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The Evidence in the Case
by James M. Beck
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At Belfort the station was crowded with French troops and an elderly French couple came into our compartment. The eyes of the wife were red with weeping, while the man sank into his seat and with his head upon his breast gazed moodily into vacancy. They had just parted with their son, who had joined the colors. I stood for a time with this French gentleman in the corridor of the train, but as he could not speak English or German and I could not speak French, it was impossible for us to communicate the intense and tragical thoughts that were passing through our minds. Suddenly he pointed to the smiling harvest fields, by which we passed so swiftly, and said "Perdu! perdu!" This word of tragical import could have been applied to all civilization as well.

The night of our arrival in Paris I fully expected to see a half a million Frenchmen parading the streets and enthusiastically cheering for war and crying, as in 1870, "a Berlin!" I was to witness an extraordinary transformation of a great nation. An unusual silence brooded over the city. A few hundred people paraded the chief avenues, crying "down with war!", while a separate crowd of equal size sang the national hymn. With these exceptions there was no cheering or enthusiasm, such as I would have expected from my preconceived idea of French excitability. Men spoke in undertones, with a quiet but subdued intensity of feeling rather than with frenzied enthusiasm.

With a devotion that was extraordinary and a pathetically brave submission to a possible fate, they seemed to be sternly resolved to die to the last man, if necessary, in defense of their noble nation. Although I subsequently saw in the thrilling days of mobilization many thousands of soldiers pass through the railroad stations on their way to the front, I never heard the rumble of a drum or saw the waving of regimental colors.

No sacrifice seemed to be too great, whether it was asked of man, woman, or child. The spirit of materialism for the time being vanished. The newspapers shrunk to a single sheet and all commercial advertisements disappeared. Theaters, art galleries, museums, libraries, closed their doors. Upon some streets nearly every shop was closed, with the simple but eloquent placard "Gone to join the colors." The French people neither exulted, boasted, nor complained. The only querulous element was a small minority of the large body of American tourists, so suddenly caught in a terrific storm of human passions, who seemed to feel that this Red Sea of blood should part until they could walk dry-shod to the shore of safety.

In Germany similar scenes were enacted and a like spirit of courage and self-sacrifice was shown.

It is a reflection upon civilization that two nations, each so brave, heroic, and self-sacrificing, should, without their consent and by the miserable and iniquitous folly of scheming statesmen and diplomats, be plunged into a war, of which no man can see the end and which has already swept away the flower of their manhood.

One great lesson of this conflict may be that no aggressive war ought to be initiated unless the policy of that war is first submitted to the masses of the people, upon whom the burdens in the last analysis fall and who must pay the dreadful penalty with their treasure and their lives.

If the policy of this war had been submitted by a referendum to the Austrian and German peoples with a full statement of the facts of the Servian controversy, would they not have rejected a form of arbitrament, which creates but does not settle questions, convinces no one, and only sows the seeds of greater hatred for future and richer harvests of death? If the be-ribboned diplomats and decorated generals of the General Staffs at Berlin and Vienna had been without power to precipitate this war, unless they themselves were willing to occupy the trenches on the firing line, this war might never have been.

* * * * *

Nearly five months have passed since that summer day, when I passed through smiling harvest fields from the mountains to the Seine. The trenches, in which innumerable brave men are writing with their blood the records of their statesmen's follies, are filled with snow. The blackest Christmas Eve within the memory of living man has come and gone, perhaps the blackest, since in the stillness of the night there fell upon the wondering ears of the shepherds the gracious refrain of "Peace on earth, good will among men." On that night devout German soldiers sang in their trenches in Flanders and along the Vistula the hymn of Christmas Eve, "Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht."

Was this unconscious mockery, an expression of invincible faith, or a reversion from habit to the gentler associations of childhood? The spirit of Christmas was not wholly dead, for it is narrated that these brave men in English and German trenches on this saddest of Christmas Eves declared for a few hours of their own volition a Christmas truce.

"Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated The bird of dawning singeth all night long, And then, they say, no spirit dare stir abroad, The nights are wholesome, then no planets strike, So hallowed and so gracious is the time."

There is not between the men in one trench and those in another, each seeking the speediest opportunity to kill the other, any personal quarrel. On occasion they even fraternize, only to resume the work of mutual extermination. They would not have quarreled, if the Berchtolds, the von Bethmann-Hollwegs, and the von Jagows had had sufficient loyalty to civilization to submit any possible grievance, which either had, to the judgment of Europe.

A spectacle more ghastly than this "far-flung battle line" has never been witnessed since the world began, for these soldiers in gray or khaki are not savages but are beings of an advanced civilization. Their fighting can have in method none of the old-time chivalry, such as was witnessed at Fontenoy when the French commander courteously invited his English rival to fire first. The present is a chemical, mechanical war, than which no circle in Dante's Inferno is more horribly repellent.

When was better justified the terrible but beautiful imagery in Milton's poem of The Nativity, when he says of Nature:

"Only with speeches fair She woos the gentle air To hide her guilty front with innocent snow, And on her naked shame Pollute with sinful blame The saintly veil of maiden white to throw; Confounded that her Maker's eyes Should look so near upon her foul deformities."

The snow cannot hide the horrors of the present conflict. Even night, in other wars more merciful, no longer throws its sable mantle of mercy over the dying and the dead. By the use of powerful searchlights the work of destruction continues. As though the surface of the earth were no longer sufficient for this malignant exercise of the genius of man, the heavens above and the waters under the earth have become at length the battlefields of the nations. Even from the infinite azure falls

".... a ghastly dew From the nations' airy navies, grappling in the central blue."

Can all history afford a parallel in malignity to the submarine, which, having sunk one vessel with all its human lives, calmly awaits, with its periscope projecting above the water like the malignant eye of a devil fish, the arrival of rescuing ships to sink them also?

Was the gracious refrain of "Peace on earth, good will among men," merely a mockery of man's hope, making of his civilization a mere mirage? Will

"Caesar's spirit ranging for revenge With Ate from his side come hot from Hell"—

forever crucify afresh and put to an open shame the gentle Galilean?

The angelic song of Bethlehem was neither the statement of a fact nor even a prophecy. In its true translation it was the statement of a profound moral truth, upon which in the last analysis the pacification of humanity must depend. The great promise was "Peace on earth to men of good will."

Peace to the pacific, that was the great message. For all others the great Teacher had but one prediction and that was "the distress of nations, ... men's hearts failing them for fear." Until civilization can grasp the truth that there can be no peace until there is among all nations a spirit of conciliation and a common desire of justice, the cause of peace can be little more than a beautiful dream. Hague conventions, international tribunals, and agreements to arbitrate, while minimizing the causes of war and affording the machinery for the pacific adjustment of justiciable questions, will yet prove altogether ineffectual, irrespective of the size of the parchment, the imposing character of the seals, or the length of the red tape, unless the nations which execute them have sufficient loyalty to civilization to ask only that which seems just and to submit any disputable question to the pacific adjustment of an impartial tribunal.

I appreciate that some questions are not justiciable and cannot be arbitrated. The historic movements of races, like those of glaciers, cannot be stopped by mortal hands, and yet even these slow-moving masses of ice are stayed by an Invisible Hand and melt at length into gentle and fructifying streams. To create the universal state and to develop a spirit of paramount loyalty to it affords the only solution of this seemingly insoluble problem.

History affords no more striking illustration of this fact than the present war. Each of the contending nations was pledged to peace. All of the greater ones were signatories to the Hague Convention, but as the chain can never be stronger than its weakest link, the pacific efforts of England, France, and Russia to adjust a purely justiciable question by negotiation and mediation wholly failed because Austria and Germany had determined to test the mastery of Europe by an appeal to the sword. The fundamental cause of the conflict was their lack of loyalty to civilization, due to a misguided and perverted spirit of excessive nationalism.

Until with the slow-moving progress of mankind the greater unit of the Universal State can be created, it should be the common and equal concern of all nations, not merely to defeat this primitive appeal to brute force but to make impossible the recurrence of such an iniquitous reversion to barbarism. To do this, while any nation unjustly appeals to force, force is unhappily necessary, but there would be few occasions to repel force by force if there were sufficient solidarity in mankind to make it the common concern of the civilized world to suppress promptly and effectually any disturber of its peace.

If the present wanton attack upon the very foundations of civilization had been regarded as the common concern of all nations, it would never have taken place and might never occur again. To prevent such recurrence, thoughtful men of all nations should cooperate, so that when the present titanic struggle is over, an earnest and universal effort can be made to create such a compact between the civilized nations as will insure cooperative effort when any nation attempts to apply the torch of war to the stately edifice of civilization. May not this great war prove the supreme travail of humanity, whereof this nobler era will be born?

It should be the especial duty of the United States to lead in this onward movement. It has been in no small measure the liberator of mankind. Let it now be its pacificator! Can it do so in any better spirit than that voiced by one of the noblest of its Presidents at the close of another gigantic conflict, of which he was to be the last and greatest martyr, when he said:

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and orphan; and to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace.



INDEX

A

Albert, King of the Belgians, conversation of, with Kaiser, 107 ff.; appeal of, to England, 218

Attila, Kaiser's reference to, quoted, 14

Austria, given carte blanche, x; refuses peace proposals, xi; underlying causes of her ultimatum to Servia, 19 ff.; annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 20; keeps secret diplomatic correspondence, 23; Crown Prince of, assassinated, 20, 31; silence of, proves guilt, 25, 26; refuses England's propositions, 28; Germany's communications to, withheld from public, 28, 29; Red Book of, analyzed, 30; attitude of, false, 34; ignorance of ultimatum of, among diplomatic corps, 33; insists situation will "be cleared up," 35; of necessity supported by Germany before ultimatum, 36, 37; would not have sent ultimatum without Germany's backing, 36 ff.; ultimatum of, examined and characterized, 40, 41; ultimatum of, to Servia quoted in full, 47 et seq.; population of, 55; Austria-Servian relations, 56; promises to respect Servian territory, 59, 60; effect of ultimatum of, 61; attitude of, towards Servia's reply, 83, 84; most discreditable action of, 86; mobilizes, 86; not urged by Germany to consider peace proposals, 88; does not reply to Russian proposal, 91; claims Servia to be aggressor in first skirmish, 96; refuses discussion of Servian note, 98; again refuses Russia's pleas for peace, 99, 100; suppression of news in, 113; offered reparation by Servia, 114; knew that Servia would refuse demand of "judiciary cooperation," 115; sounds Italy regarding war on Servia, 119; ultimatum designedly withheld from powers, 121; petty finesse of, 123; ultimatum issued when foreign diplomats were out of the way, 123, 124; avoids foreign diplomats, 125; believes its interests require punishment of Servia, 136; national selfishness, 136; bombards Belgrade, 149; insists upon pursuing action against Servia, 170; at last agrees to discuss Servian note with Russia, 173; causes of partial reversal of policy, 175 ff.; offer of July 31, 1914, 190 et seq.; offer to discuss ultimatum merely nominal, 190; refuses Russia's stipulation concerning mediation, 191; counter suggestions of, to British Government, 191; proposal of, absurd, 192; signs "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; suppression of evidence by, useless, 246; conclusions concerning actions of, 249 et seq.; see Berchtold, Szapary, Triple Alliance

B

Balkans, existing status of, upset, 20

Balko-Turkish War, 34

Ballin, 223

Beck, James M., ancestry of, vii

Belgium, invasion of, a crime, vii; German demand on, xi; the proof of Germany's belief in von Bernhardi, 11; publishes Gray Paper, 23; Germany's disregard of rights of, 196 ff.; took no part in preliminary war controversy, 197; held no interest in Servian question, 197; treaty of neutrality signed, 198; restricts sale of munitions of war in 1870, 200; Bismarck's letter to, 200; feared invasion by Germany, 201; Germany professes intention of respecting neutrality of, 201 ff.; government fears German invasion, 205, 206; requests further assurance of Germany's intentions to respect neutrality, 206; reassured by France, 208; advised by Germany of intended invasion, 210; reply of, to German ultimatum, 212; hopes that Germany would respect neutrality, 213, 214; offered military support by France, 214; refuses French aid, 214; fined by Germany, 217, 218; compared to Poland, 218; appeal of, to England, 218; effect of German invasion, 229, 230; French officers in, 230; German officers and spies in, 230; Germany claims neutrality of, a sham, 235; anticipating German invasion, 236 ff.; German railroads on frontier of, 237; "guilt of," 238; conclusions concerning actions of, 249 et seq.; see Albert, Davignon, Von der Elst

Berchtold, Count, removes himself beyond reach of personal parleys, 70, 71; conversation of, with Russian Ambassador, 99, 100; assures Russia that "claim against Servia would be acceptable," 123; contends that British suggestions for peace came too late, 190; offer of, concerning mediation, 191; see Austria

Bernhardi, doctrines of, xvii; opinions of, on war quoted, 7 ff.; influence of, 10, 11; indictment of, 15, 16; failure of, 17; opinion of, concerning England's attitude to America during Civil War, 17, 205

Berthelot, M., prepares Yellow Book, 102

Bertie, Sir F., 207

Bethmann-Hollweg, Dr. von, quoted, viii; message of, to Federated Governments of Germany quoted, 44, 45; blunders of, 194; declares Germany will respect Belgian neutrality, 202; attempts to justify Germany's actions toward Belgium, 215, 216; "scrap of paper" speech quoted, 220, 221; speech of, concerning invasion of Belgium, 238; discusses "scrap of paper" remark, 239 ff.; see Germany

Bismarck, and militarism, xix ff.; attitude of, during peace negotiations, xix; and "spread eagleism," xix, xx; respects neutrality of Belgium, 200; 103

Bosnia annexed by Austria, 20

Brussels, secret documents in, 235

Bunsen, Sir M. de, report of, to Sir Edward Grey regarding ignorance of Diplomatic Corps concerning Austria's ultimatum, 32, 33; quoted regarding Germany's knowledge of Austrian ultimatum, 37

Burgess, Prof. John W., supports Germany, 222

C

Cambon, Jules, prepares Yellow Book, 102; an estimate of his abilities, 104, 105; advises France of Germany's early mobilization, 120; interviews von Jagow on Austrian ultimatum, 121 ff.; urges peace conference, 133; see France

Cook, Dr., Germany compared to, 232

Crackenthorpe, Mr., British Ambassador at Belgrade, instructions to, 82 ff.

Crown Prince of Germany, the, an adherent of brute force, 13

Czar, "the champion of Christianity," xxii; despatch to, from Kaiser regarding murder of Archduke, 147; reply of, to Kaiser, 148; reply to third message of Kaiser, 151; last message of, to Kaiser, 184, 185; telegram of, to King George, 189; telegram of, to Kaiser, suppressed by German Foreign Office, 189; "not guilty," 189

D

Davignon, M., conversation of, with von Below quoted, 206

"Decent respect to the opinions of mankind," vi

Declaration of Independence cited, 3

Dernberg, Dr., 224; claims France violated Belgian neutrality, 228

Disfurth, Major-General von, on Germany's war policy, quoted, 12, 13

Dryander, Dr., 197, 223

E

England, anticipation of war in, xii; fear of, for Germany, xxi; has also had its "Bernhardis," 15; Bernhardi's opinion of attitude during Civil War, 17; publishes White Paper, 22; testimony of British Ambassador at Vienna cited, 32, 33; probability of intervention of, 66; requests time, 70, 71; assured of French and Russian alliance, 77; refuses to align definitely with Russia and France, 79; suggests peace conference in London, 93; assures Germany of her desire for peace, 153; requested to act as mediator, 191; reason for use of word instead of "Great Britain," 195; signs "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; inquires as to German and French intentions toward Belgium, 207; requests Belgium to maintain her neutrality, 207; questions Germany as to intentions concerning Belgium, 208; ultimatum of, to Germany, 218; reply of, to Belgian appeal, 219; anticipating German invasion of Belgium, 236 ff.; entered war because of invasion of Belgium, 245; conclusions concerning actions of, 249 et seq.; see Bertie, Bunsen, George, King, Goschen, Grey, Triple Entente

F

France, preparation in, for war, xii; fear of Germany for, xxi; publishes Yellow Book, 23; French Premier quoted on Austrian Servian troubles, 31, 32; relations of, with Germany, 56; assures Russia and England of her support, 77; refuses Germany's request to influence Russia, 92; urges Germany to join Powers in preventing invasion of Servia, 95; assured that Germany wishes peace, 131; suspicion of, toward Germany, 132; supports England's request for conference, 133; declaration of war on, delayed, 192; ultimatum to, 192; invasion of, 192 et seq. reason of, for not assuming aggressive, 193; invasion of, to follow immediately or to precede severance of diplomatic relations, 194; signs "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; respects Belgium neutrality, 200; reaffirms intention of respecting Belgian neutrality, 206; reply of, to England's query regarding Belgian neutrality, 207; declares to Belgium intention of respecting neutrality, 208; cited by Germany as cause for violation of Belgian neutrality, 210, 211; offers military support to Belgium, 214; "overt acts of," 238, 239; first death in war, 253; attitude of people in, 254 ff.; see Berthelot, Cambon, Triple Entente, Viviani

Franco-German War, cause of, 19

Frederick the Great, 2; effect of, on Germany to-day, 10

Fuchs, Dr., on hatred, quoted, 11; on preparedness for war, quoted, 11

Furor Teutonicus directed against England, xxii

G

George, King of England, message of, to Kaiser, 153; telegram of, to Czar, 155; message to, from Kaiser regarding neutrality of France, 187

Germany, confesses its crime, viii; suppression of evidence by, ix; gives Austria carte blanche, x; refuses to accept peace proposals, xi; invades Luxemburg, xi; "fears God but nothing else," xix ff.; attitude of, toward rest of world, xix et seq.; foreign policy of, xxii; real attitude of people, xxiii; German people misled, xxvi; endeavors to gain approval of America, 4; espouses visions of Machiavelli, 5 ff.; attitude of, toward war, 6 ff.; avowed attitude of, towards world, 6 et seq.; doctrine of, 11 et seq.; war policies of, shown by quotations, 11 et seq.; spirit of the ruling classes, 13; domination of Europe established, 19, 20; attitude of, on the Balkans, 19 et seq.; publishes White Paper, 22; suppression of facts by, 27; communications of, to Austria withheld from White Paper, 28, 29; advance knowledge of Austria's ultimatum, 32 et seq.; only power to know of Austria's ultimatum, 33; attitude of, false, 34; Ambassador to England suggests Russia as "mediator with regard to Servia," 35; Ambassador to England denies knowledge of Austria's actions, 35; disclaims knowledge of Austria's ultimatum, 36; guilty of duplicity regarding Austria's ultimatum, 36; unquestionably had previous knowledge of Austria's ultimatum, 37; sincerity of attitude examined, 38 ff.; pacific protestations of, insincere, 38; first statement of Germany's position regarding Austro-Servian problem, 39 ff.; greatest diplomatic blunder, 39, 40; further proof of her knowledge of Austrian ultimatum, 41; supports Austria, 41; anticipates Servia's refusal, 42; instructions to Ambassador, 43; Ambassador to U. S. admits advance knowledge of Austrian ultimatum, 46; takes steps to allay indignation of U. S., 46; warnings of, to Servia, 56; relations of, with France, 56; reason for actions of, 65 ff.; fails to move for peace, 69, 70; excuses for not granting time extension, 71 ff.; refuses Russia's request for time extension, 73 ff.; fear of, for England's, 79; principal fear of, 79; attitude of, toward Servia's reply, 83, 84; withholds from people adequate information on Servia's reply, 85; reply to England's further requests for time, 87; disclaims any responsibility for Austrian ultimatum, 89, 90; willing to have England mediate between Austria and Russia, 89; states that Austria cannot draw back in Servian matter, 89; fatal policy of, 91; declares Russia responsible for war, 92; requests France to influence Russia, 92; refuses to attend peace conference in London, 93; refuses Russia's request to urge conciliation in Austria, 95; refuses France's request to prevent invasion of Servia, 96; insists on "exclusion of all possibility of mediation," 97; claims efforts for mediation came too late, 98; excuse of, for not assenting to peace conference, 100, 101; incapable diplomats of, 103; attitude of people toward Kaiser, 109 ff.; knew that Servia would refuse demand of "judiciary cooperation", 115; further proof of Germany's advance knowledge of Austria's ultimatum, 116; petty finesse of, 123; excuse of, for not getting extension of time, 124; avoids foreign diplomats, 125; diplomats reluctant to leave copies of notes, 127 ff.; Ambassador to France denies agreement with Austria over note to Servia, 129; assures France that she is for peace, 130; refuses France's request for peace conference, 133; "closest interests" of, 136; national selfishness, 136; believes Russia will keep out, 140; believes France "in no position for war," 140; belief of, regarding war preparedness and action of other nations, 140, 141; ultimatum to Russia, 141; preparedness for war, 142; assured of no provocative action on part of Russia, 152; offer of, to England, 159 ff.; advances upon France, 161; French report of army movements, 161, 162; evades England's request for peace suggestion, 169; declaration of war by, quoted, 183, 184; proof of preparedness of, 188, 189; declares war on Russia, 192; ultimatum of, to France, 192; delays declaration of war upon France, 192; awaits French act of aggression, 192; Ambassador leaves Paris, 192; ready for invasion of France, 193; pacific intentions of, false, 193, 194; inconsistency in policies of, 194; diplomats and army not in harmony, 194; disregard of, for rights of Belgium, 196; respected neutrality of Belgium in 1870, 200; professes intention of respecting Belgian neutrality, 201 ff.; recognizes obligations of neutrality treaty, 202; Foreign Office suppresses telegram of Czar, 189; places responsibility for war upon Russia, 192; evades England's question concerning Belgian neutrality, 208; insists she is forced to invade Belgium, 210; declares France will invade Belgium, 210; excuses of, for invasion of Belgium, 210 ff.; declares war upon Belgium, 215; invades Belgium, 215; invasion of Belgium considered and analyzed, 217 ff.; imposes fines upon Belgium, 217 ff.; reply of, to English ultimatum, 220; declares necessity forces invasion of Belgium, 220; defense of, for invasion of Belgium, 224; moral isolation of, 229; compared to Dr. Cook, 232; plea of guilty, 233 ff.; claims discovery of secret documents in Brussels, 235; strategic railroads of, 237; campaign which should have been followed, 245; suppression of evidence by, useless, 246; conclusions concerning actions of, 249 et seq.; attitude of people in, 256; see Kaiser, Lichnowsky, Prussia, Triple Alliance, von Below, Bethmann-Hollweg, von Heeringen, von Jagow, von Schoen

Gladstone, did not rely on "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; speech of, concerning Belgium, quoted, 199; speech of, cited by Shaw, 199

Goschen, Sir E., on Germany's position in Austro-Servian trouble, quoted, 39; report of, regarding England's request for time, 72; conversation of, with von Jagow preceding England's declaration of war, 220 ff.; instructions to, August 4th, 219

Gray Paper (Belgium), Belgium publishes, 23; quoted, 202, 208, 210, 211, 218

Great Britain, see England

Grey, Sir Edward, compared to Pitt, 22; conversation of, with German Ambassador regarding Austro-Servian trouble, 35 ff.; advised that Germany had knowledge of Austrian ultimatum, 37; report to, from British Ambassador at Berlin, July 22d, 38, 39, 28; did not anticipate Austrian ultimatum; deceived by Germany, 36; conversation of, with Austrian Minister, quoted, 70, 71; restrictions binding actions of, 79, 80; instructions of, to British Ambassador at Belgrade, 82; further plea for time, 86; further proposals of, for peace, 89; suggests peace conference of Powers in London, 93; chief merit of, 105; report of, by France, of German army movements, 161, 162; replies to Germany on neutrality of England, 162; that Germany suggest means of preventing Austro-Servian war, 167; continues his efforts for peace, 172, 173; last attempt of, to preserve peace, 180, 181; conversation of, cited by Germany, 191; inquiry of, concerning results of England's neutrality, 193; conversations of, with German Ambassador concerning Belgian neutrality, 209; instructions to British Ambassador at Berlin, August 4th, 219; refutes statement concerning secret documents, 236; see Bunsen; England; George, King; Goschen

H

Haeckel, Ernst, 197

Hague Tribunal, due to Czar's initiative, 189; Russia desires Austro-Servian problem referred to, 189; actions taken by, in 1907, 204 ff.; 226; 251

Hamburger Nachrichten, quoted, 12, 13

Hamilton, Alexander, quoted, 227

Harden, Maximilian, on Germany's war policies, quoted, 12; 243

Harnack, 222

Herzegovina annexed by Austria, 20

I

Italy, not bound by Triple Alliance, x; attitude of, 23 ff.; as affected by Triple Alliance, 24; attitude of, 24, 25; German messages to, suppressed, 29; told that situation would "be cleared up," 35; cooperation of, dependent upon Russia's actions, 65; not advised of intended actions of Germany and Austria, 117; previously sounded by Austria, 119; Germany schemes to acquire support of, 191, 192; see San Giuliano

J

Jefferson, Thomas, quoted, vi

Junkerdom, see Prussia

K

Kaiser, returns to Berlin from Norway, xi; extols the Czar, xxii; spirit of absolutism of, 9; "divine right" of, 9; quoted, 9; fanatic absolutism of, 9; an adherent of brute force, 13; "China speech" of, quoted, 14; "Hun" speech, quoted, 14; Cambon 1913 report concerning, 107; position of, 109 et seq.; attitude and actions of, in early part of trouble, 138 et seq.; ultimatum of, to Russia, 141; responsibility of, for war, 141, 142; character of, 142 ff.; does not act in interests of peace, 145 ff.; despatch of, to Czar regarding murder of Archduke, quoted, 147; second message to Czar, 149; fatal error of, 150; third message to Czar, 151; reply of, to King George, 154; message of, to Czar regarding Russia's mobilization, 155; estimate and discussion of actions of, 157; preparing for war, 159; taking steps to alienate England from Allies, 159 ff.; issues ultimatum to Russia, 176; reply of, to last message of Czar, 185, 186; message of, to England regarding neutrality of France, 187; "awful responsibility of," 188; telegram of, to King George, quoted, 193; reason of, for telegram to King George, 193; telegram of, analyzed, 193; blunders of, 194; see Germany

Kudachef, Prince, action of, regarding time extension, 73

L

Lamprecht, 223

Lichnowsky, Prince, affects ignorance, 121; conversation with, cited, 191; query to, regarding results of England's neutrality, 193; conversation of, with Sir Edward Grey concerning Belgian neutrality, 209; 89, 90; see Germany

Liege, French officers at, 230

Luxemburg, invaded, xi; wrong done to, 243

M

Machiavelli, vicious principles of, 4; Bernhardi compared to, 16

Mahan, Admiral, 11

Margerie, M. de, prepares Yellow Book, 102

Militaerische Rundschau, quoted, 114

Moltke, von, opinion of, cited, 6, 7

Morocco controversy, 109 ff.

N

Namur, French officers at, 230

Napoleon III., honor of, 201

Newspapers, American, lack of Austrian dispatches to, before war, 31

Nietzsche, 6

O

Orange Paper (Russia), Russia publishes, 22; quoted regarding Germany's knowledge of Austrian ultimatum, 36; quoted, 36, 68, 69, 73, 74, 85, 91, 92, 95, 97

P

Pachitch, Servian Premier, absent from Belgrade, 32

Penn, William, treaty of, compared to the "scrap of paper," xvi

Poland, compared to Belgium, 218

Prussia, Prussian Junkerdom, 8 ff.; signs "neutrality of Belgium," treaty, 198

R

Red Book, analyzed, 30; discloses true Austrian policy, 190; quoted, 190, 191

Reichstag, debate in, quoted, 201, 202, 240, 241

Rumbold, Sir H., letter to, quoted in White Paper, 35

Russia, intimidated by Germany, 20; forced to submit in Balkans, 20; publishes Orange Paper, 22; suggested by Germany as mediator between Austria and Servia, 35; assured of Germany's ignorance of Austrian ultimatum, 36; assured that Austria will not seize Servian territory, 59, 60; possibility of intervention of, 65; attitude of, 67 ff.; message of, to Austria, quoted, 68, 69; request for time refused, 71; assured that Austria contemplates no acquisition of Servian territory, 74, 75; confers with France and England, 77; suggestions of, to avoid conflict, 77, 78; willing to leave Austro-Servian trouble in hands of the Powers, 80, 81,; proposal of, to Austria, 91; requests Germany to urge conciliation with Austria, 95; proposes its services in keeping Servia quiet, 96; again proposes peace conference, 99; assured that Austria's claims would be acceptable, 123; charge put off until too late, 125; ultimatum of Germany to, 141,; assures Germany of no provocative action upon her part, 152; offers to stop all military preparations, 164 ff; orders general mobilization, 171; refuses to reply to Germany's ultimatum, 178; suggests referring Austro-Servian problem to Hague, 189; "not guilty," 189; offer of, to suspend military preparations, 190; cannot treat direct with Austria, 191; requests England to act as mediator, 191; stipulates suspension of hostilities during mediation, 191; signs "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; see Czar, Kudachef, Sazonof; see also Triple Entente

Russo-Japanese war, xxii

S

San Giuliano, Marquis di, Italian Foreign Minister, quoted, 119

Sazonof, suggestion of, to avoid conflict, 77, 78; good work of, 105; message of, to Austria regarding ultimatum, 126, 28

Schmidt, 223

"Scrap of Paper," vi; xvi; Bethmann-Hollweg's remark, quoted, 220, 221; discusses his remark, 239 ff.; defense for, use of phrase, 239 ff.; "Secret Documents," contents of supposed, 235 ff.

Sedan, battle of, result of Belgium neutrality, 201

Serajevo, murder of Crown Prince of Austria at, 20, 31

Servia, ultimatum to, 19; advised by France, Russia, and Great Britain, 31; formally disclaims responsibility for murder of Archduke, 33; probable effect of humiliation of, 40; refusal of Austrian demands anticipated, 42; reply to Austrian ultimatum quoted in full, 47 et seq.; population of, 55; warned by Germany, 56; Austro-Servian relations, 56; result of acquiescence to Austria, 60; requested by Triple Entente to make conciliatory reply, 80; reply of, in accord with requests of Triple Entente, 83; offers Austria ample reparation, 114; subjugation of, the "bone of contention," 192

Shaw, George Bernard, opinions of, cited, 14, 15; defense of Germany, 14 ff.; quoted regarding "neutrality of Belgium" treaty, 198; quoted, 248

Siemens, 223

Slav, the, fear of Germany for, xxi

Symonds, John Addington, quoted, 4, 5

Szapary, Count, 126

T

Tisza, Count, refuses to disclose results of judicial inquiry into murder of Archduke, 113

Treitschke, doctrines of, xvii; Politik, cited, 6; doctrines of, based on Machiavelli, 6; influence of, 10

Treaty of 1870, 198 ff.

Treaty of 1839, 198 ff.; 225; 251

Triple Alliance, x; as affecting Italy, 24; terms of, 24; 192; see Austria, Germany, Italy

Triple Entente, proposes peace, xi; lulled into false security, 32 ff.; movements and reports of leading statesmen of, just previous to declaration of war, 32 ff.; ignorant of Austria's ultimatum, 33, 65; still labors for peace, 86; see also, France, Great Britain, Russia

Turkey, German officers in, 230

U

United States, supposititious invasion of, by Germany, 225 ff.; position of, 248 ff.

V

Viviani, Premier, quoted regarding Austro-Servian trouble, 31, 32; reply of, to Germany, 192; reply of, to England's query regarding Belgian neutrality, 207; see France

Voltaire, quoted, xvi

Von Below, declares Germany will respect Belgian neutrality, 203; 206; see Germany

Von Buelow, 223

Von der Elst, Baron, 210, 211; see Belgium

Von Gwinner, 223

Von Heeringen, declares Belgian neutrality will be respected, 203; see Germany

Von Jagow, Herr, conversation of, cited, 38, 39; representations of, on Germany's position in Austro-Servian matter, 39; refuses to attend peace conference in London, 93; on Austrian ultimatum, quoted, 94; conversations of, with Cambon, 122 ff.; refuses peace conference, 133; blunders of, 194; declares Germany will respect Belgian neutrality, 202; conversations with Sir Edward Goschen preceding England's declaration of war, 219 ff.; states real purpose of Germany's invasion of Belgium, 222; see Germany

Von Mach, claims France violated Belgian neutrality, 228; on French officers in Belgium, quoted, 231, 232; What Germany Wants, 233; arguments of, in defense of Germany, 233 ff.; 197

Von Moltke, General, blunders of, 194

Von Posadowsky, 223

Von Schmoller, 223

Von Schoen, Baron, assures France that Germany is for peace, 130; makes public statement through French Foreign Office, 131 ff.

Von Wilamowitz, 223

W

What Germany Wants, cited, 233

White Paper (English), published, 22; analyzed, 27 ff.; quoted, 34 ff.; 36; 37; 38; 39; 41; 56; 76; 82, 83; 86; 93; 94; 97; 99; 159 ff.; 167, 168, 169; 207, 208; 209; 219 et seq.; see England

White Paper (German), published, 22; suppression of facts in, 27 ff.; suppresses instructions to Ambassador, 191; quoted, 28; 38; 41; 43, 44; 45; 67; 75; 87; 147; 149 ff.; ix; 192; 193; see Germany

Y

Yellow Book (France), published, 23; additional data in, 102 ff.; contents of first chapter of, 106 ff.; throws light on petty finesse of Germany and Austria, 123; cited, 46; quoted, 107 ff.; second chapter of, 113 et seq.; quoted, 113, 114, 115; 116, 117; 122, 123; 125; 129; 133 ff.; see France

Z

Zabern incident, the, attitude of Crown Prince toward, 14



MYRTLE REED'S NOVELS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset & Dunlap's list

LAVENDER AND OLD LACE.

A charming story of a quaint corner of New England where bygone romance finds a modern parallel. The story centers round the coming of love to the young people on the staff of a newspaper—and it is one of the prettiest, sweetest and quaintest of old fashioned love stories, ... a rare book, exquisite in spirit and conception, full of delicate fancy, of tenderness, of delightful humor and spontaneity.

A SPINNER IN THE SUN.

Miss Myrtle Reed may always be depended upon to write a story in which poetry, charm, tenderness and humor are combined into a clever and entertaining book. Her characters are delightful and she always displays a quaint humor of expression and a quiet feeling of pathos which give a touch of active realism to all her writings. In "A Spinner in the Sun" she tells an old-fashioned love story, of a veiled lady who lives in solitude and whose features her neighbors have never seen. There is a mystery at the heart of the book that throws over it the glamour of romance.

THE MASTER'S VIOLIN.

A love story in a musical atmosphere. A picturesque, old German virtuoso is the reverent possessor of a genuine "Cremona." He consents to take for his pupil a handsome youth who proves to have an aptitude for technique, but not the soul of an artist. The youth has led the happy, careless life of a modern, well-to-do young American and he cannot, with his meagre past, express the love, the passion and the tragedies of life and all its happy phases as can the master who has lived life in all its fulness. But a girl comes into his life—a beautiful bit of human driftwood that his aunt had taken into her heart and home, and through his passionate love for her, he learns the lessons that life has to give—and his soul awakes.

Founded on a fact that all artists realize.

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ZANE GREY'S NOVELS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset & Dunlap's list

THE LIGHT OF WESTERN STARS.

Colored frontispiece by W. Herbert Dunton.

Most of the action of this story takes place near the turbulent Mexican border of the present day. A New York society girl buys a ranch which becomes the center of frontier warfare. Her loyal cowboys defend her property from bandits, and her superintendent rescues her when she is captured by them. A surprising climax brings the story to a delightful close.

DESERT GOLD.

Illustrated by Douglas Duer.

Another fascinating story of the Mexican border. Two men, lost in the desert, discover gold when, overcome by weakness, they can go no farther. The rest of the story describes the recent uprising along the border, and ends with the finding of the gold which the two prospectors had willed to the girl who is the story's heroine.

RIDERS OF THE PURPLE SAGE.

Illustrated by Douglas Duer.

A picturesque romance of Utah of some forty years ago when Mormon authority ruled. In the persecution of Jane Withersteen, a rich ranch owner, we are permitted to see the methods employed by the invisible hand of the Mormon Church to break her will.

THE LAST OF THE PLAINSMEN.

Illustrated with photograph reproductions.

This is the record of a trip which the author took with Buffalo Jones, known as the preserver of the American bison, across the Arizona desert and of a hunt in "that wonderful country of yellow crags, deep canons and giant pines." It is a fascinating story.

THE HERITAGE OF THE DESERT.

Jacket in color. Frontispiece.

This big human drama is played in the Painted Desert. A lovely girl, who has been reared among Mormons, learns to love a young New Englander. The Mormon religion, however, demands that the girl shall become the second wife of one of the Mormons—

Well, that's the problem of this sensational, big selling story.

BETTY ZANE.

Illustrated by Louis F. Grant.

This story tells of the bravery and heroism of Betty, the beautiful young sister of old Colonel Zane, one of the bravest pioneers. Life along the frontier, attacks by Indians, Betty's heroic defense of the beleaguered garrison at Wheeling, the burning of the Fort, and Betty's final race for life, make up this never-to-be-forgotten story.

GROSSET & DUNLAP, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK



JOHN FOX, JR'S.

STORIES OF THE KENTUCKY MOUNTAINS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset and Dunlap's list.

THE TRAIL OF THE LONESOME PINE.

Illustrated by F. C. Yohn.

The "lonesome pine" from which the story takes its name was a tall tree that stood in solitary splendor on a mountain top. The fame of the pine lured a young engineer through Kentucky to catch the trail, and when he finally climbed to its shelter he found not only the pine but the foot-prints of a girl. And the girl proved to be lovely, piquant, and the trail of these girlish foot-prints led the young engineer a madder chase than "the trail of the lonesome pine."

THE LITTLE SHEPHERD OF KINGDOM COME.

Illustrated by F. C. Yohn.

This is a story of Kentucky, in a settlement known as "Kingdom Come." It is a life rude, semi-barbarous; but natural and honest, from which often springs the flower of civilization.

"Chad," the "little shepherd" did not know who he was nor whence he came—he had just wandered from door to door since early childhood, seeking shelter with kindly mountaineers who gladly fathered and mothered this waif about whom there was such a mystery—a charming waif, by the way, who could play the banjo better than anyone else in the mountains.

A KNIGHT OF THE CUMBERLAND.

Illustrated by F. C. Yohn.

The scenes are laid along the waters of the Cumberland, the lair of moonshiner and feudsman. The knight is a moonshiner's son, and the heroine a beautiful girl perversely christened "The Blight." Two impetuous young Southerners fall under the spell of "The Blight's" charms and she learns what a large part jealousy and pistols have in the love making of the mountaineers.

Included in this volume is "Hell fer-Sartain" and other stories, some of Mr. Fox's most entertaining Cumberland valley narratives.

Ask for complete list of G. & D. Popular Copyrighted Fiction

GROSSET & DUNLAP, 526 WEST 26TH ST., NEW YORK



JACK LONDON'S NOVELS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset & Dunlap's list.

JOHN BARLEYCORN. Illustrated by H. T. Dunn.

This remarkable book is a record of the author's own amazing experiences This big, brawny world rover, who has been acquainted with alcohol from boyhood, comes out boldly against John Barleycorn. It is a string of exciting adventures, yet it forcefully conveys an unforgettable idea and makes a typical Jack London book.

THE VALLEY OF THE MOON. Frontispiece by George Harper.

The story opens in the city slums where Billy Roberts, teamster and ex prize fighter, and Saxon Brown, laundry worker, meet and love and marry. They tramp from one end of California to the other, and in the Valley of the Moon find the farm paradise that is to be their salvation.

BURNING DAYLIGHT. Four illustrations.

The story of an adventurer who went to Alaska and laid the foundations of his fortune before the gold hunters arrived. Bringing his fortunes to the States he is cheated out of it by a crowd of money kings, and recovers it only at the muzzle of his gun. He then starts out as a merciless exploiter on his own account. Finally he takes to drinking and becomes a picture of degeneration. About this time he falls in love with his stenographer and wins her heart but not her hand and then—but read the story!

A SON OF THE SUN. Illustrated by A. O. Fischer and C. W. Ashley.

David Grief was once a light haired, blue eyed youth who came from England to the South Seas in search of adventure. Tanned like a native and as lithe as a tiger, he became a real son of the sun. The life appealed to him and he remained and became very wealthy.

THE CALL OF THE WILD. Illustrations by Philip R. Goodwin and Charles Livingston Bull. Decorations by Charles E. Hooper.

A book of dog adventures as exciting as any man's exploits could be. Here is excitement to stir the blood and here is picturesque color to transport the reader to primitive scenes.

THE SEA WOLF. Illustrated by W. J. Aylward.

Told by a man whom Fate suddenly swings from his fastidious life into the power of the brutal captain of a sealing schooner. A novel of adventure warmed by a beautiful love episode that every reader will hail with delight.

WHITE FANG. Illustrated by Charles Livingston Bull.

"White Fang" is part dog, part wolf and all brute, living in the frozen north; he gradually comes under the spell of man's companionship, and surrenders all at the last in a fight with a bull dog. Thereafter he is man's loving slave.

GROSSET & DUNLAP, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:

1. Changes have been made to correct obvious typesetters' errors; otherwise, every effort has been made to remain true to the author's words and intent.

2. On some pages in this book, titles were underlined; this has been indicated by the equals sign (=) before and after the title.

THE END

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