The Iliad
by Homer
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To whom, indignant, white-arm'd Juno thus: "Some show of reason were there in thy speech, God of the silver bow, could Hector boast Of equal dignity with Peleus' son. A mortal one, and nurs'd at woman's breast; The other, of a Goddess born, whom I Nurtur'd and rear'd, and to a mortal gave In marriage; gave to Peleus, best belov'd By all th' Immortals, of the race of man. Ye, Gods, attended all the marriage rites; Thou too, companion base, false friend, wast there, And, playing on thy lyre, didst share the feast."

To whom the Cloud-compeller answer'd thus: "Juno, restrain thy wrath; they shall not both Attain like honour; yet was Hector once, Of all the mortals that in Ilium dwell, Dearest to all the Gods, and chief to me; For never did he fail his gifts to bring. And with, burnt-off 'rings and libations due My altars crown; such worship I receiv'd. Yet shall bold Hector's body, not without The knowledge of Achilles, be remov'd; For day and night his Goddess-mother keeps Her constant watch beside him. Then, some God Bid Thetis hither to my presence haste; And I with prudent words will counsel her, That so Achilles may at Priam's hand Large ransom take, and set brave Hector free."

He said; and promptly on his errand sprang The storm-swift Iris; in the dark-blue sea She plung'd, midway 'twixt Imbros' rugged shore And Samos' isle; the parting waters plash'd. As down to ocean's lowest depths she dropp'd, Like to a plummet, which the fisherman Lets fall, encas'd in wild bull's horn, to bear Destruction to the sea's voracious tribes. There found she Thetis in a hollow cave, Around her rang'd the Ocean Goddesses: She, in the midst, was weeping o'er the fate Her matchless son awaiting, doom'd to die Far from his home, on fertile plains of Troy. Swift-footed Iris at her side appear'd, And thus address'd her: "Hasten, Thetis; Jove, Lord of immortal counsel, summons thee." To whom the silver-footed Goddess thus: "What would with me the mighty King of Heav'n? Press'd as I am with grief, I am asham'd To mingle with the Gods; yet will I go: Nor shall he speak in vain, whate'er his words."

Thus as she spoke, her veil the Goddess took, All black, than which none deeper could be found; She rose to go; the storm-swift Iris led The way before her; ocean's parted waves Around their path receded; to the beach Ascending, upwards straight to Heav'n they sprang. Th' all-seeing son of Saturn there they found, And rang'd around him all th' immortal Gods. Pallas made way; and by the throne of Jove Sat Thetis, Juno proff'ring to her hand A goblet fair of gold, and adding words Of welcome; she the cup receiv'd, and drank. Then thus began the sire of Gods and men: "Thou, Thetis, sorrowing to Olympus com'st, Borne down by ceaseless grief; I know it well; Yet hear the cause for which I summon'd thee. About Achilles, thy victorious son, And valiant Hector's body, for nine days Hath contest been in Heav'n; and some have urg'd That Hermes should by stealth the corpse remove. This to Achilles' praise I mean to turn, And thus thy rev'rence and thy love retain. Then haste thee to the camp, and to thy son My message bear; tell him that all the Gods Are fill'd with wrath; and I above the rest Am angry, that beside the beaked ships, He, mad with rage, the corpse of Hector keeps: So may he fear me, and restore the dead. Iris meantime to Priam I will send, And bid him seek the Grecian ships, and there Obtain his son's release: and with him bring Such presents as may melt Achilles' heart."

He said; the silver-footed Queen obey'd; Down from Olympus' heights in haste she sped, And sought her son; him found she in his tent, Groaning with anguish, while his comrades round, Plying their tasks, prepar'd the morning meal. For them a goodly sheep, full-fleec'd, was slain. Close by his side his Goddess-mother stood, And gently touch'd him with her hand, and said, "How long, my son, wilt thou thy soul consume With grief and mourning, mindful nor of food Nor sleep? nor dost thou wisely, to abstain From woman's love; for short thy time on earth: Death and imperious fate are close at hand. Hear then my words; a messenger from Jove To thee I come, to tell thee that the Gods Are fill'd with wrath, and he above the rest Is angry, that beside the beaked ships Thou, mad with rage, the corpse of Hector keep'st. Then ransom take, and liberate the dead."

To whom Achilles, swift of foot, replied: "So be it; ransom let him bring, and bear His dead away, if such the will of Jove."

Thus, in the concourse of the ships, they two, Mother and son, their lengthen'd converse held.

Then Saturn's son to Iris gave command: "Haste thee, swift Iris, from Olympus' height, To Troy, to royal Priam bear my words; And bid him seek the Grecian ships, and there Obtain his son's release; and with him take Such presents as may melt Achilles' heart. Alone, no Trojan with him, must he go; Yet may a herald on his steps attend, Some aged man, his smoothly-rolling car And mules to drive; and to the city back To bring his dead, whom great Achilles slew. Nor let the fear of death disturb his mind: Hermes shall with him, as his escort, go, And to Achilles' presence safely bring. Arriv'd within the tent, nor he himself Will slay him, but from others will protect. Not ignorant is he, nor void of sense, Nor disobedient to the Gods' behest But will with pitying eyes his suppliant view."

He said; and on his errand sped in haste The storm-swift Iris; when to Priam's house She came, the sounds of wailing met her ear. Within the court, around their father, sat His sons, their raiment all bedew'd with tears; And in the midst, close cover'd with his robe, Their sire, his head and neck with dirt defil'd, Which, wallowing on the earth, himself had heap'd, With his own hands, upon his hoary head. Throughout the house his daughters loudly wail'd In mem'ry of the many and the brave Who lay in death, by Grecian warriors slain. Beside him stood the messenger of Jove, And whisper'd, while his limbs with terror shook: "Fear nothing, Priam, son of Dardanus, Nor let thy mind be troubled; not for ill, But here on kindly errand am I sent: To thee I come, a messenger from Jove, Who from on high looks down on thee with eyes Of pitying love; he bids thee ransom home The godlike Hector's corpse; and with thee take Such presents as may melt Achilles' heart. Alone, no Trojan with thee, must thou go; Yet may a herald on thy steps attend, Some aged man, thy smoothly-rolling car And mules to drive, and to the city back To bring thy dead, whom great Achilles slew. Nor let the fear of death disturb thy mind: Hermes shall with thee, as thine escort, go, And to Achilles' presence safely bring. Arriv'd within the tent, nor he himself Will slay thee, but from others will protect; Not ignorant is he, nor void of sense, Nor disobedient to the Gods' behest, But will with pitying eyes his suppliant view."

Swift-footed Iris said, and vanish'd straight: He to his sons commandment gave, the mules To yoke beneath the smoothly-rolling car, And on the axle fix the wicker seat. Himself the lofty cedar chamber sought, Fragrant, high-roof'd, with countless treasures stor'd; And call'd to Hecuba his wife, and said, "Good wife, a messenger from Jove hath come, Who bids me seek the Grecian ships, and there Obtain my son's release; and with me take Such presents as may melt Achilles' heart. Say then, what think'st thou? for my mind inclines To seek the ships within the Grecian camp."

So he; but Hecuba lamenting cried, "Alas, alas! where are thy senses gone? And where the wisdom, once of high repute 'Mid strangers, and 'mid those o'er whom thou reign'st? How canst thou think alone to seek the ships, Ent'ring his presence, who thy sons hath slain, Many and brave? an iron heart is thine! Of that bloodthirsty and perfidious man, If thou within the sight and reach shalt come, No pity will he feel, no rev'rence show: Rather remain we here apart and mourn; For him, when at his birth his thread of life Was spun by fate, 'twas destin'd that afar From home and parents, he should glut the maw Of rav'ning dogs, by that stern warrior's tent, Whose inmost heart I would I could devour: Such for my son were adequate revenge, Whom not in ignominious flight he slew; But standing, thoughtless of escape or flight, For Trojan men and Troy's deep-bosom'd dames."

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire: "Seek not to hinder me; nor be thyself A bird of evil omen in my house; For thou shalt not persuade me. If indeed This message had been brought by mortal man, Prophet, or seer, or sacrificing priest, I should have deem'd it false, and laugh'd to scorn The idle tale; but now (for I myself Both saw and heard the Goddess) I must go; Nor unfulfill'd shall be the words I speak: And if indeed it be my fate to die Beside the vessels of the brass-clad Greeks, I am content! by fierce Achilles' hand Let me be slain, so once more in my arms I hold my boy, and give my sorrow vent." Then raising up the coffer's polish'd lid, He chose twelve gorgeous shawls, twelve single cloaks. As many rugs, as many splendid robes, As many tunics; then of gold he took Ten talents full; two tripods, burnish'd bright, Four caldrons; then a cup of beauty rare, A rich possession, which the men of Thrace Had giv'n, when there he went ambassador; E'en this he spar'd not, such his keen desire His son to ransom. From the corridor With angry words he drove the Trojans all:

"Out with ye, worthless rascals, vagabonds! Have ye no griefs at home, that here ye come To pester me? or is it not enough That Jove with deep affliction visits me, Slaying my bravest son? ye to your cost Shall know his loss: since now that he is gone, The Greeks shall find you easier far to slay. But may my eyes be clos'd in death, ere see The city sack'd, and utterly destroy'd."

He said, and with his staff drove out the crowd; Before the old man's anger fled they all; Then to his sons in threat'ning tone he cried; To Paris, Helenus, and Agathon, Pammon, Antiphonus, Polites brave, Deiphobus, and bold Hippothous, And godlike Dius; all these nine with threats And angry taunts the aged sire assail'd: "Haste, worthless sons, my scandal and my shame! Would that ye all beside the Grecian ships In Hector's stead had died! Oh woe is me, Who have begotten sons, in all the land The best and bravest; now remains not one; Mestor, and Troilus, dauntless charioteer, And Hector, who a God 'mid men appear'd, Nor like a mortal's offspring, but a God's: All these hath Mars cut off; and left me none, None but the vile and refuse; liars all, Vain skipping coxcombs, in the dance alone, And in nought else renown'd; base plunderers, From their own countrymen, of lambs and kids. When, laggards, will ye harness me the car Equipp'd with all things needed for the way?"

He said; they quail'd beneath their father's wrath, And brought the smoothly-running mule-wain out, Well-fram'd, new-built; and fix'd the wicker seat; Then from the peg the mule-yoke down they took, Of boxwood wrought, with boss and rings complete; And with the yoke, the yoke-band brought they forth, Nine cubits long; and to the polish'd pole At the far end attach'd; the breast-rings then Fix'd to the pole-piece: and on either side Thrice round the knob the leathern thong they wound. And bound it fast, and inward turn'd the tongue. Then the rich ransom, from the chambers brought, Of Hector's head, upon the wain they pil'd; And yok'd the strong-hoof'd mules, to harness train'd, The Mysians' splendid present to the King: To Priam's car they harness'd then the steeds, Which he himself at polish'd manger fed.

Deep thoughts revolving, in the lofty halls Were met the herald and the aged King, When Hecuba with troubled mind drew near; In her right hand a golden cup she bore Of luscious wine, that ere they took their way They to the Gods might due libations pour; Before the car she stood, and thus she spoke: "Take, and to father Jove thine off'ring pour, And pray that he may bring thee safely home From all thy foes; since sore against my will Thou needs wilt venture to the ships of Greece. Then to Idaean Jove, the cloud-girt son Of Saturn, who th' expanse of Troy surveys, Prefer thy pray'r, beseeching him to send, On thy right hand, a winged messenger, The bird he loves the best, of strongest flight; That thou thyself mayst see and know the sign, And, firm in faith, approach the ships of Greece. But should all-seeing Jove the sign withhold, Then not with my consent shouldst thou attempt, Whate'er thy wish, to reach the Grecian ships."

To whom, in answer, godlike Priam thus: "O woman, I refuse not to obey Thy counsel; good it is to raise the hands In pray'r to Heav'n, and Jove's protection seek." The old man said; and bade th' attendant pour Pure water on his hands; with ewer she, And basin, stood beside him: from his wife, The due ablutions made, he took the cup; Then in the centre of the court he stood, And as he pour'd the wine, look'd up to Heav'n, And thus with voice uplifted pray'd aloud: "O father Jove, who rul'st on Ida's height, Most great, most glorious! grant that I may find Some pity in Achilles' heart; and send, On my right hand, a winged messenger, The bird thou lov'st the best, of strongest flight, That I myself may see and know the sign, And, firm in faith, approach the ships of Greece."

Thus as he pray'd, the Lord of counsel heard; And sent forthwith an eagle, feather'd king, Dark bird of chase, and Dusky thence surnam'd: Wide as the portals, well secur'd with bolts, That guard some wealthy monarch's lofty hall, On either side his ample pinions spread. On the right hand appear'd he, far above The city soaring; they the fav'ring sign With joy beheld, and ev'ry heart was cheer'd. Mounting his car in haste, the aged King Drove thro' the court, and thro' the echoing porch; The mules in front, by sage Idaeus driv'n, That drew the four-wheel'd wain; behind them came The horses, down the city's steep descent Urg'd by th' old man to speed; the crowd of friends That follow'd mourn'd for him, as doom'd to death. Descended from the city to the plain, His sons and sons-in-law to Ilium took Their homeward way; advancing o'er the plain They two escap'd not Jove's all-seeing eye; Pitying he saw the aged sire; and thus At once to Hermes spoke, his much-lov'd son: "Hermes, for thou in social converse lov'st To mix with men, and hear'st whome'er thou wilt; Haste thee, and Priam to the Grecian ships So lead, that none of all the Greeks may see Ere at Achilles' presence he attain."

He said; nor disobey'd the heav'nly Guide; His golden sandals on his feet he bound, Ambrosial work; which bore him o'er the waves, Swift as the wind, and o'er the wide-spread earth; Then took his rod, wherewith he seals at will The eyes of men, and wakes again from sleep. This in his hand he bore, and sprang for flight. Soon the wide Hellespont he reach'd, and Troy, And pass'd in likeness of a princely youth, In op'ning manhood, fairest term of life.

The twain had pass'd by Ilus' lofty tomb, And halted there the horses and the mules Beside the margin of the stream to drink; For darkness now was creeping o'er the earth: When through the gloom the herald Hermes saw Approaching near, to Priam thus he cried: "O son of Dardanus, bethink thee well; Of prudent counsel great is now our need. A man I see, and fear he means us ill. Say, with the horses shall we fly at once, Or clasp his knees, and for his mercy sue?" The old man heard, his mind confus'd with dread; So grievously he fear'd, that ev'ry hair Upon his bended limbs did stand on end; He stood astounded; but the Guardian-God Approach'd, and took him by the hand, and said: "Where, father, goest thou thus with horse and mule In the still night, when men are sunk in sleep? And fear'st thou not the slaughter-breathing Greeks, Thine unrelenting foes, and they so near? If any one of them should see thee now, So richly laden in the gloom of night, How wouldst thou feel? thou art not young thyself, And this old man, thy comrade, would avail But little to protect thee from assault. I will not harm thee, nay will shield from harm, For like my father's is, methinks, thy face."

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire: "'Tis as thou say'st, fair son; yet hath some God Extended o'er me his protecting hand, Who sends me such a guide, so opportune. Bless'd are thy parents in a son so grac'd In face and presence, and of mind so wise."

To whom in answer thus the Guardian-God: "O father, well and wisely dost thou speak; But tell me this, and truly: dost thou bear These wealthy treasures to some foreign land, That they for thee in safety may be stor'd? Or have ye all resolv'd to fly from Troy In fear, your bravest slain, thy gallant son, Who never from the Greeks' encounter flinch'd?"

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire: "Who art thou, noble Sir, and what thy race, That speak'st thus fairly of my hapless son?"

To whom in answer thus the Guardian-God: "Try me, old man; of godlike Hector ask; For often in the glory-giving fight These eyes have seen him; chief, when to the ships The Greeks he drove, and with the sword destroy'd. We gaz'd in wonder; from the fight restrain'd By Peleus' son, with Agamemnon wroth. His follower I; one ship convey'd us both; One of the Myrmidons I am; my sire Polyctor, rich, but aged, e'en as thou. Six sons he hath, besides myself, the sev'nth; And I by lot was drafted for the war. I from the ships am to the plain come forth; For with the dawn of day the keen-ey'd Greeks Will round the city marshal their array. They chafe in idleness; the chiefs in vain Strive to restrain their ardour for the fight."

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire: "If of Achilles, Peleus' son, thou art Indeed a follower, tell me all the truth; Lies yet my son beside the Grecian ships, Or hath Achilles torn him limb from limb, And to his dogs the mangled carcase giv'n?"

To whom in answer thus the Guardian-God: "On him, old man, nor dogs nor birds have fed, But by the ship of Peleus' son he lies Within the tent; twelve days he there hath lain, Nor hath corruption touch'd his flesh, nor worms, That wont to prey on men in battle slain. The corpse, indeed, with each returning morn, Around his comrade's tomb Achilles drags, Yet leaves it still uninjur'd; thou thyself Mightst see how fresh, as dew-besprent, he lies, From blood-stains cleans'd, and clos'd his many wounds, For many a lance was buried in his corpse. So, e'en in death, the blessed Gods above, Who lov'd him well, protect thy noble son."

He said; th' old man rejoicing heard his words, And answer'd, "See, my son, how good it is To give th' immortal Gods their tribute due; For never did my son, while yet he liv'd, Neglect the Gods who on Olympus dwell; And thence have they remember'd him in death. Accept, I pray, this goblet rich-emboss'd; Be thou my guard, and, under Heav'n, my guide, Until I reach the tent of Peleus' son."

To whom in answer thus the Guardian-God: "Old father, me thy younger wouldst thou tempt, In vain; who bidd'st me at thy hands accept Thy proffer'd presents, to Achilles' wrong. I dread his anger; and should hold it shame To plunder him, through fear of future ill. But, as thy guide, I could conduct thee safe, As far as Argos, journeying by thy side, On ship-board or on foot; nor by the fault Of thy conductor shouldst thou meet with harm."

Thus spoke the Guardian-God, and on the car Mounting in haste, he took the whip and reins, And with fresh vigour mules and horses fill'd. When to the ship-tow'rs and the trench they came, The guard had late been busied with their meal; And with deep sleep the heav'nly Guide o'erspread The eyes of all; then open'd wide the gates, And push'd aside the bolts, and led within Both Priam, and the treasure-laden wain. But when they reach'd Achilles' lofty tent, (Which for their King the Myrmidons had built Of fir-trees fell'd, and overlaid the roof With rushes mown from off the neighb'ring mead; And all around a spacious court enclos'd With cross-set palisades; a single bar Of fir the gateway guarded, which to shut Three men, of all the others, scarce suffic'd, And three to open; but Achilles' hand Unaided shut with ease the massive bar) Then for the old man Hermes op'd the gate, And brought within the court the gifts design'd For Peleus' godlike son; then from the car Sprang to the ground, and thus to Priam spoke: "Old man, a God hath hither been thy guide; Hermes I am, and sent to thee from Jove, Father of all, to bring thee safely here. I now return, nor to Achilles' eyes Will I appear; beseems it not a God To greet a mortal in the sight of all. But go thou in, and clasp Achilles' knees, And supplicate him for his father's sake, His fair-hair'd mother's, and his child's, that so Thy words may stir an answer in his heart."

Thus saying, Hermes to Olympus' heights Return'd; and Priam from his chariot sprang, And left Idaeus there, in charge to keep The horses and the mules, while he himself Enter'd the dwelling straight, where wont to sit Achilles, lov'd of Heav'n. The chief he found Within, his followers seated all apart; Two only in his presence minister'd, The brave Automedon, and Alcimus, A warrior bold; scarce ended the repast Of food and wine; the table still was set. Great Priam enter'd, unperceiv'd of all; And standing by Achilles, with his arms Embrac'd his knees, and kiss'd those fearful hands, Blood-stain'd, which many of his sons had slain. As when a man, by cruel fate pursued, In his own land hath shed another's blood, And flying, seeks beneath some wealthy house A foreign refuge; wond'ring, all behold: On godlike Priam so with wonder gaz'd Achilles; wonder seiz'd th' attendants all, And one to other looked; then Priam thus To Peleus' son his suppliant speech address'd: "Think, great Achilles, rival of the Gods, Upon thy father, e'en as I myself Upon the threshold of unjoyous age: And haply he, from them that dwell around May suffer wrong, with no protector near To give him aid; yet he, rejoicing, knows That thou still liv'st; and day by day may hope To see his son returning safe from Troy; While I, all hapless, that have many sons, The best and bravest through the breadth of Troy, Begotten, deem that none are left me now. Fifty there were, when came the sons of Greece; Nineteen the offspring of a single womb; The rest, the women of my household bore. Of these have many by relentless Mars Been laid in dust; but he, my only one, The city's and his brethren's sole defence, He, bravely fighting in his country's cause, Hector, but lately by thy hand hath fall'n: On his behalf I venture to approach The Grecian ships; for his release to thee To make my pray'r, and priceless ransom pay. Then thou, Achilles, reverence the Gods; And, for thy father's sake, look pitying down On me, more needing pity; since I bear Such grief as never man on earth hath borne. Who stoop to kiss the hand that slew my son."

Thus as he spoke, within Achilles' breast Fond mem'ry of his father rose; he touch'd The old man's hand, and gently put him by; Then wept they both, by various mem'ries stirr'd: One, prostrate at Achilles' feet, bewail'd His warrior son; Achilles for his sire, And for Patroclus wept, his comrade dear; And through the house their weeping loud was heard. But when Achilles had indulg'd his grief, And eas'd the yearning of his heart and limbs, Uprising, with his hand the aged sire, Pitying his hoary head and hoary beard, He rais'd, and thus with gentle words address'd:

"Alas, what sorrows, poor old man, are thine! How couldst thou venture to the Grecian ships Alone, and to the presence of the man Whose hand hath slain so many of thy sons, Many and brave? an iron heart is thine! But sit thou on this seat; and in our hearts, Though filled with grief, let us that grief suppress; For woful lamentation nought avails. Such, is the thread the Gods for mortals spin, To live in woe, while they from cares are free. Two coffers lie beside the door of Jove, With gifts for man: one good, the other ill; To whom from each the Lord of lightning gives, Him sometimes evil, sometimes good befalls; To whom the ill alone, him foul disgrace And grinding mis'ry o'er the earth pursue: By God and man alike despis'd he roams. Thus from his birth the Gods to Peleus gave Excellent gifts; with wealth and substance bless'd Above his fellows; o'er the Myrmidons He rul'd with sov'reign sway; and Heav'n bestow'd On him, a mortal, an immortal bride. Yet this of ill was mingled in his lot, That in his house no rising race he saw Of future Kings; one only son he had, One doom'd to early death; nor is it mine To tend my father's age; but far from home Thee and thy sons in Troy I vex with war. Much have we heard too of thy former wealth; Above what Lesbos northward, Macar's seat, Contains, and Upper Phrygia, and the shores Of boundless Hellespont, 'tis said that thou In wealth and number of thy sons wast bless'd. But since on thee this curse the Gods have brought, Still round thy city war and murder rage. Bear up, nor thus with grief incessant mourn; Vain is thy sorrow for thy gallant son; Thou canst not raise him, and mayst suffer more."

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire; "Tell me not yet, illustrious chief, to sit, While Hector lies, uncar'd for, in the tent; But let me quickly go, that with mine eyes I may behold my son; and thou accept The ample treasures which we tender thee: Mayst thou enjoy them, and in safety reach Thy native land, since thou hast spar'd my life, And bidd'st me still behold the light of Heav'n."

To whom Achilles thus with stern regard: "Old man, incense me not; I mean myself To give thee back thy son; for here of late Despatch'd by Jove, my Goddess-mother came, The daughter of the aged Ocean-God: And thee too, Priam, well I know, some God (I cannot err) hath guided to our ships. No mortal, though in vent'rous youth, would dare Our camp to enter; nor could hope to pass Unnotic'd by the watch, nor easily Remove the pond'rous bar that guards our doors. But stir not up my anger in my grief; Lest, suppliant though thou be, within my tent I brook thee not, and Jove's command transgress."

He said; the old man trembled, and obey'd; Then to the door-way, with a lion's spring, Achilles rush'd; not unaccompanied; With him Automedon and Aleimus, His two attendants, of his followers all, Next to the lost Patroclus, best-esteem'd; They from the yoke the mules and horses loos'd; Then led the herald of the old man in, And bade him sit; and from the polish'd wain The costly ransom took of Hector's head. Two robes they left, and one well-woven vest, To clothe the corpse, and send with honour home. Then to the female slaves he gave command To wash the body, and anoint with oil, Apart, that Priam might not see his son; Lest his griev'd heart its passion unrestrain'd Should utter, and Achilles, rous'd to wrath, His suppliant slay, and Jove's command transgress. When they had wash'd the body, and with oil Anointed, and around it wrapp'd the robe And vest, Achilles lifted up the dead With his own hands, and laid him on the couch; Which to the polish'd wain his followers rais'd. Then groaning, on his friend by name he call'd: "Forgive, Patroclus! be not wroth with me, If in the realm of darkness thou shouldst hear That godlike Hector to his father's arms, For no mean ransom, I restore; whereof A fitting share for thee I set aside."

This said, Achilles to the tent return'd; On the carv'd couch, from whence he rose, he sat Beside the wall; and thus to Priam spoke:

"Old man, thy son, according to thy pray'r, Is giv'n thee back; upon the couch he lies; Thyself shalt see him at the dawn of day. Meanwhile the ev'ning meal demands our care. Not fair-hair'd Niobe abstain'd from food When in the house her children lay in death, Six beauteous daughters and six stalwart sons. The youths, Apollo with his silver bow, The maids, the Archer-Queen, Diana, slew, With anger fill'd that Niobe presum'd Herself with fair Latona to compare, Her many children with her rival's two; So by the two were all the many slain. Nine days in death they lay; and none was there To pay their fun'ral rites; for Saturn's son Had given to all the people hearts of stone. At length th' immortal Gods entomb'd the dead. Nor yet did Niobe, when now her grief Had worn itself in tears, from food refrain. And now in Sipylus, amid the rocks, And lonely mountains, where the Goddess nymphs That love to dance by Achelous' stream, 'Tis said, were cradled, she, though turn'd to stone, Broods o'er the wrongs inflicted by the Gods. So we too, godlike sire, the meal may share; And later, thou thy noble son mayst mourn, To Troy restor'd—well worthy he thy tears."

This said, he slaughter'd straight a white-fleec'd sheep; His comrades then the carcase flay'd and dress'd: The meat prepar'd, and fasten'd to the spits; Roasted with care, and from the fire withdrew. The bread Automedon from baskets fair Apportion'd out; the meat Achilles shar'd. They on the viands set before them fell. The rage of thirst and hunger satisfied, In wonder Priam on Achilles gaz'd, His form and stature; as a God he seem'd; And he too look'd on Priam, and admir'd His venerable face, and gracious speech. With mutual pleasure each on other gaz'd, Till godlike Priam first address'd his host:

"Dismiss me now, illustrious chief, to rest; And lie we down, in gentle slumbers wrapp'd; For never have mine eyes been clos'd in sleep, Since by thy hand my gallant son was slain: But groaning still, I brood upon my woes, And in my court with dust my head defile. Now have I tasted bread, now ruddy wine Hath o'er my palate pass'd; but not till now."

Thus he; his comrades and th' attendant maids Achilles order'd in the corridor Two mattresses to place, with blankets fair Of purple wool o'erlaid; and on the top Rugs and soft sheets for upper cov'ring spread. They from the chamber, torch in hand, withdrew, And with obedient haste two beds prepar'd. Then thus Achilles spoke in jesting tone: "Thou needs must sleep without, my good old friend; Lest any leader of the Greeks should come, As is their custom, to confer with me; Of them whoe'er should find thee here by night Forthwith to Agamemnon would report, And Hector might not be so soon, restor'd. But tell me truly this; how many days For godlike Hector's fun'ral rites ye need; That for so long a time I may myself Refrain from combat, and the people stay."

To whom in answer Priam, godlike sire: "If by thy leave we may indeed perform His fun'ral rites, to thee, Achilles, great Will be our gratitude, if this thou grant. Thou know'st how close the town is hemm'd around; And from the mountain, distant as it is, The Trojans well may fear to draw the wood. Nine days to public mourning would we give; The tenth, to fun'ral rites and fun'ral feast; Then on th' eleventh would we raise his mound; The twelfth, renew the war, if needs we must."

To whom Achilles swift of foot replied: "So shall it be, old Priam; I engage To stay the battle for the time requir'd."

Thus speaking, with his hand the old man's wrist He grasp'd, in token that he need not fear. Then in the corridor lay down to rest Old Priam and the herald, Elders sage; While in his tent's recess Achilles slept, The fair Briseis resting by his side.

In night-long slumbers lay the other Gods, And helmed chiefs, by gentle sleep subdued; But on the eyes of Hermes, Guardian-God, No slumber fell, deep pond'ring in his mind How from the ships in safety to conduct The royal Priam, and the guard elude. Above the sleeper's head he stood, and cried: "Old man, small heed thou tak'st of coining ill, Who, when Achilles gives thee leave to go, Sleep'st undisturb'd, surrounded by thy foes. Thy son hath been restor'd, and thou hast paid A gen'rous price; but to redeem thy life, If Agamemnon and the other Greeks Should know that thou art here, full thrice so much Thy sons, who yet are left, would have to pay."

He said; the old man trembled, and arous'd The herald; while the horses and the mules Were yok'd by Hermes, who with silent speed Drove through th' encampment, unobserv'd of all. But when they came to eddying Xanthus' ford, Fair-flowing stream, born of immortal Jove, To high Olympus Hermes took his flight, As morn, in saffron robe, o'er all the earth Was light diffusing; they with fun'ral wail Drove cityward the horses; following came The mules that drew the litter of the dead. The plain they travers'd o'er, observ'd of none, Or man or woman, till Cassandra, fair As golden Venus, from the topmost height Of Pergamus, her father in his car Upstanding saw, the herald at his side. Him too she saw, who on the litter lay; Then lifted up her voice, and cried aloud To all the city, "Hither, Trojans, come, Both men and women, Hector see restor'd; If, while he liv'd, returning from the fight, Ye met him e'er rejoicing, who indeed Was all the city's chiefest joy and pride."

She said; nor man nor woman then was left Within the city; o'er the minds of all Grief pass'd, resistless; to the gates in throngs They press'd, to crowd round him who brought the dead. The first to clasp the body were his wife And honour'd mother; eagerly they sprang On the smooth-rolling wain, to touch the head Of Hector; round them, weeping, stood the crowd Weeping, till sunset, all the live-long day Had they before the gates for Hector mourn'd; Had not old Priam from the car address'd The crowd: "Make way, that so the mules may pass; When to my house I shall have brought my dead, Ye there may vent your sorrow as ye will."

Thus as he spoke, obedient to his word They stood aside, and for the car made way: But when to Priam's lordly house they came, They laid him on a rich-wrought couch, and call'd The minstrels in, who by the hero's bed Should lead the melancholy chorus; they Pour'd forth the music of the mournful dirge, While women's voices join'd in loud lament. White-arm'd Andromache the wail began, The head of Hector clasping in her hands: "My husband, thou art gone in pride of youth, And in thine house hast left me desolate; Thy child an infant still, thy child and mine, Unhappy parents both! nor dare I hope That he may reach the ripeness of his youth; For ere that day shall Troy in ruin fall, Since thou art gone, her guardian! thou whose arm Defended her, her wives, and helpless babes! They now shall shortly o'er the sea be borne, And with them I shall go; thou too, my child, Must follow me, to servile labour doom'd, The suff'ring victim of a tyrant Lord; Unless perchance some angry Greek may seize And dash thee from the tow'r—a woful death! Whose brother, or whose father, or whose son By Hector hath been slain; for many a Greek By Hector's hand hath bit the bloody dust; Not light in battle was thy father's hand! Therefore for him the gen'ral city mourns; Thou to thy parents bitter grief hast caus'd, Hector! but bitt'rest grief of all hast left To me! for not to me was giv'n to clasp The hand extended from thy dying bed, Nor words of wisdom catch, which night and day, With tears, I might have treasur'd in my heart."

Weeping she spoke—the women join'd the wail. Then Hecuba took up the loud lament: "Hector, of all my children dearest thou! Dear to th' Immortals too in life wast thou, And they in death have borne thee still in mind; For other of my sons, his captives made, Across the wat'ry waste, to Samos' isle Or Imbros, or th' inhospitable shore Of Lemnos, hath Achilles, swift of foot, To slav'ry sold; thee, when his sharp-edg'd spear Had robb'd thee of thy life, he dragg'd indeed Around Patroclus' tomb, his comrade dear, Whom thou hadst slain; yet so he rais'd not up Ilis dead to life again; now liest thou here, All fresh and fair, as dew-besprent; like one Whom bright Apollo, with his arrows keen, God of the silver bow, hath newly slain."

Weeping, she spoke; and rous'd the gen'ral grief. Then Helen, third, the mournful strain renew'd: "Hector, of all my brethren dearest thou! True, godlike Paris claims me as his wife, Who bore me hither—would I then had died! But twenty years have pass'd since here I came, And left my native land; yet ne'er from thee I heard one scornful, one degrading word; And when from others I have borne reproach, Thy brothers, sisters, or thy brothers' wives, Or mother, (for thy sire was ever kind E'en as a father) thou hast check'd them still With tender feeling, and with gentle words. For thee I weep, and for myself no less: For, through the breadth of Troy, none love me now, None kindly look on me, but all abhor."

Weeping she spoke, and with her wept the crowd. At length the aged Priam gave command: "Haste now, ye Trojans, to the city bring Good store of fuel; fear no treach'rous wile; For when he sent me from the dark-ribb'd ships, Achilles promis'd that from hostile arms Till the twelfth morn we should no harm sustain."

He said; and they the oxen and the mules Yok'd to the wains, and from the city throng'd: Nine days they labour'd, and brought back to Troy Good store of wood; but when the tenth day's light Upon the earth appear'd, weeping, they bore Brave Hector out; and on the fun'ral pile Laying the glorious dead, applied the torch.

While yet the rosy-finger'd morn was young Round noble Hector's pyre the people press'd: When all were gather'd round, and closely throng'd First on the burning mass, as far as spread The range of fire, they pour'd the ruddy wine, And quench'd the flames: his brethren then and friends Weeping, the hot tears flowing down their cheeks, Collected from the pile the whiten'd bones; These in a golden casket they enclos'd, And o'er it spread soft shawls of purple dye; Then in a grave they laid it, and in haste With stone in pond'rous masses cover'd o'er; And rais'd a mound, and watch'd on ev'ry side, From sudden inroad of the Greeks to guard. The mound erected, back they turn'd; and all Assembled duly, shar'd the solemn feast In Priam's palace, Heav'n-descended King.

Such were the rites to glorious Hector paid.





The text of the original leaves it somewhat in doubt whether the anger of the Greeks were directed against Thersites or Agamemnon. I believe the preponderance of authority, ancient and modern, is in favour of the former interpretation; but the latter is not without the support of some eminent scholars, and after much consideration I have been induced to adopt it. The original represents the Greeks as filled with anger and resentment against some one. Thersites was an object of general contempt, but he had done nothing to excite those feelings: indeed, apart from the offensiveness of his tone, the public sympathy was with him; for the army was deeply dissatisfied, and resented the conduct of Agamemnon against Achilles, mainly perhaps because they had ceased to be enriched with the plunder of his successful forays (see i. 202, and ix. 387). This dissatisfaction and resentment are referred to by Neptune (xiii. 126), and by Agamemnon himself (xiv. 55). They had lately manifested themselves in the alacrity with which the whole army had caught at the insidious suggestion of abandoning the war; and, just before the second assembly, Thersites avails himself of the general feeling, constituting himself the representative of a popular grievance, to vent his personal spite against Agamemnon. Ulysses saw how dangerous such a display might be at such a moment; and artfully assuming (line 281) that the feeling was confined to Thersites alone (though in his subsequent speech, line 335, he admits and excuses the general discontent), he proceeds to cut short its expression by summary chastisement. Thereupon the fickle multitude, "despite their anger" (against Agamemnon), cannot refrain from laughing at the signal discomfiture of their self-constituted champion.

This view is very fully set forth in a note on the passage appended to a translation of the Iliad by Mr. Barter, published in 1859, but which I have only seen since the publication of this work.


See also Book xxii. l. 252. Milton, in the corresponding passage at the close of the 4th Book of 'Paradise Lost,' reverses the sign, and represents the scale of the vanquished as "flying up" and "kicking the beam." "The Fiend look'd up, and knew His mounted scale aloft; nor more, but fled Murm'ring, and with him fled the shades of night."]


This comparison does not afford a very accurate criterion of the "space interposed," which cannot be estimated without knowing the total distance within which the faster was to outstrip the slower team.


This passage would seem to be the result of an oversight on the part of the Poet; who, apparently, had forgotten that Pylasmenes, "the Paphlagonian Chief," had himself been killed by Menelaus, some time before the death of his son See Book V., l. 656.


Line 45 et seqq. I hope I may be pardoned for having somewhat curtailed the list of these ladies, which in the original extends over ten lines of names only. In doing so, I have followed the example of Virgil, who represents the same ladies [G. 4. 336] in attendance on Cyrene; and has not only reduced the list, but added some slight touches illustrating their occupations and private history: a liberty permissible to an imitator, but not to a translator.]


L. 151. Chthizos, yesterday. But either the word must have a more extended signification than is usually given to it, or Homer must here have fallen into an error; for two complete nights and one day, that on which Patroclus met his death, had intervened since the visit of Ajax and Ulysses to the tent of Achilles. See also l. 215.


L. 547. The terms made use of in this line, and in 481, may appear somewhat coarse, as addressed by one Goddess to another: but I assure the English reader that in this passage especially I have greatly softened down the expression of the original; a literal translation of which, however forcible, would shock even the least fastidious critic. It must, indeed, be admitted that the mode in which "the white-armed Goddess" proceeds to execute her threat is hardly more dignified than the language, in which it is conveyed, is refined.


Line 737.—They being two, while I was only one. Such I believe to be the true interpretation of this passage, which, however, is one of admitted difficulty. According to our modern notions, it is not very evident what advantage two men in a car would have over one in another; nor what would be gained by the division of labour which assigned the reins to one and the whip to the other; but such, from line 740-741, appears to have been the view taken by Homer.


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