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The Journals of Lewis and Clark
by Meriwether Lewis et al
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[Lewis, September 9, 1805] Monday September 9th 1805. Set out at 7 A M. this morning and proceeded down the Flathead river leaving it on our left, the country in the valley of this river is generally a prarie and from five to 6 miles wide the growth is almost altogether pine principally of the longleafed kind, with some spruce and a kind of furr resembleing the scotch furr. near the wartercourses we find a small proportion of the narrow leafed cottonwood some redwood honeysuckle and rosebushes form the scant proportion of underbrush to be seen. at 12 we halted on a small branch which falls in to the river on the E. side, where we breakfasted on a scant proportion of meat which we had reserved from the hunt of yesterday added to three geese which one of our hunters killed this morning. two of our hunters have arrived, one of them brought with him a redheaded woodpecker of the large kind common to the U States. this is the first of the kind I have seen since I left the Illinois. just as we were seting out Drewyer arrived with two deer. we continued our rout down the valley about 4 miles and crossed the river; it is hear a handsome stream about 100 yards wide and affords a considerable quantity of very clear water, the banks are low and it's bed entirely gravel. the stream appears navigable, but from the circumstance of their being no sammon in it I believe that there must be a considerable fall in it below. our guide could not inform us where this river discharged itself into the columbia river, he informed us that it continues it's course along the mountains to the N. as far as he knew it and that not very distant from where we then were it formed a junction with a stream nearly as large as itself which took it's rise in the mountains near the Missouri to the East of us and passed through an extensive valley generally open prarie which forms an excellent pass to the Missouri. the point of the Missouri where this Indian pass intersects it, is about 30 miles above the gates of the rocky mountain, or the place where the valley of the Missouri first widens into an extensive plain after entering the rockey mountains. the guide informed us that a man might pass to the missouri from hence by that rout in four days. we continued our rout down the W. side of the river about 5 miles further and encamped on a large creek which falls in on the West as our guide informes that we should leave the river at this place and the weather appearing settled and fair I determined to halt the next day rest our horses and take some scelestial Observations. we called this Creek Travellers rest. it is about 20 yards wide a fine bould clear runing stream the land through which we passed is but indifferent a could white gravley soil. we estimate our journey of this day at 19 M.

[Clark, September 9, 1805] September 9th Monday 1805 a fair morning Set out early and proceeded on thro a plain as yesterday down the valley Crossed a large Scattering Creek on which Cotton trees grew at 11/2 miles, a Small one at 10 miles, both from the right, the main river at 15 miles & Encamped on a large Creek from the left which we call Travelers rest Creek. killed 4 deer & 4 Ducks & 3 prarie fowls. day fair Wind N. W. See Suplement

[Lewis, September 10, 1805] Tuesday September 10th 1805. The morning being fair I sent out all the hunters, and directed two of them to procede down the river as far as it's junction with the Eastern fork which heads near the missouri, and return this evening. this fork of the river we determined to name the Valley plain river. I think it most probable that this river continues it's course along the rocky Mts. Northwardly as far or perhaps beyond the scources of Medecine river and then turning to the West falls into the Tacootchetessee. The Minetares informed us that there was a large river west of, and at no great distance from the sources of Medecine river, which passed along the Rocky Mountains from S. to N.this evening one of our hunters returned accompanyed by three men of the Flathead nation whom he had met in his excurtion up travellers rest Creek. on first meeting him the Indians were allarmed and prepared for battle with their bows and arrows, but he soon relieved their fears by laying down his gun and advancing towards them. the Indians were mounted on very fine horses of which the Flatheads have a great abundance; that is, each man in the nation possesses from 20 to a hundred head. our guide could not speake the language of these people but soon engaged them in conversation by signs or jesticulation, the common language of all the Aborigines of North America, it is one understood by all of them and appears to be sufficiently copious to convey with a degree of certainty the outlines of what they wish to communicate. in this manner we learnt from these people that two men which they supposed to be of the Snake nation had stolen 23 horses from them and that they were in pursuit of the theaves. they told us they were in great hast, we gave them some boiled venison, of which the eat sparingly. the sun was now set, two of them departed after receiving a few small articles which we gave them, and the third remained, having agreed to continue with us as a guide, and to introduce us to his relations whom he informed us were numerous and resided in the plain below the mountains on the columbia river, from whence he said the water was good and capable of being navigated to the sea; that some of his relation were at the sea last fall and saw an old whiteman who resided there by himself and who had given them some handkerchiefs such as he saw in our possession.- he said it would require five sleeps wich is six days travel, to reach his relations. the Flatheads are a very light coloured people of large stature and comely form.

[Clark, September 10, 1805] September 10th Tuesday 1805 A fair morning Concluded to Delay to day and make Some observations, as at this place the rout which we are to prosue will pass up the Travelers rest Creek, The day proved fair and we took equal altitudes & Some Inner observations. The Latd. 46 48' 28" as the guide report that no game is to be found on our rout for a long ways, ads an addition to the cause of our delay to precure Some meat, despatched all our hunters in different directions, to hunt the Deer which is the only large game to be found they killed 4 deer a Beaver & 3 Grouse which was divided, one of the hunters Colter, met with 3 Tushapaw Indians who were in pursuit of 2 Snake Indians that bade taken from ther Camps on the head of Kooskooske River 21 horses, Those Indians came with Colter to our Camp & informed by Signs of their misfortune & the rout to ther villages &c. &c. one of them Concluded to return with us. we gave them a ring fish hook & tied a pece of ribin in the hare of each which appeared to please them verry much, Cap Lewis gave them a Steel & a little Powder to make fire, after eating 2 of them proceeded on in pursute of their horses. men all much engaged preparing mockersons &c. &c. The Countrey about this place is already described in that above.

[Clark, September 11, 1805] September 11th Wednesday 1805 A fair morning wind from the N W we Set out at 3 oClock and proceeded on up the Travelers rest Creek, accompanied by the flat head or Tushapaws Indians about 7 miles below this Creek a large fork comes in from the right and heads up against the waters of the Missouri below the Three forks, this river has extensive Vallies of open leavel land, "and passes in its Whole Course thro a Valie" they call it our Guide tels us a fine large roade passes up this river to the Missouri- The loss of 2 of our horses detained us util. 3 oClock. P.M. our Flathead Indian being restless thought proper to leave us and proceed on alone, Sent out the hunters to hunt in advance as usial. (we have Selected 4 of the best hunters to go in advance to hunt for the party. This arrangement has been made long sinc) we Proceeded on up the Creek on the right Side thro a narrow valie and good road for 7 miles and Encamped at Some old Indian Lodges, nothing killed this evening hills on the right high & ruged, the mountains on the left high & Covered with Snow. The day Verry worm

[Clark, September 12, 1805] September 12th Thursday 1805 a white frost Set out at 7 oClock & proceeded on up the Creek, passed a Fork on the right on which I saw near an old Indian encampment a Swet house Covered wthh earth, at 2 miles assended a high hill & proceeded through a hilley and thickly timbered Countrey for 9 miles & on the Right of the Creek, passing Several branches from the right of fine clear water and Struck at a fork at which place the road forks, one passing up each fork. The Timber is Short & long leaf Pine Spruce Pine & fur. The road through this hilley Countrey is verry bad passing over hills & thro Steep hollows, over falling timber &c. &c. continued on & passed Some most intolerable road on the Sides of the Steep Stoney mountains, which might be avoided by keeping up the Creek which is thickly covered with under groth & falling timber Crossed a mountain 8 miles with out water & encamped on a hill Side on the Creek after Decending a long Steep mountain, Some of our Party did not git up untill 10 oClock P M. I mad camp at 8 on this roade & particularly on this Creek the Indians have pealed a number of Pine for the under bark which they eate at certain Seasons of the year, I am told in the Spring they make use of this bark our hunters Killed only one Pheasent this after noon. Party and horses much fatigued.

[Clark, September 13, 1805] September 13th Wednesday 1805 a cloudy morning Capt Lewis and one of our guides lost their horses, Capt Lewis & 4 men detained to hunt the horses, I proceeded on with the partey up the Creek at 2 miles passed Several Springs which I observed the Deer Elk &c. had made roads to, and below one of the Indians had made a whole to bathe, I tasted this water and found it hot & not bad tasted The last _ in further examonation I found this water nearly boiling hot at the places it Spouted from the rocks (which a hard Corse Grit, and of great size the rocks on the Side of the Mountain of the Same texture) I put my finger in the water, at first could not bare it in a Second-as Several roads led from these Springs in different derections, my Guide took a wrong road and took us out of our rout 3 miles through intolerable rout, after falling into the right road I proceeded on thro tolerabl rout for abt. 4 or 5 miles and halted to let our horses graze as well as waite for Capt Lewis who has not yet Come up, The pine Countrey falling timber &c. &c. Continue. This Creek is verry much darned up with the beaver, but we can See none, dispatched two men back to hunt Capt Lewis horse, after he came up, and we proceeded over a mountain to the head of the Creek which we left to our left and at 6 miles from the place I nooned it, we fell on a Small Creek from the left which Passed through open glades Some of which 1/2 a mile wide, we proceeded down this Creek about 2 miles to where the mountains Closed on either Side crossing the Creek Several times & Encamped.

One Deer & Some Pheasants killed this morning, I shot 4 Pheasents of the Common Kind except the taile was black. The road over the last mountain was thick Steep & Stoney as usial, after passing the head of Travelers rest Creek, the road was verry fine leavel open & firm Some mountains in view to the S E & S W. Covered with Snow.

[Clark, September 14, 1805] September 14th Thursday 1805 a Cloudy day in the Valies it rained and hailed, on the top of the mountains Some Snow fell we Set out early and Crossed a high mountn on the right of the Creek for 6 miles to the forks of the Glade Creek the right hand fork which falls in is about the Size of the other, we Crossed to the left Side at the foks, and Crossd a verry high Steep mountain for 9 miles to a large fork from the left which appears to head in the Snow toped mountains Southerley and S. E. we Crossd. Glade Creek above its mouth, at a place the Tushepaws or Flat head Indians have made 2 wears across to Catch Sammon and have but latterly left the place I could see no fish, and the grass entirely eaten out by the horses, we proceeded on 2 miles & Encamped opposit a Small Island at the mouth of a branch on the right side of the river which is at this place 80 yards wide, Swift and Stoney, here we wer compelled to kill a Colt for our men & Selves to eat for the want of meat & we named the South fork Colt killed Creek, and this river we Call Flathead River- The Mountains which we passed today much worst than yesterday the last excessively bad & Thickly Strowed with falling timber & Pine Spruc fur Hackmatak & Tamerack, Steep & Stoney our men and horses much fatigued, The rain _

[Clark, September 15, 1805] Wednesday Septr. 15th 1805 We set out early. the morning Cloudy and proceeded on Down the right Side of River over Steep points rockey & buschey as usial for 4 miles to an old Indian fishing place, here the road leaves the river to the left and assends a mountain winding in every direction to get up the Steep assents & to pass the emence quantity of falling timber which had falling from dift. causes i e. fire & wind and has deprived the Greater part of the Southerley Sides of this mountain of its gren timber, 4 miles up the mountain I found a Spring and halted for the rear to come up and to let our horses rest & feed, about 2 hours the rear of the party came up much fatigued & horses more So, Several horses Sliped and roled down Steep hills which hurt them verry much The one which Carried my desk & Small trunk Turned over & roled down a mountain for 40 yards & lodged against a tree, broke the Desk the horse escaped and appeared but little hurt Some others verry much hurt, from this point I observed a range of high mountains Covered with Snow from S E. to S W with Their top bald or void of timber. after two hours delay we proceeded on up the mountain Steep & ruged as usial, more timber near the top, when we arrived at the top As we Conceved we could find no water and Concluded to Camp and make use of the Snow we found on the top to cook the remnt. of our Colt & make our Supe, evening verry Cold and Cloudy. Two of our horses gave out, pore and too much hurt to proceed on and left in the rear- nothing killed to day except 2 Phests.

From this mountain I could observe high ruged mountains in every direction as far as I could See. with the greatest exertion we Could only make 12 miles up this mountain and encamped on the top of the mountain near a Bank of old Snow about 3 feet deep lying on the Northern Side of the mountain and in Small banks on the top & leavel parts of the mountain, we melted the Snow to drink, and Cook our horse flesh to eat.

[Clark, September 16, 1805] Saturday Septr. 16th 1805 began to Snow about 3 hours before Day and Continud all day the Snow in The morning 4 Inches deep on The old Snow, and by night we found it from 6 to 8 Inches deep I walked in front to keep the road and found great dificuelty in keeping it as in maney places the Snow had entirely filled up the track, and obliged me to hunt Several minits for the track at 12 oClock we halted on the top of the mountain to worm & dry our Selves a little as well as to let our horses rest and graze a little on Some long grass which I observed, (on) The South Steep hills Side & falling timber Continue to day, and a thickly timbered Countrey of 8 different kinds of pine, which are So covered with Snow, that in passing thro them we are continually covered with Snow, I have been wet and as cold in every part as I ever was in my life, indeed I was at one time fearfull my feet would freeze in the thin mockersons which I wore, after a Short delay in the middle of the Day, I took one man and proceeded on as fast as I could about 6 miles to a Small branch passing to the right, halted and built fires for the party agains their arrival which was at Dusk verry cold and much fatigued we Encamped at this Branch in a thickly timbered bottom which was Scercely large enough for us to lie leavil, men all wet cold and hungary. Killed a Second Colt which we all Suped hartily on and thought it fine meat.

I saw 4 Black tail Deer to day before we Set out which came up the mountain and what is Singular Snaped 7 tims at a large buck. it is Singular as my gun has a Steel frisen and never Snaped 7 times before in examining her found the flint loose to describe the road of this day would be a repitition of yesterday excpt the Snow which made it much wors to proseed as we had in maney places to derect our Selves by the appearence of the rubbings of the Packs against the trees which have limbs quiet low and bending downwards

[Clark, September 17, 1805] Sunday 17th Septr. 1805 Cloudy morning our horses much Scattered which detained us untill one oClock P.M. at which time we Set out the falling Snow & Snow from the trees which kept us wet all the after noon passed over Several high ruged Knobs and Several dreans & Springs passing to the right, & passing on the ridge devideing the waters of two Small rivers. road excessively bad Snow on the Knobs, no Snow in the vallies Killed a fiew Pheasents which was not Sufficient for our Supper which compelled us to kill Something. a coalt being the most useless part of our Stock he fell a Prey to our appetites. The after part of the day fare, we made only 10 miles to day two horses fell & hurt themselves very much. we Encamped on the top of a high Knob of the mountain at a run passing to the left. we proceed on as yesterday, & with dificulty found the road

[Lewis, September 18, 1805] Wednesday September 18th 1805. Cap Clark set out this morning to go a head with six hunters. there being no game in these mountains we concluded it would be better for one of us to take the hunters and hurry on to the leavel country a head and there hunt and provide some provision while the other remained with and brought on the party the latter of these was my part; accordingly I directed the horses to be gotten up early being determined to force my march as much as the abilities of our horses would permit. the negligence of one of the party Willard who had a spare horse not attending to him and bringing him up last evening was the cause of our detention this morning untill 1/2 after 8 A M when we set out. I sent willard back to serch for his horse, and proceeded on with the party at four in the evening he overtook us without the horse, we marched 18 miles this day and encamped on the side of a steep mountain; we suffered for water this day passing one rivulet only; we wer fortunate in finding water in a steep raviene about 1/2 maile from our camp. this morning we finished the remainder of our last coult. we dined & suped on a skant proportion of portable soupe, a few canesters of which, a little bears oil and about 20 lbs. of candles form our stock of provision, the only recources being our guns & packhorses. the first is but a poor dependance in our present situation where there is nothing upon earth exept ourselves and a few small pheasants, small grey Squirrels, and a blue bird of the vulter kind about the size of a turtle dove or jay bird. our rout lay along the ridge of a high mountain course S. 20 W. 18 in. used the snow for cooking.

[Clark, September 18, 1805] Monday 18th Septr. 1805 a fair morning cold I proceded on in advance with Six hunters to try and find deer or Something to kill we passed over a countrey Similar to the one of yesterday more falling timber passed Several runs & Springs passing to the right from the top of a high part of the mountain at 20 miles I had a view of an emence Plain and leavel Countrey to the S W. & West at a great distance a high mountain in advance beyond the Plain, Saw but little Sign of deer and nothing else, much falling timber, made 32 miles and Encamped on a bold running Creek passing to the left which I call Hungery Creek as at that place we had nothing to eate. I halted only one hour to day to let our horses feed on Grass and rest

[Lewis, September 19, 1805] Thursday September 19th 1805. Set out this morning a little after sun rise and continued our rout about the same course of yesterday or S. 20 W. for 6 miles when the ridge terminated and we to our inexpressable joy discovered a large tract of Prairie country lying to the S. W. and widening as it appeared to extend to the W. through that plain the Indian informed us that the Columbia river, in which we were in surch run. this plain appeared to be about 60 Miles distant, but our guide assured us that we should reach it's borders tomorrow the appearance of this country, our only hope for subsistance greately revived the sperits of the party already reduced and much weakened for the want of food. the country is thickly covered with a very heavy growth of pine of which I have ennumerated 8 distinct species. after leaving the ridge we asscended and decended several steep mountains in the distance of 6 miles further when we struck a Creek about 15 yards wide our course being S. 35 W. we continued our rout 6 miles along the side of this creek upwards passing 2 of it's branches which flowed in from the N. 1st at the place we struck the creek and the other 3 miles further. the road was excessively dangerous along this creek being a narrow rockey path generally on the side of steep precipice, from which in many places if ether man or horse were precipitated they would inevitably be dashed in pieces. Fraziers horse fell from this road in the evening, and roled with his load near a hundred yards into the Creek. we all expected that the horse was killed but to our astonishment when the load was taken off him he arose to his feet & appeared to be but little injured, in 20 minutes he proceeded with his load. this was the most wonderfull escape I ever witnessed, the hill down which he roled was almost perpendicular and broken by large irregular and broken rocks. the course of this Creek upwards due W. we encamped on the Stard. side of it in a little raviene, having traveled 18 miles over a very bad road. we took a small quantity of portable soup, and retired to rest much fatiegued. several of the men are unwell of the disentary. brakings out, or irruptions of the Skin, have also been common with us for some time.

[Clark, September 19, 1805] Tuesday 19th Septr. 1805 Set out early proceeded on up the Creek passing through a Small glade at 6 miles at which place we found a horse. I derected him killed and hung up for the party after takeing a brackfast off for our Selves which we thought fine after Brackfast proceed on up the Creek two miles & left it to our right passed over a mountain, and the heads of branch of hungary Creek, two high mountains, ridges and through much falling timber (which caused our road of to day to be double the derect distance on the Course) Struck a large Creek passing to our left which I Kept down for 4 miles and left it to our left & passed over a mountain bad falling timber to a Small Creek passing to our left and Encamped. I killed 2 Pheasents, but fiew birds Blue jay, Small white headed hawk, Some Crows & ravins & large hawks. road bad.

[Lewis, September 20, 1805] Friday September 20th 1805. This morning my attention was called to a species of bird which I had never seen before. It was reather larger than a robbin, tho much it's form and action. the colours were a blueish brown on the back the wings and tale black, as wass a stripe above the croop 3/4 of an inch wide in front of the neck, and two others of the same colour passed from it's eyes back along the sides of the head. the top of the head, neck brest and belley and butts of the wing were of a fine yellowish brick reed. it was feeding on the buries of a species of shoemake or ash which grows common in country & which I first observed on 2d of this month. I have also observed two birds of a blue colour both of which I believe to be of the haulk or vulter kind. the one of a blue shining colour with a very high tuft of feathers on the head a long tale, it feeds on flesh the beak and feet black. it's note is cha-ah, cha-ah. it is about the size of a pigeon; and in shape and action resembles the jay bird.- another bird of very similar genus, the note resembling the mewing of the cat, with a white head and a light blue colour is also common, as are a black species of woodpecker about the size of the lark woodpecker Three species of Pheasants, a large black species, with some white feathers irregularly scattered on the brest neck and belley a smaller kind of a dark uniform colour with a red stripe above the eye, and a brown and yellow species that a good deel resembles the phesant common to the Atlantic States. we were detained this morning untill ten oclock in consequence of not being enabled to collect our horses. we had proceeded about 2 miles when we found the greater part of a horse which Capt Clark had met with and killed for us. he informed me by note that he should proceed as fast as possible to the leavel country which lay to the S. W. of us, which we discovered from the hights of the mountains on the 19th there he intended to hunt untill our arrival. at one oclock we halted and made a hearty meal on our horse beef much to the comfort of our hungry stomachs. here I larnt that one of the Packhorses with his load was missing and immediately dispatched Baptiest Lapage who had charge of him, to surch for him. he returned at ;3 OC. without the horse. The load of the horse was of considerable value consisting of merchandize and all my stock of winter cloathing. I therefore dispatched two of my best woodsmen in surch of him, and proceeded with the party. Our rout lay through a thick forrest of large pine the general course being S. 25 W. and distance about 15 miles. our road was much obstructed by fallen timber particularly in the evening we encamped on a ridge where ther was but little grass for our horses, and at a distance from water. however we obtained as much as served our culinary purposes and suped on our beef. the soil as you leave the hights of the mountains becomes gradually more fertile. the land through which we passed this evening is of an excellent quality tho very broken, it is a dark grey soil. a grey free stone appearing in large masses above the earth in many places. saw the hucklebury, honeysuckle, and alder common to the Atlantic states, also a kind of honeysuckle which bears a white bury and rises about 4 feet high not common but to the western side of the rockey mountains. a growth which resembles the choke cherry bears a black bury with a single stone of a sweetish taste, it rises to the hight of 8 or 10 feet and grows in thick clumps. the Arborvita is also common and grows to an immence size, being from 2 to 6 feet in diameter.

[Clark, September 20, 1805] Wednesday 20th September 1805 I Set out early and proceeded on through a Countrey as ruged as usial passed over a low mountain into the forks of a large Creek which I kept down 2 miles and assended a Steep mountain leaveing the Creek to our left hand passed the head of Several dreans on a divideing ridge, and at 12 miles decended the mountain to a leavel pine Countrey proceeded on through a butifull Countrey for three miles to a Small Plain in which I found maney Indian lodges, at the distance of 1 mile from the lodges I met 3 boys, when they Saw me ran and hid themselves searched found gave them Small pieces of ribin & Sent them forward to the village a man Came out to meet me with ;great Caution & Conducted us to a large Spacious Lodge which he told me (by Signs) was the Lodge of his great Chief who had Set out 3 days previous with all the Warriers of the nation to war on a South West derection & would return in 15 or 18 days. the fiew men that were left in the Village aged, great numbers of women geathered around me with much apparent Signs of fear, and apr. pleased they gave us a Small piece of Buffalow meat, Some dried Salmon beries & roots in different States, Some round and much like an onion which they call quamash the Bread or Cake is called Passhe-co Sweet, of this they make bread & Supe they also gave us the bread made of this root all of which we eate hartily, I gave them a fiew Small articles as preasents, and proceeded on with a Chief to his Village 2 miles in the Same Plain, where we were treated kindly in their way and continued with them all night Those two Villages consist of about 30 double lodges, but fiew men a number of women & children; They call themselves Cho pun-nish or Pierced Noses; " their dialect appears verry different from the Tushapaws altho origneally the Same people" They are darker than the Tushapaws Their dress Similar, with more beads white & blue principally, brass & Copper in different forms, Shells and ware their haire in the Same way. they are large Portley men Small women & handsom fetued Emence quantity of the quawmash or Pas-shi-co root gathered & in piles about the plains, those roots grow much an onion in marshey places the seed are in triangular Shell on the Stalk. they Sweat them in the following manner i. e. dig a large hole 3 feet deep Cover the bottom with Split wood on the top of which they lay Small Stones of about 3 or 4 Inches thick, a Second layer of Splited wood & Set the whole on fire which heats the Stones, after the fire is extinguished they lay grass & mud mixed on the Stones, on that dry grass which Supports the Pash-Shi-co root a thin Coat of the Same grass is laid on the top, a Small fire is kept when necessary in the Center of the kite &c.

I find myself verry unwell all the evening from eateing the fish & roots too freely. Sent out the hunters they killed nothing Saw Some Signs of deer.

[Lewis, September 21, 1805] Saturday September 21st 1805. We were detained this morning untill 11 OCk. in consequence of not being able to collect our horses. we then set out and proceeded along the ridge on which we had encamped, leaving which at 11/2 we passed a large creek runing to the left just above it's junction with another which run parrallel with and on the left of our road before we struck the creek; through the level wide and heavy timbered bottom of this creek we proceeded about 21/2 miles when bearing to the right we passed a broken country heavily timbered great quantities of which had fallen and so obstructed our road that it was almost impracticable to proceed in many places. though these hills we proceeded about 5 Ms. when we passed a small creek on which Capt Clark encamped on the 19th passing this creek we continued our rout 5 Ms thro a similar country when we struck a large creek at the forks, passed the Northen branch and continued down it on the West side 1 mile and encamped in a small open bottom where there was tolerable food for our horses. I directed the horses to be hubbled to prevent delay in the morning being determined to make a forced march tomorrow in order to reach if possible the open country. we killed a few Pheasants, and I killd a prarie woolf which together with the ballance of our horse beef and some crawfish which we obtained in the creek enabled us to make one more hearty meal, not knowing where the next was to be found. the Arborvita increases in quantity and size. I saw several sticks today large enough to form eligant perogues of at least 45 feet in length.- I find myself growing weak for the want of food and most of the men complain of a similar deficiency and have fallen off very much. the general course of this day S 30 W 15M.

[Clark, September 21, 1805] Septr. 21st Saturday 1805 a fine morning Sent out all the hunters early in different directions to Kill Something and delayed with the Indians to prevent Suspicion & to acquire as much information as possible. one of them Drew me a Chart of the river & nations below informed of one falls below which the white men lived from whome they got white beeds cloth &c. &c. The day proved warm, 2 Chifs of Bands visited me to day- the hunters all returned without any thing, I collected a horse load of roots & 3 Sammon & Sent R Fields with one Indian to meet Capt Lewis at 4 oClock Set out with the other men to the river, passed thro a fine Pine Country decended a Steep ruged hill verry long to a Small river which comes from our left and I suppose it to be _ River passed down the river 2 miles on a Steep hill side at r r oClock P.M. arrived at a camp of 5 Squars a boy & 2 Children those people were glad to See us & gave us drid Sammon one had formerly been taken by the Minitarries of the north & Seen white men, our guide called the Chief who was fishing on the other Side of the river, whome I found a Cherfull man of about 65 I gave him a Medal.

[Clark, September 21, 1805] Thursday 21st Septr. 1805 A fine morning Sent out all the hunters in different directions to hunt deer, I myself delayd with the Chief to prevent Suspission and to Collect by Signs as much information as possible about the river and Countrey in advance. The Cheif drew me a kind of chart of the river, and informed me that a greater Cheif than himself was fishing at the river half a days march from his village called the twisted hare, and that the river forked a little below his Camp and at a long distance below & below 2 large forks one from the left & the other from the right the river passed thro'gh the mountains at which place was a great fall of the water passing through the rocks, at those falls white people lived from whome they preceured the white Beeds & Brass &c. which the womin wore; a Chief of another band visit me to day and Smoked a pipe, I gave my handkerchief & a Silver Cord with a little Tobacco to those Chiefs, The hunters all return without any thing, I purchased as much Provisions as I could with what fiew things I chaned to have in my Pockets, Such a Salmon Bread roots & berries, & Sent one man R. Fields with an Indian to meet Capt. Lewis, and at 4 oClock P M. Set out to the river, met a man at dark on his way from the river to the village, whome I hired and gave the neck handkerchief of one of the men, to polit me to the Camp of the twisted hare we did not arrive at the Camp of the Twisted hare but oppost, untill half past 11 oClock P M. found at this Camp five Squars & 3 Children. my guide called to the Chief who was Encamped with 2 others on a Small Island in the river, he Soon joind me, I found him a Chearfull man with apparant Siencerity, I gave him a medal &c. and Smoked untill 1 oClock a.m. and went to Sleep. The Countrey from the mountains to the river hills is a leavel rich butifull Pine Countrey badly watered, thinly timbered & covered with grass- The weather verry worm after decending into the low Countrey,- the river hills are verry high & Steep, Small bottoms to this little river which is Flat head & is 160 yards wide and Sholey This river is the one we killed the first Coalt on near a fishing were I am verry Sick to day and puke which relive me.

[Lewis, September 22, 1805] Sunday September 22cd 1805. Notwithstanding my positive directions to hubble the horses last evening one of the men neglected to comply. he plead ignorance of the order. this neglect however detained us untill 1/2 after eleven OCk at which time we renewed our march, our course being about west. we had proceeded about two and a half miles when we met Reubin Fields one of oure hunters, whom Capt. Clark had dispatched to meet us with some dryed fish and roots that he had procured from a band of Indians, whose lodges were about eight miles in advance. I ordered the party to halt for the purpose of taking some refreshment. I divided the fish roots and buries, and was happy to find a sufficiency to satisfy compleatly all our appetites. Fields also killed a crow after refreshing ourselves we proceeded to the village due West 71/2 Miles where we arrived at 5 OCk. in the afternoon our rout was through lands heavily timbered, the larger wood entirely pine. the country except the last 3 miles was broken and decending the pleasure I now felt in having tryumphed over the rocky Mountains and decending once more to a level and fertile country where there was every rational hope of finding a comfortable subsistence for myself and party can be more readily conceived than expressed, nor was the flattering prospect of the final success of the expedition less pleasing. on our approach to the village which consisted of eighteen lodges most of the women fled to the neighbouring woods on horseback with their children, a circumstance I did not expect as Capt. Clark had previously been with them and informed them of our pacific intentions towards them and also the time at which we should most probably arrive. the men seemed but little concerned, and several of them came to meet us at a short distance from their lodges unarmed.

[Clark, September 22, 1805] September 22nd Sunday 1805 a fine morning, I proceed on down the little river to about 11/2 a mile & found the Chif in a Canoe Comeing to meet me I got into his Canoe & Crossed over to his Camp on a Small Island at a rapid Sent out the hunters leaving one to take care of the baggage, & after eating a part of a Samn. I Set out on my return to meet Capt. Lewis with the Chief & his Son at 2 miles met Shields with 3 Deer, I took a Small peice & Changed for his horse which was fresh & proced on this horse threw me 3 times which hurt me Some. at Dark met Capt Lewis Encamped at the first Village men much fatigued & reduced, the Supply which I sent by R Flds. was timely, they all eate hartily of roots & fish, 2 horses lost 1 Days journey back

[Clark, September 22, 1805] Friday 22nd Septr. 1805 a verry worm day the hunters Shild killed 3 Deer this morning. I left them on the Island and Set out with the Chief & his Son on a young horse for the Village at which place I expected to meet Capt Lewis this young horse in fright threw himself & me 3 times on the Side of a Steep hill & hurt my hip much, Cought a Coalt which we found on the roade & I rode it for Several miles untill we saw the Chiefs horses, he cought one & we arrived at his Village at Sunset, & himself and myslf walked up to the 2d Village where I found Capt Lewis & the party Encamped, much fatigued, & hungery, much rejoiced to find something to eate of which They appeared to partake plentifully. I cautioned them of the Consequences of eateing too much &c.

The planes appeared covered with Spectators viewing the White men and the articles which we had, our party weacke and much reduced in flesh as well as Strength, The horse I left hung up they receved at a time they were in great want, and the Supply I Sent by R. Fields proved timely and gave great encouragement to the party with Captn. Lewis. he lost 3 horses one of which belonged to our guide. Those Indians Stole out of R. F. Shot pouch his knife wipers Compas & Steel, which we Could not precure from them, we attempted to have Some talk with those people but Could not for the want of an Interpreter thro which we Could Speake, we were Compelled to converse Altogether by Signs- I got the Twisted hare to draw the river from his Camp down which he did with great cherfullness on a white Elk Skin, from the 1s fork which is a few seven miles below, to the large fork on which the So So ne or Snake Indians fish, is South 2 Sleeps; to a large river which falls in on the N W. Side and into which The Clarks river empties itself is 5 Sleeps from the mouth of that river to the falls is 5 Sleeps at the falls he places Establishments of white people &c. and informs that great numbers of Indians reside on all those foks as well as the main river; one other Indian gave me a like account of the Countrey, Some few drops of rain this evening. I precured maps of the Country & river with the Situation of Indians, To come from Several men of note Seperately which varied verey little.

[Clark, September 23, 1805] Septr. 23rd Sunday Traded with the Indians, made 3 Chiefs and gave them meadels & Tobacco & Handkerchif & knives, and a flag & left a Flag & hand kerches for the great Chief when he returns from war, in the evening proceeded to the 2d Vilg 2 miles, a hard wind and rain at dark, traded for Some root Bread & Skins to make Shirts. hot day

[Clark, September 23, 1805] Saturday 23rd Septr 1805. We assembled the principal Men as well as the Chiefs and by Signs informed them where we came from where bound our wish to inculcate peace and good understanding between all the red people &c. which appeared to Satisfy them much, we then gave 2 other Medals to other Chefs of bands, a flag to the twisted hare, left a flag & Handkerchief to the grand Chief gave, a Shirt to the Twisted hare & a knife & Handkerchif with a Small pece of Tobacco to each. Finding that those people gave no provisions to day we deturmined to purchase with our Small articles of merchindize, accord we purchased all we could, Such as roots dried, in bread, & in ther raw State, Berris of red Haws & Fish and in the evening Set out and proceeded on to the 2d Village 2 miles dist. where we also purchased a few articles all amounting to as much as our weak horses Could Carry to the river Capt. Lewis & 2 men verry Sick this evening, my hip verry Painfull, the men trade a few old tin Canisters for dressed Elk Skin to make themselves Shirts, at dark a hard wind from The S W accompaned with rain which lasted half an hour. The twisted hare envited Capt Lewis & myself to his lodge which was nothin more than Pine bushes & bark, and gave us Some broiled dried Salmon to eate, great numbers about us all night at this village the women were busily employed in gathering and drying the Pas-she co root of which they had great quantites dug in piles

[Clark, September 24, 1805] Septr. 24th Monday 1805 Set out early for the river and proceeded on the Same road I had prevsly gorn to the Island at which place I had found the Chief & formed a Camp several 8 or 9 men Sick, Capt Lewis Sick all Complain of a Lax & heaviness at the Stomack, I gave rushes Pills to Several hot day maney Indians & thier gangues of horses follow us hot day Hunter had 5 Deer

[Clark, September 24, 1805] Sunday 24th Septr. 1805 a fine morning collected our horses despatched J. Colter back to hunt the horses lost in the mountains & bring up Some Shot left behind, and at 10 oClock we all Set out for the river and proceeded on by the Same rout I had previously traveled, and at Sunset We arrived at the Island on which I found the Twisted hare and formed a Camp on a large Island a littl below, Capt Lewis Scercely able to ride on a jentle horse which was furnishd by the Chief, Several men So unwell that they were Compelled to lie on the Side of the road for Some time others obliged to be put on horses. I gave rushes Pills to the Sick this evening. Several Indians follow us.

[Clark, September 25, 1805] Septr. 25th I with th Chief & 2 young men went down to hunt timber for Canoes- proceeded on down to the forks 4 miles N 70 W 2 miles S. 75W 2 miles, halted young men Cought 6 Sammon, the forks nearly the Same Size, Crossed the South fork & found Timber large Pine in a bottom Proceeded up the South Side 3 parts of Party Sick Capt Lewis verry Sick hot day

[Clark, September 25, 1805] Monday 25th of September 1805 a verry hot day most of the Party Complaining and 2 of our hunters left here on the 22nd verry Sick they had killed only two Bucks in my absence. I Set out early with the Chief and 2 young men to hunt Some trees Calculated to build Canoes, as we had previously deturmined to proceed on by water, I was furnished with a horse and we proceeded on down the river Crossed a Creek at 1 mile from the right verry rockey which I call rock dam Creek & Passed down on the N side of the river to a fork from the North which is about the Same Size and affords about the Same quantity of water with the other forks we halted about an hour, one of the young men took his guilt and killed 6 fine Salmon two of them were roasted and we eate, two Canoes Came up loaded with the furnitur & provisions of 2 families, those Canoes are long Stedy and without much rake I crossed the South fork and proceeded up on the South Side, the most of the way thro a narrow Pine bottom in which I Saw fine timber for Canoes one of the Indian Canoes with 2 men with Poles Set out from the forks at the Same time I did and arrived at our Camp on the Island within 15 minits of the Same time I did, not withstanding 3 rapids which they had to draw the Canoe thro in the distance, when I arrived at Camp found Capt Lewis verry Sick, Several men also verry Sick, I gave Some Salts & Tarter emetic, we deturmined to go to where the best timbr was and there form a Camp

[Clark, September 26, 1805] Septr. 26th Set out early and proceeded down the river to the bottom on the S Side opposit the forks & formed a Camp had ax handled ground &c. our axes all too Small, Indians caught Sammon & Sold us, 2 Chiefs & thir families came & camped near us, Several men bad, Capt Lewis Sick I gave Pukes Salts &c. to Several, I am a little unwell. hot day

[Clark, September 26, 1805] Tuesday 26th Septr. 1805 Set out early and proceeded on down the river to a bottom opposit the forks of the river on the South Side and formed a Camp. Soon after our arrival a raft Came down the N. fork on which was two men, they came too, I had the axes distributed and handled and men apotned. ready to commence building canoes on tomorrow, our axes are Small & badly Calculated to build Canoes of the large Pine, Capt Lewis Still very unwell, Several men taken Sick on the way down, I administered Salts Pils Galip, Tarter emetic &c. I feel unwell this evening, two Chiefs & their families follow us and encamp near us, they have great numbers of horses. This day proved verry hot, we purchase fresh Salmon of the Indians

[Clark, September 27, 1805] Septr. 27th Thursday 1805 Set all the men able to work abt. building Canoes, Colter returned and found one horse & the Canister of Shot left in the mountains he also killed a Deer 1/2 of which he brought hot day- men Sick

[Clark, September 27, 1805] 27th Septr. Wednesday 1805 all the men able to work comened building 5 Canoes, Several taken Sick at work, our hunters returned Sick without meet. J. Colter returned he found only one of the lost horses, on his way killed a deer, half of which he gave the Indians the other proved nourishing to the Sick The day verry hot, we purchase fresh Salmon of them Several Indians Come up the river from a Camp Some distance below Capt Lewis very Sick nearly all the men Sick. our Shoshonee Indian Guide employed himself makeing flint points for his arrows

[Clark, September 28, 1805] Septr. 28th Friday Several men Sick all at work which is able, nothing killed to day. Drewyer Sick maney Indians visit us worm day

[Clark, September 28, 1805] Thursday 28th Septr. 1805 Our men nearly all Complaining of ther bowels, a heaviness at the Stomach & Lax, Some of those taken first getting better, a number of Indians about us gazeing &c. &c. This day proved verry worm and Sultery, nothing killed men complaining of their diat of fish & roots. all that is able working at the Canoes, Several Indians leave us to day, the raft continue on down the river, one old man informed us that he had been to the White peoples fort at the falls & got white beeds &c his Story was not beleved as he Could explain nothing.

[Clark, September 29, 1805] Septr. 29th Satterday Drewyer killed 2 deer Collins 1 der men Conte Sickly at work all able to work.

[Clark, September 29, 1805] Sunday 29th Septr. 1805 a Cool morning wind from the S. W. men Sick as usial, all The men that are able to at work, at the Canoes Drewyer killed 2 Deer Colter killed 1 Deer, the after part of this day worm Cap Lewis very Sick, and most of the men complaning very much of ther bowels & Stomach

[Clark, September 30, 1805] Sunday 30th Septr. 1805 Forks a fine morning our men recruting a little cool, all at work doing Something except 2 which are verry Sick, Great run of Small duck passing down the river this morning.

[Clark, September 30, 1805] Septr. 30th Saturday (Monday) 1805 a fine fair morning a the men recruiting a little, all at work which are able. Great number of Small Ducks pass down the river this morning. maney Indians passing up and down the river.

[Clark, October 1, 1805] October 1st 1805 Tuesday a cool morning wind from the N. E. I examine & Dry all our article Cloths &. nothing to eate except Drid fish verry bad diet Capt Lewis getting much better than for Several days past Several Indians visit us from the different villages below and on the main fork S. nothing killed

[Clark, October 1, 1805] October 1st Tuesday 1805 A cool morning wind from the East had Examined and dried all our clothes and other articles and laid out a Small assortment of Such articles as those Indians were fond of to trade with them for Some provisions (they are remarkably fond of Beeds) nothin to eate except a little dried fish which they men complain of as working of them as as much as a dost of Salts. Capt Lewis getting much better. Several Indians visit us from the different tribes below Some from the main South fork our hunters killed nothing to day worm evening

[Clark, October 2, 1805] Oct. 2nd 1805 Wednesday dispatch 2 men & an Indian up to the villages we first Came too to purchase roots fish &c. nothing to eate but roots. gave a small pice of Tobacco to the Indians, 3 broachs & 2 rings with my Handkerchif divided between 5 of them. I walked on the hills to hunt to day, Saw only one deer, Could kill nothing day excesively hot in the river bottom wind North, Burning out the holler of our canoes, men Something better nothing except a Small Prarie wolf Killed to day, our Provisions all out except what fiew fish we purchase of the Indians with us; we kill a horse for the men at work to eate &c. &c.

[Clark, October 2, 1805] October 2nd Wednesday 1805 Despatched 2 men Frasure & S. Guterich back to the village with 1 Indian & 6 horses to purchase dried fish, roots &c. we have nothing to eate but roots, which give the men violent pains in their bowels after eating much of them. To the Indians who visited us yesterday I gave divided my Handkerchief between 5 of them, with a Small piece of tobacco & a pece of riebin & to the 2 principal men each a ring & brooch. I walked out with my gun on the hills which is verry Steep & high could kill nothing. day hot wind N. Hunters killed nothing excep a Small Prarie wolf. Provisions all out, which Compells us to kill one of our horses to eate and make Suep for the Sick men.

[Clark, October 3, 1805] October 3rd Thursday 1805 Canoe Camp a fair cool morning wind from the East all our men getting well and at work at the canoes &c.

[Clark, October 3, 1805] October 3rd Thursday 1805 a fine morning cool wind East all our men getting better in helth, and at work at the Canoes &. The Indians who visited us from below Set out on their return early. Several others Came from different directions

[Clark, October 4, 1805] October 4th 1805 Friday This morning is a little cool wind from the East. displeased an Indian by refuseing to let him have a pice of Tobacco. thre Inds. from the S. fork visit us Frasur and Guterich return from the village with fish roots &c. which they purchased

[Clark, October 4, 1805] October 4th Friday 1805 a Cool wind from off the Eastern mountains I displeased an Indian by refuseing him a pice of Tobacco which he tooke the liberty to take out of our Sack Three Indians visit us from the Grat River South of us. The two men Frasure and Guterich return late from the Vllage with Fish roots &c. which they purchased as our horse is eaten we have nothing to eate except dried fish & roots which disagree with us verry much. The after part of this day verry warm. Capt Lewis Still Sick but able to walk about a little.

[Clark, October 5, 1805] October 5th Saturday 1805 a Cool morning wind from the East, Collected all our horses, & Branded them 38 in No. and delivered them to the men who were to take Charge of them, each of which I gave a Knife & one a wampom Shell gorget, The Lattd. of this place the mean of 2 observations is 46 34' 56.3" North. nothing to eate but dried roots & Dried fish, Capt Lewis & my Self eate a Supper of roots boiled, which filled us So full of wind, that we were Scercely able to Breathe all night felt the effects of it. Lanced 2 Canoes to day one proved a little leakey the other a verry good one

[Clark, October 5, 1805] October 5th Saty 1805 Wind Easterley and Cool, had all our horses 38 in number Collected and branded Cut off their fore top and delivered them to the 2 brothers and one Son of one of the Chiefs who intends to accompany us down the river to each of those men I gave a Knife & Some Small articles &c. they promised to be attentive to our horses untill we Should return.

Lattitude of this place from the mean of two observations is 46 34' 56.3" North

Nothing to eate except dried fish & roots. Capt Lewis & myself eate a Supper of roots boiled, which Swelled us in Such a manner that we were Scercely able to breath for Several hours- finished and lanced 2 of our Canoes this evening which proved to be verry good our hunters with every diligence Could kill nothing. The hills high and ruged and woods too dry to hunt the deer which is the only game in our neighbourhood. Several Squars Came with Fish and roots which we purchased of them for Beeds, which they were fond of- Capt Lewis not So well to day as yesterday

[Clark, October 6, 1805] October 6th Sunday 1805 A Col Easterley wind which Spring up in the latter part of the night and Continues untill about 7 or 8 oClock A.M. had all our Saddles Collected a whole dug and in the night buried them, also a Canister of powder and a bag of Balls at the place the Canoe which Shields made was cut from the body of the tree- The Saddles were buried on the Side of a bend about 1/2 a mile below- all the Canoes finished this evening ready to be put into the water. I am taken verry unwell with a paine in the bowels & Stomach, which is certainly the effects of my diet-which last all night-.

The winds blow cold from a little before day untill the Suns gets to Some hight from the Mountans East as they did from the mountans at the time we lay at the falls of Missouri from the West The river below this forks is Called Kos kos keel it is Clear rapid with Shoals or Swift places The open Countrey Commences a fiew miles below This on each side of the river, on the Lard Side below the 1st Creek. with a few trees Scattered near the river. passd maney bad rapids, one Canoe that in which I went in front Sprung a Leak in passing the 3rd rapid

Set out at 3 oClock P M & proceeded on

[Clark, October 7, 1805] October 7th Monday 1805 I continu verry unwell but obliged to attend every thing all the Canoes put into the water and loaded, fixed our Canoes as well as possible and Set out as we were about to Set out we missd. both of the Chiefs who promised to accompany us; I also missed my Pipe Tomahawk which Could not be found.

The after part of the day Cloudy proceded on passed 10 rapids which wer danjerous the Canoe in which I was Struck a rock and Sprung a leak in the 3rd rapid, we proceeded on 20 miles and Encamped on a Stard point oppost a run. passed a Creek Small on the Lard. Side at 9 miles, a Short distanc from the river at 2 feet 4 Inches N. of a dead toped pine Treee had burid 2 Lead Canisters of Powder

Had the Canoes unloaded examined and mended a Small leake which we discovered in a thin place in her Side passed Several Camps of Indians to day our Course and distance Shall be given after I get to the forks. &c.which the Indians Say is the last of the bad water untill we get to the great falls 10 day below, where the white people live &c. The Lodges are of Sticks set in a form of roof of a house & covered with mats and Straw

[Clark, October 8, 1805] 8th Octr. 1805 Tuesday a cloudy morning Changed Canoes and buried 2 Lead canisters of Powder 2 foot 4 In. North of a dead toped pine opposit our Camp & opposit the mouth of a run after repareing leaks in the Canoes Sprung Coming over the rapids yesterday Set out at 9 oClock

[Clark, October 8, 1805] October 8th Tuesday 1805 A Cloudy morning loaded our Canoes which was unloaded last night and Set out at 9 oClock passed 15 rapids four Islands and a Creek on the Stard Side at 16 miles just below which one canoe in which Serjt. Gass was Stearing and was nearle turning over, She Sprung a leak or Split open on one Side and Bottom filled with water & Sunk on the rapid, the men, Several of which Could not Swim hung on to the Canoe, I had one of the other Canoes unloaded & with the assistance of our Small Canoe and one Indian Canoe took out every thing & toed the empty Canoe on Shore, one man Tompson a little hurt, every thing wet perticularly the greater part of our Small Stock of merchindize, had every thing opened, and two Sentinals put over them to keep off the Indians, who are enclined to theave haveing Stole Several Small articles those people appeared disposed to give us every assistance in their power dureing our distress- We passed Several Encampments of Indians on the Islands and those near the rapids in which places they took the Salmon, at one of Those Camps we found our two Chiefs who had promised to accompany us, we took them on board after the Serimony of Smokeing

[Clark, October 9, 1805] Octo. 9th all day drying our roots good & articles which got wet in the Canoe last night. our 2 Snake Indian guides left us without our knowledge, The Indians troublesom Stole my Spoon which they returned. men merry at night & Singular acts of a Ind. woman

[Clark, October 9, 1805] October 9th Wednesday 1805 The morning Cool as usial the greater part of the day proved to be Cloudy, which was unfavourable for drying our things &c. which got wet yesterday. In examoning our canoe found that by putting Knees & Strong peces pined to her Sides and bottom &c. She Could be made fit for Service in by the time the goods dried, Set 4 men to work at her, Serjt. Pryor & Gass, Jo Fields & Gibson, others to Collect rosin, at 1 oClock She was finished Stronger than ever The wet articles not Sufficiently dried to pack up obliged us to delay another night dureing the time one man was tradeing for fish for our voyage, at Dark we were informed that our old guide & his Son had left us and had been Seen running up the river Several miles above, we Could not account for the Cause of his leaveing us at this time, without receiving his pay for the Services he had rendered us, or letting us know anything of his intention.

we requested the Chief to Send a horseman after our old guide to come back and recive his pay &c. which he advised us not to do as his nation would take his things from him before he passed their camps The Indians and our party were very mery this after noon a woman faind madness &c. &c. Singular acts of this woman in giveing in Small potions all She had & if they were not received She would Scarrify her Self in a horid manner &c. Capt Lewis recovring fast.

a verry worm day, Indians continue all day on the banks to view us as low as the forks. Two Indians come up in a Canoe, who means to accompany us to the Great rapids, Could get no observations, worm night The water of the South fork is of a bluish green colour

[Clark, October 10, 1805] October 10th Wednesday Thursday a fine Morning loaded and Set out at 7 oClock at 21/2 miles passed a run on the Stard. Side haveing passed 2 Islands and two bad rapids at 3 miles lower passed a Creek on the Lard. with wide Cotton willow bottoms haveing passed an Island and a rapid an Indian Camp of three Lodgs below the Creek at 81/2 miles lower we arrived at the heade of a verry bad riffle at which place we landed near 8 Lodges of Indians on the Lard Side to view the riffle, haveing passed two Islands & Six rapids Several of them verry bad-after view'g this riffle two Canoes were taken over verry well; the third Stuck on a rock which took us an hour to get her off which was effected without her receving a greater injurey than a Small Split in her Side which was repared in a Short time, we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on- here we met with an Indian from the falls at which place he Sais he Saw white people, and expressd an inclination to accompany us, we passd. a fiew miles above this riffle 2 Lodges and an Indian batheing in a hot bath made by hot Stones thrown into a pon of water. at this riffle which we Call ragid rapid took meridian altitude of the Suns upper Limb with Sextt. 74 26' 0" Latd. produced _ North at five miles lower and Sixty miles below the forks arived at a large Southerly fork which is the one we were on with the Snake or So-So-nee nation (haveing passed 5 rapids) This South fork or Lewis's River which has two forks which fall into it on the South the ist Small the upper large and about 2 days march up imediately parrelal to the first villages we Came to and is called by those Indians Par-nash-te on this fork a little above its mouth resides a Chief who as the Indian Say has more horses than he can Count and further Sayeth that Louises River is navagable about 60 miles up with maney rapids at which places the Indians have fishing Camps and Lodjes built of an oblong form with flat ruffs. below the 1st river on the South Side there is ten established fishing places on the 1st fork which fall in on the South Side is one fishing place, between that and the Par nash to River, five fishing places, above two, and one on that river all of the Cho-pun-nish or Pierced Nose Nation many other Indians reside high up those rivers The Countrey about the forks is an open Plain on either Side I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard. Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South fork-is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial

Imediately in the point is an Indian Cabin & in the South fork a Small Island, we came to on the Stard. Side below with a view to make some luner observations the night proved Cloudy and we were disapointed The Indians Came down all the Couses of this river on each Side on horses to view us as we were desending,- The man whome we saw at the ruged rapid and expressed an inclination to accompany us to the great rapids, came up with his Son in a Small Canoe and procisted in his intentions- worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the forks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we decended I think Lewis's River is about 250 yards wide, the Koos koos ke River about 150 yards wide and the river below the forks about 300 yards wide. a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our interpreters, and Jo. & R Fields which appears to have originated in just- our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as they all relish the flesh of the dogs, Several of which we purchased of the nativs for to add to our Store of fish and roots &c. &c.-

The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likeley men, handsom women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a white Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white, Sea Shells-i e the Mother of Pirl hung to ther hair & on a pice of otter Skin about their necks hair Cewed in two parsels hanging forward over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some fiew were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins, & Mockersons Painted, which appears to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass about their necks.

The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex, or Goat Skins which reach quite down to their anckles with a girdle, their heads are not ornemented, their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells & curios bones &c. The men expose those parts which are generally kept from view by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed in Screting the parts

Their amusements appear but fiew as their Situation requires the utmost exertion to prcure food they are generally employed in that pursute, all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequent meet with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of ther people

Ther disorders are but fiew and those fiew of a Scofelous nature. they make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold baethes, They are verry Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect in return Something for everything give as presents or the Survices which they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns on their part.

[Clark, October 11, 1805] October 11th 1805 a cloudy morning wind from the East We Set out early and proceeded on passed a rapid at two miles, at 6 miles we came too at Some Indian lodges and took brackfast, we purchased all the fish we could and Seven dogs of those people for Stores of Provisions down the river. at this place I saw a curious Swet house under ground, with a Small whole at top to pass in or throw in the hot Stones, which those in threw on as much water as to create the temporature of heat they wished- at 9 mile passed a rapid at 15 miles halted at an Indian Lodge, to purchase provisions of which we precred some of the Pash-he-quar roots five dogs and a few fish dried, after takeing Some dinner of dog &c we proceeded on. Came to and encamped at 2 Indian Lodges at a great place of fishing here we met an Indian of a nation near the mouth of this river.

we purchased three dogs and a fiew fish of those Indians, we Passed today nine rapids all of then great fishing places, at different places on the river saw Indian houses and Slabs & Spilt timber raised from the ground being the different parts of the houses of the natives when they reside on this river for the purpose of fishing at this time they are out in the Plain on each side of the river hunting the antilope as we are informed by our Chiefs, near each of those houses we observe Grave yards picketed, or pieces of wood stuck in permiscuesly over the grave or body which is Covered with earth, The Country on either Side is an open plain leavel & fertile after assending a Steep assent of about 200 feet not a tree of any kind to be Seen on the river The after part of the day the wind from the S. W. and hard. The day worm.

[Clark, October 12, 1805] October 12th 1805 Saturday a fair cool morning wind from E after purchasing all the drid fish those people would Spear from their hole in which they wer buried we Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on

[Clark, October 12, 1805] October 12th Saturday 1805 A fair Cool morning wind from the East. after purchaseing every Speces of the provisions those Indians could Spare we Set out and proceeded on at three miles passed four Islands Swift water and a bad rapid opposit to those Islands on the Lard. Side. at 141/2 miles passed the mouth of a large Creek on the Lard Side opposit a Small Island here the Countrey assends with a gentle assent to the high plains, and the River is 400 yards wide about 1 mile below the Creek on the Same Side took meridian altitude which gave 72 30' 00" Latitude produced North in the afternoon the wind Shifted to the S. W. and blew hard we passed to day rapids Several of them very bad and came to at the head of one (at 30 miles) on the Stard. Side to view it before we attemptd. to dsend through it. The Indians had told us was verry bad- we found long and dangerous about 2 miles in length, and maney turns necessary to Stear Clare of the rocks, which appeared to be in every direction. The Indians went through & our Small Canoe followed them, as it was late we deturmined to camp above untill the morning. we passed Several Stoney Islands today Country as yesterday open plains, no timber of any kind a fiew Hack berry bushes & willows excepted, and but few drift trees to be found So that fire wood is verry Scerce- The hills or assents from the water is faced with a dark ruged Stone. The wind blew hard this evening.-

[Clark, October 13, 1805] October 13th Sunday 1805 rained a little before day, and all the morning, a hard wind from the S West untill 9 oClock, the rained Seased & wind luled, and Capt Lewis with two Canoes Set out & passed down the rapid The others Soon followed and we passed over this bad rapid Safe. We Should make more portages if the Season was not So far advanced and time precious with us

The wife of Shabono our interpetr we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace

[Clark, October 13, 1805] October 13th Sunday 1805 a windey dark raney morning The rain commenced before day and Continued moderately until) near 12 oClock- we took all our Canoes through This rapid without any injurey. a little below passed through another bad rapid at _ miles passed the Mo. of a large Creek little river in a Stard. bend, imediately below a long bad rapid; in which the water is Confined in a Chanel of about 20 yards between rugid rocks for the distance of a mile and a half and a rapid rockey Chanel for 2 miles above. This must be a verry bad place in high water, here is great fishing place, the timbers of Several houses piled up, and a number of wholes of fish, and the bottom appears to have been made use of as a place of deposit for their fish for ages past, here two Indians from the upper foks over took us and continued on down on horse back, two others were at this mouth of the Creek- we passed a rapid about 9 mile lower. at dusk came to on the Std. Side & Encamped. The two Inds. on horse back Stayed with us. The Countery Thro which we passed to day is Simlar to that of yesterday open plain no timber passed Several houses evacuated at established fishing places, wind hard from The S. W. in the evening and not very cold

[Clark, October 14, 1805] October 14th Monday 1805 a verry Cool morning wind from the West Set out at 8 oClock proceeded on

at this rapid the Canoe a Stern Steared by drewyer Struck a rock turned the men got out on a rock the Stern of the Canoe took in water and She Sunk the men on the rock hel her, a number of articles floated all that Could be Cought were taken by 2 of the othr Canoes, Great many articles lost among other things 2 of the mens beding Shot pouches Tomahaws &c. &c. and every article wet of which we have great Cause to lament as all our loose Powder two Canisters, all our roots prepared in the Indian way, and one half of our goods, fortunately the lead canisters which was in the canoe was tied down, otherwise they must have been lost as the Canoe turned over we got off the men from the rock toed our canoe on Shore after takeing out all the Stores &c. we Could & put them out to dry on the Island on which we found Some wood which was covered with Stones, this is the Parts of an Indian house, which we used for fire wood, by the wish of our two Chiefs- Those Chees, one of them was in the Canoe, Swam in & Saved Some property, The Inds. have buried fish on this Isld. which we are Cautious not to touch. our Small Canoe & three Indians in another was out of Sight at the time our missfortune hapined, and did not join us. wind hard S W.

[Clark, October 14, 1805] October 14th Monday 1805 a Verry Cold morning wind from the West and Cool untill about 12 oClock When it Shifted to the S. W. at 21/2 miles passed a remarkable rock verry large and resembling the hull of a Ship Situated on a Lard point at Some distance from the assending Countrey passed rapids at 6 and 9 miles. at 12 miles we Came too at the head of a rapid which the Indians told me was verry bad, we viewed the rapid found it bad in decending three Stern Canoes Stuk fast for Some time on the head of the rapid and one Struk a rock in the worst part, fortunately all landed Safe below the rapid which was nearly 3 miles in length. here we dined, and for the first time for three weeks past I had a good dinner of Blue wing Teel, after dinner we Set out and had not proceded on two miles before our Stern Canoe in passing thro a Short rapid opposit the head of an Island, run on a Smoth rock and turned broad Side, the men got out on the rock all except one of our Indian Chiefs who Swam on Shore, The Canoe filed and Sunk a number of articles floated out, Such as the mens bedding clothes & Skins, the Lodge &c. &c. the greater part of which were cought by 2 of the Canoes, whilst a 3rd was unloading & Steming the Swift Current to the relief of the men on the rock who could with much dificuelty hold the Canoe. however in about an hour we got the men an Canoe to Shore with the Loss of Some bedding Tomahaws Shot pouches Skins Clothes &c &c. all wet we had every articles exposed to the Sun to dry on the Island, our loss in provisions is verry Considerable all our roots was in the Canoe that Sunk, and Cannot be dried Sufficint to Save, our loose powder was also in the Canoe and is all wett This I think, we Shall saved.- In this Island we found some Split timber the parts of a house which the Indians had verry Securely covered with Stone, we also observed a place where the Indians had buried there fish, we have made it a point at all times not to take any thing belonging to the Indians even their wood. but at this time we are Compelled to violate that rule and take a part of the Split timber we find here bured for fire wood, as no other is to be found in any direction. our Small Canoe which was a head returned at night with 2 ores which they found floating below. The wind this after noon from the S. W. as usial and hard way of the forks to the Indian Camps at the first were not one mouthfull to eate untill night as our hunters could kill nothing and I could See & catch no fish except a few Small ones. The Indians gave us 2 Sammon boiled which I gave to the men, one of my men Shot a Sammon in the river about Sunset those fish gave us a Supper. all the Camp flocked about me untill I went to Sleep- and I beleve if they had a Sufficency to eate themselves and any to Spare they would be liberal of it I detected the men to mend their Mockessons to night and turn out in the morning early to hunt Deer fish birds &c. &c. Saw great numbers of the large Black grass hopper. Some bars which were verry wild, but few Birds. a number of ground Lizards; Some fiew Pigions plainly See a rainge of mountains which bore S. E. & N. W. the nearest point south about 60 miles, and becoms high toward the N. W. The plaines on each Side is wavering. Labiesh killed 2 gees & 2 Ducks of the large kind. at two oClock we loaded & Set out, our Powder & Provisions of roots not Sufficently dry. we Shall put them out at the forks or mouth of this river which is at no great distance, and at which place we Shall delay to make Some Selestial observations &c. passed Eleven Island and Seven rapids to day. Several of the rapids verry bad and dificuelt to pass. The Islands of different Sizes and all of round Stone and Sand, no timber of any kind in Sight of the river, a fiew Small willows excepted; in the evening the countrey becomes lower not exceding 90 or 100 feet above the water and back is a wavering Plain on each Side, passed thro narrows for 3 miles where the Clifts of rocks juted to the river on each Side compressing the water of the river through a narrow chanel; below which it widens into a kind of bason nearly round without any proceptiable current, at the lower part of this bason is a bad dificuelt and dangerous rapid to pass, at the upper part of this rapid we over took the three Indians who had Polited us thro the rapids from the forks. those people with our 2 Chiefs had proceeded on to this place where they thought proper to delay for us to warn us of the difficulties of this rapid. we landed at a parcel of Split timber, the timber of a house of Indians out hunting the Antilope in the plains; and raised on Scaffolds to Save them from the Spring floods. here we were obliged for the first time to take the property of the Indians without the consent or approbation of the owner. the night was cold & we made use of a part of those boards and Split logs for fire wood. Killed two teel this evening. Examined the rapids which we found more dificuelt to pass than we expected from the Indians information. a Suckcession of Sholes, appears to reach from bank to bank for 3 miles which was also intersepted with large rocks Sticking up in every direction, and the chanel through which we must pass crooked and narrow. we only made 20 miles today, owing to the detention in passing rapids &c.

[Clark, October 16, 1805] Oar. 16th 1805 Wednesday a cool morning Set out early passed the rapid with all the Canoes except Sgt. Pryors which run on a rock near the lower part of the rapid and Stuck fast, by the assistance of the 3 other Canoes She was unloaded and got off the rock without any further injorey than, the wetting the greater part of her loading- loaded and proceeded on I walked around this rapid

We halted a Short time above the Point and Smoked with the Indians, & examined the Point and best place for our Camp, we Camped on the Columbia River a little above the point I Saw about 200 men Comeing down from their villages & were turned back by the Chief, after we built our fires of what wood we Could Collect, & get from the Indians, the Chief brought down all his men Singing and dancing as they Came, formed a ring and danced for Some time around us we gave them a Smoke, and they returned the village a little above, the Chief & Several delay untill I went to bead. bought 7 dogs & they gave us Several fresh Salmon & Som horse dried

[Clark, October 16, 1805] October 16th Wednesday 1805 A cool morning deturmined to run the rapids, put our Indian guide in front our Small Canoe next and the other four following each other, the canoes all passed over Safe except the rear Canoe which run fast on a rock at the lower part of the Rapids, with the early assistance of the other Canoes & the Indians, who was extreamly ellert every thing was taken out and the Canoe got off without any enjorie further than the articles which it was loaded all wet. at 14 miles passed a bad rapid at which place we unloaded and made a portage of 3/4 of a mile, haveing passd. 4 Smaller rapids, three Islands and the parts of a house above, I Saw Indians & Horses on the South Side below. five Indians came up the river in great haste, we Smoked with them and gave them a piece of tobacco to Smoke with their people and Sent them back, they Set out in a run & continued to go as fast as They Could run as far as we Could See them. after getting Safely over the rapid and haveing taken Diner Set out and proceeded on Seven miles to the junction of this river and the Columbia which joins from the N. W. passd. a rapid two Islands and a graveley bare, and imediately in the mouth a rapid above an Island. In every direction from the junction of those rivers the Countrey is one Continued plain low and rises from the water gradually, except a range of high Countrey which runs from S. W & N E and is on the opposit Side about 2 miles distant from the Collumbia and keeping its detection S W untill it joins a S W. range of mountains.

We halted above the point on the river Kimooenim to Smoke with the Indians who had collected there in great numbers to view us, here we met our 2 Chiefs who left us two days ago and proceeded on to this place to inform those bands of our approach and friendly intentions towards all nations &c. we also met the 2 men who had passed us Several days ago on hors back, one of them we observed was a man of great influence with those Indians, harranged them; after Smokeing with the Indians who had collected to view us we formed a camp at the point near which place I Saw a fiew pieces of Drift wood after we had our camp fixed and fires made, a Chief came from their Camp which was about 1/4 of a mile up the Columbia river at the head of about 200 men Singing and beeting on their drums Stick and keeping time to the musik, they formed a half circle around us and Sung for Some time, we gave them all Smoke, and Spoke to their Chiefs as well as we could by Signs informing them of our friendly disposition to all nations, and our joy in Seeing those of our Children around us, Gave the principal chief a large Medal Shirt and Handkf. a 2nd Chief a Meadel of Small Size, and to the Cheif who came down from the upper villages a Small Medal & Handkerchief.

The Chiefs then returned with the men to their camp; Soon after we purchased for our Provisions Seven Dogs, Some fiew of those people made us presents of fish and Several returned and delayed with us untill bedtime- The 2 old Chiefs who accompanied us from the head of the river precured us Some full Such as the Stalks of weed or plant and willow bushes- one man made me a present of a about 20 lb. of verry fat Dried horse meat.

Great quantities of a kind of prickley pares, much worst than any I have before Seen of a tapering form and attach themselves by bunches.

[Clark, October 17, 1805] October 17th Thursday 1805 Forks of Columbia This morning after the Luner observations, the old chief came down, and Several men with dogs to Sell & womin with fish &c. the Dogs we purchased the fish not good.

I took 2 men and Set out in a Small Canoe with a view to go as high up the Columbia river as the 1st forks which the Indians made Signs was but a Short distance, I set out at 2 oClock firs course was N. 83 W 6 miles to the lower point of a Island on the Lard. Side, passed an Island in the middle of the river at 5 miles, at the head of which is a rapid not bad at this rapid 3 Lodges of mats on the Lard emenc quantites of dried fish, then West 4 miles to the Lower point of an Island on the Stard. Side, 2 lodges of Indians large and built of mats- passed 3 verry large mat lodges at 2 mile on the Stard Side large Scaffols of fish drying at every lodge, and piles of Salmon lying. the Squars engaged prepareing them for the Scaffol- a Squar gave me a dried Salmon from those lodes on the Island an Indian Showed me the mouth of the river which falls in below a high hill on the Lard. N. 80 W. 8 miles from the Island. The river bending Lard.- This river is remarkably Clear and Crouded with Salmon in maney places, I observe in assending great numbers of Salmon dead on the Shores, floating on the water and in the Bottoms which can be seen at the debth of 20 feet. the Cause of the emence numbers of dead Salmon I can't account for So it is I must have seen 3 or 400 dead and maney living the Indians, I believe make use of the fish which is not long dead as, I Struck one nearly dead and left him floating, Some Indians in a canoe behind took the fish on board his canoe

The bottoms on the South Side as high as the Tarcouche tesse is from 1 to 2 miles wide, back of the bottoms rises to hilly countrey, the Plain is low on the North & Easte for a great distance no wood to be Seen in any direction.

The Tarcouche tesse bears South of West, the Columbia N W above range of hills on the West Parrelel a range of mountains to the East which appears to run nearly North & South distance not more than 50 miles- I returned to the point at Dusk followed by three canoes of Indians 20 in number- I killed a Fowl of the Pheasent kind as large as a turkey. The length from his Beeck to the end of its tail 2 feet 6- 3/4 Inches, from the extremity of its wings across 3 feet 6 Inches. the tail feathers 13 Inches long, feeds on grass hoppers, and the Seed of wild Isoop 6

Those Indians are orderly, badly dressed in the Same fashions of those above except the women who wore Short Shirts and a flap over them 22 Fishing houses of Mats robes of Deer, Goat & Beaver.

[Clark, October 17, 1805] October 17th Thursday 1805 A fair morning made the above observations during which time the principal Chief came down with Several of his principal men and Smoked with us. Several men and woman offered Dogs and fish to Sell, we purchased all the dogs we could, the fish being out of Season and dieing in great numbers in the river, we did not think proper to use them, Send out Hunters to Shute the Prarie Cock a large fowl which I have only Seen on this river; Several of which I have killed, they are the Size of a Small turkey, of the pheasant kind, one I killed on the water edge to day measured from the Beek to the end of the toe 2 feet 6 & 3/4 Inches; from the extremities of its wings 3 feet 6 inches; the tale feathers is 13 inches long; they feed on grasshoppers and the Seed of the wild plant which is also peculiar to this river and the upper parts of the Missoury somewhat resembling the whins-. Capt. Lewis took a vocabelary of the Language of those people who call themselves So hulk, and also one of the language of a nation resideing on a Westerly fork of the Columbia which mouthes a fiew miles above this place who Call themselves Chim na pum Some fiew of this nation reside with the So kulks nation, Their language differ but little from either the Sokulks or the Cho-pun-nish (or pierced nose) nation which inhabit the Koskoskia river and Lewis's R below.

I took two men in a Small Canoe and assended the Columbia river 10 miles to an Island near the Stard. Shore on which two large Mat Lodges of Indians were drying Salmon, (as they informed me by Signs for the purpose of food and fuel, & I do not think at all improbable that those people make use of Dried fish as fuel,) The number of dead Salmon on the Shores & floating in the river is incrediable to Say and at this Season they have only to collect the fish Split them open and dry them on their Scaffolds on which they have great numbers, how far they have to raft their timber they make their Scaffolds of I could not lern; but there is no timber of any Sort except Small willow bushes in Sight in any directionfrom this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a large Westerly fork which they Call Tapetett at about 8 miles distant, the evening being late I deturmined to return to the forks, at which place I reached at Dark. from the point up the Columbia River is N. 83 W. 6 miles to the lower point of an Island near the Lard. Side passed a Island in the middle of the river at 5 miles at the head of which is a rapid, not dangerous on the Lard Side opposit to this rapid is a fishing place 3 Mat Lodges, and great quants. of Salmon on Scaffolds drying. Saw great numhers of Dead Salmon on the Shores and floating in the water, great numbers of Indians on the banks viewing me and 18 canoes accompanied me from the point- The Waters of this river is Clear, and a Salmon may be Seen at the deabth of 15 or 20 feet. West 4 miles to the lower point of a large Island near the Stard. Side at 2 Lodges, passed three large lodges on the Stard Side near which great number of Salmon was drying on Scaffolds one of those Mat lodges I entered found it crouded with men women and children and near the enterance of those houses I saw maney Squars engaged Splitting and drying Salmon. I was furnished with a mat to Sit on, and one man Set about prepareing me Something to eate, first he brought in a piece of a Drift log of pine and with a wedge of the elks horn, and a malet of Stone curioesly Carved he Split the log into Small pieces and lay'd it open on the fire on which he put round Stones, a woman handed him a basket of water and a large Salmon about half Dried, when the Stones were hot he put them into the basket of water with the fish which was Soon Suflicently boiled for use. it was then taken out put on a platter of rushes neetly made, and Set before me they boiled a Salmon for each of the men with me, dureing those preperations, I Smoked with those about me who Chose to Smoke which was but fiew, this being a custom those people are but little accustomed to and only Smok thro form. after eateing the boiled fish which was delicious, I Set out & halted or came too on the Island at the two Lodges. Several fish was given to me, in return for Which I gave Small pieces of ribbond from those Lodges the natives Showed me the mouth of Tap teel River about 8 miles above on the west Side this western fork appears to beare nearly West, The main Columbia river N W.- a range of high land to the S W and parralal to the river and at the distance of 2 miles on the Lard. Side, the countrey low on the Stard. Side, and all Coverd. with a weed or plant about 2 & three feet high and resembles the whins. I can proceive a range of mountains to the East which appears to bare N. & South distant about 50 or 60 miles. no wood to be Seen in any derection- On my return I was followd. by 3 canoes in which there was 20 Indians I shot a large Prairie Cock Several Grouse, Ducks and fish. on my return found Great Numbr. of the nativs with Capt Lewis, men all employd in dressing ther Skins mending their clothes and putting ther arms in the best order the latter being always a matter of attention with us. The Dress of those natives differ but little from those on the Koskoskia and Lewis's rivers, except the women who dress verry different in as much as those above ware long leather Shirts which highly ornimented with heeds Shells &c. &c. and those on the main Columbia river only ware a truss or pece of leather tied around them at their hips and drawn tite between ther legs and fastened before So as barly to hide those parts which are So Sacredly hid & Scured by our women. Those women are more inclined to Copulency than any we have yet Seen, with low Stature broad faces, heads flatened and the foward compressed so as to form a Streight line from the nose to the Crown of the head, their eyes are of a Duskey black, their hair of a corse black without orniments of any kind braded as above, The orniments of each Sects are Similar, Such as large blue & white beeds, either pendant from their ears or encircling their necks, or wrists & arms. they also ware bracelets of Brass, Copper & horn, and trinkets of Shells, fish bones and curious feathers. Their garments Consists of a short Shirt of leather and a roabe of the Skins of Deer or the Antilope but fiew of them ware Shirts all have Short robes. Those people appears to live in a State of comparitive happiness; they take a greater Share labor of the woman, than is common among Savage tribes, and as I am informd. Content with one wife (as also those on the Ki moo e nim river) Those people respect the aged with veneration, I observed an old woman in one of the Lodges which I entered She was entirely blind as I was informed by Signs, had lived more than 100 winters, She occupied the best position in the house, and when She Spoke great attention was paid to what She Said-. Those people as also those of the flat heads which we had passed on the Koskoske and Lewis's rivers are Subject to Sore eyes, and maney are blind of one and Some of both eyes. this misfortune must be owing to the reflections of the Sun &c. on the waters in which they are continually fishing during the Spring Summer & fall, & the Snows dureing the, winter Seasons, in this open countrey where the eye has no rest. I have observed amongst those, as well in all other tribes which I have passed on these waters who live on fish maney of different Sectes who have lost their teeth about middle age, Some have their teeth worn to the gums, perticelar those of the upper jaws, and the tribes generally have bad teeth the cause of it I cannot account sand attachd. to the roots &c the method they have of useing the dri'd Salmon, which is mearly worming it and eating the rine & Scales with the flesh of the fish, no doubt contributes to it

The Houses or Lodges of the tribes of the main Columbia river is of large mats made of rushes, Those houses are from 15 to 60 feet in length generally of an Oblong Squar form, Suported by poles on forks in the iner Side, Six feet high, the top is covered also with mats leaveing a Seperation in the whole length of about 12 or 15 inches wide, left for the purpose of admitting light and for the Smok of the fire to pass which is made in the middle of the house.- The roughfs are nearly flat, which proves to me that rains are not common in this open Countrey

Those people appeare of a mild disposition and friendly disposedThey have in their huts independant of their nets gigs & fishing tackling each bows & large quivers of arrows on which they use flint Spikes. Theire ammusements are Similar to those of the Missouri. they are not beggerley and receive what is given them with much joy.

I saw but flew horses they appeared make but little use of those animals principally useing Canoes for their uses of procureing food &c.

[Clark, October 18, 1805] October 18th Friday 1805 a cold morning faire & wind from S E Several Heath hens or large Pheasents lit near us & the men killed Six of them.

Took one altitude of the Suns upper Limb 28 22' 15" at h m s 8 1 24 A.M.

Several Indian Canoes Come down & joind those with us, made a Second Chief by giveing a meadel & wampom I also gave a String of wampom to the old Chief who came down with us and informed the Indians of our views and intentions in a council

Measured the width of the Columbia River, from the Point across to a Point of view is S 22 W from the Point up the Columa to a Point of view is N. 84 W. 148 poles, thence across to the 1st point of view is S 281/2 E

Measured the width of Ki moo e nim River, from the Point across to an object on the opposit side is N. 411/2 E from the Point up the river is N. 8 E. 82 poles thence accross to the Point of view is N. 79 East

Distance across the Columbia 9603/4 yds water

Distance across the Ki-moo-e nim 575 yds water

Names of this nation above the mouth of the Ki-moo-e-nim is So-Kulk Perced noses The Names of the nation on the Kimoenim River is Chopun-nish Piercd noses at the Prarie the name of a nation at the Second forks of the Tape tele River, or Nocktock fork Chim-na-pum, Some of which reside with the So kulkc above this-at and a few miles distance,- 4 men in a Canoe come up from below Stayed a fiew minits and returned.

Took a meridian altitude 68 57' 30" the Suns upper Limb. The Lattitudes produced is 46 15' 13 9/10" North, Capt Lewis took a vocabillary of the So kulk or Pierced noses Language and Chim-nd-pum Language whic is in Some words different but orriginally the Same people The Great Chief Cuts-Sa.h nim gave me a Sketch of the rivers & Tribes above on the great river & its waters on which he put great numbers of villages of his nation & friends, as noted on the Sketch

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