STITCH.—This is also often used for shawls. It is knitted as follows. You knit the first stitch, and pass the other to make a loop over the needle. Two stitches are then knitted together, and you thus continue making the loops, and knitting two stitches together, until you have completed the row. You knit every second row thus; the alternate ones plain.
HERRING-BONE BAG STITCH.—You cast on the stitches by fours, and the material used is silk. Knit two plain stitches, and then make a large one, by turning the silk twice over the needle; after which, knit two stitches together, and repeat this, until you have completed the work.
IMITATION NET-WORK STITCH.—You set on any number of stitches you please, but you must have no odd ones. The first row is plain knitting. The next row you commence by bringing the wool upon the first pin, and twisting it round it by bringing it over from behind, and putting it behind again. You are then to knit two loops together, and the pin must be put first into the one nearest to you, and the wool is to be twisted round the pin as before. Then again, knit two together, and so on to the end. Each row is done in the same manner.
KNIT HERRING-BONE STITCH.—Any number of stitches you please may be cast on, observing to have three for each pattern, and one over at each end. The first row must be plain: then, in beginning the second, take off the first stitch, and knit two together in pearl stitch. Next make one, by passing the material before, and knitting one, pearl two stitches together, and make and knit a stitch as before. Every row is the same.
LACE WAVE STITCH.—The number of stitches must be even. The first stitch is to be slipped; then knit one, and make one, by casting the material over the pin. Narrow, by knitting two stitches together, and again knit a stitch; then make one, and again narrow; and so on till you complete the row. The next row is done plain. The third row is as follows: two stitches knitted plain; make one stitch, and narrow two in one; then knit one stitch; make and narrow, as before to the end; then knit a row plain. For the fifth row, knit three stitches plain, and thus proceed as in the third row. The sixth row is done plain; and the seventh one commences by knitting four stitches plain, and then proceeding as before. The eighth row is plain; and the ninth is begun by knitting five plain stitches, and proceed as above; then knit two rows plain, and the pattern is complete. This can be continued to any length required.
MOSS STITCH.—This is easily done. Cast on any even number of loops, and for the first row, the first loop is slipped, the material brought in front; the stitch is pearled, and repeat so to the end. The next row is so worked, that the stitches knit in the proceeding row, must be pearled in this.
OPEN HEM.—The number of stitches is unlimited, but they must be capable of being divided by four. At the beginning of each row you slip the first stitch, and knit the second. Then make a stitch by putting the cotton over the pin; knit two loops together; knit one stitch, make a stitch, and so proceed. You must have very fine pins and sewing cotton.
OPEN CROSS STITCH.—This is done in the following manner. Two colors are to be employed, and the first row of each is done in pearl stitch. In working the second row of each, the following is the order of procedure: first, knit a stitch: second, make a stitch; third, slip one; fourth, two are to be knitted together, and the one slipped is to be drawn over the knitted ones; thus you proceed to the end of the row. The two next are to be commenced with the other color; and thus you work two rows with each color, successively. The fresh color is always to cross from beneath the last one, or otherwise a hole would be left in the work. In the making of shawls, this stitch is often adopted, and it looks well, but, of course, requires to be bordered with some other pattern.
ORNAMENTAL LADDER STITCH.—The stitches are to be set on in elevens. Commence by knitting two stitches plain, then knit two together, and repeat the same, drawing the first loop over the second; proceed thus to the end. Commence the second row by pearling two stitches; pass the material over the pin twice; again pearl two stitches, and so proceed to the end. In the next row, knit two; pass the material round the pin twice, knit two, and so continue. Thus you proceed with alternate rows of knitted and pearled stitches, being careful to slip the stitches made by throwing the material round the pin, without knitting them.
PINE APPLE STITCH.—For a bag you must cast on thirty-six loops on three needles, and proceed thus: First row, knit one plain, raise one by throwing the silk over the pin, knit one plain, then raise, knit two plain, you knit the next two together, drawing the last loop over the first; you will then have six loops. In the second row, knit the first raised loop, then raise, knit the next one plain, then raise, knit plain till you come to the next raising, and omit knitting the two together as in the first row. Third row, you knit plain to the raising, and then proceed as in the first row. You knit the fourth as the second; and so proceed alternately, until you have twelve rows. Then in the stitches you had previously narrowed, you must raise, and introduce a bead upon each plain loop, with a thread, and again raise. Where you had previously raised, you must narrow with the bead you have upon the silk. In this manner proceed raising and narrowing alternately, until you have twelve rows as before. You then reverse, and again work as in the first part of the pattern.
PLAIN OPEN STITCH.—The stitches set on must be an even number. The two first rows are plain. Then commence the third row, by knitting one stitch; pass the material in front, and form a new stitch, by knitting two together. This is to be repeated, until you come to the last stitch, which must be knit. Then knit two plain rows and proceed as before.
PORCUPINE STITCH.—This is proper for a purse, and when properly executed, is extremely pretty. You cast on, upon each of three needles, thirty-six loops, and knit one plain round. For the next, you knit four stitches: and, having brought the silk forward, knit one loop: this will form the middle stitch of the pattern. Then, again bringing the silk forward, knit fourteen stitches; after which, slip one, and leaving the under part, knit two together, and draw the stitches, last slipped, over it. Then knit four stitches, as at the commencement, and so proceed for six rounds, increasing before and after each middle stitch. You knit till within one of where you decreased. The stitch thus left is to be slipped, and you then knit two together, and draw the slipped loop over it. You are then to knit one plain round, and the next row is also plain, except the loops which are over the middle stitches, where you are to insert a bead, by bringing it through the stitches. You next knit a round plain, and must be careful to keep the beads on the outside of the purse, or rather in the inside while knitting, as this purse is done the wrong side out. You are to knit, until you come within one loop of the bead, which must be slipped, and you knit the next two together. You are then to increase six rounds on each side of the stitch decreased as in the proceeding pattern, which will make that the middle or bead stitch. The material should be done in middle sized purse silk, on needles, No. 18.
ROUGH-CAST STITCH.—Any odd number of stitches may be cast on. Each row is begun with a plain stitch, and the others are plain and pearled alternately. This is very suitable for borders, as it is firm and looks neat.
WAVE KNITTING.—This is proper for a pin-cushion, and looks extremely neat. Commence by casting on seventy-nine loops. Then proceed as follows. First row, knit four loops plain, pearl one, knit nine plain, and repeat to the end of the row, finishing with four plain loops. Commence the second row with three pearled stitches, knit three plain, pearl seven, repeat as before. Third row, knit two plain, pearl five, knit five plain, repeat. Fourth row, pearl one, knit seven plain, pearl three, repeat. Fifth row, pearl nine, knit one plain, pearl nine, and repeat to the end. This finishes the pattern.
EXAMPLES IN KNITTING.
A BIROCHE.—The stitch is very simple. You bring the wool forward, slip one, and knit two together. This elegant cushion is made up of sixteen narrow rows, and sixteen broad stripes, which decrease gradually toward the centre. It may be made in double German wool, or other material, with No. 19 ivory or wooden pins. Cast on ninety stitches, and knit two turns; then in gold color three turns, and again two in black: this forms the narrow stripe. Then form the broad stripe thus: knit two stitches, and turn; then knit two of the black, and turn; this must be continued, taking every time two additional stitches of the black, until you are within two stitches of the top, and then turn. You will now find the wool has descended to the wide part of the stripe. You then again commence a narrow stripe, and so go on, until the whole is completed. When the last wide stripe is finished, knit it to the first narrow stripe, and make up the biroche in any manner you please.
A BABY'S CAP.—Cast on 240 stitches, on three pins; knit twelve rounds, and be sure you pearl every alternate stitch: in the succeeding round you must pearl the stitches which were left plain in the preceding ones. Then take in eighty stitches, namely; one at every fourth, which will form a full border; then proceed to knit the cap thus: one row plain, the next open, then three plain, and twenty-four double knitting; again knit three rows plain, one open, repeat the three plain rows, again repeat the double knitting, and the plain and open rows as before; you next proceed to form the hinder part of the cap, by casting on twenty-four stitches at each end of the pins; knit forty-eight rows of double knitting, take in to the size of the crown, and knit three rows plain, one open, and repeat the three plain rows; then fasten off at top, unite the open space at the back, and repeat the plain and open rows as before. You form the crown, by casting on sixteen loops; then increase a loop at each end, for sixteen rows; then knit sixteen, and decrease as you increased, and thus the circle becomes regularly formed.
BABY'S HOOD.—Use No. 18 needles, and double German wool; cast on fifty stitches, and knit eighty rows plain; roll up sixty, to form the front. Three inches of the cast off part are to be sewed together, and the rest is to be drawn up for the crown. Then cast on fifty stitches to form the foundation of the hood, and knit forty rows plain. Line with white silk, and trim with satin ribbon.
BABY'S SHOE.—Work with two colors, in stripes. You cast on twenty-eight stitches, in blue, and knit one row plain; then knit a plain row in white, adding one stitch at the end to form the heel, and turn; then a similar row in blue, to increase and turn, repeat this without increasing, and changing the colors each time, until you have ten stripes. Then knit one row in blue, and turn, casting off seventeen stitches. You begin from the heel. The remaining thirteen stitches are knitted with white; turn; knit a row with blue; turn: and so continue, until you have five rows of one color, and four of the other. The thirteen stitches are then to be done in blue, and seventeen to correspond, are to be added; turn: this side is finished like the other, decreasing from the heel. You then sew up the heel and toe, so as to form a shoe. You are then, with four needles, to pick up the stitches round the ankle and fore foot, putting an equal number upon each of the three needles, and knit five rows plain; make a stitch by bringing the wool forward, then slip one; knit the next two, and pass the slip-stitch over them; again bring the wool forward, and repeat the process for one round: knit eighteen rows, five plain, four pearled; repeat and finish, bringing the wool forward, knitting two together; then knit two rows plain, and cast off. You must use No. 14 needles, and double German wool.
A BEAUTIFUL FRINGE AND BORDER.—This can be applied to a variety of useful purposes. It is executed as follows. The number of stitches must be even, and of any depth you deem desirable. Begin, by making a stitch, laying the material over the needle; put it through two loops, and knit them as one; repeat to the end of the row; thus continue to knit as many rows as you please, and when the stripe is of sufficient length, fasten off, letting from four to ten stitches fall off the needle to unravel for the fringe.
A COMFORTER.—On a moderate sized pin, cast on forty stitches; and in knitting, carry the wool twice round the pin for each stitch. The comforter is to be done in double knitting, and may be finished with a fringe and border at the end. Without the fringe, you will require a quarter of a pound of six-thread untwisted lamb's wool; for the fringe a little more will be required.
ANOTHER COMFORTER.—You are to cast on thirty stitches, and knit plain sixty-four ribs, knitting them backwards and forwards; then take twenty-two stitches from the middle of the side, and you will have twenty-one left one each end. Form a chest-piece, by knitting as before, twenty-two ribs, and fasten off: you have only to sew up the end, and it is done.
ZEPHYR.—This is a light shawl for a baby, and may be made either of a half-handkerchief form, or a square. Cast on about 130 loops, and knit in French or honey-comb stitch, which you like; or any other pretty pattern you prefer, as embossed hexagon, &c. You may add a fringe and border, which gives to the zephyr a rich and finished appearance.
AN OVER-SHOE.—These are useful to wear in the house, or to slip over a satin shoe, when occasion requires. The number of stitches to be cast on is thirty-four. Knit a square, plain, which is to be doubled, and sewn up on one side, to the heel; then sew up three inches for the instep, and form the toe by puckering in the end.
A KNITTED MUFF, IN IMITATION OF SABLE.—You cast on seventy or eighty stitches. Knit the first three rows plain; then, for the fourth row, bring the wool forward, and taking two stitches at the back, knit them; repeat to the end: these four must be repeated, until the piece is about half a yard long, taking care that the shading is as correct as possible. You must here use No. 19 needles, and double German wool. The shades required are four, and you begin with the lightest, proceeding to the darkest, and then reversing them. The muff must be stuffed, and lined with silk.
A STRONG KNITTED PURSE.—Any number of stitches, that can be divided by three, will do. First and third row: The wool is to be brought forward, then slip one, knit two, and pass over them the slip stitch; repeat second and fourth row plain. Third and fifth row: knit two, before commencing the pattern; the holes will then fall in a diagonal direction: It will require to be well stretched.
BAREGE KNITTING, FOR SHAWLS.—In this kind of work, you commence with any number of stitches you require: and, after knitting one row plain, you begin the second, by knitting three stitches; then, bring the wool forward, and knit three together, taking them off at the back; again you bring the wool forward, and knit three, as before. The third row is pearled; and the fourth is the second repeated, only beginning by knitting three stitches together. Fifth row, the same as the third; and thus proceed with any number of rows you choose. You may introduce any patterns in flowers, &c., you may desire, by breaking off the ground color, and fastening on that which is designed for the pattern, by means of a slip knot, made at the end of the wool. All flowers, &c., must be done in plain knitting.
CHECKED PATTERNS.—Any number of stitches may be cast on, that can be divided by six. Then knit the first three rows three pearl stitches, and three plain; second three rows, knit three stitches plain, and three pearl. This pattern may be worked for children's socks, bags, mats, (if done in coarse materials,) &c.
CLOSE STITCH, FOR A WAISTCOAT.—This is to be done in two colors, and cast on any odd number of stitches. First and fifth row, with one color; knit one, and slip one, in succession. Second and sixth row, with the same color; knit one, bring the wool forward, and slip one; pass the wool back, knit one, repeat. The third is the first reversed, and the fourth is worked exactly as the second, omitting the first stitch.
PINE APPLE PURSE.—The material is purse twist, and you will require two colors; one skein of green, and one and a half of orange. Cast on 159 stitches, and proceed as follows. Knit the first row, and turn it, then knit two rows, and again turn. To have ten points you must narrow and widen alternately every seven stitches. Proceed in this way with the green twist for fifteen rounds; then with the orange knit one plain row and turn, knit seven rows as before, knit one plain row and turn, then reverse the narrowings, so as to take up the loops at the beginning of every row of points, and make a loop on each side: you are to have eight rows of points. You make no loops in the second row, but having counted when you have finished the points, you seam in the first row of green and reverse the narrowings without taking up the loops, proceed to knit twelve rows; after which, you must narrow until you have but four loops on each pin, then knit the stalks, and narrow off.
STAR, WITH EIGHT POINTS.—This is proper for the bottom of a bag or purse. In working it, proceed according to the following directions. You work with five needles, on each of four of which you cast on two stitches, eight in whole, knit one plain round. Then, first row, raise, knit one, raise, knit one, and put on one bead at every knitted loop. Second row, you knit a plain round. Third row, raise, knit two plain, raise, two plain; the raising is at the beginning and middle of each needle; and you thus proceed, until you have fifty beads on a needle, for a bag, and eighteen for a purse. To take off the points, proceed as follows: first row, raise one, knit one, raise one, slip one off needle as in knitting, knit one, and draw the one not knitted over it; knit plain, and put on beads until you come to the middle of the needle; thus proceed with each pin, and the star will be completed.
KNEE CAPS.—You commence with casting on eleven loops, and knitting eight rounds; then begin to raise every alternate round until you have forty-seven loops on the pins, knit eleven rounds plain, and then narrow until you have reduced the loops to eleven. Take off.
KNITTING FOOTING.—The material is fine cotton, and you cast eleven stitches. Knit one row plain. Second row, knit one, make one, knit two together, knit three plain, make one, knit two together knit three plain. Third row, is the second row reversed; the fourth is the same as the second; and you thus proceed with each row, alternately, for any length you please. A bag knitted the same way, and put over blue or crimson silk, looks extremely handsome. The material for a bag is fine worsted, and you may cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by eleven, taking care to have one additional stitch for each twenty-two; that is, for four elevens, cast on forty-six.
DOUBLE NIGHTCAP.—You will find five needles are required. You must cast on two stitches on each of four needles, and in the first row increase two, and in the second one plain stitch in each. In the third row, the centre stitch on each needle must be seamed, and you must increase on each side of it every other row, until you have attained the width required. You then knit the fourth and every succeeding row plain, until the cap is of a sufficient length, say twenty-four to twenty-eight inches, then decrease the first row, and make the other end to correspond with the one first knitted.
DOTTED KNITTING, FOR BABY'S SHOES, &C.—Cast on and knit as many rows as you desire, knitting one stitch plain, and the next pearled. Begin every other row with a pearled stitch. An odd number of stitches are required, and No. 8 needles.
KNITTED FRINGE.—This may be made of any material deemed most suitable for the purposes to which it is to be applied. Cast on eight stitches. First knit two, then make one by bringing the cotton round the needle, and knitting it when it occurs in the next row; then knit two stitches together, knit one, make one as before, knit two together, knit eight, and so proceed to the end of the row. When you have knitted as many rows as you require, cast off five stitches and leave three, to be unravelled, for the fringe. They may be knitted in two or more colors, taking care to knit them in equal spaces; that is, with an equal number of stitches in each color.
GENTLEMAN'S TRAVELLING CAP.—You first cast on an even number of stitches, and thus proceed; the first row is plain; then slip off the first stitch in each row, and make one, by bringing the material in front; then slip a stitch the contrary way, knit the next, and so proceed to the end of the row: you commence the next by slipping a stitch as before; then knit two stitches together to the last, which is to be knitted plain: repeat these rows alternately.
HERRING-BONE PURSE.—The number of stitches must be so as to be divided by four. The silk is to be brought forward, then slip one, knit one, and bring the slip stitch over it. Knit one, again bring the silk forward, pearl one, and so repeat. This purse should be knitted with second sized netting silk, No. 13.
HALF HANDKERCHIEF.—This is extremely pretty, when properly executed. Begin with one stitch to form the point, and knit as many rows, increasing one each row as is required to give you seven loops upon the pin. You must increase always at the same end: then commence the pattern. Make one stitch, slip one, and knit two stitches together, putting the slipped stitch over the two knitted as one. Repeat this until you have got to four stitches from the end; then again make a stitch, and knit the remainder plain. The next row is to be done in pearl stitch, and the succeeding one as the first pattern. Every row of pearl stitch must be increased one, and the three last stitches are to be knitted plain. This handkerchief must be one yard and a quarter long on the straight side. When completed, fasten off.
HABIT SHIRT.—These are worn under a shawl, and are extremely comfortable: they protect the chest from cold. The material most proper for them is floss wool, and they should be knitted with steel pins. You knit the front first, and begin by casting on as many loops as will form the length required. As it is necessary that one end should be a good deal more sloped than the other, you must be careful to increase at the end most sloped, at each end of the row; but at the other, you are only to increase at the end, and not at the beginning: having knitted one of the fronts, knit the other to match it, and then begin the back. Commence at the bottom, or narrow part of the waist, and increase at each end of every row, until it is wide enough to reach from one shoulder to the other, and then decrease at both ends of each row for the neck. You then finish the centre stitches, and knit up first on one side and then the other, decreasing each row, until a proper hollow is obtained. You then knit the collar straight, and of any depth you please. Make up, by sewing the various parts together, and set on a ribbon to the back, to tie round the waist, and another to secure it at the throat.
HARLEQUIN QUILT, WITH TUCKS.—This is done in double knitting stitch, with six threads fleecy. The pieces are six inches square. Each square consists of about 24 stitches, and they are to be sewn together with a tuft of wool, black or white, at each corner. The square should be knitted in at least three colors, including white; in a quilt one yard and a half square, there will be 225 pieces, 113 of which should be white. Make the tufts as follows: wind four-thread fleecy about 12 times round a grooved wooden mesh, one inch in width: then slip a coarse thread in the groove, and tie the wool quite tight, but taking care that an end is left to it, which can be drawn through and fastened to the quilt. The loops of wool are to be cut through on the other side of the mesh; after which it is to be combed and dressed as neatly as possible.
PATTERN FOR A LIGHT SCARF.—Cast on the number of stitches required upon No. 18 needles, and any kind of material you choose; three-threads fleecy is generally preferred. Knit one plain stitch, then two together, and so on alternately, to the end of the row: each succeeding one is but a repetition of the first: it may be done in stripes, with various colors.
PLAIN KNITTED MUFFATEES.—For these you will require four needles. On three of these cast on an equal number of stitches, according to the size required, and knit each round three pearl and three plain: finish with one plain and two pearl rows.
STOCKINGS.—Cast on first size 73, second 85, third 91, fourth 99, fifth 109, sixth 133. Then knit rounds to the commencement of the narrowings, 40, 52, 54, 56, 60, and 74, respectively, according to the sizes given above. The narrowings in the leg are according to the size, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 21. After which you knit 18, 20, 25, 27, 30, or 45 rounds to the heel, which is to be formed in the following manner. The stitches are to be divided in half, taking care to have the seam stitch for the middle, and the heel is to be knitted in alternate turns of plain and pearled stitches. The length, of course, varies in proportion to the size, being 12 turns for the first and second, 13 for the third, 14 for the fourth, 15 for the fifth, and 20 for the sixth. The heel is finished by knitting the nine middle stitches in rows, the same as the heel, and taking up one of the others with the last loop of each row, till all is taken off. There will thus be nine stitches when the heel is finished. Having got thus far, you proceed to form the foot as follows. You take up sixteen on each side of the heel, in the second row, and taking them up, you make a seam on each side of the instep, knitting another stitch in the loop under the first and last, which prevents holes in the corners, that would otherwise occur. Then narrow every second round on the heel sides of the seam until the number of stitches are the same as those in the instep, or what is commonly called the fore foot needle. You will have for the instep 28, 32, 34, 40, or 46, as the case may be; and the rounds between the heel and toe narrowings, will be 14, 18, 23, 26, 30, and 34, respectively; and the narrowings for the feet will be 6, 8, 8, 8, 9, and 10, on each side, according to the measurement given. You begin the toe by narrowing double at the seams, leaving only the seam stitch between, and narrowing twice with three, and twice with two rounds left between each narrowing: then narrow twice, leaving but one round between, and then every round until sixteen stitches only are left. Finish by putting the two needles having stitches on them together. And when two stitches are done in this manner, cast them off, the first over the last, until the whole is taken off the needles. It should be noted, that the stitches in the heel vary with the size of the stocking, and are as follows: first size 29, second 33, third 33, fourth 37, fifth 41, and sixth 45.