This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and extensive prarie, bearing N. 20 W. from the mouth of White Stone Creek Nine Miles, the base of the Mound is a regular parallelagram the long Side of which is about 300 yards in length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards- from the longer Side of the Base it rises from the North & South with a Steep assent to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. the North & South part of this mound is joins by two regular rises, each in Oval forms of half its hight forming three regular rises from the Plain the assent of each elivated part is as Suden as the principal mound at the narrower Sides of its Bass
The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify a belief that it owed its Orrigin to the hand of man; but as the earth and loos pebbles and other Substances of which it was Composed, bare an exact resemblance to the Steep Ground which border on the Creek in its neighbourhood we Concluded it was most probably the production of nature-.
The only remarkable Charactoristic of this hill admiting it to be a naturial production is that it is insulated or Seperated a considerable distance from any other, which is verry unusial in the naturul order or disposition of the hills.
The Surrounding Plains is open void of Timber and leavel to a great extent; hence the wind from whatever quarter it may blow, drives with unusial force over the naked Plains and against this hill; the insects of various kinds are thus involuntaryly driven to the mound by the force of the wind, or fly to its Leward Side for Shelter; the Small Birds whoes food they are, Consequently resort in great numbers to this place in Surch of them; Perticularly the Small brown Martin of which we saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side of the hill, when we approached it in the act of Catching those insects; they were So gentle that they did not quit the place untill we had arrivd. within a fiew feet of them-
One evidence which the Inds Give for believeing this place to be the residence of Some unusial Spirits is that they frequently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this mound- is in my opinion a Suffient proof to produce in the Savage mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they ascribe it.
from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull landscape; Numerous herds of buffalow were Seen feeding in various directions, the Plain to North N. W & N E extends without interuption as far as Can be Seen From the Mound to the mouth of Stone River is S. 20 E 9 miles.
to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is West
to the High land near the mouth of Souis River is S. 70 E.
to the high land opposit Side or near the Maha Town is S. 45 E.
Some high lands to be Seen from the mound at a Great distance to the N. E Some Nearer to the N W. no woods except on the Missouris Points
if all the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 acres it would not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains are delightfull Great numbers of Birds are Seen in those Plains, Such as black bird, Ren or Prarie burd a kind of larke about the Sise of a Partridge with a Short tail &c. &.
25th Augt the Boat under the Comd. of Sergt. Pryor proceeded on in our absence (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles and Camped on the Larboard Side R Fields brought in five Deer. George Shannon Killed an Elk Buck Some rain this evening.
we Set the Praries on fire as a Signal for the Soues to Come to the river.
[Lewis, August 25, 1804] August the 25th on our return from the mound of sperits saw the first bats that we had observed since we began to ascend the Missouri
also saw on our return on the Creek that passes this mound about 2 M. distant S. a bird of heron kind as large as the Cormorant short tale long leggs of a colour on the back and wings deep copper brown with a shade of red. we could not kill it therefore I can not describe it more particularly.
[Clark, August 26, 1804] 26th August Sunday 1804 arrived at the boat at 9 oClock A.M. Set out at 10 oClock after Jurking the meet & Cutting the Elk Skins for a Toe Roap and proceeded, leaveing G. Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses, the river verry full of Sand bars and Wide Course S. 66 W. 2 mes. to a Sand bar Makeing out from the S. S. N. 82 W. 7 mes. to a pt. of willows S S passd. a Island & large Sand bars on both sides river wide and a Clift of White earth on the L. S of 2 ms. in length to a point of Willows on the S. S opposit Arch Creek above the mouth of this Creek a Chief of the Maha nataton displeased with the Conduct of Black bird the main Chief came to this place and built a Town which was called by his name Petite Arch (or Little Bow) this Town was at the foot of a Hill in a handsom Plain fronting the river and Contained about 100 huts & 200 men, the remains of this tribe Since the Death of Petite arch has joined the remaining part of the nation This Creek is Small- we apt. Pat Gass Sergeant Vice Floyd Dicesed, Geathered great quantites of Grapes & three Kinds of Plumbs, one yellow round, & one ovel, & the Common wild Plumb. Misquetors bad to night- I have apt. you
[Clark, August 26, 1804] 26th August Sunday 1804 (Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A M) after Jurking the meat Killed yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe Roape we Set out Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses which was lost with directions to follow us Keeping on the high lands.
proceeded on passed a Clift of White & Blue or Dark earths of 2 miles in extent on the L. S. and Camped on a Sand bar opposed the old village Called Pitite Arc a Small Creek falls into the river 15 yds wide below the Village on the Same Side L. S this village was built by a Indian Chief of the Maha nation by the name of Pitite arc (or little Bow) displeasd. with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seperated with 200 men and built a village at this place. after his death the two villages joined, apt. Pat Gass a Sergt. Vice Floyd Deceased
Great qts. of Grape, Plumbs of three Kinds 2 yellow and large of one of which is long and a 3rd kind round & red all well flavored. perticularly the yellow Sort.
[Lewis, August 26, 1804] Orders August 26th 1804. The commanding officers have thought it proper to appoint Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be obeyed and respected accordingly.
Sergt. Gass is directed to take charge of the late Sergt. Floyd's mess, and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other duties, as by their previous orders been prescribed for the government of the Sergeants of this corps.
The Commanding officers have every reason to hope from the previous faithfull services of Sergt. Gass, that this expression of their approbation will be still further confirmed, by his vigilent attention in future to his duties as a Sergeant. the Commanding officers are still further confirmed in the high opinion they had previously formed of the capacity, deligence and integrety of Sergt. Gass, from the wish expresssed by a large majority of his comrades for his appointment as Sergeant.
Meriwether Lewis Capt. 1st U.S. Regt Infty. Wm Clark Cpt &.
[Clark, August 27, 1804] 27th August Monday, this morning the Morning Star was observed to be very large, G Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon or the horses, he had walked all night- we Sent Shields & J. Fields back to look for Shannon & the horses and to Come up with us on the river above at the grand Callemet or River KaCure & we Set out under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. proceeded on passed a Bluff at 7 mes. Several mile in extent of white Clay Marl or Chalk, under this bank we discovered Large Stone resembling lime incrusted with a Substanc like Glass which I take to be Cabolt, also ore, three mes above this Bluff we Set the Prarie on fire, to let the Soues Know, we wished to see them at two oClock an Indian Swam to the Perogue, we landed & two other Came they were boys, they informed us that the Souex were Camped near, on the R Jacke one Maha boy informed us his nation was gorn to make a peace with the Pania's we Send Sjt. Pryor & a frenchman with the Interptr. Mr. Durion to the Camp to See & invite their Great Chiefs to Come and Counsel with us at the Callemet Bluffs _ Mile abov on L. S.- we proceed on 11/2 miles farther & Camped S S.
[Clark, August 27, 1804] 27th August Monday 1804 This morning the Star Calld. the morning Star much larger than Common G. Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon nor horses, we Sent Shields & J Fields, back to hunt Shannon & the horses, with derections to Keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on River Ka cure.
We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. at 7 miles passed a white Clay marl or Chalk Bluff under this Bluff is extensive I discovered large Stone much like lime incrusted with a Clear Substance which I believe to be Cabalt, also ore is imbeded in the Dark earth, resembling Slate much Softer- above this Bluff we had the Prarie Set on fire to let the Souix See that we were on the river, & as a Signal for them to Come to it.
at 2 oClock passed the mouth of River Jacque, or Yeankton one Indian at the mouth of this river Swam to the Perogue, we landed and two others came to us, those Inds. informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R. Jacque near the mouth. we Sent Sergt. Pryor & a Frenchman with Mr. Durioin the Souls interpeter to the Camp with derections to invite the Principal Chiefs to councel with us at a Bluff above Called the Calumet- two of those Indians accompanied them and the third continued in the Boat Showing an inclination to Continue, this boy is a Mahar, and inform that his nation, were gorn to the Parnias to make a peace with that nation.
We proceeded on about one and a half miles and in Camped on a bar makeing out from the S. S. the wind blew hard from the South. a Cool & Pleasent evening, The river has fallen verry Slowly and is now low.
[Lewis, August 27, 1804] Monday August 27th On the Stard. shore, opposite to the lower point, or commencement of the white Calk Bluff-
[Clark, August 28, 1804] 28th August Tuesday, 1804 The wind blew hard last night one Indian Stayed with us all night, Set out under a Stiff Breeze from S and proceedd on passe a Willow Island at two miles Several Sand bars the river here is wide & Shallow full of Sand bars- The High land appear to be getting nearer to each other passed a Bluff containing Some white earth on the L. S. below this Bluff for Some mile the Plain rises gradually to the hight of the Bluff which is 70 or 80 foot, here the Indian boy left us for his Camp- Capt Lewis & my Self much indisposed- I think from the Homney we Substitute in place of bread, (or Plumbs) we proceeded on about 3 Miles higher and Camped below the Calumet Bluff in a Plain on the L. S. to waite the return of Sergt Pryor & Mr. Durioun, who we Sent to the Soues Camp from the mouth of R. Jacque, before we landed the French rund a Snag thro their Perogue, and like to have Sunk, we had her on loaded, from an examonation found that this Perogue was unfit for Service, & Deturmined to Send her back by the Party intended to Send back and take their Perogue, accordingly Changed the loads, Some of the loading was wet wind blows hard from the South. J Shields & J. Fields joined they did not overtake Shannon with the horses who is a head of us.
[Clark, August 28, 1804] 28th August Tuesday 1804. Set out under a Stiff Breeze from the South and proceeded on passd. a willow Island at 2 miles Several Sand bars, the river wide & Shallow at 4 Miles passed a Short White Bluff of about 70 or 80 feet high, below this Bluff the Prarie rises gradually from the water back to the Hight of the Bluff which is on the Larboard Side here the Indian who was in the boat returned to the Sisouex Camp on the R Jacque, Capt. Lewis & my Self much indisposed owing to Some Cause for which we cannot account one of the Perogues run a Snag thro her and was near Sinking in the opinions of the Crew- we came too below the Calumet Bluff and formed a camp in a Butifull Plain near the foot of the high land which rises with a gradual assent near this Bluff I observe more timber in the valey & on the points than usial- The Perogue which was injurd I had unloaded and the Loading put into the other Perogue which we intended to Send back, the Perogue & changed the Crew after examoning her & finding that She was unfit for Service deturmined to Send her back by the party Some load which was in the Perogue much inju'd
The wind blew hard this after noon from the South- J. Shields & J. Fields who was Sent back to look for Shannon & the Horses joined us & informed that Shannon had the horses a head and that they Could not over take him This man not being a first rate Hunter, we deturmined to Send one man in pursute of him with Some Provisions.-
[Lewis, August 28, 1804] Orders August 28th 1804. The commanding officers direct that the two messes who form the crews of the perogues shall scelect each one man from their mess for the purpose of cooking and that these cooks as well as those previously appointed to the messes of the Barge crew, shall in future be exempted from mounting guard, or any detail for that duty; they are therefore no longer to be held on the royaster.
M. Lewis Capt. 1st US. Regt. Infty. Win Clark Cpt. &.
[Clark, August 29, 1804] 29th August Wednesday 1804- rained last night and Some this morning verry cloudy Set Some men to work to make a Toe rope of Elk Skin, and my Self to write, Sent one man to pursue Shannon a head with Some provisions, I am much engaged writeing a Speech at 4 oClock Sergt. Pryor & Mr. Durion the Soues interpeter with about 70 Soues arrived on the opposit Side of the river we Sent over for them, who came over Mr. D. & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over Mr. Durion informed that three Chiefs were of the Party, we Sent over Serjt. Pryor with young Mr. Durion, Six Kettles for the Indians to Cook the meat they Killed on the way from their Camp (2 Elk & 6 Deer) a bout a bucket of Corn & 2 twists of Tobacco to Smoke intending to Speak to them tomorrow- G. Drewyer Killed a Deer-. Sergt. Pryor informs that when he approached the Indian Camp they Came to meet them Supposeing Cap Lewis or my Self to be of the party intending to take us in a roabe to their Camp-he approached the Camp which was handsum made of Buffalow Skins Painted different Colour, their Camps formed of a Conic form Containing about 12 or 15 persons each and 40 in number, on the River Jacque of 100 yds wide & Deep Containing but little wood, They had a fat dog Cooked as a feest; for them, and a Snug aptmt for them to lodge on their march they passed thro plains Covd. with game &. &. &.
[Clark, August 29, 1804] 29th August Wednesday 1804 Some rain last night & this morning, Sent on Colter with Provisions in pursute of Shannon, had a Toe roap made of Elk Skin, I am much engaged reriteing- at 4 oClock P M. Sergt. Pryor & Mr. Dorion with 5 Chiefs and about 70 men &c. arrived on the opposite Side we Sent over a Perogue & Mr. Dorrion & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over with Serjt Pryer, and informed us that the Chiefs were there we Sent Serjt. Pryor & yound Mr. Dorion with Som Tobacco, Corn & a few Kitties for them to Cook in, with directions to inform the Chiefs that we would Speek to them tomorrow. Those Indians brought with them for their own use 2 Elk & 6 Deer which the young men Killed on the way from their Camp 12 miles distant.
Serjt. Pryor informs me that when Came near the Indian Camp they were met by men with a Buffalow roabe to Carry them, Mr. Dorion informed "they were not the Owners of the Boats & did not wish to be Carried"- the Sceouex Camps are handson of a Conic form Covered with Buffalow Roabs Painted different Colours and all Compact & hand Somly arranged, covered all round an orpen part in the Center for the fire, with Buffalow roabs each Lodg has a place for Cooking detached, the lodges contain 10 to 15 persons- a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their Great respect for the party of which they partook hartily and thought it good & well flavored
The River Jacque is Deep & is navagable for Perogues a long distance up at the mouth it is Shallow & narrow but above it is 80 or 90 yards wide passing thro rich Praries with but little timber this river passes the Souex River and heads with the St Peters and a branch of Red river which which falls into Lake Winepik to the North
[Clark, August 30, 1804] 30th August Thursday 1804 A Foggeie morning I am much engagd. after Brackfast we sent Mr. Doroun in a Perogue to the other Side i'e L S. for the Chiefs and warriers of the Soues, he returned at 10 oClock with the Chiefs, at 12 oClock I finished and we delivered a Speech to the Indians expressive of the wishes of our government and explaining of what would be good for themselves, after delivering the Speech we made one grand Chief 1 2d Cheif and three third Chiefs and deliverd. to each a few articles and a Small present to the whole the grand Chief a Parole, Some wampom & a flag in addition to his present, they with Drew and we retired to dinner, Mr. Durions Sun much displeased that he could not dine with Cap Lewis and my Self- the number of Soues present is about 70 men- Dressed in Buffalow roabes a fiew fusees, Bows and arrows, and verry much deckerated with porcupine quills, a Society of which only four remains is present, this Society has made a vow never to giv back let what will happen, out of 22 only 4 remains, those are Stout likely men who Stay by them Selves, fond of mirth and assume a degree of Superiority-, the air gun astonished them verry much after night a circle was forrm around 3 fires and those Indians danced untill late, the Chiefs looked on with great dignity much pleased with what they had, we retired late and went to bead. wind hard from the South.
[Clark, August 30, 1804] 30th of August Thursday 1804 a verry thick fog this morning after Prepareing Some presents for the Chiefs which we intended make by giving Meadals, and finishing a Speech what we intend'd to give them, we Sent Mr. Dorion in a Perogue for the Chiefs & warreirs to a Council under an Oak tree near wher we had a flag flying on a high flag Staff at 12 OClock we met and Cap L. Delivered the Speach & thin made one great Chiff by giving him a meadal & Some Cloathes one 2d. Chief & three third Chiefs in the Same way, They recvd. those thing with the goods and tobacco with pleasure To the Grand Chief we gave a Flag and the parole & wampom with a hat & Chiefs Coat, we Smoked out of the pipe of peace, & the Chiefs retired to a Bourey made of bushes by their young men to Divide their presents and Smoke eate and Council Capt Lewis & my Self retired to dinner and Consult about other measures- Mr. Daurion Jr. much displeased that we did not invite him to dine with us (which he was Sorry for after wards)- The Souix is a Stout bold looking people, (the young men hand Som) & well made, the greater part of them make use of Bows & arrows, Some fiew fusees I observe among them, not with Standing they live by the Bow & arrow, they do not Shoot So well as the Northern Indians the Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupin quils & feathers, large leagins & mockersons, all with buffalow roabs of Different Colours. the Squars wore Peticoats & and a white Buffalow roabes with the black hair turned back over their necks & Sholders
I will here remark a Society which I had never before this day heard was in any nation of Indians- four of which is at this time present and all who remain of this Band- Those who become members of this Society must be brave active young men who take a Vow never to give back let the danger be what it may; in War Parties they always go foward without Screening themselves behind trees or any thing else to this Vow they Strictly adheer dureing their Lives- an instanc which happened not long Since, on a party in Crossing the R Missourie on the ice, a whole was in the ice imediately in their Course which might easily have been avoided by going around, the foremost man went on and was lost the others wer draged around by the party- in a battle with the Crow Indians who inhabit the Coul Noir or black mountain out of 22 of this society 18 was Killed, the remaining four was draged off by their Party Those men are likely fellows the Sit together Camp & Dance together- This Society is in imitation of the Societies of the de Curbo or Crow Indians from whome they imitate-
[Clark, August 31, 1804] 31st of August Friday rose early a fair Day- a curioes Society among this nation worthey of remark, ie, formed of their active deturmined young men, with a vow never to give back, let the danger or deficuelty be what it may, in war parties they always go forward, without Screening themselves behind trees or anything else, to this vow they Strictly adheer dureing their Lives, an Instance of it, is last winter on a march in Crossing the Missourei a hole was in the ice immediately in their Course which might easily be avoided by going around, the fore most man went on and was drowned, the others were caught by their party and draged aroundin a battle with the Crow de Curbo Indians out of 22 of this Society 18 was killed, the remaining four was draged off by their friends, and are now here- they assocate together Camp together and are merry fellows, This Custom the Souex learned of the de Carbours inhabiting the Gout Noie or Black mountain all the Chiefs Delivered a Speech agreeing to what we Said &. &. & beged which I answered from my notes. We made or gav a certificate to two Brave men the attendants of the Great Chief gave them Some tobacco and prepared a Commission for Mr. Darion to make a peace with all the nations in the neighbourhood, Mahas, Porncases, Panic, Loups, Ottoes and Missouries- & to take to the President Some of the Gt Chiefs of each nations who would accompany him allso to do certain other things, and wrot Instructions- gave him a flag and Some Cloaths- the Chiefs Sent all their young men home, and they Stayed for Mr. Dorion- in the evening late we gave the Comsn. & Instruction to Mr. Durion & he recved them with pleasa, & promised to do all which was necessary. I took a Vocabulary of the Seouex language, and a fiew answers to Some queries I put to Mr. Pitte Dorion respecting the War No. Situation Trad &c. &. of that people which is divided into 20 tribes possessing Sepperate interest they are numerous between 2 & 3000 men, divided into 20 tribes who view their interests as defferent Some bands at War with Nations which other bands are at peace- This nation call themselves-Dar co tar. The french call them Souex Their language is not perculiar to themselves as has been Stated, a great many words is the Same with the Mahas, Ponckais, Osarge, Kanzies &c. Clearly proves to me those people had the Same Oregean - this nations inhabit the red river of Hudson bay St. Peters Missippi, Demoin R. Jacque & on the Missourie they are at War with 20 nations, and at piece with 8 only- they recved their trade from the British except a few on the Missourie they furnish Beaver Martain Loues orter, Pekon Bear and Deer and have forty Traders at least among them. The names of the Different bands of this nation are-
1st Che the ree or Bois ruley (the present band) Inhabit the Souex Jacque & Demoin Rivers
2nd Ho in de bor to or poles. They live on the head of the Suouex River
3rd Me ma car jo (or make fence on the river.) the Country near the Big bend of the Missouri.
4th Son on to ton (People of the Prarie) they rove North of the Missourie in the Praries above.
5th Wau pa Coo do (Beeds) they live near the Prarie de Chaine on the Missippi
6th Te tar ton (or Village of Prarie) on the waters of the Mississippi above Prate de Chain (Dog Prarie)
7th Ne was tar ton (Big Water Town) on the Mississippi above the mouth of the St. Peters River.
8th Wau pa to (Leaf Nation). 10 Leagues up St. Peters
9th Cass car ba (White man) 35 Lgs. up St Peters
10 Mi ac cu op si ba (Cut Bank) reside on the head of St. Peters river
11 Son on- on St. Peters in the Praries
12th Se si toons- 40 Leagues up St Peters.
The names of the other tribes I could not get In
31st August 1804 Speeches
at 8 oClock the Chiefs and warriers met us in Council all with their pipes with the Stems presented towards us, after a Silence of abt. _ The great Chief Dressed himself in his fine Cloathes and two warriers in the uniform and armer of their Nation Stood on his left with a War Club & Speer each, & Dressed in feathurs.
The Shake hand 1st Chief Spoke
My Father. I am glad to here the word of my G. F. and all my warriers and men about me are also glad.
My Father.- now I see my two fathers the Children, of my great father, & what you have Said I believe and all my people do believ also
My Father- We are verry glad you would take pitty on them this Day, we are pore and have no powder and ball.
My Father.- We are verry Sorry our women are naked and all our children, no petiecoats or cloathes
My Father- You do not want me to Stop the boats going up if we See,
I wish a man out of your boat to bring about a peace, between all the Indians, & he can do So.
My Father- Listen to what I say I had an English medal when I went to See them, I went to the Spanoriards they give me a meadel and Some goods, I wish you would do the Same for my people.
My Father.- I have your word I am glad of it & as Soon as the Ice is don running I will go down & take with me, Some great men of the other bands of the Soues
My Father- I will be glad to See My Grand Father but our Women has got no Cloathes and we have no Powder & Ball, take pity on us this day.
My Father- I want to listen and observe wath you Say, we want our old friend (Mr. Durion) to Stay with us and bring the Indians with my Self down this Spring.
My Father- I opend my ears and all my yound men and we wish you to let Mr. Durion Stay, and a Perogue for to take us down in the Spring.
The speach of th White Crain Mar to ree 2d Chief
My Fathr's listen to my word, I am a young man and do not intend to talk much, but will Say a few words.
My Father- my father was a Chief, and you have made me a Chief I now think I am a chief agreeable to your word as I am a young man and inexperienced, cannot say much What the Great Chief has Said is as much as I could Say
Par nar ne Ar par be Struck by the Pana 3d Chief
My father's I cant Speek much I will Speek a litle to you
My fathers.- ther's the Chiefs you have made high, we will obey them, as also my young men, the Pipe I hold in my hand is the pipe of my father, I am pore as you See, take pity on me I believe what you have Said
My fathers- You think the great meadel you gave My great Chief pleases me and the small one you gave me gives me the heart to go with him to See my Great father. What the Great Chief has Said is all I could Say. I am young and Cant Speek.
A Warrier by name Tar ro mo nee Spoke
My father- I am verry glad you have made this man our great
Chief, the British & Spaniards have acknowledged him before but never Cloathed him. you have Cloathed him, he is going to see our Great father, We do not wish to spear him but he must go and see his great father
My Fathr's, my great Chief must go and See his Gd father, give him some of your milk to Speek to his young men,
My father. our people are naked, we wish a trader to Stop among us, I would be verry glad our two fathers would give us some powder and ball and some Milk with the flag.
Speech of Ar ca we char chi the half man 3d Chief
My fathr's I do not Speak verry well, I am a pore man and
My Fathr's. I was once a Chiefs boy now I am a man and a Chief of Some note
My Fat hr's- I am glad you have made my old Chief a fine and a great man, I have been a great warrier but now I here your words, I will berry my hatchet and be at peace with all & go with my Great Chief to see my great father.
My fath-s. When I was a young man I went to the Spaniards to see ther fassion, I like you talk and will pursue you advice, Since you have given me a meadal. I will tell you the talk of the Spaniards
My Father's.- I am glad my Grand father has sent you to the read people on this river, and that he has given us a flag large and handsom the Shade of which we can Sit under
My Fathr's.- We want one thing for our nation very much we have no trader, and often in want of goods
My Fathers- I am glad as well as all around me to here your word, and we open our ears, and I think our old Frend Mr. Durion can open the ears of the other bands of Soux. but I fear those nations above will not open their ears, and you cannot I fear open them
My Fathers. You tell us that you wish us to make peace with the Ottoes & M. You have given 5 Medles I wish you to give 5 Kigz with them
My Fathers.- My horses are pore running the Buffalow give us
Some powder and ball to hunt with, and leave old Mr. Durion with us to get us a trader
My Father.- The Spaniards did not keep the Medal of the Token of our Great Chief when they gave him one You have Dressed him and I like it I am pore & take pitey on me
My fathers- I am glad you have put heart in our great Chief he can now speak with confidence, I will support him in all your Councilsafter all the chief presented the pipe to us
The Half man rose & spoke as follows viz.
My father- What you have Said is well, but you have not given any thing to the attendants of the Great Chiefs after which
In the evening late we gave Mr. Dorion a bottle of whiskey and himself with the Chiefs Crossed the river and Camped on the opposit bank Soon after a violent Wind from the N W. accompanied with rain
[Clark, August 31, 1804] 31st of August We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on the Chief gave to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco- had a talk with Mr. Dorion, who agreed to Stay and Collect the Chiefs from as many Bands of Soux as he coud this fall & bring about a peace between the Sciuex & their neighbours &. &c. &c.
after Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Darion, a Comission to act with a flag & some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions to bring about a peace with the Scioux Mahars, Panies, Ponceries, Ottoes & Missouries- and to employ any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of those nations as he Could Perticularly the Sceiouex- I took a Vocabulary of the Scioux Language- and the Answer to a fiew quaries Such as refured to ther Situation, Trade, number War, &c. &c.- This Nation is Divided into 20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests- Collectively they are noumerous Say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests are so unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations which other bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great Nation who the French has given the nickname of Sciouex, Call them selves Dar co tar their language is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, Poncaser, Osarge & Kanzies. which Clearly proves that those nation at Some Period not more that a century or two past the Same nation- Those Dar ca ter's or Scioux inhabit or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake Winipeck, St. Peter's & the West of the Missippie above Prarie De chain heads of River Demoin, and the Missouri and its waters on the N. Side for a great extent. They are only at peace with 8 Nations, & agreeable to their Calculation at war with twenty odd.- Their trade Corns from the British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with the Traders of St Louis- The furnish Beaver Martain, Loues Pikon, Bear and Deer Skins-and have about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or Sceouex rove & follow the Buffalow raise no corn or any thing else the woods & praries affording a Suffcency, the eat Meat, and Substitute the Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread The names of the Different Tribes or Canoes of the Sceoux or Dar co tar Nation
1st Che cher ree Yank ton (or bois rulay) now present inhabit the Sciouex & Demoin rivers and the Jacques.
2nd Hoin de borto (Poles) they rove on the heads of Souix & Jacqus Rivers-
3rd Me ma car jo (make fence of the river) rove on the Countrey near the big bend of the Missouries
4th Sou on, Teton (People of the Prarie) the rove in the Plains N. of the Riv Missouries above this
5th Wau pa coo tar (Leaf beds) the live near the Prare de Chain near the Missippi
6th Te tar ton (or village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the Mississippi above Prarie de Chain
7th Ne was tar ton (big water Town) rove on the Missippi above the St. Peters River
8th Wau pa tow (Leaf nation) live 10 Leagues up St Peters river
9th Cas Car ba (white man) live 35 Leagus up St Peters river
10th Mi ca cu op si ba (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters
11th Sou on (-) rove on St peters river in the Prareis
12th Sou si toons (-) live 40 Legus up the St peters river
The names of the other bands neither of the Souex's interpters could inform me. in the evening late we gave Mr. Dourion a bottle of whiskey, & he with the Cheifs & his Son Crossed the river and Camped on the Opposit bank- Soon after night a violent wind from the N W. with rain the rain Continud the greater part of the night The river a riseing a little.
[Clark, August 31, 1804] August the 31st 1804 after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and arranged themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all pointing to our Seets, we Came foward and took our Seets, the Great Cheif The Shake han rose and Spoke to Some length aproving what we had Said and promissing to pursue the advice.
Mar to ree 2d Cheif (White Crain) rose and made a Short Speech and refured to the great Chief
Par nar ne Ar par be 3rd Cheif rose and made a Short Speech
Ar ca we char the (the half man) 3d Chief rose & spoke at Some length. Much to the purpose.
The othe Cheif Said but little one of the warreirs Spoke after all was don & promissed to Support the Chiefs, the promisd to go and See their Great father in the Spring with Mr. Dorion, and to do all things we had advised them to do. and all Concluded by telling the distresses of ther nation by not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the wanted Powder Ball & a little milk
last night the Indians Danced untill late in their dances we gave them Som knives Tobaco & belts & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied
[Clark, September 1, 1804] September 1st Satturday 1804 Mr. Durion left his Kettle which we gave him, which we Sent to him and Set out under a gentle Breeze from the South (raind half the last night,) proceded on- pass Calumet Bluff of a yellowish read & a brownish white Hard clay, this Bluff is about 170 or 180 foot high here the highlands aproach the river on each Side with a jentle assent, opsd. the Bluff a large Island Covered with timber is Situated Close to the L. S. we passed the Island opposit which the high land approach the river on both Side (river ros 3 Inchs last night) passed a large Island Covered with wood on the L. S. Some rain, cloudy all day- the river wide & Hils close on each Side, Came to before night to go & See a Beaver house which is 11/2 Miles to the L. S. of the riv Cap Lewis & my self with two men went to See this house which was represented as high & situated in a Small pond. we could not find the Pon. Drewyer Killed a Buck Elk, it is not necessary to mention fish as we catch them at any place on the river, Camped at the lower point of Bonhomme Island-
[Clark, September 1, 1804] September 1st Satturday 1804 Mr. Dourion left his Kettle & Sent back for it &c. We Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last night) proceeded on pass the Bluffs Compsd. of a yellowish red, & brownish White Clay which is a hard as Chalk this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, here the High lands approach near the river on each Side, that on the S. S. not So high as that on the L. S. opposit the Bluffs is Situated a large Island Covered with timber close under the L. S. above the Isd the high land approach & form a Clift to the river on the S. S. this Clift is Called White Bear Clift one of those animals haveing been killed in a whole in it
[Clark, September 1, 1804] 1st of September Satturday 1804 Some hard wind and rain, Cloudy all day, the river wide & hills on each Side near the river, passd. a large (1) Island which appeared to be composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton wood close under the S. S. we landed at the Lower point of a large Island on the S. S. Called bon homme or Good man, here Capt Lewis & my Self went out a Short distance on the L. S. to See a Beave house, which was Said to be of Great hite & Situated in a Pond we could not find the house and returned after night Drewyer killed an Elk, & a Beaver. numbers of Cat fish cought, those fish is so plenty that we catch them at any time and place in the river
[Clark, September 2, 1804] 2nd of Sept. Sunday 1804- Set out early & proceeded on passed the Island & Came too above below a yellow Bluff on the S S. the Wind being hard from the N W. verry Cold Some rain all day much Thunder & lightning G Drewyer R. Fields Howard & Newmon Killed four fat Elk on the Isld. we had them Jurked &the Skins Stretched to Cover the Perogues water riseing, I observe Bear grass & Rhue in the Sides of the hills at Sunset the wind luled and cleared up cool- Aired the meet all in high Spirits- Shannon & the man Sent after him has not yet joind us
2 Sepr. description of a antient fortification
(1) From the river on the top of the antient fortification at this the 12 foot high 75 feet Base first Corse is from the river is S 76 W 96 yards. S 84 W. 53 yds. at this angle a kind of ravilene covering a Saleport, bearing East widing N 69 W 300 yds. passed a gate way at 280 yds. the bank lower & forming a right angle of 30 yards- two wings or mounds running from a high nold to the West of the way one 30 yards back of the other Covering the gate (at this place the mound is 15 feet 8 Inches higher than the plain forming a Glassee outwards & 105 feet base N. 32 W. 56 yards N. 20 W. 73 yards this part of the work is about 12 feet high, leavel & about 16 feet wide on the top) at the experation of this course a low irregular work in a Direction to the river, out Side of which is several ovel mounds of about 16 feet high and at the iner part of the Gouge a Deep whole across the Gauge N.
32 W 96 yds. to the Commencment of a wall of about 8 feet high N.81 W. 533 yards to a Deep pond 73 yds in Deamuter, and 200 yards further to a Saleport, where there is evident marks of its being Covered, the Same Course Contined 1030 yards to the river bottom.
One half of the first part of the Fortification is washed into the river, a Second line, has run from the Northrn extremity parrelel with the river (as it appears to have run at that time) N. 56 W. this of different hith from 4 to to 10 feet- The high land is about 3 me. from this fortress, and rise to Small mountains Say from 3 to 400 feet the high land on the opposit or North Side of the Missourie is 110 feet forming a yellow Clay bluff to the water and is leavel back as fur as can be Seen. I am informed by the inteperter & french, that they have Seen, numbers of those fortifications in different parts of this Cty. pirtcularly on the Platt Kansies and the North of this place on the river Jacque.
two Small fortifications is on the Arc Creek on the upper side 1st 1/4 of a mile up & the 2d 1/4 higher, nearly Square each angle 100 yards
[Clark, September 2, 1804] 2nd September Sunday 1804 Set out early and proceeded on Passed the Island and Landed on the S. S above under a yellow Clay bluff of 110 feet high, the wind blew verry hard a head from the N. W. with Some rain and verry Cold, G. Drewnyer R. Fields Newman & howard Killed four fine Elk we had the meat all jurked and the Skins Dried to Cover the Perogue, on the Side of the Bluff I observed Bear Grass & Rhue, at Sun Set the wind luled and Cleared up Cold, the high land on the L. S. is verry high, & uneaven, that on the S. S from 80 to 120 foot & is leavel back but fiew Small Streems falling into the river.
I went out and made a Survey of the antient works which is Situated in a level plain about 3 miles from the hills which are high.
A Discription of the Fortification
(1) Commenceing on the river opsid the Good Mans Island, first Course from the river is
S. 76d W. 96 yards thence
S. 84 W. 53 yards (at this angle a kind of angle or horn work)
N. 69 W. 300 yards to a high part, passing the gateway Covered by two half Circler works one back of the other lower than the main work the gate forms a right angle projecting inward
N.32 W. 56 yards
N 20 W. 73 yards This part of the work appears to have either double, or a covered way. from this Some irregular works appear to have been on mounds between this and the river with a Deep round whole in the center of a gorge formed by another angle ——— (578)
This part of the work is from 10 to 15 feet 8 Inches- the mounds of various hights- the base of the work is from 75 to 105 feet, steep inward and forming a kind of Glassee out wards
the Same Cours continued i e
N. 32W. 96 yards to the Commencement of a wall from 8 to 10 feet high this corse not on the wall but thro to the commencment of another detached
N. 81 W 1830 yards to the river & above where this bank Strikes the river is the remains of a Circular work
in this Course at 533 yards a Deep Pond of 73 yards Diameter perfectly round is in the Course of the bank which is about 8 feet high, from this Pond the bank it lowers gradually- a bank about the Same hight runs near the river, and must have joined the main work at a part which is now washed into the river, this is also perfectly Streight and widens from the main work, as the river above has washed in its banks for A great distance I cannot form an Idear How those two long works joined- where they Strike the river above, they are about 1100 yds apart, I am informed by our freench interpeters that a great number of those antint works are in Different parts of this Countrey, on the Platt River, Kansus, Jacque, Osarge Mine river &c.
Small one is on Island opposit the one I have Discribed, and two of our Party Saw two of those antient frtresses on the Pittiet Arc Creek on the upper Side near the mouth, each angle of which were 100 yards and about 8 feet high-
[Clark, September 3, 1804] 3rd September Monday 1804. Set out at Sun rise, verry Cold morning clear and but little wind from the N W. we proceeded on, the river wide, took an obsivation below Plumb Creek which mouths on the S S. this Creek is Small & corns in between 2 white banks, Great quantities of Plumbs of a most delisious flavour, I have collected the Seed of 3 Kinds which I intend to Send to my brother, also Som grapes of a Superior quallity large & well flavoured, the river is riseing a little, Several wild Goats Seen in the Plains they are wild & fleet Elk & Buffalow is verry plenty, Scercely any timber in Countrey except a little on the river in the Points. Saw Some Signs of the 2 men who are a head, Colter has not over taken Shannon Camped on the L. S. at the edge of a Plain-
[Clark, September 3, 1804] 3rd of September Monday 1804 a verry Cold morning wind from N. W. we Set out at Sun rise, & proceeded on to a Bluff below the mouth of Plumb 12 yds. Creek on the S. S. and took an obsevation of the Suns Altitude
This Creek is Small it "abounds with blumbs of a Delicious flavour" the River is wide and Crouded with Sand bars- it is riseing a little but little timber in this Countrey all that is, is on the river in the points. we Came too on the L. Sin the edge of a Plain an Camped for the night- we Saw Some Signs of the two men Shannon & Colter, Shannon appeared to be a head of Colter- The White banks appear to Continu on both sides of the river. Grapes plenty and finely flavered-
[Clark, September 4, 1804] 4th of September Tuesday 1804. a verry Cold wind from South E. by S. we Set out early proceeded on to the mouth of a Small Creek in the bend to the L. S. Called white line at 11/2 miles furthr passed the mouth of a R au platte or White paint Cr about 25 yd. on Same Side Called, I walked on the top of the hill forming a Cliff Covd. with red Ceeder an extensive view from this hill, at 3 Miles from the Creek the high land jut the river forming a Bluff of Bluish Clay Continu 11/2 miles Came to at the mouth of Qui courre (rapid) this river Comes roleing its Sands whuch (is corse) into the Missouris from the S W by W. this river is 152 yards across the water and not exeeding 4 feet Deep it does not rise high when it Does it Spreds over a large Surface, and is not navagable it has a Great many Small Islands & Sand bars I went up this river 3 miles to the Spot the Panis once had a large Village on the upper Side in a butifull extensive Plain riseing gradially from the river I fel into a Buffalow road joined the boat late at night at the Pania Island.
[Clark, September 4, 1804] 4th September Tuesday 1804 a verry Cold wind from the S. S. E, we Set out early and proceeded on the mouth of a Small Creek in a bend to the L. S. Called White lime, at 11/2 miles higher up passed a large Creek on the L. S. Called or white paint between those two Creeks (the latter of which is abt. 30 yds. wide) we passed under a Bluff of red Ceeder, at 4 mes. 1/2 passed the mouth of the River Que Courre (rapid R) on the L. S. and Came to a Short distance above, this River is 152 yards wide at the mouth & 4 feet Deep Throwing out Sands like the Platt (only Corser) forming bars in its mouth, I went up this river three miles to a butifull Plain on the upper Side where the Panias once had a Village this river widens above its mouth and is devided by Sand and Islands, the Current verry rapid, not navagable for even Canoos without Great dificulty owing to its Sands; the colour like that of the Plat is light the heads of this river is not known, it Corns into the Missourie from the S. W. by West, and I am told that is Genl. Course Some distance up is parrelel with the Missourie
[Clark, September 5, 1804] 5th September 1804 Wednesday, Set out early the wind blew hard from the South as it has for Some Days past, we Set up a jury mast & Sailed, I saw a large gangue of Turkeys, also Grous Seen Passed a large Island of about 3 miles long in the Middle of the river opposit the head of this Island the Poncarre River Coms into the Missourei on the L. S.- the S. S is a Clift under which great numbers of Springs run out of mineral water, Saw Several wild goats on the Clift & Deer with black tales,- Sent Shields & Gibson to the Poncas Towns, which is Situated on the Ponca river on the lower side about two miles from its mouth in an open butifull Plain, at this time this nation is out hunting the biffalow they raise no corn or Beens, Gibson killed a Buffalow in the Town, The two men which has been absent several Days is ahead, we came to on the upper pt. of a large Island at 3 oClock to make a mast Sent out Some hunters on the Island (which I call no preserve Island, at this place we used the last of our Preservs) They killed 3 bucks, & two Elk which welurked
[Clark, September 5, 1804] September 5th Wednesday 1804 Set out early the winds blew hard from the South, Goats turkeys Seen to day, passed a large Island (1) opsd. this Island near the head the Poncasar River Coms into the Missourie from the West this river is about 30 yards wide. dispatched two men to the Poncaries Village Situated in a handsom Plain on the lower Side of this Creek about two miles from the Missourie (the Poncasars nation is Small and at this time out in the praries hunting the Buffalow), one of the men Sent to the Village Killed a Buffalow in the town, the other, a large Buck near it, Some Sign of the two men who is a head.
above the Island on the S. S We passed under a Bluff of Blue earth, under which Seveal Mineral Springs broke out of the water of which had a taste like Salts, we Came too on the upper point of a large Island (which I call No preserves Island) here we made a Ceeder Mast, our hunters brought in three bucks, and two elks this evening which we had jurked
One of the hunter Shields, informed that he Saw Several black tailed Deer, near the Poncaser Village
[Lewis, September 5, 1804] Sept 5th saw some wild goats or antelopes on the hill above the Glauber Salts Springs they ran off we could not discover them sufficiently distinctly to discribe even their colour their track is as large as a deer reather broader & more blont at the point
This day one of our hunters brought us a Serpent beautifully variagated with small black spotts of a romboydal form on a light yellow white ground the black pedominates most on the back the whiteis yellow on the sides, and it is nearly white on the belly with a few party couloured scuta on which the black shews but imperfectly and the colouring matter seems to be underneath the Scuta- it is not poisonous it hisses remarkably loud; it has 221 Scuta on the belly and 51 on the tale, the eyes are of a dark black colour the tale terminates in a sharp point like the substance of a cock's spur- Length 4 Ft. 6 I.
[Clark, September 6, 1804] 6th Septr Thursday 1804, a Storm this morning from the N W. at day light which lasted a fiew minits, Set out after the Storm was over and proceeded on a hard wind ahead passed the island which is Seperated from the L. Side by a narrow Channel. the morning is verry Cold.
Camped on S. Side before night no timbering in reach ahead, R. Fields killed 2 Deer Saw Buffalow, & Goats this evening, the river riseing a little
[Clark, September 6, 1804] Septr. 6th Thursday 1804 a Storm this morning from the N. W. which lasted a fiew minits, we Set out and proceeded on passed the head of the Isd. which is Seperated from the L. S by a narrow Channel, a hard wind from the N. W. a verry Cold day- we Camped on the S. S. at the upper point of Some timber, Some time before night, no timber, no timber being in reach.
I saw Several goats on the hills on the S. S. also Buffalow in great numbers
[Clark, September 7, 1804] 7th September Friday 1804. a verry Cold morning Set out at Day light
near the foot of this high Nole we discovered a Village of an annamale the french Call the Prarie Dog which burrow in the grown & with the rattle Snake and Killed one & Caught one Dog alive caught in a whole 2 frogs near the hole Killed a Dark Rattle Snake with a Prairie dog in him
The Village of those little dogs is under the ground a conisiderable distance we dig under 6 feet thro rich hard clay without getting to their Lodges Some of their wholes we put in 5 barrels of water without driveing them out, we caught one by the water forceing him out. ther mouth resemble the rabit, head longer, legs short, & toe nails
long ther tail like a ground Squirel which they Shake and make chattering noise ther eyes like a dog, their colour is Gray and Skin contains Soft fur
[Clark, September 7, 1804] 7th Septr. 1804 Septr. 7th Friday a verry Cold morning Set out at day light we landed after proceding 51/2 miles, near the foot of a round mounting which I saw yesterday resembling a dome.
Capt Lewis & my Self walked up, to the top which forms a Cone and is about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Bass is about 300 foot in decending this Cupola, discovered a Village of Small animals that burrow in the grown (those animals are Called by the french Pitite Chien) Killed one & Cought one a live by poreing a great quantity of water in his hole we attempted to dig to the beds of one of thos animals, after diging 6 feet, found by running a pole down that we were not half way to his Lodges, we found 2 frogs in the hole, and killed a Dark rattle Snake near with a Ground rat in him, (those rats are numerous) the Village of those animals Covs. about 4 acrs of Ground on a Gradual decent of a hill and Contains great numbers of holes on the top of which those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise and whin allarmed Slip into their hole- we por'd into one of the holes 5 barrels of water without filling it, Those Animals are about the Size of a Small Squrel Shorter & thicker, the head much resembling a Squirel in every respect, except the ears which is Shorter, his tail like a ground Squirel which thy Shake & whistle when allarmd. the toe nails long, they have fine fur & the longer hair is gray, it is Said that a kind of Lizard also a Snake reside with those animals. Camped
[Lewis and Clark, September 8, 1804] 8th of September 1804 Satturday. Set out early and proceeded on under a Gentle breese from the S. E. at 3 mes passed the place where Trodow wintered one winter
I went out to day on the S. S with a view to find Some of the little dogs, and Coats, Traveled over a riged and mountanious Countrey without water & riseing to 5 or 600 hundred feet, Islands & Sands interveneing prevt. my getting to the boat untill after night, in my absent Capt. Lewis killed a Buffalow, I saw Greid many Buffalow & white wolves. (Sailed all day)
[Clark, September 8, 1804] 8th of September Satturday Set out early and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E, at 3 mes. passed the house of Troodo where he wintered in 96. Called the Pania house, above is high hills on the S. S. on the S. S. much higher hills than usial appear to the North distant 8 miles recently burnt- pass 3 Small Islands at about 5 miles on this Course on the S. S. here Capt. Lewis Killed a Buffalow in the river, and this men one other Came to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river Called Boat Island and incamped, jurked the meet Killed to day Consisting of 2 buffalow, one large Buck Elk one Small, 4 Deer 3 Turkeys & a Squirel, I joined the boat at this Camp, The Countrey on the S S. is pore & broken.
[Clark and Whitehouse, September 9, 1804] 9th Septembr Sunday, Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the Island Several gangus of Buffalow on the Sides of the hils on the L. S. halted on L. Side took breakfast. Capt. Clark walked on Shore, we proceeded on
R. Fields came to the Boat had killed one Buffalow. passed red ceeder on the edge of the hills on bouth Sides of the river but most on the bluff on
[Clark, September 9, 1804] 9th September Sunday 1804 Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the Island on which we Camped, passed three Sand & willow Islands, the Sand bars So noumerous, it is not worth mentioning them, the river Shoal or Shallow wind S E Came too and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt Lewis went out to Kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening with a view to Kill a Goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the evening after the boat landed, I Derected my Servent York with me to kill a Buffalow near the boat from a numbr. then Scattered in the plains, I saw at one view near the river at least 500 Buffalow, those animals have been in view all day feeding in the Plains on the L. S. every Copse of timber appear to have Elk or Deer. D. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow Y. 2, R. Fields one.
[Lewis, September 9, 1804] Sept. 9th Capt. Clark found on the Lard shore under a high bluff issuing from a blue earth a bittuminus matter resembling molasses in consistance, colour and taste-
[Clark, September 10, 1804] 10th September Monday a Cloudy morning Set out early under a Gentle Breeze from the S E. passed two Small Islands one on the L. S. & the other on the S. S. both in the first Course at 101/2 miles passed the lower pt. of Ceder Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. this Island is about 2 miles long Covered with red Ceder, the river is verry Shallow opsd. this Island- below the Island on the top of a ridge we found a back bone with the most of the entire laying Connected for 45 feet those bones are petrified, Some teeth & ribs also Connected. at 3 mes. above ceder I passed a large Island on the S. S. to this Island Several Elk Swam above this Island on the Midle is Situated 2 Islands small one above the other, those Islands are Called mud Islands and camped on the upper Island of them 3 Buffalow 1 Elk &c. Killed to day, river falling a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt water much frequented by Buffalow, Some Smaller Springs on the Side of the hill above less Salt, the water excesiv Salt, and is 11/2 miles from the river on the S. W. or L. S. opposit Ceder Island-
[Clark, September 10, 1804] 10th September Monday 1804. a Cloudy dark morning Set out early, a Gentle breeze from the S. E, passed two Small Islands on the L. S. and one on the S. S. all in the first Course at 101/2 miles passed the lower point of an (2) Island Covered with red Ceeder Situated in a bend on the L. S. this Island is about 2 Moles in length (1) below this on a hill on the L. S. we found the back bone of a fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, &c. those joints were Seperated and all petrefied, opposit this Island 11/2 miles from the river on the L. S. is a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt water. one other high up the hill 1/2 me. not So Salt.
we proceeded on under a Stiff Breeze. three miles above Ceder Island passed a large Island on the S. S, no water on that Side (3) Several elk Swam to this Island passed a Small Island near the Center of the river, of a mile in length, and Camped on one aboav Seperated from the other by a narrow Chanel, Those Islands are Called Mud Islands- the hunters killed 3 fuffalow & one Elk to day. The river is falling a little, Great number of Buffalow & Elk on the hill Sides feeding deer Scerce
we came too at the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. at Dark in a heavy Shower of rain, it Continued to rain the greater part of the night, with a hard wind from the N W Cold
[Clark, September 11, 1804] Septr. 11th Tuesday 1804 Set out early a Cloudy morning the river verry wide from one hill to the other, with many Sand bars passed the Isd. on which we lay at a mile passed three Isds. one on the L. S. (1/4 of a mile from it on the L. S. a village of little Dogs. I Killed four, this village is 800 yards wide & 970 yds. long on a jentle Slope of a hill in a plain, those animals are noumerous) the other two Islands are on the S. S. the river is verry Shallow & wide, the boat got a ground Several times- The man G Shannon, who left us with the horses above the Mahar Village, and beleving us to be ahead pushed on as long as he Could, joined us he Shot away what fiew Bullets he had with him, and in a plentiful) Countrey like to have Starvd. he was 12 days without provision, Subsisting on Grapes at the Same the Buffalow, would Come within 30 yards of his Camp, one of his horses gave out & he left him before his last belluts were Consumed- I saw 3 large Spoted foxes today a black tailed Deer, & Killed a Buck elk & 2 Deer, one othr Elk 2 Deer & a Porkipine Killed to day at 12 oClock it became Cloudy and rained all the after noon, & night.
[Clark, September 11, 1804] Sept. 11th Tuesday 1804 a cloudy morning, Set out verry early, the river wide & Shallow the bottom narrow, & the river Crouded with Sand bars, passed the Island on which we lay at one mile-, pased three Islands one on the L. S. and 2 on the S. S. opposit the Island on the L. S. I Saw a village of Barking Squriel 970 yds. long, and 800 yds. wide Situated on a gentle Slope of a hill, those anamals are noumerous, I killed 4 with a view to have their Skins Stufed.
here the man who left us with the horses 22 days ago and has been a head ever Since joined, us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball-. This man Supposeing the boat to be a head pushed on as long as he Could, when he became weak and fiable deturmined to lay by and waite for a tradeing boat, which is expected Keeping one horse for the last resorse,- thus a man had like to have Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bulletes or Something to kill his meat we Camped on the L. S. above the mouth of a run a hard rain all the after noon, & most of the night, with hard wind from the N W. I walked on Shore the fore part of this day over Some broken Country which Continus about 3 miles back & then is leavel & rich all Plains, I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer. & Squirels the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican
Some rain all day to day & Cold
I walked on Shore Saw Several foxes Several Villages of Prarie dogs, and a number of Grouse
[Clark, September 12, 1804] Septr. 12th Wednesday 1804 a Dark Cloudy Day the wind hard from the N. W. we passed (1) a Island the middle of the river at the head of which we found great dificuelty in passing between the Sand bars the water Swift and Shallow, it took 3/4 of the day to make one mile, we Camped on the L. S. opsd. a Village of Barking Prarie Squriels
I walked out in the morning and Saw Several Villages of those little animals, also a great number of Grous & 3 foxes, and observed Slate & Coal mixed, Some verry high hills on each Side of the river. rains a little all day.
[Clark, September 13, 1804] 13th Septr. Thursday 1804 a Dark Drizzley Day, G D Cought 4 Beaver last night the winds from the N W. Cold Set out early and proceeded on verry well passed a number of Sand bars, Capt Lewis killed a Porcupin on a Cotton treee fieeding on the leaves & bowers of the Said tree, the water is verry Shallow being Crouded with Sand bars Camped on the S. Side under a Bluff. the Bluffs on the S. S. not So much impregnated with mineral as on the L. S. muskeetors verry troublesom-.
[Lewis, September 13, 1804] September 13th Killed a bluewinged teal and a Porcupine; found it in a Cottonwood tree near the river on the Lard. Shore- the leaves of the Cottonwood were much distroyed- as were those of the Cottonwood trees in it's neighbourhood. I therefore supposed that it fed on the folage of trees at this season, the flesh of this anamal is a pleasant and whoalsome food- the quills had not yet obtained their usual length- it has four long toes, before on each foot, and the same number behind with the addition of one short one on each hind foot on the inner side. the toes of the feet are armed with long black nails particularly the fore feet- they weigh from 15 to 20 lbs- they resemble the slowth very much in the form of their hands, or fore feet. their teeth and eyes are like the bever
[Clark, September 14, 1804] Septr 14th Friday 1804 Course Dists & rifur. Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand bars water wide & Shallow N. 68 W. 23/4 mes. to a pt. of high Land on the L. S. passed a round Island on the S S.- Caught 3 beaver last night, Some drizzeley rain Cloudy & Disagreeable and Som hard Showers, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Volcano Said to be in this neghbourhood by Mr. McKey I was Some distance out Could not See any Signs of a Volcanoe, I killed a Goat, which is peculier to this Countrey about the hite of a Grown Deer Shorter, its horns Coms out immediately abov its eyes broad 1 Short prong the other arched & Soft the color is a light gray with black behind its ears, white round its neck, no beard, his Sides & belly white, and around its taile which is Small & white and Down its hams, actively made his brains on the back of its head, his noisterals large, his eyes like a Sheep only 2 hoofs on each foot no antelrs (more like the antelope or gazella of Africa than any other Specis of Goat). Shields Killed a Hare weighing 61/2 lb. verry pore, the head narrow and its ears 3 Inches wide and 6 long, from the fore to the end of the hind foot; is 2 feet 11 Inch. hite 1 foot 13/4 its tail long & thick white, clearly the mountain Hare of Europe, a rainy evening all wett The Soil of those Plains washes down into the flats, with the Smallest rain & disolves & mixes with the water we See back from the river high hills in a leavel plain, evidently the remains of mountains, what mud washed into the river within those few days has made it verry mudy, passed two Small Creeks on the L. S. & Camped below a 3rd on the L. S. rained all evening
[Clark, September 14, 1804] 14th Septr. Friday 1804. Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand bars the river wide and Shallow 3 beaver Caught last night, Drizeley rain in the forepart of this day, cloudy and disagreeable, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanio, Said to be in this neighbourhood by Mr. J. McKey of St. Charles. I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appearance of the Villcanoe, in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight. of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter, the Horns which is not very hard and forks 2/3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its Jaw white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail which is Short & white verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot. his brains on the back of his head, his Norstral large, his eyes like a Sheep- he is more like the Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. Shields Killed a Hare like the mountain hare of Europe, waighing 61/4 pounds (altho pore) his head narrow, its ears large i, e, 6 Inches long & 3 Inchs wide one half of each white, the other & out part a lead grey from the toe of the hind foot to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1 foot 1 Inche & 3/4, his tail long thick & white.
The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My ramble I observed, that all those parts of the hills which was Clear of Grass easily disolved and washed into the river and bottoms, and those hils under which the river run, Sliped into it and disolves and mixes with the water of the river, the bottoms of the river was covered with the water and mud frome the hills about three Inches deep- those bottoms under the hils which is Covered with Grass also a great quantity of mud.
Passed 2 Small Creeks on the L. S and Camped below the third, (the place that Shannon the man who went a head lived on grapes) Some heavy Showers of rain all wet, had the Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night
[Lewis, September 14, 1804] September 14th 1804 this day Capt. Clark killed a male wild goat so called- it's weight 65 lbs.
F I length from point of nose to point of tail 4 9 hight to the top of the wethers 3 - do. behind 3 - girth of the brest 3 1 girth of the neck close to the shoulders 2 2 do. near the head 1 7
Eye deep sea green, large percing and reather prominent, & at or near the root of the horn within one 1/4 inches
[Lewis, September 14, 1804] Sept. 14th 1804. Shields killed a hare of the prarie, weight six pounds and 1/4
F. I. Length from point of hind to extremity fore feet 2 11 hight when standing erect 1 13/4 length from nose to tale 2 1 girth of body 1 23/4 length of tale - 61/2 length of the year - 51/2 width of do. do. - 3 1/8 from the extremity of the hip to the toe of the hind foot 1 31/2
the eye is large and prominent the sight is circular, deep sea green, and occupyes one third of the width of the eye the remaining two thirds is a ring of a bright yellowish silver colour. the years ar placed at the upper part of the head and very near to each other, the years are very flexable, the anamall moves them with great ease and quickness and can contrat and foald them on his back or delate them at pleasure- the front outer foald of the year is a redis brown, the inner foalds or those which ly together when the years are thrown back and wich occupy two thirds of the width of the year is of a clear white colour except one inch at the tip of the year which is black, the hinder foald is of a light grey- the head back sholders and outer part of the thighs are of a ledcoloured grey the sides as they approache the belly grow lighter becomeing gradually more white the belly and brest are white with a shad of lead colour- the furr is long and fine- the tale is white round and blounty pointed the furr on it is long and extreemly fine and soft when it runs it carry's it's tale strait behind the direction of the body- the body is much smaller and more length than the rabbit in proportion to it's height- the teeth are like those of the hair or rabbit as is it's upper lip split- it's food is grass or herbs- it resorts the open plains, is extreemly fleet and never burrows or takes shelter in the ground when pursued, I measured the leaps of one which I suprised in the plains on the 17th Inst. and found them 21 feet the ground was a little decending they apear to run with more ease and to bound with greater agility than any anamall I ever saw. this anamal is usually single seldom associating in any considerable numbers.
[Clark, September 15, 1804] September the 15th Satturday 1804 Set out early passed the Mouth of a creek on the L S. where Shannon lived on grapes waiting for Mr. Clintens boat Supposeing we had went on, Capt Lewis and my Self halted at the mouth of White River & wend up a Short Crossed &, this river is about 400 yards, the water Confined within 150 yards, the Current regularly Swift, much resembling the Missourie, Sand bars makeing out from the points, Some Islands we Sent up two men to go up this river one Day and Meet us to morrow we proceeded on passed a Small Island Covered with Ceder timber, & great number of rabits, no game except rabits, and Camped on the S. S. opposit a large Creek, on which there is more wood than usial on Creeks in this quaterr this creek raised 14 feet last rain I Killed a Buck elk & a Deer.
[Clark, September 15, 1804] 15th September Satturday 1804 Set out early passed the mo of the Creek, and the mouth of White river; (1) Capt Lewis and my Self went up this river a Short distance and Crossed, found that this differed verry much from the Plat or que Courre, threw out but little Sand, about 300 yard wide, the water confind within 150 yards, the current regular & Swift much resemblig the Missourie, with Sand bars from the points a Sand Island in the mouth, in the point is a butifull Situation for a Town 3 Gradual assents, and a much Greater quantity of timber about the mouth of this river than usial, we concluded to Send Some distance up this river detached Sjt. Gass & R. Fields. we proceeded on passed a Small (2) Island Covered with Ceeder on I Saw great numbers of Rabits & Grapes, this Island is Small & Seperated from a large Sand Isd. at its upper point by a narrow Channel, & is Situated nearest the L. Side. Camped on the S. S. opposit the mouth of a large Creek on which there is more timber than is usial on Creeks of this Size, this Creek raised 14 feet the last rains. I killed a Buck Elk & Deer, this evening is verry Cold, Great many wolves of Different Sorts howling about us. the wind is hard from the N W this evening
[Lewis, September 16, 1804] Sunday September 16th 1804. This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at 1/2 after 7 A.M. on the Lard. Shore 11/4 miles above the mouth of a small creek which we named Corvus, in consequence of having kiled a beatiful bird of that genus near it we concluded to ly by at this place the ballance of this day and the next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the heavy showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, and also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading to the red perogue, which we now determined to take on with us to our winter residence wherever that might be; while some of the men were imployed in this necessary labour others were dressing of skins washing and mending their cloaths &c. Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck immediately on landing near our encampment; the deer were very gentle and in great numbers on this bottom which had more timber on it than any part of the river we had seen for many days past, consisting of Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent ash and a considerable quanty of a small species of white oak which is loaded with acorns of an excellent flavor very little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species of oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply indented, it seldom rises higher than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is rough and thick and of a light colour; the cup which contains the acorn is fringed on it's edges and imbraces the nut about one half; the acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number of deer which we saw here had been induced thither by the acorns of which they are remarkably fond. almost every species of wild game is fond of the acorn, the Buffaloe Elk, deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigegians and even the wolves feed on them; we sent three hunters out who soon added eight deer and two Buffaloe to our strock of provisions; the Buffaloe were so pour that we took only the tongues skins and marrow bones; the skins were particularly acceptable as we were in want of a covering for the large perogue to secure the baggage; the clouds during this day and night prevented my making any observations. Sergt. Gass and Reubin Fields whom we had sent out yesterday to explore the White river returnd at four oclock this day and reported that they had foil meanders of that stream about 12 miles r's general course West, the present or principal channel iro yards wide; the coulour of the water and rapidity and manner of runing resembled the Missouri presisely; the country broken on the border of the river about a mile, when the level planes commence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side; as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep declivities of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered from the effects of the fire. these extensive planes had been lately birnt and the grass had sprung up and was about three inches high. vast herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antilopes were seen feeding in every direction as far as the eye of the observer could reach.
[Clark, September 16, 1804] September 16th Sunday, we proceeded on 11/4 Miles and Camped on the L. Side in a butifull Plain Surounded with timber in which we Saw Severall Der, we delayed here for the purpose of Drying the articles which were wet & the cloathes to Load the Perogue which we had intended to send back, finding the water too Shoal Deturmind to take on the Perogue also to make Some observations for Longitude &c. the two men G. & R. F. joined us and informed "that the river as far as they were up had much the Appearance of the river about the mouth, but little timber and that chiefly elm", the up land between this river & the White river is fine, Great numbers of Goat, Deer of three kinds, Buffalow, & wolves, & Barking Squrels, The fallow Deer, Cloudy, all day Cleaning out the boat examining & Drying the goods, & loading the Perogue, I killed 2 Deer Capt Lewis one & a Buffalow, one Buffalow & five other Deer Killed. I observed Pine Burs & Burch Sticks in the Drift wood up white river which Coms in on the L. S. imedeately in the point is a butifull Situation for a town 3 Gentle rises, & more timber about the mouth of this river than usial
[Clark, September 16, 1804] 16th of September Sunday 1804 We Set out verry early & proceed'd on 11/4 miles between Sand bars and Came too on the L. S. (1)- deturmined to dry our wet thig and liten the boat which we found could not proceed with the present load for this purpose we Concluded to detain the Perogue we had intended to Send back & load her out of the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them from our winter quarters. We put out those articles which was wet, Clean'd the boat & perogus, examined all the Locker Bails &. &c. &.
This Camp is Situated in a butifull Plain Serounded with Timber to the extent of 3/4 of a mile in which there is great quantities of fine Plumbs The two men detachd up the White river joined us here & informed that the river as far as they were up had much the appearance of the Missourie Som Islands & Sands little Timber Elm, (much Signs of Beaver, Great many buffalow) & Continud its width, they Saw & well as my Self Pine burs & Sticks of Birch in the Drift wood up this river, They Saw also Number of Goats Such as I Killed, also wolves near the Buffalow falling Deer, & the Barking Squrels Villages Capt. Lewis went to hunt & See the Countrey near the Kamp he killed a Buffalow & a Deer
Cloudy all day I partly load the empty Perogue out of the Boat. I killed 2 Deer & the party 4 Deer & a Buffalow the we kill for the Skins to Cover the Perogus, the meet too pore to eat. Capt Lewis went on an Island above our Camp, this Island is abt. one mile long, with a Great purpotion ceder timber near the middle of it
I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those who had expended thers
[Lewis, September 17, 1804] Monday September 17th 1804. Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek- accordingly before sunrise I set out with six of my best hunters, two of whom I dispatched to the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders to hunt the bottoms and woodland on the river, while I retained two others to acompany me in the intermediate country. one quarter of a mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a fine open grove of cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees loaded with fruit and now ripe. observed but little difference between this fruit and that of a similar kind common to the Atlantic States. the trees are smaller and more thickly set. this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20 feet more lelivated than that on which we were encamped; this plain extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile distant and to which it is gradually ascending this plane extends with the same bredth from the creek below to the distance of near three miles above parrallel with the river, and is intirely occupyed by the burrows of the barking squril hertefore discribed; this anamal appears here in infinite numbers, and the shortness and virdue of grass gave the plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull bowlinggreen in fine order. it's aspect is S. E. a great number of wolves of the small kind, balks and some pole-cats were to be seen. I presume that those anamals feed on this squirril.- found the country in every direction for about three miles intersected with deep reveries and steep irregular hills of 100 to 200 feet high; at the tops of these hills the country breakes of as usual into a fine leavel plain extending as far as the eye can reach. from this plane I had an extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills which border the opposite sides of the river and creek. the surrounding country had been birnt about a month before and young grass had now sprung up to hight of 4 Inches presenting the live green of the spring. to the West a high range of hills, strech across the country from N. to S and appeared distant about 20 miles; they are not very extensive as I could plainly observe their rise and termination no rock appeared on them and the sides were covered with virdue similar to that of the plains this senery already rich pleasing and beatiful, was still farther hightened by immence herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be compreed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was if possible to kill a female Antelope having already procured a male; I pursued my rout on this plain to the west flanked by my two hunters untill eight in the morning when I made the signal for them to come to me which they did shortly after. we rested our selves about half an hour, and regailed ourselves on half a bisquit each and some jirk of Elk which we had taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning before we set out, and drank of the water of a small pool which had collected on this plain from the rains which had fallen some days before. We had now after various windings in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which we had seen on our way made the distance of about eight miles from our camp. we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch that we had been unable to get a shot at them; when at rest they generally seelect the most elivated point in the neighbourhood, and as they are watchfull and extreemly quick of sight and their sense of smelling very accute it is almost impossible to approach them within gunshot; in short they will frequently discover and flee from you at the distance of three miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility and superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me really astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small herd of seven, in the first instance they did not discover me distinctly and therefore did not run at full speed, tho they took care before they rested to gain an elivated point where it was impossible to approach them under cover except in one direction and that happened to be in the direction from which the wind blew towards them; bad as the chance to approach them was, I made the best of my way towards them, frequently peeping over the ridge with which I took care to conceal myself from their view the male, of which there was but one, frequently incircled the summit of the hill on which the females stood in a group, as if to look out for the approach of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when they smelt me and fled; I gained the top of the eminece on which they stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an extensive view of the country the antilopes which had disappeared in a steep revesne now appeared at the distance of about three miles on the side of a ridge which passed obliquely across me and extended about four miles. so soon had these antelopes gained the distance at which they had again appeared to my view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I had just surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it appeared reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the finest blooded courser.- this morning I saws
[Clark, September 17, 1804] 17th of Septr. Monday 1804 above White river Dried all those articles which had got wet by the last rain, a fine day Capt Lewis went hunting with a vew to seethe Countrey &its productions, he was out all Day Killed a Buffalow & a remarkable bird of the Spicies of Corvus, long tail of a Greenish Purple, Varigated a Beck like a Crow white round its neck comeing to a point on its back, its belley white feet like a Hawk abt. the size of a large Pigeon Capt Lewis returned at Dark. I took the Meridian & equal altitudes to day made the Lattitude.
Colter Killed a Goat, & a Curious kind of Deer, a Darker grey than Common the hair longer & finer, the ears verry large & long a Small resepitical under its eye its tail round and white to near the end which is black & like a Cow in every other respect like a Deer, except it runs like a goat. large.
The hunters brought in 8 fallow Deer & 5 Common Deer to day, Great numbers of Buffalow in the Praries, also a light Coloured woolf Covered with hair & corse fur, also a Small wolf with a large bushey tail- Some Goats of a Different Kind Seen to day,- Great many Plumbs, rabits, Porcupines & barking Squrels, Capt Lewis Killed a rattle Snake in a village of the Squirel's and Saw a Hair to day. Wind from the S. W. we finished Drying our Provisions Some of which was wet and Spoiled,
[Clark, September 17, 1804] 17th of September Monday 1804 Dried all our wet articles this fine Day, Capt Lewis went out with a View to see the Countrey and its productions, he was out all day he killed a Buffalow and a remarkable Bird of the Corvus Species long tail the upper part of the feathers & also the wing is of a purplish variated Green, the black, a part of the wing feather are white edjed with black, white belley, white from the root of the wings to Center of the back is white, the head nake breast & other parts are black the Becke like a Crow. abt. the Size of a large Pigion. a butifull thing (See Suplement in No. 3)
I took equal altitudes and a meridian altitude. Capt. Lewis returned at Dark, Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed and a curious kind of deer of a Dark gray Colr. more so than common, hair long & fine, the ears large & long, a Small reseptical under the eyes; like an Elk, the Taile about the length of Common Deer, round (like a Cow) a tuft of black hair about the end, this Speces of Deer jumps like a goat or Sheep
8 fallow Deer 5 Common & 3 buffalow killed to day, Capt. Lewis Saw a hare & Killed a Rattle Snake in a village of B. squerels The wind from S. W. Dryed our provisions, Some of which was much Damaged.
[Lewis, September 17, 1804] Sept. 17th one of the hunters killed a bird of the Corvus genus and order of the pica & about the size of a jack-daw with a remarkable long tale. beautifully variagated. it note is not disagreeable though loudit is twait twait twait, twait; twait, twait twait, twait.
F I from tip to tip of wing 1 10 Do. beak to extremity of tale 1 81/2 of which the tale occupys 1 1 from extremity of middle toe to hip 51/2
it's head, beak, and neck are large for a bird of it's size; the beak is black, and of a convex and cultrated figure, the chops nearly equal, and it's base large and beset with hairs- the eyes are black encircled with a narrow ring of yellowish black it's head, neck, brest & back within one inch of the tale are of a fine glossey black, as are also the short fathers of the under part of the wing, the thies and those about the root of the tale. the belly is of a beatifull white which passes above and arround the but of the wing, where the feathers being long reach to a small white spot on the rump one inch in width- the wings have nineteen feathers, of which the ten first have the longer side of their plumage white in the midde of the feather and occupying unequal lengths of the same from one to three inches, and forming when the wing is spead a kind of triangle the upper and lower part of these party coloured feathers on the under side of the wing being of dark colour but not jut or shining black. the under side of the remaining feathers of the wing are darker. the upper side of the wing, as well as the short side of the plumage of the party coloured feathers is of a dark blackis or bluish green sonetimes presenting as light orange yellow or bluish tint as it happens to be presented to different exposures of ligt- the plumage of the tale consits of 12 feathers of equal lengths by pairs, those in the center are the longest, and the others on each side deminishing about an inch each pair- the underside of the feathers is a pale black, the upper side is a dark bluefish green which like the outer part of the wings is changable as it reflects different portions of light. towards the the extremely of these feathers they become of an orrange green, then shaded pass to a redish indigo blue, and again at the extremity assume the predominant colour of changeable green- the tints of these feathers are very similar and equally as beatiful and rich as the tints of blue and green of the peacock- it is a most beatifull bird.- the legs and toes are black and imbricated. it has four long toes, three in front and one in rear, each terminated with a black sharp tallon from 3/8ths to 1/2 an inch in length.- these birds are seldom found in parties of more than three or four and most usually at this season single as the balks and other birds of prey usually are- it's usual food is flesh- this bird dose not spread it's tail when it flys and the motion of it's wings when flying is much like that of a Jay-bird-