11th. Showing a dislike for the wounds made by his nails and teeth.
12th. Not pressing close up against him at the time when he embraces her.
13th. Keeping her limbs without movement at the time of congress.
14th. Desiring him to employ her when he is fatigued.
15th. Laughing at his attachment to her.
16th. Not responding to his embraces.
17th. Turning away from him when he begins to embrace her.
18th. Pretending to be sleepy.
19th. Going out visiting, or into company, when she perceives his desire to enjoy her during the day time.
20th. Mis-constructing his words.
21st. Laughing without any joke, or at the time of any joke made by him, laughing under some pretence.
22nd. Looking with side glances at her own attendants, and clapping her hands when he says anything.
23rd. Interrupting him in the middle of his stories, and beginning to tell other stories herself.
24th. Reciting his faults and his vices, and declaring them to be incurable.
25th. Saying words to her female attendants calculated to cut the heart of her lover to the quick.
26th. Taking care not to look at him when he comes to her.
27th. Asking him what cannot be granted.
28th. And, after all, finally dismissing him.
There are also two verses on this subject as follows:
"The duty of a courtesan consists in forming connections with suitable men after due and full consideration, and attaching the person with whom she is united to herself; in obtaining wealth from the person who is attached to her, and then dismissing him after she has taken away all his possessions."
"A courtesan leading in this manner the life of a wife is not troubled with too many lovers, and yet obtains abundance of wealth."
[Footnote 75: On the completion of a vow a festival takes place. Some trees such as the Peepul and Banyan trees, are invested with sacred threads like the Brahman's, and on the occasion of this ceremony a festival is given. In the same way when gardens are made, and tanks or temples built, then also festivals are observed.]
ABOUT RE-UNION WITH A FORMER LOVER.
When a courtesan abandons her present lover after all his wealth is exhausted, she may then consider about her re-union with a former lover. But she should return to him only if he has acquired fresh wealth, or is still wealthy, and if he is still attached to her. And if this man be living at the time with some other women she should consider well before she acts.
Now such a man can only be in one of the six following conditions, viz.:
1st. He may have left the first woman of his own accord, and may even have left another woman since then.
2nd. He may have been driven away from both women.
3rd. He may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be living with another woman.
5th. He may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the other of his own accord.
6th. He may have been driven away by the one woman, and may be living with another.
(1). Now if the man has left both women of his own accord, he should not be resorted to, on account of the fickleness of his mind, and his indifference to the excellencies of both of them.
(2). As regards the man who may have been driven away from both women, if he has been driven away from the last one because the woman could get more money from some other man, then he should be resorted to, for if attached to the first woman he would give her more money, through vanity and emulation to spite the other woman. But if he has been driven away by the woman on account of his poverty, or stinginess, he should not then be resorted to.
(3). In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord, and been driven away by the other, if he agrees to return to the former and give her plenty of money beforehand, then he should be resorted to.
(4). In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be living with another woman, the former (wishing to take up with him again) should first ascertain if he left her in the first instance in the hope of finding some particular excellence in the other woman, and that not having found any such excellence, he was willing to come back to her, and to give her much money on account of his conduct, and on account of his affection still existing for her.
Or, whether, having discovered many faults in the other woman, he would now see even more excellences in herself than actually exist, and would be prepared to give her much money for these qualities.
Or, lastly, to consider whether he was a weak man, or a man fond of enjoying many women, or one who liked a poor woman, or one who never did anything for the woman that he was with. After maturely considering all these things, she should resort to him or not, according to circumstances.
(5). As regards the man who may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the other of his own accord, the former woman (wishing to re-unite with him) should first ascertain whether he still has any affection for her, and would consequently spend much money upon her; or whether, being attached to her excellent qualities, he did not take delight in any other women; or whether, being driven away from her formerly before completely satisfying his sexual desires, he wished to get back to her, so as to be revenged for the injury done to him; or whether he wished to create confidence in her mind, and then take back from her the wealth which she formerly took from him, and finally destroy her; or, lastly, whether he wished first to separate her from her present lover, and then to break away from her himself. If, after considering all these things, she is of opinion that his intentions are really pure and honest, she can re-unite herself with him. But if his mind be at all tainted with evil intentions, he should be avoided.
(6). In the case of the man who may have been driven away by one woman, and be living with another, if the man makes overtures in return to the first one, the courtesan should consider well before she acts, and while the other woman is engaged in attracting him to herself, she should try in her turn (through keeping herself behind the scenes) to gain him over, on the grounds of any of the following considerations, viz.:
1st. That he was driven away unjustly and for no proper reason, and now that he has gone to another woman, every effort must be used to bring him back to myself.
2nd. That if he were once to converse with me again, he would break away from the other woman.
3rd. That the pride of my present lover would be put down by means of the former one.
4th. That he has become wealthy, has secured a higher position, and holds a place of authority under the King.
5th. That he is separate from his wife.
6th. That he is now independent.
7th. That he lives apart from his father, or brother.
8th. That by making peace with him I shall be able to get hold of a very rich man, who is now prevented from coming to me by my present lover.
9th. That as he is not respected by his wife, I shall now be able to separate him from her.
10th. That the friend of this man loves my rival, who hates me cordially; I shall, therefore, by this means separate the friend from his mistress.
11th. And lastly, I shall bring discredit upon him by bringing him back to me, thus showing the fickleness of his mind.
When a courtesan is resolved to take up again with a former lover, her Pithamurda and other servants should tell him that his former expulsion from the woman's house was caused by the wickedness of her mother; that the woman loved him just as much as ever at that time, but could not help the occurrence on account of her deference to her mother's will; that she hated the union of her present lover, and disliked him excessively. In addition to this, they should create confidence in his mind by speaking to him of her former love for him, and should allude to the mark of that love that she has ever remembered. This mark of her love should be connected with some kind of pleasure that may have been practised by him, such as his way of kissing her, or manner of having connection with her.
Thus end the ways of bringing about a re-union with a former lover.
When a woman has to choose between two lovers, one of whom was formerly united with her, while the other is a stranger, the Acharyas (sages) are of opinion that the first one is preferable, because his disposition and character being already known by previous careful observation, he can be easily pleased and satisfied; but Vatsyayana thinks that a former lover, having already spent a great deal of his wealth, is not able or willing to give much money again, and is not, therefore, to be relied upon so much as a stranger. Particular cases may, however, arise differing from this general rule on account of the different natures of men.
There are also verses on the subject as follows:
"Re-union with a former lover may be desirable so as to separate some particular woman from some particular man, or some particular man from some particular woman, or to have a certain effect upon the present lover."
"When a man is excessively attached to a woman, he is afraid of her coming into contact with other men; he does not then regard or notice her faults; and he gives her much wealth through fear of her leaving him."
"A courtesan should be agreeable to the man who is attached to her, and despise the man who does not care for her. If while she is living with one man a messenger comes to her from some other man, she may either refuse to listen to any negotiations on his part, or appoint a fixed time for him to visit her, but she should not leave the man who may be living with her and who may be attached to her."
"A wise woman should only renew her connection with a former lover if she is satisfied that good fortune, gain, love, and friendship, are likely to be the result of such a re-union."
OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF GAIN.
When a courtesan is able to realize much money every day, by reason of many customers, she should not confine herself to a single lover; under such circumstances, she should fix her rate for one night, after considering the place, the season, and the condition of the people, and having regard to her own good qualities and good looks, and after comparing her rates with those of other courtesans. She can inform her lovers, and friends, and acquaintances about these charges. If, however, she can obtain a great gain from a single lover, she may resort to him alone, and live with him like a wife.
Now, the Sages are of opinion that when a courtesan has the chance of an equal gain from two lovers at the same time, a preference should be given to the one who would give her the kind of thing which she wants. But Vatsyayana says that the preference should be given to the one who gives her gold, because it cannot be taken back like some other things, it can be easily received, and is also the means of procuring anything that may be wished for. Of such things as gold, silver, copper, bell metal, iron, pots, furniture, beds, upper garments, under vestments, fragrant substances, vessels made of gourds, ghee, oil, corn, cattle, and other things of a like nature, the first, viz., gold, is superior to all the others.
When the same labour is required to gain any two lovers, or when the same kind of thing is to be got from each of them, the choice should be made by the advice of a friend, or it may be made from their personal qualities, or from the signs of good or bad fortune that may be connected with them.
When there are two lovers, one of whom is attached to the courtesan, and the other is simply very generous, the Sages say that the preference should be given to the generous lover, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that the one who is really attached to the courtesan should be preferred, because he can be made to be generous, even as a miser gives money if he becomes fond of a woman, but a man who is simply generous cannot be made to love with real attachment. But among those who are attached to her, if there is one who is poor, and one who is rich, the preference is of course to be given to the latter.
When there are two lovers, one of whom is generous, and the other ready to do any service for the courtesan, some Sages say that the one who is ready to do the service should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that a man who does a service thinks that he has gained his object when he has done something once, but a generous man does not care for what he has given before. Even here the choice should be guided by the likelihood of the future good to be derived from her union with either of them.
When one of the two lovers is grateful, and the other liberal, some Sages say that the liberal one should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that the former should be chosen, because liberal men are generally haughty, plain spoken, and wanting in consideration towards others. Even though these liberal men have been on friendly terms for a long time, yet if they see any fault in the courtesan, or are told lies about her by some other women, they do not care for past services, but leave abruptly. On the other hand the grateful man does not at once break off from her, on account of a regard for the pains she may have taken to please him. In this case also the choice is to be guided with respect to what may happen in future.
When an occasion for complying with the request of a friend, and a chance of getting money come together, the Sages say that the chance of getting money should be preferred. But Vatsyayana thinks that the money can be obtained to-morrow as well as to-day, but if the request of a friend be not at once complied with, he may become disaffected. Even here, in making the choice, regard must be paid to future good fortune.
On such an occasion, however, the courtesan might pacify her friend by pretending to have some work to do, and telling him that his request will be complied with next day, and in this way secure the chance of getting the money that has been offered her.
When the chance of getting money, and the chance of avoiding some disaster come at the same time, the Sages are of opinion that the chance of getting money should be preferred, but Vatsyayana says that money has only a limited importance, while a disaster that is once averted may never occur again. Here, however, the choice should be guided by the greatness or smallness of the disaster.
The gains of the wealthiest and best kind of courtesans are to be spent as follows:
Building temples, tanks, and gardens; giving a thousand cows to different Brahmans; carrying on the worship of the Gods, and celebrating festivals in their honour; and, lastly, performing such vows as may be within their means.
The gains of other courtesans are to be spent as follows:
Having a white dress to wear every day; getting sufficient food and drink to satisfy hunger and thirst; eating daily a perfumed Tambula, i.e., a mixture of betel nut and betel leaves; and wearing ornaments gilt with gold. The Sages say that these represent the gains of all the middle and lower classes of courtesans, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that their gains cannot be calculated, or fixed in any way, as these depend on the influence of the place, the customs of the people, their own appearance, and many other things.
When a courtesan wants to keep some particular man from some other woman; or wants to get him away from some woman to whom he may be attached; or to deprive some woman of the gains realized by her from him; or if she thinks that she would raise her position; or enjoy some great good fortune; or become desirable to all men by uniting herself with this man; or if she wishes to get his assistance in averting some misfortune; or is really attached to him and loves him; or wishes to injure somebody through his means; or has regard to some former favour conferred upon her by him; or wishes to be united with him merely from desire; or any of the above reasons, she should agree to take from him only a small sum of money in a friendly way.
When a courtesan intends to abandon a particular lover, and take up with another one; or when she has reason to believe that her lover will shortly leave her, and return to his wives; or that having squandered all his money, and became penniless, his guardian, or master, or father would come and take him away; or that her lover is about to lose his position, or lastly, that he is of a very fickle mind, she should, under any of these circumstances, endeavour to get as much money as she can from him as soon as possible.
On the other hand, when the courtesan thinks that her lover is about to receive valuable presents; or get a place of authority from the King; or be near the time of inheriting a fortune; or that his ship would soon arrive laden with merchandise; or that he has large stocks of corn and other commodities; or that if anything was done for him it would not be done in vain; or that he is always true to his word; then should she have regard to her future welfare, and live with the man like a wife.
There are also verses on the subject as follows:
"In considering her present gains, and her future welfare, a courtesan should avoid such persons as have gained their means of subsistence with very great difficulty, as also those who have become selfish and hard-hearted by becoming the favourites of Kings."
"She should make every endeavour to unite herself with prosperous and well-to-do people, and with those whom it is dangerous to avoid, or to slight in any way. Even at some cost to herself she should become acquainted with energetic and liberal-minded men, who when pleased would give her a large sum of money, even for very little service, or for some small thing."
OF GAINS AND LOSSES; ATTENDANT GAINS AND LOSSES; AND DOUBTS; AS ALSO OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COURTESANS.
It sometimes happens that while gains are being sought for, or expected to be realised, that losses only are the result of our efforts, the causes of these losses are:
Weakness of intellect.
Excessive self conceit.
Influence of evil genius.
The results of these losses are:
Expense incurred without any result.
Destruction of future good fortune.
Stoppage of gains about to be realized.
Loss of what is already obtained.
Acquisition of a sour temper.
Becoming unaimiable to every body.
Injury to health.
Loss of hair and other accidents.
Now gain is of three kinds, viz.: gain of wealth, gain of religious merit, and gain of pleasure; and similarly, loss is of three kinds, viz.: loss of wealth, loss of religious merit, and loss of pleasure. At the time when gains are sought for, if other gains come along with them, these are called attendant gains. When gain is uncertain, the doubt of its being a gain is called a simple doubt. When there is a doubt whether either of two things will happen or not, it is called a mixed doubt. If while one thing is being done two results take place, it is called a combination of two results, and if several results follow from the same action, it is called a combination of results on every side.
We shall now give examples of the above.
As already stated, gain is of three kinds, and loss, which is opposed to gain, is also of three kinds.
(a). When by living with a great man a courtesan acquires present wealth, and in addition to this becomes acquainted with other people, and thus obtains a chance of future fortune, and an accession of wealth, and becomes desirable to all, this is called a gain of wealth attended by other gain.
(b). When by living with a man a courtesan simply gets money, this is called a gain of wealth not attended by any other gain.
(c). When a courtesan receives money from other people besides her lover, the results are: the chance of the loss of future good from her present lover; the chance of disaffection of a man securely attached to her; the hatred of all; and the chance of a union with some low person, tending to destroy her future good. This gain is called a gain of wealth attended by losses.
(d). When a courtesan, at her own expense, and without any results in the shape of gain, has connected with a great man, or an avaricious minister, for the sake of diverting some misfortune, or removing some cause that may be threatening the destruction of a great gain, this loss is said to be a loss of wealth attended by gains of the future good which it may bring about.
(e). When a courtesan is kind, even at her own expense, to a man who is very stingy, or to a man proud of his looks, or to an ungrateful man skilled in gaining the heart of others, without any good resulting from these connections to her in the end, this loss is called a loss of wealth not attended by any gain.
(f). When a courtesan is kind to any such man as described above, but who in addition are favourites of the King, and moreover cruel and powerful, without any good result in the end, and with a chance of her being turned away at any moment, this loss is called a loss of wealth attended by other losses.
In this way gains and losses, and attendant gains and losses in religious merit and pleasures may become known to the reader, and combinations of all of them may also be made.
Thus end the remarks on gains and losses, and attendant gains and losses.
In the next place we come to doubts, which are again of three kinds, viz.: doubts about wealth, doubts about religious merit, and doubts about pleasures.
The following are examples.
(a). When a courtesan is not certain how much a man may give her, or spend upon her, this is called a doubt about wealth.
(b). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she is right in entirely abandoning a lover from whom she is unable to get money, she having taken all his wealth from him in the first instance, this doubt is called a doubt about religious merit.
(c). When a courtesan is unable to get hold of a lover to her liking, and is uncertain whether she will derive any pleasure from a person surrounded by his family, or from a low person, this is called a doubt about pleasure.
(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether some powerful but low principled fellow would cause loss to her on account of her not being civil to him, this is called a doubt about the loss of wealth.
(e). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she would lose religious merit by abandoning a man who is attached to her without giving him the slightest favour, and thereby causing him unhappiness in this world and the next, this doubt is called a doubt about the loss of a religious merit.
(f). When a courtesan is uncertain as to whether she might create disaffection by speaking out, and revealing her love and thus not get her desire satisfied, this is called a doubt about the loss of pleasure.
Thus end the remarks on doubts.
(a). The intercourse or connection with a stranger, whose disposition is unknown, and who may have been introduced by a lover, or by one who possessed authority, may be productive either of gain or loss, and therefore this is called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of wealth.
(b). When a courtesan is requested by a friend, or is impelled by pity to have intercourse with a learned Brahman, a religious student, a sacrificer, a devotee, or an ascetic who may have all fallen in love with her, and who may be consequently at the point of death, by doing this she might either gain or lose religious merit, and therefore this is called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of religious merit.
(c). If a courtesan relies solely upon the report of other people (i.e., hearsay) about a man, and goes to him without ascertaining herself whether he possesses good qualities or not, she may either gain or lose pleasure in proportion as he may be good or bad, and therefore this is called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of pleasure.
Uddalika has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.
(a). If, when living with a lover, a courtesan gets both wealth and pleasure from him, it is called a gain on both sides.
(b). When a courtesan lives with a lover at her own expense without getting any profit out of it, and the lover even takes back from her what he may have formerly given her, it is called a loss on both sides.
(c). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a new acquaintance would become attached to her, and, moreover, if he became attached to her, whether he would give her any thing, it is then called a doubt on both sides about gains.
(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a former enemy, if made up by her at her own expense, would do her some injury on account of his grudge against her; or, if becoming attached to her, would take away angrily from her any thing that he may have given to her, this is called a doubt on both sides about loss.
Babhravya has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.
(a). When a courtesan can get money from a man whom she may go to see, and also money from a man whom she may not go to see, this is called a gain on both sides.
(b). When a courtesan has to incur further expense if she goes to see a man, and yet runs the risk of incurring an irremediable loss if she does not go to see him, this is called a loss on both sides.
(c). When a courtesan is uncertain, whether a particular man would give her anything on her going to see him, without incurring expense on her part, or whether on her neglecting him another man would give her something, this is called a doubt on both sides about gain.
(d.) When a courtesan is uncertain, whether, on going at her own expense to see an old enemy, he would take back from her what he may have given her, or whether by her not going to see him he would cause some disaster to fall upon her, this is called a doubt on both sides about loss.
By combining the above, the following six kinds of mixed results are produced, viz.:
(a). Gain on one side, and loss on the other.
(b). Gain on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.
(c). Gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.
(d). Loss on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.
(e). Doubt of gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.
(f). Doubt of loss on one side, and loss on the other.
A courtesan, having considered all the above things, and taken council with her friends, should act so as to acquire gain, the chances of great gain, and the warding off of any great disaster. Religious merit and pleasure should also be formed into separate combinations like those of wealth, and then all should be combined with each other, so as to form new combinations.
When a courtesan consorts with men she should cause each of them to give her money as well as pleasure. At particular times, such as the Spring Festivals, etc., she should make her mother announce to the various men, that on a certain day her daughter would remain with the man who would gratify such and such a desire of hers.
When young men approach her with delight, she should think of what she may accomplish through them.
The combination of gains and losses on all sides are: gain on one side, and loss on all others; loss on one side and gain on all others; gain on all sides, loss on all sides.
A courtesan should also consider doubts about gain and doubts about loss with reference both to wealth, religious merit, and pleasure.
Thus ends the consideration of gain, loss, attendant gains, attendant losses, and doubts.
The different kinds of courtesans are:
A female attendant.
An unchaste woman.
A dancing girl.
A female artisan.
A woman who has left her family.
A woman living on her beauty.
And, finally, a regular courtesan.
All the above kinds of courtesans are acquainted with various kinds of men, and should consider the ways of getting money from them, of pleasing them, of separating themselves from them, and of re-uniting with them. They should also take into consideration particular gains and losses, attendant gains and losses, and doubts in accordance with their several conditions.
Thus end the considerations of courtesans.
There are also two verses on the subject as follows:
"Men want pleasure, while women want money, and therefore this Part, which treats of the means of gaining wealth, should be studied."
"There are some women who seek for love, and there are others who seek for money; for the former the ways of love are told in previous portions of this work, while the ways of getting money, as practised by courtesans, are described in this Part."
[Footnote 76: The souls of men who die with their desires unfulfilled are said to go to the world of the Manes, and not direct to the Supreme Spirit.]
END OF PART VI.
ABOUT THE MEANS OF ATTRACTING OTHERS TO YOURSELF.
ON PERSONAL ADORNMENT; ON SUBJUGATING THE HEARTS OF OTHERS; AND ON TONIC MEDICINES.
When a person fails to obtain the object of his desires by any of the ways previously related, he should then have recourse to other ways of attracting others to himself.
Now, good looks, good qualities, youth, and liberality are the chief and most natural means of making a person agreeable in the eyes of others. But in the absence of these a man or a woman must have resort to artificial means, or to art, and the following are some recipes that may be found useful.
(a). An ointment made of the tabernamontana coronaria, the costus speciosus or arabicus, and the flacourtia cataphracta, can be used as an unguent of adornment.
(b). If a fine powder is made of the above plants, and applied to the wick of a lamp, which is made to burn with the oil of blue vitrol, the black pigment or lamp black produced therefrom, when applied to the eye-lashes, has the effect of making a person look lovely.
(c). The oil of the hog weed, the echites putescens, the sarina plant, the yellow amaranth, and the leaf of the nymphae, if applied to the body, has the same effect.
(d). A black pigment from the same plants produce a similar effect.
(e). By eating the powder of the nelumbrium speciosum, the blue lotus, and the mesna roxburghii, with ghee and honey, a man becomes lovely in the eyes of others.
(f). The above things, together with the tabernamontana coronaria, and the xanthochymus pictorius, if used as an ointment, produce the same results.
(g). If the bone of a peacock or of an hyena be covered with gold, and tied on the right hand, it makes a man lovely in the eyes of other people.
(h). In the same way, if a bead, made of the seed of the jujube, or of the conch shell, be enchanted by the incantations mentioned in the Atharvana Veda, or by the incantations of those well skilled in the science of magic, and tied on the hand, it produces the same result as described above.
(i). When a female attendant arrives at the age of puberty, her master should keep her secluded, and when men ardently desire her on account of her seclusion, and on account of the difficulty of approaching her, he should then bestow her hand on such a person as may endow her with wealth and happiness.
This is a means of increasing the loveliness of a person in the eyes of others.
In the same way, when the daughter of a courtesan arrives at the age of puberty, the mother should get together a lot of young men of the same age, disposition, and knowledge as her daughter, and tell them that she would give her in marriage to the person who would give her presents of a particular kind.
After this the daughter should be kept in seclusion as far as possible, and the mother should give her in marriage to the man who may be ready to give her the presents agreed upon. If the mother is unable to get so much out of the man, she should show some of her own things as having been given to the daughter by the bridegroom.
Or, the mother may allow her daughter to be married to the man privately, as if she was ignorant of the whole affair, and then pretending that it has come to her knowledge, she may give her consent to the union.
The daughter, too, should make herself attractive to the sons of wealthy citizens, unknown to her mother, and make them attached to her, and for this purpose should meet them at the time of learning to sing, and in places where music is played, and at the houses of other people, and then request her mother, through a female friend, or servant, to be allowed to unite herself to the man who is most agreeable to her.
When the daughter of a courtesan is thus given to a man, the ties of marriage should be observed for one year, and after that she may do what she likes. But even after the end of the year, when otherwise engaged, if she should be now and then invited by her first husband to come and see him, she should put aside her present gain, and go to him for the night.
Such is the mode of temporary marriage among courtesans, and of increasing their loveliness, and their value in the eyes of others. What has been said about them should also be understood to apply to the daughters of dancing women, whose mothers should give them only to such persons as are likely to become useful to them in various ways.
Thus end the ways of making oneself lovely in the eyes of others.
(a). If a man, after anointing his lingam with a mixture of the powders of the white thorn apple, the long pepper, and the black pepper, and honey, engages in sexual union with a woman, he makes her subject to his will.
(b). The application of a mixture of the leaf of the plant vatodbhranta, of the flowers thrown on a human corpse when carried out to be burnt, and the powder of the bones of the peacock, and of the jiwanjiva bird, produces the same effect.
(c). The remains of a kite who has died a natural death, ground into powder, and mixed with cowach and honey, has also the same effect.
(d). Anointing oneself with an ointment made of the plant emblica myrabolans has the power of subjecting women to one's will.
(e). If a man cuts into small pieces the sprouts of the vajnasunhi plant, and dips them into a mixture of red arsenic and sulphur, and then dries them seven times, and applies this powder mixed with honey to his lingam, he can subjugate a woman to his will directly that he has had sexual union with her, or, if, by burning these very sprouts at night and looking at the smoke, he sees a golden moon behind, he will then be successful with any woman; or if he throws some of the powder of these same sprouts mixed with the excrement of a monkey upon a maiden, she will not be given in marriage to any body else.
(f). If pieces of the arris root are dressed with the oil of the mango, and placed for six months in a hole made in the trunk of the sisu tree, and are then taken out and made up into an ointment, and applied to the lingam, this is said to serve as the means of subjugating women.
(g). If the bone of a camel is dipped into the juice of the plant eclipta prostata, and then burnt, and the black pigment produced from its ashes is placed in a box also made of the bone of a camel, and applied together with antimony to the eye lashes with a pencil also made of the bone of a camel, then that pigment is said to be very pure, and wholesome for the eyes, and serves as a means of subjugating others to the person who uses it. The same effect can be produced by black pigment made of the bones of hawks, vultures, and peacocks.
Thus end the ways of subjugating others to one's own will.
Now the means of increasing sexual vigour are as follows:
(a). A man obtains sexual vigour by drinking milk mixed with sugar, the root of the uchchata plant, the piper chaba, and liquorice.
(b). Drinking milk mixed with sugar, and having the testicle of a ram or a goat boiled in it, is also productive of vigour.
(c). The drinking of the juice of the hedysarum gangeticum, the kuili, and the kshirika plant mixed with milk, produces the same effect.
(d). The seed of the long pepper along with the seeds of the sanseviera roxburghiana, and the hedysarum gangeticum plant, all pounded together, and mixed with milk, is productive of a similar result.
(e). According to ancient authors, if a man pounds the seeds or roots of the trapa bispinosa, the kasurika, the tuscan jasmine, and liquorice, together with the kshirakapoli (a kind of onion), and puts the powder into milk mixed with sugar and ghee, and having boiled the whole mixture on a moderate fire, drinks the paste so formed, he will be able to enjoy innumerable women.
(f). In the same way, if a man mixes rice with the eggs of the sparrow, and having boiled this in milk, adds to it ghee and honey, and drinks as much of it as necessary, this will produce the same effect.
(g). If a man takes the outer covering of sesamum seeds, and soaks them with the eggs of sparrows, and then, having boiled them in milk, mixed with sugar and ghee, along with the fruits of the trapa bispinosa and the kasurika plant, and adding to it the flour of wheat and beans, and then drinks this composition, he is said to be able to enjoy many women.
(h). If ghee, honey, sugar, and liquorice in equal quantities, the juice of the fennel plant, and milk are mixed together, this nectar-like composition is said to be holy, and provocative of sexual vigour, a preservative of life, and sweet to the taste.
(i). The drinking of a paste composed of the asparagus racemosus, the shvadaushtra plant, the guduchi plant, the long pepper, and liquorice, boiled in milk, honey, and ghee, in the spring, is said to have the same effect as the above.
(j). Boiling the asparagus racemosus, and the shvadaushtra plant, along with the pounded fruits of the premna spinosa in water, and drinking the same, is said to act in the same way.
(k). Drinking boiled ghee, or clarified butter in the morning during the spring season, is said to be beneficial to health and strength, and agreeable to the taste.
(l). If the powder of the seed of the shvadaushtra plant and the flower of barley are mixed together in equal parts, and a portion of it, i.e., two palas in weight, is eaten every morning on getting up, it has the same effect as the preceding recipe.
There are also verses on the subject as follows:
"The means of producing love and sexual vigour should be learnt from the science of medicine, from the Vedas, from those who are learned in the arts of magic, and from confidential relatives. No means should be tried which are doubtful in their effects, which are likely to cause injury to the body, which involve the death of animals, and which bring us in contact with impure things. Such means should only be used as are holy, acknowledged to be good, and approved of by Brahmans, and friends."
[Footnote 77: It is a custom of the courtesans of Oriental countries to give their daughters temporarily in marriage when they come of age, and after they have received an education in the Kama Sutra and other arts. Full details are given of this at page 76 of "Early Ideas, a group of Hindoo stories, collected and collated by Anaryan. W. H. Allen and Co., London, 1881."]
[Footnote 78: From the earliest times Oriental authors have occupied themselves about aphrodisiacs. The following note on the subject is taken from page 29 of a translation of the Hindoo Art of Love, otherwise the Anunga Runga, alluded to in the preface of this work, Part I., pages 3 and 5:—"Most Eastern treatises divide aphrodisiacs into two different kinds: 1., the mechanical or natural, such as scarification, flagellation, etc.; and 2., the medicinal or artificial. To the former belong the application of insects, as is practised by some savage races; and all orientalists will remember the tale of the old Brahman, whose young wife insisted upon his being again stung by a wasp."]
OF THE WAYS OF EXCITING DESIRE, AND MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENTS, AND RECIPES.
If a man is unable to satisfy a Hastini, or elephant woman, he should have recourse to various means to excite her passion. At the commencement he should rub her yoni with his hand or fingers, and not begin to have intercourse with her until she becomes excited, or experiences pleasure. This is one way of exciting a woman.
Or, he may make use of certain Apadravyas, or things which are put on or around the lingam to supplement its length or its thickness, so as to fit it to the yoni. In the opinion of Babhravya, these Apadravyas should be made of gold, silver, copper, iron, ivory, buffalo's horn, various kinds of wood, tin or lead, and should be soft, cool, provocative of sexual vigour, and well fitted to serve the intended purpose. Vatsyayana, however, says that they may be made according to the natural liking of each individual.
The following are the different kinds of Apadravyas.
(1). "The armlet" (Valaya) should be of the same size as the lingam, and should have its outer surface made rough with globules.
(2). "The couple" (Sanghati) is formed of two armlets.
(3). "The bracelet" (Chudaka) is made by joining three or more armlets, until they come up to the required length of the lingam.
(4). "The single bracelet" is formed by wrapping a single wire around the lingam, according to its dimensions.
(5). The Kantuka or Jalaka is a tube open at both ends, with a hole through it, outwardly rough and studded with soft globules, and made to fit the side of the yoni, and tied to the waist.
When such a thing cannot be obtained, then a tube made of the wood apple, or tubular stalk of the bottle gourd, or a reed made soft with oil and extracts of plants, and tied to the waist with strings, may be made use of, as also a row of soft pieces of wood tied together.
The above are the things that can be used in connection with or in the place of the lingam.
The people of the southern countries think that true sexual pleasure cannot be obtained without perforating the lingam, and they therefore cause it to be pierced like the lobes of the ears of an infant pierced for earrings.
Now, when a young man perforates his lingam he should pierce it with a sharp instrument, and then stand in water so long as the blood continues to flow. At night he should engage in sexual intercourse, even with vigour, so as to clean the hole. After this he should continue to wash the hole with decoctions, and increase the size by putting into it small pieces of cane, and the wrightia antidysenterica, and thus gradually enlarging the orifice. It may also be washed with liquorice mixed with honey, and the size of the hole increased by the fruit stalks of the sima-patra plant. The hole should be annointed with a small quantity of oil.
In the hole made in the lingam a man may put Apadravyas of various forms, such as the "round," the "round on one side," the "wooden mortar," the "flower," the "armlet," the "bone of the heron," the "goad of the elephant," the "collection of eight balls," the "lock of hair," the "place where four roads meet," and other things named according to their forms and means of using them. All these Apadravyas should be rough on the outside according to their requirements.
The ways of enlarging the lingam must be now related.
When a man wishes to enlarge his lingam, he should rub it with the bristles of certain insects that live in trees, and then, after rubbing it for ten nights with oils, he should again rub it with the bristles as before. By continuing to do this a swelling will be gradually produced in the lingam, and he should then lie on a cot, and cause his lingam to hang down through a hole in the cot. After this he should take away all the pain from the swelling by using cool concoctions. The swelling, which is called "Suka," and is often brought about among the people of the Dravida country, lasts for life.
If the lingam is rubbed with the following things, viz., the plant physalis flexuosa, the shavara-kandaka plant, the jalasuka plant, the fruit of the egg plant, the butter of a she buffalo, the hastri-charma plant, and the juice of the vajra-rasa plant, a swelling lasting for one month will be produced.
By rubbing it with oil boiled in the concoctions of the above things, the same effect will be produced, but lasting for six months.
The enlargement of the lingam is also effected by rubbing it or moistening it with oil boiled on a moderate fire along with the seeds of the pomegranate, and the cucumber, the juices of the valuka plant, the hasti-charma plant, and the egg-plant.
In addition to the above, other means may be learnt from experienced and confidential persons.
The miscellaneous experiments and recipes are as follows:
(a). If a man mixes the powder of the milk hedge plant, and the kantaka plant with the excrement of a monkey, and the powdered root of the lanjalalika plant, and throws this mixture on a woman, she will not love any body else afterwards.
(b). If a man thickens the juice of the fruits of the cassia fistula, and the eugenia jambolana by mixing them with the powder of the soma plant, the vernonia anthelmintica, the eclipta prostata, and the lohopa-jihirka, and applies this composition to the yoni of a woman, and then has sexual intercourse with her, his love for her will be destroyed.
(c). The same effect is produced if a man has connection with a woman who has bathed in the butter-milk of a she-buffalo mixed with the powders of the gopalika plant, the banu-padika plant, and the yellow amaranth.
(d). An ointment made of the flowers of the nauclea cadamba, the hog plum, and the eugenia jambolana, and used by a woman, causes her to be disliked by her husband.
(e). Garlands made of the above flowers, when worn by the woman, produce the same effect.
(f). An ointment made of the fruit of the asteracantha longifolia (kokilaksha) will contract the yoni of a Hastini or elephant woman, and this contraction lasts for one night.
(g). An ointment made by pounding the roots of the nelumbrium speciosum, and of the blue lotus, and the powder of the plant physalis flexuosa mixed with ghee and honey, will enlarge the yoni of the Mrigi or deer woman.
(h). An ointment made of the fruit of the emblica myrabolans soaked in the milky juice of the milk hedge plant, of the soma plant, the calotropis gigantea, and the juice of the fruit of the vernonia anthelmintica, will make the hair white.
(i). The juice of the roots of the madayantaka plant, the yellow amaranth, the anjanika plant, the clitoria ternateea, and the shlakshnaparni plant, used as a lotion, will make the hair grow.
(j). An ointment made by boiling the above roots in oil, and rubbed in, will make the hair black, and will also gradually restore hair that has fallen off.
(k) If lac is saturated seven times in the sweat of the testicle of a white horse, and applied to a red lip, the lip will become white.
(l). The colour of the lips can be regained by means of the madayantika and other plants mentioned above under (i).
(m). A woman who hears a man playing on a reed pipe which has been dressed with the juices of the bahupadika plant, the tabernamontana coronaria, the costus speciosus or arabicus, the pinus deodora, the euphorbia antiquorum, the vajra and the kantaka plant, becomes his slave.
(n). If food be mixed with the fruit of the thorn apple (Dathura) it causes intoxication.
(o). If water be mixed with oil and the ashes of any kind of grass except the kusha grass, it becomes the colour of milk.
(p). If yellow myrabolans, the hog plum, the shrawana plant, and the priyangu plant be all pounded together, and applied to iron pots, these pots become red.
(q). If a lamp, trimmed with oil extracted from the shrawana and priyangn plants, its wick being made of cloth and the slough of the skins of snakes, is lighted, and long pieces of wood placed near it, those pieces of wood will resemble so many snakes.
(r). Drinking the milk of a white cow who has a white calf at her feet is auspicious, produces fame, and preserves life.
(s). The blessings of venerable Brahmans, well propitiated, have the same effect.
There are also some verses in conclusion:
"Thus have I written in a few words the 'Science of love,' after reading the texts of ancient authors, and following the ways of enjoyment mentioned in them."
"He who is acquainted with the true principles of this science pays regard to Dharma, Artha, Kama, and to his own experiences, as well as to the teachings of others, and does not act simply on the dictates of his own desire. As for the errors in the science of love which I have mentioned in this work, on my own authority as an author, I have, immediately after mentioning them, carefully censured and prohibited them."
"An act is never looked upon with indulgence for the simple reason that it is authorised by the science, because it ought to be remembered that it is the intention of the science, that the rules which it contains should only be acted upon in particular cases. After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancient authors, and thinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, the Kama Sutra was composed, according to the precepts of Holy Writ, for the benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of a religious student, and wholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity."
"This work is not intended to be used merely as an instrument for satisfying our desires. A person, acquainted with the true principles of this science, and who preserves his Dharma, Artha, and Kama, and has regard for the practices of the people, is sure to obtain the mastery over his senses."
"In short, an intelligent and prudent person, attending to Dharma and Artha, and attending to Kama also, without becoming the slave of his passions, obtains success in everything that he may undertake."
END OF PART VII.
Thus ends, in seven parts, the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, which might otherwise be called a treatise on men and women, their mutual relationship, and connection with each other.
It is a work that should be studied by all, both old and young; the former will find in it real truths, gathered by experience, and already tested by themselves, while the latter will derive the great advantage of learning things, which some perhaps may otherwise never learn at all, or which they may only learn when it is too late ("too late" those immortal words of Mirabeau) to profit by the learning.
It can also be fairly commended to the student of social science and of humanity, and above all to the student of those early ideas, which have gradually filtered down through the sands of time, and which seem to prove that the human nature of to-day is much the same as the human nature of the long ago.
It has been said of Balzac [the great, if not the greatest of French novelists] that he seemed to have inherited a natural and intuitive perception of the feelings of men and women, and has described them with an analysis worthy of a man of science. The author of the present work must also have had a considerable knowledge of the humanities. Many of his remarks are so full of simplicity and truth, that they have stood the test of time, and stand out still as clear and true as when they were first written, some eighteen hundred years ago.
As a collection of facts, told in plain and simple language, it must be remembered that in those early days there was apparently no idea of embellishing the work, either with a literary style, a flow of language, or a quantity of superfluous padding. The author tells the world what he knows in very concise language, without any attempt to produce an interesting story. From his facts how many novels could be written! Indeed much of the matter contained in parts III. IV. V. and VI., has formed the basis of many of the stories and the tales of past centuries.
There will be found in part VII., some curious recipes. Many of them appear to be as primitive as the book itself, but in later works of the same nature these recipes and prescriptions appear to have increased, both as regards quality and quantity. In the Anunga Runga or "The Stage of Love," mentioned at page 5 of the Preface in Part I., there are found no less than thirty-three different subjects for which one hundred and thirty recipes and prescriptions are given.
As the details may be interesting, these subjects are described as follows:
1. For hastening the paroxysm of the woman.
2. For delaying the organs of the man.
4. For thickening and enlarging the lingam, rendering it sound and strong, hard and lusty.
5. For narrowing and contracting the yoni.
6. For perfuming the yoni.
7. For removing and destroying the hair of the body.
8. For removing the sudden stopping of the monthly ailment.
9. For abating the immoderate appearance of the monthly ailment.
10. For purifying the womb.
11. For causing pregnancy.
12. For preventing miscarriage and other accidents.
13. For ensuring easy labour and ready deliverance.
14. For limiting the number of children.
15. For thickening and beautifying the hair.
16. For obtaining a good black colour to it.
17. For whitening and bleaching it.
18. For renewing it.
19. For clearing the skin of the face from eruptions that break out and leave black spots upon it.
20. For removing the black colour of the epidermis.
21. For enlarging the breasts of women.
22. For raising and hardening pendulous breasts.
23. For giving a fragrance to the skin.
24. For removing the evil savour of perspiration.
25. For anointing the body after bathing.
26. For causing a pleasant smell to the breath.
27. Drugs and charms for the purposes of fascinating, overcoming, and subduing either men or women.
28. Recipes for enabling a woman to attract and preserve her husband's love.
29. Magical collyriums for winning love and friendship.
30. Prescriptions for reducing other persons to submission.
31. Philter pills, and other charms.
32. Fascinating incense, or fumigation.
33. Magical verses which have the power of fascination.
Of the one hundred and thirty recipes given, many of them are absurd, but not more perhaps than many of the recipes and prescriptions in use in Europe not so very long ago. Love-philters, charms, and herbal remedies have been, in early days, as freely used in Europe as in Asia, and doubtless some people believe in them still in many places.
And now, one word about the author of the work, the good old sage Vatsyayana. It is much to be regretted that nothing can be discovered about his life, his belongings, and his surroundings. At the end of Part VII. he states that he wrote the work while leading the life of a religious student [probably at Benares] and while wholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity. He must have arrived at a certain age at that time, for throughout he gives us the benefit of his experience, and of his opinions, and these bear the stamp of age rather than of youth; indeed the work could hardly have been written by a young man.
In a beautiful verse of the Vedas of the Christians it has been said of the peaceful dead, that they rest from their labours, and that their works do follow them. Yes indeed, the works of men of genius do follow them, and remain as a lasting treasure. And though there may be disputes and discussions about the immortality of the body or the soul, nobody can deny the immortality of genius, which ever remains as a bright and guiding star to the struggling humanities of succeeding ages. This work, then, which has stood the test of centuries, has placed Vatsyayana among the immortals, and on This, and on Him no better elegy or eulogy can be written than the following lines:
"So long as lips shall kiss, and eyes shall see, So long lives This, and This gives life to Thee."
* * * * *
Works issued by the Council of the KAMA SHASTRA SOCIETY.
DETAILED PROSPECTUSES CAN BE HAD.
ANANGA-RANGA, (Stage of the Bodiless One) OR THE HINDOO ART OF LOVE, (Ars Amoris Indica,)
TRANSLATED FROM THE SANSKRIT AND ANNOTATED BY A. F. F. AND B. F. R.
This work may fairly be pronounced unique from the days of Sotades and Ovid to our time. Western authors have treated the subject either jocularly, or with a tendency to hymn the joys of immorality. The Indian author has taken the opposite view, and it is impossible not to admire the delicacy with which he has handled an exceedingly delicate theme.
THE PERFUMED GARDEN, OF THE SHEIK NEFZAOUI, OR THE ARAB ART OF LOVE,
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH VERSION OF THE ARABIAN MS.
*** This, the authorized version, is printed in purple and red ink, and ornamented with Arabesque Initial Ornaments.
* * * * *
All occurrences of "i.e." have been italicized for consistency.
On Page 128 there is a paragraph listed as "(2)". However, there is no preceding paragraph listed as "(1)". This is unchanged.
The following changes have been made to the text:
Page 3: "Sancrit literature" changed to "Sanscrit literature".
Page 4: "calied Pachivedas" changed to "called Pachivedas".
Page 9: "sensual grat fication" changed to "sensual gratification".
Page 12: "written by Nundi in one" changed to "written by Nandi in one".
Page 12: "Babhravya, an inheritant" changed to "Babhravya, an inhabitant".
Page 22 (in this version), Footnote #7: "now nnknown" changed to "now unknown".
Page 27: "at the botttom" changed to "at the bottom".
Page 29: "should be understand" changed to "should be understood".
Page 32: "heir heads shaved" changed to "their heads shaved".
Page 33 (in this version), Footnote #29: "fiction, imitiating him" changed to "fiction, imitating him".
Page 37 (in this version), Footnote #32: "technical term throughont" changed to "technical term throughout".
Page 39: "highesf union" changed to "highest union".
Page 41: "if ihe ways" changed to "if the ways".
Page 45: "neither has the rice seven colours" changed to "neither has the rice five colours".
Page 51: "is is called a" changed to "it is called a".
Page 52: "passion is e ces ve" changed to "passion is excessive".
Page 52: "Middllng" changed to "Middling".
Page 53: "breasts, it is called the" changed to "breasts, is called the".
Page 70: "the ennuch moves about" changed to "the eunuch moves about".
Page 70: "passes the tongue ever the end" changed to "passes the tongue over the end".
Page 71: "sonthern bank of the Jumna" changed to "southern bank of the Jumna".
Page 72: "be made nse of" changed to "be made use of".
Page 73: "can then eat sweatmeats" changed to "can then eat sweetmeats".
Page 76: "End of Part II" added.
Page 82: "he should them embrace" changed to "he should then embrace".
Page 93 (in this version), Footnote #49: "Woman is a monaganous animal" to "Woman is a monogamous animal".
Page 101: "remarried, or a concubine" changed to "re-married, or a concubine".
Page 104: "Tho followers of Babhravya says" changed to "The followers of Babhravya say".
Page 106: "the ttme of her turn" changed to "the time of her turn".
Page 110: "if his inaccesibility" changed to "if his inaccessibility".
Page 112: "A covetuous woman" changed to "A covetous woman".
Page 117: "better dressed that before" changed to "better dressed than before".
Page 127 (in this version), Footnote #61:
"jure" changed to "jure".
"profound" changed to "profond".
"Voulez vous qu'infidele" changed to "Voulez-vous qu'infidele".
"language" changed "langage".
"seul" changed to "seule".
"et" changed to "ou".
"gouter" changed to "gouter".
"delire" changed to "delire".
"ou" changed to "ou".
"remede" changed to "remede".
"a" changed to "a".
"ou vous voit on" changed to "ou vous voit-on".
Page 128: "moon-light" changed to "moonlight".
Page 131 (in this version), Footnote #68: "Apar ntakas" changed to "Aparantakas".
Page 132: "t lling them" changed to "telling them".
Page 133: "easily accesible" changed to "easily accessible".
Page 133: "whem he is anxious" changed to "whom he is anxious".
Page 135: "fear of avarice" changed to "fear or avarice".
Page 136: "ways for seduciug" changed to "ways of seducing".
Page 138: "own maintainance" changed to "own maintenance".
Page 140: "beauty, and aimiability" changed to "beauty, and amiability".
Page 140: "to ssess activity" changed to "to possess activity".
Page 143 (in this version), Footnote #74: "In India" changed to "in India".
Page 145: "him." f," changed to "him." If,".
Page 146: "account of its subtletly" changed to "account of its subtlety".
Page 159: "aud well-to-do" changed to "and well-to-do".
Page 168: "incanations mentioned" changed to "incantations mentioned".
Page 171: "trapa bisqinosa" changed to "trapa bispinosa".
Page 173: "he of the same size" changed to "be of the same size".
Page 175: "seeds of the pomegranite" changed to "seeds of the pomegranate".
Page 179: "ready deliverence" changed to "ready deliverance".