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The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom
by P. L. Simmonds
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[Footnote 20: Roxburgh on the Culture of Sugar and Jaggary in the Rajahmundry Circar; Third Ap. to Report on East India Sugar, p. 2.]

[Footnote 21: L'Exploitation de Sucreries. Porter on the Sugar Cane, 53,321.]

[Footnote 22: That the above application would be beneficial, is rendered still more worthy of credit from the following experience:—In the Dhoon, the white ant is a most formidable enemy to the sugar planter, owing to the destruction it causes to the sets when first planted. Mr. G.H. Smith says, that there is a wood very common there, called by the natives Butch, through, which, they say, if the irrigating waters are passed in its progress to the beds, the white ants are driven away. (Trans. Agri-Hort. Soc. of India, v. 65.)]

[Footnote 23: Fitzmaurice on the Culture of the Sugar Cane.]

[Footnote 24: The kilogramme is equal to 2 lb, 3 oz. avoirdupois.]

[Footnote 25: A lecture on the nutritive value of different articles of food, by C. Daubeny, M.D., "Gardener's Chronicle" (London), January 20th, 1849, p. 37.]

[Footnote 26: Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society, 1849, p. 646.]

[Footnote 27: A lecture "On the Geographical Distribution of Corn Plants," by the Rev. E. Sidney—Proceedings of the Royal Institution (London), May 18th, 1849.]

[Footnote 28: Boussingault's Rural Economy, American edition, pp. 85 and 86.]

[Footnote 29: Zenas Coffin, one of the oldest whalemen in Nantucket, states that corn meal in tight rum puncheons when sent to the Went Indies will keep sweet, while in common flour barrels it will spoil. Report of the Commissioner of Patents for 1847, p. 133.]

[Footnote 30: From remarks of Col. Skinner, and others, at a meeting of the American Institute, held in April 1846. Transactions of American Institute, 1846, p. 509 et seq.]

[Footnote 31: Comptes Rendus des Seances de L'Academie des Sciences, February 5th, 1819.]

[Footnote 32: A Treatise on Diet and Regimen, by Wm. Henry Robertson, M.D., vol. i. p. 153.]

[Footnote 33: The Plant: a Biography; by M.H. Schleiden, M.D., Professor of Botany in the University of Jena. English translation, p. 54.]

[Footnote 34: Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society for 1847, p. 190. In this communication, Mr. Bentz does not describe the process which he adopts, but enumerates some of its supposed advantages.]

[Footnote 35: Quoted by Boussingault, Rural Economy, Amer. edition, p. 410.]

[Footnote 36: A Treatise on Diet and Regimen, by Wm. Henry Robertson, M.D., Vol. i. p. 140.]

[Footnote 37: Experimental Researches on the Food of Animals, &c., by R.D. Thomson, M.D., p. 156.]

[Footnote 38: Chemistry of Vegetable and Animal Physiology, translated by Prof. J.F.W. Johnston, p. 684.]

[Footnote 39: See Dr. R.D. Thomson's Experimental Researches on the Food of Animals, &c.]

[Footnote 40: Mulder's Chemistry of Vegetable and Animal Physiology; English Translation, p. 816.]

[Footnote 41: I have had no opportunity of analysing samples of flour from the South-Western States, and therefore cannot extend this comparison to them.]

[Footnote 42: Transactions of "Agri.-Hort. Society, of Calcutta," vol. iv. p. 125.]

[Footnote 43: Dict. of Arts and Manufacture.]

[Footnote 44: Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 3, p. 138.]

[Footnote 45: The glasses used were all of the sort described in Griffin's catalogue under the name of Clark's test-glasses. They were all, as nearly as possible, of the same size and shape.]

[Footnote 46: I have determined the amount of nitrogen contained in the meal made from the whole maize, the growth of the colony, as also from plantain meal; I have also ascertained its amount in cassava meal, prepared in the manner mentioned in the text, and in meal prepared from the cassava sliced, dried, and ground without expressing the juice. Assuming Liebig's formula of Proteine, namely, C-48 N-6 H-36 0-4 the results stand thus:—

Nitrogen. Proteine compounds. Per cent. Per cent. Maize meal (unhusked) 1.73 10.72 Plantain meal .88 5.45 Cassava meal (juice expressed) .36 2.23 Ditto from the sliced and dried roots .78 4.83 ]

[Footnote 47: Les Moyens de prevenir la Maladie des Pommes de Terre. Experiences et Conclusions de A.N.C. Bollman, Conseiller d'etat, Professeur, &c. 8vo, St. Petersburg, 1853.]

[Footnote 48: If cinnamon seeds after washing be exposed to the sun, even for twenty minutes, the shells will crack in two, and this prevents the seeds from growing.]

[Footnote 49: No export duties exist in the Straits Settlements.]

[Footnote 50: Since these remarks were written, the duty has been wholly abolished.]

[Footnote 51: Although this was the amount of produce for 1842, it must be remarked that that crop was a complete failure, and the average crop for some years past has been 46,666 pounds.]

[Footnote 52: Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures.]

[Footnote 53: The vernacular name for stale or putrid urine.]

[Footnote 54: "Lit" was the name applied to the plant, from which the dye was to be prepared, and "pig" is the Scotch synonym for any kind of earthenware vessel—-in which the maceration was generally carried on.]

[Footnote 55: Pitkins' Statistics of the United States.]

[Footnote 56: A great portion of the crop I grew had leaves measuring two feet nine inches in length and eighteen inches wide, being larger than I ever knew to have been grown in America. The average weight I obtained per acre, was 25 cwt.; whereas I see by the public returns, the average of what is grown here is only 17 1-7th cwt.]



INDEX.

Albrus precatorius, 643

Acacia bark, 493 Catechu, 495, 577 dealbata, 505

Acer saccharinum, 205

Acre, coffee trees to the, 69

Achira plant, 355

Achote, a name for arnotto, 447

Acrocomia fusiformis, 519

Adeps Myristica, 402

Adme cyperus, 626

Adenanthera Pavonina, 378

Adansonia digitata, 378

African arrowroot, 353 lard, 525 purple millet, 307

Africa, pepper grown in, 422 tobacco culture in, 615

Agar-Agar moss, 378, 379

Agi or Guinea pepper, 429

Agave Americana—a substitute for soap, 574

Agaiti oil, 520

Agricultural wealth of tropical regions, 2

Aipi, 376

Akyab, exports of rice from, 297

Aleurites triloba, 521, 538

Alexandrian senna, 648

Algaroba beans, 313 bark, 503

Algiers, tobacco culture in, 615

Alizaine, 478

Alkanet root, 442

Allspice, the common name for pimento, 430

Almond oil, 510, 533

Aloes, statistics of exports from the Cape, 632 varieties of, 628

Alpinia Galanga, 419 Cardamomum, 419 racemosa, 414

Alstraemeria pallida, 330

Althea rosea, 442

Amaranthus gangiticus, 434

American arrowroot, 352 flour, countries to which, shipped, 223

Americans consume most coffee, 40

Amboyna wood, 439

Amomum, species of, 419 Zingiber, 414

Anacardium occidentale, 495, 521

Analyses, various, of tobacco, 592-93

Analysis of the coffee plant, 49 ashes of the coffee tree, 43 of catechu, 579 of Havana tobacco, 591, 615 of other varieties, 615 of oil cake, 546 of soils, 617 of soils, not so requisite abroad, 7 of the sugar cane, by Dr. Evans, 154 of sugar soils in the East, 172

Anethum graveolens, 376 Sowa, seeds of, 434

Angola weed, 486

Aniseed, 437

Antigua arrowroot, statistics of, 353 cost of cultivating sugar, 189

Ants, remedy for, 181

Anchusa tinctoria, 442

Andropogon, species of, 572

Anileria, a manufactory for indigo, 460

Apricot oil, 511, 536

Apios, 355, 371

Aquilaria, species of, 439

Arghel leaves, 647

Arachis hypogoea, 513

Arenga saccharifera, the gomutus saccharifera of Rumphius, 136, 314

Areometer, an instrument for testing oil, 532

Arbor alba, 566

Areca nuts, value of the exports from Ceylon, 579 palm, 577

Argemone Mexicana, 511, 521, 626

Arnotto, 447

Arpent, a French land measure, about one-seventh less than an acre, 251

Arracan, exports of rice from, 297

Arracacha esculenta, 355, 375

Arrack, 556 used to flavor tobacco, 621

Arroba, a Spanish weight of 25 lbs., the fourth part of a quintal.

Arrowroot, Benzon's analysis of, 348 culture and commerce of, 345 made from the Palmyra shoots, 376 starch of, 331, 334-35, 337

Arsenic for steeping grain, poisonous effects from, 233

Artocarpus incisa, 318, 330

Arum colocasia, 364 esculentum, 364 Rumphii, 365

Asafoetida, 633

Asclepias curassavica, 625 gigantea, 494 tingens, 442

Assamee, an Indian name for the ryot or cultivator, 467

Assam, introduction of tea culture, 94 tea sales, 98 Company, origin of, 98 manufacture of tea in, 126

Assaroo, rain sowing, 468

Astoria theiformis, used as tea at Santa Fe, 80

Attap leaf for thatching, 405, 559

Attar of roses, 570

Aucklandia, 438

Auracaria Bidwillii, 377

Australia, consumption of tea in, 87, 88 sugar cultivation recommended, 139

Austria production of beet-root sugar in, 197, 200

Avicenna tomentosa, 444

Avocado seed yields a dye stuff, 444

Awl tree, 443

Babool wood, 493

Bahu, a land measure in Java, equal to 71 acres.

Bajree, the Indian name for Holcus Spicatus, 306

Bales of Cuba tobacco, size of, 613

Balfour (Prof.) on the starch in potatoes, 330 on species of rhubarb, 647

Ball's account of the cultivation, &c., of tea, 103

Banana, starch in, 331 used as a shade for the cacao, 15

Baptista tinctoria, 453

Barbacue, a platform for coffee drying, 69

Baphia nitida, 447

Barbados arrowroot, 337, 353 culture of aloes in, 630 cost of cultivating sugar, 189 ginger, 415 sugar crops of, 149 yam, 334, 335, 337, 338, 362

Barcelona, exports of cacao from, 13

Bark of the larch, its utility, 376

Barks for tanning, 492

Barley, history and consumption of, 255 imported, 218 meal imported, 218 produce of in England and Wales, 248, 256 average prices of, 256

Barrel of rice weighs 600 lbs. net, 291

Barus camphor, 634

Barwood, 445, 447

Basket of rice, a measure equal to 551/2 lbs., English,

Bassia butyracea, 136, 512 longifolia, 511 oil seeds of, 537

Batatas edulis, 330, 331, 357

Bauhinia variegata, 492

Bayley (Mr.), on consumption of tea in the manufacturing districts

Bay rush or tapioca, 376

Beans, analysis of, 264 and peas, quantities imported, 313 imported, 218

Bearing time of different plants, 9

Beck (Prof.) on various wheats, 222 on the American breadstuffs, 226

Beet root sugar produced on the Continent, 144 cost of producing, 189, 204

Beet, varieties of the root, 191

Belgians, large consumers of coffee, 40

Belgium, production of beet root sugar in, 200

Benares, production of indigo in, 475

Ben, oil of, 523

Bencoolen, pepper grown in, 423 spice culture in, 412

Bengal, cost of cultivating sugar in, 189 indigo, 464 introduction of the coffee tree into, 40 production of indigo in, 475 production of opium in, 580 rice, 296

Bennet on Ceylon, 316

Bennett (Dr.), description of gambier, 500

Berar, edible root of, 377

Berberry, a dye stuff, 442

Berbice, exports of coffee from, 73

Bergamot, essence of, 566

Berger's process of making rice starch, 344

Bermuda arrowroot, statistics of, 353 mode of cultivating arrowroot, 346

Berry wax, 540

Betel leaf, 577

Bhoe Moong, the Indian name for the ground nut, 515

Bhull rice lands, 293

Biggah, distinction between this land measure, 471

Bignonia Chica, 444

Bihai, 320

Bitter cassava, 331

Bixa orellana, 447

Black ginger, 415 pepper, statistics of, 428 tea, imports of the last fifteen years, 82 mode of manufacturing, 112

Blood tree, 625

Bollman (Prof.), on the potato rot, 359

Bolitus used as food, 377

Bonynge (Mr. F.) promotes tea culture in America, 97

Borassus gomutus, 315

Borneo, pepper produced in, 422

Bourbon, cacao grown in, 36 produce of rice in, 293

Bousa, an African beer, 308

Boussingault's analysis of wheat, 244

Boyams, food plant, 377

Bran, analysis of, 231

Brassica oleracea, oil from the seed, 539

Brazilian arrowroot, 330, 367, 369

Brazil, exports of coffee to America, 63 cost of producing sugar in, 189 culture of ginger, 418 production of coffee in, 40, 41, 63 introduction of the tea plant, 128 statistics of sugar production, 182 tobacco export from, 594 wood, 485

Bread fruit, 318, 330 made from millet, 306 nut of Jamaica, 319 stuffs of commerce, 217

Brick tea of Thibet, 92

British Guiana, coffee produced in, 73 West Indies, decline of coffee culture in, 40, 63, 67 exports of coffee from, 73

Brood-boon, 319

Bromelia Pinguin, fruit of, used for soap, 574

Broom corn, 307, 308 sedge, 308

Brosimum Alicastrum, edible nuts of, 319

Broussonitia tinctoria, 485

Brown bread, its wholesomeness, 230

Bruce, (Mr. C.A.) on the manufacture of tea in Assam, 126

Buchanania latifolia, 494, 521

Buckwheat, average weight of crop in New Brunswick, 253 oil from, 510 culture of, 259 analysis of, 260

Buck yam, 333, 335, 362

Bullhoof, yields a narcotic, 589

Bunbury (Mr.) on Cape aloes, 632

Butch wood, used to keep off ants, 181

Butea frondosa, 507 varieties of, 442 tannin from, 494

Butter of cacao, 11, 12 obtained from the dolichos bean, 313

Cabacinha, the Portuguese name for a purgative plant, 626

Caballine aloes, 630

Cacao beans or seeds, analysis of, 12 age at which may be transplanted, 6 expenses of a plantation, 33 information respecting, 9 plantation, enormous returns formerly obtained from, 34 quantity consumed in the United Kingdom, 11 total imports into the United Kingdom, 35 total imports from America and the West Indies, 35 trees, where indigenous, 33 oppressive duties levied on, 34

Cacomite, a species of Tigridia, 374

Cacoon, oil from, 511

Cadet's analysis of barks, 495

Caesalpinia, species of, 446 Brasiliensis, 485

Caesalpinia Coriari, 493 oleospermum, 511

Caffeine, analysis of, 80

Cajeput oil, 566

Caladium costatium, 377 esculentum, 331 sagittifolium, 334

Calambak wood, 439

Calandra oryza, 279

Calcutta, exports of castor oil, 545

Calidad, the best kind of Cuba tobacco, 613

California, tea proposed to be cultivated in, 97

Callistemon ellipticum, 505

Calophyllum Inophyllum, 513

Calumba plant, 638

Calumbin, 638

Calystegia sepium, 642

Camassia esculenta, 376

Camata, a variety of valonia, 508

Camelina sativa, 509, 511, 564

Camotes, a Spanish name for the sweet potato, 375

Camaeladia ilicifolia, 628

Campbell (Dr. A.), on the tea culture at Darjeeling, 116

Camphor, on the collection of, 633 obtained from the roots of the cinnamon, 389

Cannabis indica, 643

Camwood, 447

Canada, production of maple sugar in, 206 West, grain exports of, 251

Canadian yellow root, 626

Canary Isles, millet exported from, 306 moss, 486 seed, 311

Candleberry myrtle, 540

Candlewood, 539

Candles made of cinnamon suet, 390

Candle tree, 521, 538

Cane sugar, composition of, 136, 155, 157

Canella alba, 396

Canna, species of, 355

Canothus Americanus, used as tea, 80

Caoutchouc, 539

Capa, a term in Cuba for good tobacco, 614

Cape aloes, manufacture of, 631 weed, 486

Capsicum, 428

Carapa, species yielding oil, 518 oil, 441, 519 guianensis, 512

Caracas, large produce of cacao in, 13

Caraveru, a red pigment, 444

Carraway seed oil, 437, 566

Cardomoms, bastard, 419 plants furnishing, 419

Carduus Virginianus, 376

Carob bean, 312, 313

Carolina rice, shipments of, 285

Carrageen, 379

Carrots, average weight per bushel in New Brunswick, 253

Carthamus tinctoria, 450 oil from, 512

Caruto, a name for the Lana dye, 444

Carver's treatise on tobacco culture, 607

Carum carui, 566

Caryophyllus aromaticus, 397

Caryota urens, 314

Cascarilla bark, 396

Cashew bark, 495 nut oil, 512

Cassareep, an antiseptic, 339, 343, 369

Cassava cakes, 342 culture of, 367 fecula of, 330 flour exports from St. Lucia, 369 meal, 341 roots, information respecting, 9 starch, yield per acre, 370

Cassia, a rival to cinnamon, 391 auriculata, 494 bark of China, superiority of, 393, 394 buds, 396 lignea, 394, 396 statistics of imports and consumption of, 394

Castor oil, 510, 511, 527, 536, 542, 563

Catechu or Cutch, 579 tannin in, 495

Cattle, consumption of Indian corn by, 271

Catty, a Chinese weight, 400

Cayenne, nutmeg introduced, 412 pepper grown in, 427 pepper, 429 pottage, 429

Celastrus paniculatus, 521

Celebes, coffee grown in, 62 production of coffee in, 41 rice culture in, 302 tobacco, 621

Centrifugal machine for sugar, 140

Cephaelis Ipecacuanhae, 641

Ceratonia siliqua, 312, 313

Cereal grasses, 216

Ceroxyion andicola, 541

Cersium virginianum, 376

Cetraria islandica, 343, 379

Ceylon arrowroot, 353 cardamoms, 419, 421 coco-nut culture in, 556 culture of rice in, 295

Ceylon, exports of castor oil from, 545 adapted for indigo culture, 475 gamboge, 639 the great seat of cinnamon culture, 383 pepper exported from, 426 imports of Terra Japonica, 502 moss, 379 produce of tobacco in, 619 production of coffee in, 41 tea plant introduced, 95 Value of the betel nuts exported, 579

Chay-root, 449, 478

Chamarops Palmetto, 495

Chandu, the prepared extract of the opium, 585

Chenopodium quinon, 310

Cherrots, Manilla, 619

Chesnuts, consumed in France, 361

Chest of opium, about 140 lbs., 58

Chick pea, 312 the inspissated juice of the poppy, 582

Chicory, extensive consumption of, 37

Chillies, growth of, 428

Chimo, powdered potatoes, 361

China, population of, 86 shipments of tea from, 84

Chinese arrowroot, 352

Chironia sapinda, 521

Chloranthus, flowers used to flavor tea, 85

Chocolate nuts, 11 imported, 35 paste, as prepared by the Marienna, 18

Christison (Prof.), analysis of gamboge, 640

Chiretta, 641

Chrysoptranic acid, 488

Cibotium Billardieri, 380

Cigars, consumption of, 596 duty received on, 597 large consumption of in New York, 599 profit on manufacture of, 612 number exported from Cuba, 614 exported from Siam, 619

Cinchona bark, 635

Cinnamon, 382 export duty on, 391 oil, 565 properties of good, 387 statistics of export from Ceylon, 390, 391 suet, 522 varieties of the tree, 386

Citronella oil, 565, 573

Clagett and Co.'s (Messrs.) tobacco circulars, 601

Clarifying cane juice, 155

Clark, (Mr.) on a new variety of tobacco, 613

Classification and arrangement adopted in the work, 5

Claytonia acutiflora, 371

Clerihew's coffee apparatus, 52

Climate suited for various plants, 9

Clove bark, 383

Cloves, 397 oil, 390, 398 statistics of, 411 varieties of the tree, 398 where grown, 402

Cobres a first quality of indigo, 456

Coca plant, 576

Cocculus indicus, 576 palmatus, 638

Cochin China, coco nut oil exported from, 556 culture of rice, 298 exports of cinnamon, 393 tea considered inferior, 94

Cochineal, value of the dye stuff, 440

Cocoa, see Cacao, 9 fat, 519 nut butter, 560 information respecting, 9 oil, 527 palm, 547

Cocos nucifera, 547 fusiformis, 519 or eddoes, 364

Cocum oil, 521

Coffee, adulteration of, and substitutes for, 37 consumption of, 39, 596 cultivation in Ceylon, 46 in Africa, 77 in India, 44 information respecting, 9 manures suited for, 50 tree, description of, 43 production in various countries, 41 produce per tree and per acre, 69, 481 leaf, suited for making a beverage by infusion, 78 Dr. Hooker's opinion thereon, 79 plantation, beauty of, 67 prices of, in London, 47 signs of its being properly cured, 71 trade, progress of, 36

Coimbatore, culture of tobacco in, 618.

Coir, Coco nut, 551, 552, 555, 556.

Colman (Mr.), on grain production, 219 on sugar, 204

Colocasia, varieties of cultivated, 364

Colocynth, 638 oil, 511

Colombo root, 638 shipments of coffee from, 48

Coloring principles of the lichens, 487 teas in China, 104

Colza oil, 510, 513, 539

Conium Arracacha, 375

Connecticut, culture of tobacco in, 606

Consumption of rhubarb, 645

Convolvulus Jalapa, 641 Scammonia, 642

Conquin tay, plantain meal, 324

Constantinople opium, 585

Consumption of arrowroot, 354 of arnotto, 449 cacoa in the United Kingdom, 36 cassia bark, 394 castor oil, 544 coco nut oil, 562 coffee, 36, 64, 596 coffee in various countries, 41 cinnamon, 391 cloves, 401 ginger, 418 indigo, 477 mace, 414 nutmegs, 414 opium, 580 palm oil, 527 pepper, 428 pimento, 431 sago in the United Kingdom, 318 sugar in India, 140 Great Britain, 139 tea, statistics of, 82, 596 tobacco, 596, 595

Convolvulus batatas, 333, 334, 356

Coolies employed in Mauritius, 150

Copey, a Cuba dye wood, 485

Copperah, 536, 549, 556, 560, 661

Corakan flour, 304

Coriander seed, 437

Coriaria myrtifolia, 493

Cork tree bark, 504

Corn, the common name for maize in America, 270

Cortes, a description of indigo, 456

Corypha umbraculifera, 316

Costus Arabicus, 438 indicus, &c., 638

Costa Rica, production of coffee in, 41, 64

Cotton, information respecting, 9 seed oil, 564 cake, 564

Courida bark, 495

Cow-itch, 625

Crane potato, 372

Crawfurd (Mr. J.), estimate of pepper produce, 422

Croix lachryma, 304

Crop hogshead of tobacco, weight of, 605

Croton Cascarilla, 396 Eleuteria, 397 gossypifolia, 625 oil, 522 Tiglium, 522

Cuba, coffee plantations in, 77 culture of tobacco in, 613 exports of coffee to America, 63 cost of producing sugar in, 147, 189 exports of coffee from, 73 progress of sugar cultivation in, 148 production of coffee in, 41 rice grown in, 292 statistics of coffee exported, 76 tobacco plantations in, 614

Cubebs, medicinal, 639

Cucumber seed oil, 512

Cucumis Colocynthus, 638

Cudbear, imports of, 486 452

Culilaban bark, 383

Curcuma longa, 419 species of, 434 varieties of, yielding E.I. arrowroot, 351

Curry stuff, imports into Ceylon, 434

Cush, an Indian name for millet, 306

Cutch, the Indian name for catechu, or gambier, 600 exported from Pinang, 503 imports of, 502

Cuyupa, an Indian tuber, 374

Cycas circinalis, 314

Cynamchum leaves, 649

Cynosurus corocanus, 306

Cytisus Cajan, 304

Dacrydium cupressinum, 505

Dadap, a prop for the pepper, 425, 42 a name given in Java to the Erythrina, 55, 58

Datisca cannabina, 442

Davis' (Dr.), analysis of maize, 265

Day's analysis of barks, 495

Demerara, exports of coffee from, 73 rice grown in, 292

Dholl, the Indian name for varieties of Cajanus, 312

Dhak tree, bark of, 507

Dhurra, the Egyptian name for millet, 306

Dicypellium caryophyllatum, 384

Didynamia gymosperma, 520

Dietetic articles used for the preparation of popular beverages, 11

Dillock, a preparation with cayenne, 429

Dioscorea aculeata, 334, 362

Diospyros glutinosa, 494

Dipterix odorata, 434

Dipterocarpus, oil from, 511

Divi-divi, 503

Division of seasons in the tropics, 6

Dodder cake, 564

Dogwood, bark of, 627

Dolichos biflorus, varieties of, 312 bulbosus, roots used as food, 377 oil, 521

Domba oil, 513

Dominica, exports of coffee from, 73 introduction of the clove tree, 399

Dracaena terminalis, 355

Drimys bark, 636

Dryobalanops, species furnishing camphor, 634

Dubranfaut's process of sugar making, 197, 201

Dunsterville (Mr.), on Cape aloes, 631

Duquesne (M.), process of making sugar from beet, 202

Duration of various plants, 9

Dutch pound, lighter than the English avoirdupoise pound; 100 Dutch pounds equal to 101 and 1-5th lbs.

Dutch West Indies, production of coffee in, 41

Duty, large, levied on tobacco, 598

Dye stuffs, various, 440 from British plants, 452 furnished by the cacao bean, 12

Dye woods, 445, 447

Eagle wood, 439

Earth mouse, 374

Earth-nut oil, 513

East India ginger, 416, 418 sugar, 139 cultivation in, 152

East Indies, imports of indigo from, 477 rhubarb, 645

Eddoes or cocos, 364

Edward's preserved potatoes, 361

Egyptian corn, 307 opium, 585

Elais, species furnishing palm oil, 524

Elate sylvestris fruit, a masticatory, 579

Elettaria Cardomomum, 421

Eleusine corocana, 304

Encephalartos cafer, 319

English opium, 586

Eno bark, a black dye, 444

Epidendrum, species of, 431

Ervum lens, 312

Erythric acid, 489

Erythrina, a shade tree for the cacao, 15

Erysimum perfoliatum, oil from, 512

Essences, 565

Essential oils, 565

Ethiopian pepper, 421

Eucalyptus, bark of, for tanning, 494 resinifera, 506

Eugenia caryophyllata, 397 Pimento, 430

Eulophia virens, 354

Eupatorium glutinosum, 643

Euphorbia Lathyris, 510

Euterpe montana, 549

Evans' (Dr.) Sugar Planter's Manual, 140

Evernia vulpina, 488

Evodia triphylla, used as a perfume, 550

Factory maund, about 70 pounds, 471

Fagara piperita, 421

Fanega, a Spanish measure, the fifth part of an English quarter, equal to 12 quarrees, or 62 and 2-5ths acres, 13, 327

Fanegada, a Spanish land measure, 9

Farinaceous plants, 216

Fennel flower, 421

Ferula asafoetida, 633

Fern roots as food, 377, 380

Fevillea scandens, 511

Finlayson's description of gambier manufacture, 500

Fish oils consumed, 509 poison, 627

Fitzmaurice on the sugar cane, 180

Fixed oils, 510

Flax seed oil, 509, 501

Flores, a commercial classification of indigo, 456

Florida, tobacco culture in, 609

Flour, damaged, shipped from America, 227 and meal, our imports of, 218 obtained from spurry seed, 377

Flowering of the sugar cane, 182

Food plants of commerce, 217 nutritious properties of various kinds, 232

Foo-foo, the dough of the plantain, 324

Fortune (Mr. R.) on the tea districts, 89 engaged by the East India Company, 100 report on the Indian tea plantations, 106, 117

Fortune's (Mr. R.) wanderings in China, 103

Fownes (Mr.) on clarifying cane juice, 164

France, production of beet sugar in, 194, 200 rice cultivated in, 292

Frazla, the Arabian name for a bale of variable weight, in Mocha about 16 lbs. avoirdupoise,

Free trade policy, effects of, 2

French berries for dyeing, 443 Slave Colonies, cost of producing sugar in, 189 West Indies, production of coffee in, 41

Fucus amylaceus, 380 tenax, furnishes glue, 378 as food for cattle, 379

Fundi or Fundungi, an African grain, 310

Fustic, 445, 447, 485

Gallipoli oil, 531

Gallo tannic acid, 492

Galidupa arborea, 521

Garancine, quantity and value of, 483, 484

Gambier plant, 496

Gamboge, 451 plants furnishing, 639

Garcinea elliptica, 451

Garbelled, a term for sorted or picked

Gabilla, a finger or hank of tobacco, 613

Galangale root, 351, 418

Garcinea Gambogia, 640

Garnett (Mr. A.) on the culture of the plantain, 320

Galam butter, 538

Gastrodia sesamoides, 375

Gesner (Dr.), plants recommended by, for cultivation, 371

Genipa Americana, 444

Genista tinctorea, 453 tomentosa, 486

Gentian, plants furnishing it, 640

Ghee, 538

Ginger, culture of, 414

Gin, made from rye in Holland, 258

Gigartina Iichenoides, 379

Gingelie seed oil, 511, 533 oil, used to adulterate almond oil, 534

Ginseng, 436

Glen (Mr. J.), his experiments on Cassava starch, 370

Gloves made from bark, 376

Gluten contained in various grain crops, 264 definition of, 234

Gluten, composition of, 221

Glycirrhiza, 643

Glyrine Apios, 371 subterranea, 371

Glycerine, 643

Glycirrhiza glabra, 642

Gnizotia oleifera, 535

Gohyan, an Indian name for upland rice, 282

Gold of pleasure oil, 509 cake of, 564

Gomuti palm sugar, 136 315

Gomatus saccharifer, 314

Goor, the Indian name for half-made sugar, 308

Gorham's (Prof.) analysis of maize, 264

Gourds used for packing aloes, 630

Gracelaria lichenoides, 379

Graham (Dr.), on gamboge, 639

Gram, the Indian name for the Ervum lens, and Cicer arietinum, 312

Grain crops, 217 produce per acre in England, 219 of Paradise, 419, 420 average prices of in New Brunswick, 254

Grape sugar, properties of, 136 sugar, analysis of, 155

Grater for rasping arrowroot, 338

Grenada, cost of cultivating sugar in, 189

Great Exhibition, results of, 2

Green tea, mode of manufacturing, 113 tea, imports of the last 15 years, 82

Griffith (Dr.) on tea plants in Assam, 111

Groundnut oil, 511

Guano, not much required in tropical countries, 7

Guayaquil, large exports of cocoa from, 13

Guazuma ulmifolia, 164

Guillemen's (M.) report on the tea plantations of Brazil, 128

Guiana, cost of cultivating sugar in, 189

Guinea pepper, 429 grains, 420 yam, 331, 334, 335, 337, 362 corn, 306

Gums used by the dyers, 453

Gum tree of Australia, 494

Gun stock tree, 164

Gunnera scabra, 495

Gunny bags, rough canvas bags, 392

Guntang, an Indian dry measure of rather more than 15 pounds, 297

Guaco, or snake plant, 627 as a fertilizer, 278

Gynerium saccharoides, 136

Gyrophora murina, 486

Hamatoxylon campechianum, 484

Hamilton (Dr.), on oil of ben, 523 notices by, 617

Havana tobacco, classification of, 613 exports of tobacco from, 614 shipments of sugar from, 147

Hayti, exports of tobacco, 615 exports of ginger, 418 coffee from, 67 indigo from, 460

Hazel nut, oil from, 510

Hebradendron Cambogoides, 451, 639

Heather, dye from, 453

Hectare, a French land measure, equal to about 21/2 acres, 204

Hectolitre, a French measure 1921/4 bushel's

Helot's lichen test, 452

Herreria sarsaparilla, 646

Heliconia humilis, 320

Hemlock tree, bark of, 494

Hemp seed oil, 509

Henna, a dye stuff, 486

Hepatic aloes, 630

Herring's palm kernel oil, 525

Hernandez (Mr.) on Cuba tobacco, 608

Heuchera Americana, 494

Hibiscus rosa sinensis, 494

Hingalee, the best Bengal tobacco, 617

Hino bark, 606

Hogs, large consumption of maize by, 271

Holcomb (Mr.) on the wheat crop of America, 245

Holcus avenaceus, 307 spicatus, 366 saccharatum, 306

Holland, tea sent to, 86

Honduras, export of indigo from, 460

Hooker (Dr.) on brick tea, 92

Hops, cascarilla bark used to adulterate, 397

Horse gram, 312

Hungary, production of beet sugar in, 197

Hura crepitans, 512, 626

Husking rice, 290

Hydraulic press for coco nut oil, 557 press, 329

Hydrastica canadensis, 625

Hymenoea Courbaril, 313

Hyperanthera Moringa, 523

Hypericum, species of, furnishes gamboge, 454, 640

Iceland moss, 343, 379

Illepe oil, 537, 511

Ilex Paraguayensis, indigenous to Brazil, 130 description of, 133

Illicum anisatum, 438

Impey (Dr.) on Malwa opium, 587 on Indian drugs, 626

Implements of colonial agriculture few and simple, 6 requisite for manufacturing tea, 115

Imports of arrowroot, 351, 354 arnotto, 449 cacao, from America and the West Indies, 35 cloves, 401 cinchona bark, 636 tea into Great Britain, 82 tobacco, 597 coco-nut oil, 562 palm oil, 525, 527 pimento, 431 opium, 580 nutmegs, 414 pepper, 428 castor oil, 544 sago, 318 indigo, 477 coffee, 37

Import commerce, our principal, articles furnished by the Vegetable Kingdom, 4

Incense wood, 439

Indigo, details of, 453 plants yielding, 442 information respecting, 10 mode of manufacturing, 457 production of in India, 474 in Natal, 463

Indigofera, species of, 453

India, tea culture in, 98 culture of indigo in, 463

Indiana, tobacco culture in, 607

Indian aloes, 630 berries, 576 corn, imports of, 263 information respecting, 9 analysis of, 264 sources of supply, 262, 263 starch, 343 meal imported, 218 yield per acre, 356 compared with Guinea corn, 307 meal, composition of, 307 opium, 586 root, 625 shot, 345

Indian corn, weight of, 280 madder, 484

Intoxicating liquors made from Cassava, 369

Iodine, 378

Ipecacuan, bastard, 653 641

Ipomoea batatas, 365 brachypodo, 522 Jalapa, 641

Ireland, tobacco consumed in, 596 cost of producing beet root sugar in, 193

Irish rock moss, 379

Iron, quantity of, in tobacco, 617 bark tree, 506

Irrigation for the tea plant never practised in China, 122

Isatis Indigotica,104 tinctoria, 452

Jaggery sugar, 555

Japanese camphor, 633 tobacco, 620

Japan, tea culture, 94

Jatropha curcas, oil from, 512

Jacobson's (Mr.) work on tea culture in Java, 102

Jalap, 641

Jamaica, cost of cultivating sugar in, 189 culture of coffee in, 67 culture of Guinea corn, 306 decline of sugar production, 148, 149 exports of coffee from, 73 ginger, 415, 417 sarsa, 646, 47

Jameson (Dr.) on the culture of tea in India, 106

Java, cinnamon cultivated in, 383, 392 clove does not succeed there, 399 coffee exported to the United States, 63 coco-nut oil exported from, 556 cost of producing sugar in, 189 culture of coffee in, 53 culture of rice in, 299 cultivation of indigo in, 476 gambier grown in, 502 nutmegs exported from, 413 pepper grown in, 422-23 production of coffee in, 41 statistics of, 300 statistics of indigo exported, 476 statistics of tea culture in, 102 sugar culture in, 152 tea plantations, 94 tobacco, 621

Jack fruit tree, 319

Janipha, starch in, 331 Manihot, 315

Jasmine oil, 570, 574

Jatropha gossypyfolia, 625 cureas, oil from, 523

Jellies, clearness of, 337

Jesuit's bark, 635

Joar, the Indian name of the Sorghum vulgare or millet, 304, 306

Job's tears, 304

Johnson (Dr.) on manufacture of rose water, 570 (Mr.) on indigo culture, 466 (Prof.) analyses of grain crops, 264 (Prof.) on grain crops of New Brunswick, 253

Jones's process for making rice starch, 344

Jumowah, irrigated sowings, 468

Juniperus, oil of, 565

Kafir bread, 319

Kamas root, an edible, 376

Kanari kernels made into cakes, 547 oil, 546

Katjang oil, produce of the ground nut, 515, 299

Kawan, the Java tallow tree, 511

Kashmir, culture of rice in, 295

Kemmayes, an Arabian truffle, 381

Kew Gardens, tea plant grows in, 101

Kekune oil, 539

Kentucky tobacco, statistics of, 598, 600

Keora oil, 565

Khoonte, the Indian name for a second cutting, 471

Kiln-drying madder, 481 of bread stuffs, 221, 229

Kilogramme, a French weight, equal to 21bs. 3oz. avoird., 194

Kino, Australian, 506 East India, 507

Knowltonia vessicatoria, 626

Koster's Travels in Brazil, 186

Kous-kous, 311

Kooyah plant, 376

Kukui oil, 539

Kumaon, tea plantations in, 117

Laudanum, 584

Lawsonia inermis, 486

Laminaria saccharina, 379

Lathyrus tuberosus,374

Larch bark edible, 376

Laurus camphora, 633, 35

La Guayra, cacao from, 13 production of coffee in, 41 exports of coffee from, 62

Lana dye, 444

Lecythis Tabucajo, 512

Lemon grass oil, 672

Legumes, varieties of, 312

Lecanora, species of, 432

Lentils, 312

Leaf tobacco shipped from the Havana, 614

Liberia, suitability for coffee culture, 77

Lichen tribe as food, 378

Lichens, 486

Lichenin, 343

Licospermun racemosum, 605

Lindley (Dr.) on the cinchonas, 635

Litmus, 452

Lignum aloes, 439

Litre, a French measure, equal to 13/4 English pint nearly, 202

Lime, its influence on cane juice, 161

Lindley (Prof.) on the wheat of South Australia, 221

Lindley's classification of the plantain tribe, 322

Liptospermum, oil of, 565

Lilium Pomponium, 356

Lindley (Dr.) on the lichens, 486

Linseed, 535 oil, 509, 537 imported, 563 cake imported, 564

Little (Mr.) on opium, 587

Libra, a Spanish kind of tobacco, 613

Liquorice, 642 paste, 643

Logwood, 445, 447, 484

Lotus seeds, used as food, 356

Locust tree, 313 pods, 503

Louisiana, cost of producing sugar in, 189 production of sugar in, 146

Loxa bark, 636

Luffas, properties of, 626

Luggie, a measuring rod, 471

Lucca oil, 531

Macfarlane (Mr. A.) on the tea plant,117

Madder, culture of, 478 Indian, 484 statistics of imports, 484

Madia sativa oil, 520 sativa, 444

Mahowa oil, 537

Maclura tinctoria, 485

Mauritius weed, 486

Mangrove bark, for tanning, 493

Mac Micking (Mr.) on making cigars, 620

Margose oil, 537

Macaw tree, 519

Maxwell (Dr.) on Neem oil, 537

Marc of olives, 531

Mango, kernel of, for bread, 378

Marmala water, 574

Malabar cardamoms, 419

Manila, exports of indigo from, 476 exports of sugar from, 153 cigar making, 620 hemp, whence obtained, 321

Mattrasses, stuffed with blades of Indian corn, 281

Macculloch's (Mr.) estimate of indigo, 478

Maize, number of varieties cultivated, 278 analysis of, 264 imported, 218 meal, imported, 218 on the culture of, 260 sugar, 215 information respecting, 9 Dr. Phillip's analysis of, 307 starch of, 334, 335, 337, 343 system of culture in America, 273 culture in the East Indies, 282 immense produce per acre, 281 varieties grown in, Peru, 281 statistics of production in America, 269 statistics of exports from the United States, 272

Malphigia bark, for tanning, 495

Maslin, quantity grown in France, 250

Mace, imports of, 414 false color of, 409 proportion of, to nutmegs, 408

Malt, quantity made, 255

Mahoe, furnishes a dye stuff, 444

Mauritius, exports of pepper, 426 nutmeg introduced in, 412 pepper grown in, 422 cost of sugar cultivation in, 187, 189 tea culture in, 94 progress of sugar culture in, 150 clove culture of, 398, 401 black beans, 304

Mangrove bark, 450, 506

Madagascar cardamoms, 419

Mangostana Gambogia, 451, 640

Maple sugar, 205

Manettia glabra, 641

Madeira, introduction of the tea plant, 94

Madras, tea culture suitable for, 101 exports of indigo from, 464 cost of producing sugar in, 189

Marah (Mr.) prize essay on coffee culture, 69

Malambo bark, 636

Machinery for sugar, 140 for coffee, 51 for arrowrot, 350, 348 required for the plantain, 324 required for sago, 318

Magdalena river, cacao indigenous on its shores, 14

Magnolia fuseata, used to flavor tea, 85

Majoon, an opium confection, 585

Malabar, production of coffee in, 41 cassia, 394 ginger, 415 pepper produced in, 422

Malwa opium, 580

Manure, a special for tobacco, 592

Manures, suited to the coffee tree, 50 for the nutmeg, 406 suited for arrowroot, 347 scarcely required in tropical countries, 6 suited for the sugar cane, 172 suited to maize 278

Manioc, see Cassava

Manihot, species of, 367 utilissima, 315

Mansana, a land measure of 100 square yards, or nearly two British statute acres, 455

Manyroot, 625

Maranta arundinacea, juice of an antidote to poisons, 627

Marattia alata, 380

Maryland tobacco, statistics of, 598, 600

Mate, a name for the Paraguay tea, 133

Matico, 643

Matias bark, 636

Maund of Surat, 391/4 lbs. an Indian weight of varable quantity

Melaleuca minor, 566

Metrosideros tomentosa, 505

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, 494

Menispermum coceulus, 576 palmatum, 638

Megass, a name given to the dried cane stems, or trash used for fuel, 168

Meleguetta pepper, 420

Melsen's process of sugar boiling, 203

Mespilus Bengalensis, 443

Mendo, a wild sweet potato of North America, 372

Menomine, an Indian edible root, 372

Mexican thistle, 626

Mexico, imports of indigo from, 477

Metroxylon sagus, 314

Millet, varieties of, cultivated, 304 the great Indian, 306

Miller on tobacco culture, 608

Mill, rude one, used in Siam for hulling paddy, 302 for crushing plantain stems, 327

Mills for cleaning rice, 286, 288

Minot, a Canadian grain measure about one-eighth less than a bushel, 251

Milloco, a tuberous plant, 374

Mint, culture of, 567

Mimosa bark, 504

Mico or mijo, a vegetable butter made in Java, 313, 512

Monkey bread, 378 pot seed oil, 512

Morinda, species of, 443, 449

Morewood (Mr. E.), his exertions in Natal, 140 experiments in sugar culture, 187

Mocha, production of coffee in, 41 cultivation of coffee in,' 43

Mother cloves, definition of, 397

Moussache, the fecula of the manioc, 315

Mountain rice, 285, 290, 296

Morphia, proportion in opium, 584, 585

Mora excelsa, 495

Morinda citrifolia, 478

Moringa oil, 523 species of, 523

Musa, species of, 319

Musquash root of the Micmacs, 371

Mustard seed, 437

Muscovado sugar, cost of producing, 189

Mucuna pruriens, 625 utilis, 304

Muchowa oil, 511

Musa textilis, 321

Mustard oil, 510, 511 seed, 509, 535

Munjeet, 449

Munjestha, 484

Muracuja ocellata, a narcotic, 489

Myrica cerifera, 494, 540 macrocarpa, 542

Myrtus carophyllata, 284 Pimenta, 430

Myristica, varieties of the tree, 401 sebifera, 512

Myrobolans, 506

Myrtle wax, 540

Mysore, production of coffee in, 41

Napoota oil, 620

Nauclea Gambir, 496

Namur oil, 572

Natal Agricultural Society, its endeavours to promote sugar cultivation, 139 indigo culture in, 463 sugar culture in, 186

Narthex asafoetida, 633

Nelumbium, seed of, as food, 378 speciosum, the source of Chinese arrowroot, 352

New South Wales, suited for madder, 482 tobacco culture in, 621

Negrohead tobacco, 601

New Orleans, capabilities for rice culture, 287 exports of castor oil from, 545

Nerium, 453 oleander, 495

Neem tree oil, 511, 537

Nicaragua wood, 445, 447

Nipa fruticana, 136

Nipah, leaf for thatching, 559

Nicotine, 590

Nicotium, species of the plant, 590

Nitrogen, in grain, 307 in the starch plants, 342 234, 310 in the plantain, 323

Nigella, species of, 421

North West Provinces, tea culture in, 117

Nostoe edulis, 378

Northern Australia, directions for growing tobacco, 623

Nut oil, price of, 517

Nutgall, tannin in, 492, 495

Nut pine, 377

Nutmeg tree, 401 curing of, 409 wild, 412

Nux vomica, 577

Nyctanthes arbortristes, 494

Nymphaea lotus, starch obtained from, 352

Oats, proportion of oil in, 564 production of in the United Kingdom, 257 imported, 218

Oatmeal, imported 218

Oats and beans, produce of in England, 248

Oak bark, tannin in, 492

Ocas, a tuberous plant, 374

Ocoes or taniers, 331

Ocymum tuberosum, 356, 367

Ohio tobacco, statistics of, 598, 600

Oil of aniseed, 438

Oil, proportions of in various crops, 264 obtained from the Cacao seeds 11, 12

Oil of cubebs, 639 of camphor, 634 of cassia, 396

Oil of cloves, 398 of mace, 402 of cinnamon, 389, 390 spikenard, 565 of Ben, 523 cake, 513, 531 mills of India, 535 cakes of the castor seed, 545 cake from coco-nut, 552, 563 coco-nut, 551, 556, 561, 562 from maize, 564 of sandal wood, 565 cake imported, 564 cake, American, 565

Oilcake as a manure, 50 used in China, 313

Oil palm, 525

Oils, burning properties of various, 508

Oldenlandia umbellata, 449

Oleaginous plants, 509

Olea fragrans, 528 Europea, 527

Olives, mode of preserving the fruit, 530

Olive oil, prices of, 531 509, 527 sources of supply, 563

Omen-e-chah, the Indian name for a wild bean, 372

Onions, planted with arrow root, 347

Ophelia chitrata, 641

Opium, history and trade of, 580

Orceine, 488

Orchilla weed, 452 weed, imports of, 486

Orchids furnishing salep, 354 an edible species of, 375 roots of some used as food, 377

Orituco cacao, superior quality of, 14

Oryza, varieties of, 284

Orlong, a land measure in the East, equal to 1-1/3 acre, 297

O'Shaughnessy's analysis of Ceylon moss, 380 on opium, 584

Oswego starch factory, 343

Otto of khuskhus, 573

Otaheite cane, 153

Oude, production of indigo in, 464, 475

Oxalic acid, used for vinegar, 312

Oxley (Dr.) on nutmeg culture, 402

Paddy, a name for rice in the husk, 297

Patchouly, 537

Pannam kilingoes, 376

Parchment coffee, 60

Pao Crava, one of the spice barks, 384

Pachyrrhizus angulatus, 377

Palm oil, imports of, 527 sources of supply, 563

Palm oil, 509, 524 wine, 314 sugar, 136

Palma Christi, 542

Palmetto palm, 495

Palmyra nut, first shoot of, edible, 376

Pan, a masticatory, 577

Pancratium, species of, 625

Pandanus, fruit of eaten as food, 377 odoratissimus, 565

Panicum, various species of, 304 spicatum, of Roxburgh, 308

Panax quinquefolium, 436

Palos de Velas, 521

Paper made from plantain fibre, 335

Papsalum exile, 310

Papaver somniferum, 580

Paraguay tea plant common in Brazil. 130 description of, 133 extent of the trade, 133

Parietinic acid, 488

Parmenteira cerifera, 521

Parmelia, species of lichens, 486 a dye-stuff, 488

Peas, analysis of, 264

Peeling coffee, 51, 60 cinnamon, 316

Peligot (Mr.) on the composition of wheat, 230

Pepper, black, 421 pot, a West Indian dish, 369 prices of, 413 duty on, 424

Peppermint oil, 566

Peon, the Spanish term for a laborer, 135

Persea gratissima, 444

Perfumed oils, 569

Persian berries, 443

Peas imported, 218

Pessaloo, an Indian name for the Phaseolus mungo

Pereira's classification of the cinchonas, 636

Peruvian bark, 635

Pearl sago, 318 of Persia, 316

Piper angustifolium, 643

Petty rice, 310

Pekea, species of, yielding oil, 512

Pea-nut, 516

Persian tobacco, 615

Phaseolus, varieties of, 312

Phaseolus Mungo max, 171

Phalaris caniesis, 314

Phlomis, 643

Philippines, cassia brought from, 394

Philippine Islands, sugar cultivation in, 153 production of coffee in, 41 varieties of rice grown in, 302

Philippines, export of indigo from, 476 cigars made in, 620

Phillip's (Dr.) analyses of Guinea corn, 307

Phyllodadus trichomanoides, 505

Physic nut, 512, 625

Picul, a Dutch weight of 133-1/3 English pounds, 36

Piddington's (Mr.) analyses of tobacco, 617

Pigeon-pea, 304

Pignons, use of as food, 377

Pimpinella Anisitm, 437

Pimento, 430

Pinang, nutmegs in, 412 tea culture attempted, 95 clove culture in, 399, 400 pepper culture in, 425

Piper Betel, 577 Cubebi, 639 species of, 421

Pinus Pinea, seeds of the cones used for food, 377

Piney tallow, 512

Plantation sugar, imports, 139

Plantado passado, 323

Plantain, dye stuffs obtained from, 444 juice recommended for clarifying sugar, 162 information respecting, 9 starch in, 331 blight, 321 319 leaves, bags made of, 316 meal, 324, 341

Planche, his memoir on the sagos, 315

Plumeria, essences of, 524

Plectranthus graveolens, 573

Plough used in Brazil, 184

Polygonum fagopyrum, 260

Poa Abyssinica, 308

Pomegranates, for dyeing, 440

Potash an important element in maize, 267 large quantity in maize, 264

Potatoes, mode of keeping in Peru, 361 average weight per bushel in New Brunswick, 253 composition of, 227 imported, 218 composition of, 264 analysis of varieties, 362 yield per acre, 356

Potato, information respecting, 10 meal, syrup made from, 197 the wild, of North America, 372 starch in, 330 starch, used to adulterate arrowroot, 349 test for detecting, 349 starch, 334, 335, 337, 362 crop of the United States, 361 disease, 358 proposed cure for, 359, 60 crop in Ireland, 358 varieties of, 358 imports of, 359 crop in France, 361

Poisons, 627

Pomme des Prairies, of the Canadians, 373

Pounding coffee, 61

Population of Great Britain, &c., 87 of China, 86, 91, 298

Porto Rico, exports of coffee, 77 cost of producing sugar in, 189 production of coffee in, 41 exports of tobacco, 615

Poonac, as manure, 50 549, 552, 561

Pomegranate bark, 493, 495

Poonay oil, 511-13

Polygonum tinctorium, 453

Pongamia glabra, 521

Pogostemon patchouly, 573

Poppy, culture of, 581 oil, used to adulterate olive, 532 509-10-11-18

Polypodium crassifolium, used as a perfume, 550

Preserved Plantains, 323

Prices, average of sugar, 145

Prickly poppy, 626

Princeza snuff, 594

Prince of Wales Island, clove culture in, 399

Prosopis pallida, 313

Protein compounds, 307, 310, 342

Produce of various plants, 9

Production, average of various plants, 9

Provence oil, 531

Province Wellesley, clove culture in, 400

Prussia, tobacco consumed by, 596 production of beet sugar in, 197-98

Pruning coffee tree, 69

Psoralia, varieties of, 372

Pteris esculenta, 380

Pterocarpus marsupium, 493 santalinus, 445 species of, 507

Pulping mill for coffee, 51

Purging nut, 625

Pulse, culture of, 312

Putchuk or Costus, 438 638

Punjaub, proposed culture of tea in, 101

Pustulatus moss, 486

Qually, an iron vessel for drying sago, 317

Quarree, a Spanish land measure, about 53/4 English acres, 326

Quassia wood, 643

Quas, a fermented Russian beverage, 308

Quercitron, 443 485

Quercus tinctoria, 443, 485 suber, 504

Quintal, the Spanish cwt., equal to 1013/4 lbs. English,

Quinine, imports of, 636 manufacture of, 635

Quillai, bark of, used for soap, 574

Quinoa, 310 species of, 507

Railways, large consumption of oil for, 513

Ramos (Mr.) his dessicating agent for sugar, 140, 162

Ramalina fufuracea, 486

Ram-til, 535

Ramsay (Mr. C. J.) on beet sugar manufacture, 200

Ranunculus, properties of, 626

Rape oil, 609

Rape seed, quantity imported, 563 oil, 513 cake, 564

Raphis fabelliformis, 314

Red pepper, 429 Sanders wood, 445 Sandal wood, 378

Reseda lutea, 452

Revenue from sugar, 143

Rhamnus, varieties of, 442 leaves of, used for tea in China, 105

Rhizaphora mangle, 493, 506

Rhubarb, 644

Rhus, species of, 450

Ricinus communis, 542

Rial, a Spanish coin worth 6d., 135

Rice starch, 344 imports of, 303 produce per acre, 356 meal for feeding pigs, 383

Rice imported, 218 starch, Jones's process, 303 consumption per head in the East 297 price of in China, 298 time it may be kept, 292 threshing mill for, 288 grown in Demerara, 292 history of, 283 American crop of, 285 returns of produce in Carolina, 291 weight per bushel, 290

Richardsonia scabra, 641

Rimu, or red pine, 505

Robertson (Mr.) on the collection of Paraguay tea, 133

Robiquet (E.) analysis of aloes, 629

Rocella dye, 452 species of lichens, 486

Room, an Indian dye stuff, 443

Roucou, a name for arnotto, 447

Rotation of crops, 243

Root crops, 355 prices of in New Brunswick, 254

Rollers, proportionate advantages of those with 3 & 4, 168

Roxburgh on the sugar cane, 179

Roses, cultivation of, 570

Rottlera tinctoria, 442

Royle's (Prof.) productive resources of India, 103

Rubia cordifolia, 484 tinctorium, 478

Ruellia tuberosa, 625

Ruellia, a dye stuff, 443

Rupee, an Indian coin worth about, 2s

Russia, production of beet sugar in, 199 consumption of tea in, 92 tea sent to, 87

Rye, analysis of, 258 imported, 218 meal, imported, 218

Sappan wood, 445, 446, 447

Salisbury (Dr.), analysis of maize, 265

Saxony, beet sugar manufacture in, 199

Salt, recommended as a fertiliser, 172

Santalum album, 565

Saa-ga-ban root of the Indians, 371

Saga, the Java name for bread, 314 imported, 218 flour, exports of, 318 palms, 314 millet used for, 306

Saccharum sinensis of Roxburgh, 136, 169 violacum, 136

Safflower, 450

Salangore sugar cane, an excellent variety, 154

Sandwich Islands, arrowroot made in, 352

Sandbox, seeds of, emetic, 626 tree, 512

Saul tree, wood useful for tea boxes, 114

Sarsaparilla, 645

Saguerus Rumphii, 314, 316 inermis, 314 laevis, 314 farinifera, 316

Salep, 354

Samshing, a refuse produce of opium, 585

Sandoway in Arracan produces superior tobacco, 616

Saponaceous plants, 674

Sapindus, varieties of, 574

Salvadora persica, 521

Sapindus marginatus, 521

Saouari oil, 512

Sanguinaria canadensis, 511

Scammony, 642

Scharling's (Dr.) test for adulterated arrowroot, 349

Schomburgk (Sir R.), arrowroot forwarded by, 352 discovers a new tuberous plant, 374 discovers wild plantains, 320

Scotland, produce of grain in, 249 Seed leaf tobacco, 606 wheat in France, 219

Senna, varieties of, 647

Sesame oil, 511, 533

Setaria italica, 305 germanica, 304

Shanghae oil, 511

Sheet lead, manufacture of for tea cases, 114

Shorea robusta, 114, 521

Shier (Dr.), his opinion on cassava starch, 370 analysis of the plantain, 323 on the starch producing plants, 331

Shea butter, 538

Shiraz tobacco, 613

Sicily oil, 531

Siam gamboge, 639 pepper produced in, 422 indigo found wild in, 476 exports of cardamoms, 419

Sidu lanceolata, 574

Sugar, obtained from the palm tree, 314 made from millet, 306

Simaruba amara, 643

Singapore, produce of gambier in, 501 exports of sago, 318 nutmeg trade of, 413 pepper grown in, 423, 424, 427 nutmeg trees in, 400 produce of mace, 414 extent of clove culture in, 399

Sinapis, species of, yielding oil, 512

Silica, essential for wheat soils, 240

Singhara nuts, 378

Sinde, culture of rice in, 293

Smith (Dr.), his experiments in tea culture in America, 95

Snuff, duty received on, 597

Sorghum officinarum, 136 saccharatum, 136 avenaceum, 307 vulgare, 304, 306

Soap, made from coco-nut oil, 559, 562 worts, 575

Soil suited to coffee, 68 for the nutmeg, 403 for cinnamon, analysis of, 384 best suited for wheat, 247 a due consideration and knowledge of, requisite to the planter, 7 suited for tobacco, 586, 587, 607 suited for indigo, 468

Solly (Prof.) on the want of a hand-hook for the cultivator, 1 on barks for tanning, 493

Society of Arts, premiums offered by, 2

Soconusco, the finest cacao, 13

Socotrine aloes, analysis of, 629

Soja hispida, 313

Soy, mode of making, 313

Sohrinjee oil, 478, 523

South Australia, tobacco culture in, 624

South Carolina, exports of rice from, 285

Sooranjee, 478, 523

Spergula sativa, flour from the seed, 377

Sphoeroccus crispus, 379

Spanish moss, 380 tobacco, on the mannagement of, 612 oil, 531

Spices, plants which furnish, 382

Spikenard oil, 572

Spondius lutea, 495

Spergula sativa, 512

Stalagmites cambogoides, 451 gambogoides, 63

Star anise, 438

Starch producing plants, 329

Starch contained in various grain crops, 264 made from maize, 265 plants, comparative yield per acre, 339 process of manufacture, 342 large proportion of in rice, 303 proportion of in potatoes, 362

Statice coriaria, 444 Caroliniana, 494

Stenhouse (Dr.) on the lichens, 490

Stillingia sebifera, 512

St. John's bread, 312-13

St. Lucia, cost of cultivating sugar, in, 189 exports of coffee from, 73 shipment of cassava flour, 369

St. Kitt's, cost of cultivating sugar in, 189

St. Domingo, exports of coffee to the United States, 63

St. Vincent, introduction of the clove to, 399 production of arrowroot in, 347 production of coffee in, 41 cost of cultivating sugar in, 189 arrowroot shipped from, 351

Straits settlements, nutmeg culture in, 407 cinnamon culture recommended, 387

Sumbul root, 649

Surat maund, 391/4 lbs., 401

Sumach, 450 tannin in, 495

Sunflower oil, 509-10-36

Sullivan (Mr.) on cost of beet root sugar, 191

Sugar, cost of producing in different countries, 189

Sugar cane, varieties of, 137, 153, 168 mills, relative advantages of different ones, 168 supply, demand and production, 141 plants from which it is obtained, 136, 216

Sugar, information respecting, 10

Sugar maple, 205

Sumatra, production of coffee in, 41

Sumatra, production of pepper in, 422

Sweet cassava, 331

Sweet potato, 330-31-37-65

Swift (Mr.) on the culture of madder, 480

Swamp potato, 373

Sxygium carophyllaeum, 384

Sylvanus surinamensis, 279

Symplocos, varieties of, 442

Tacca plant, species of, 354

Tahiti arrowroot, 354

Talipot palm, furnishes sago, 316

Tallicoonah oil, 518

Tallow tree of China, 512 tree of Java, 511 burning properties of, 509

Tanping, a Chinese oil cake, 312

Tannin of nutgalls, 492

Tannia, 334-35-36-37

Tanahaka bark, 505

Tapioca sago, 315 369

Tasmannia aromatica, 421

Taro, 364

Tartareous moss, 486

Taniers, or ocoes, 331

Taurine, Leibig on, 80

Tea, total outlay for by the British public, 86 extent to which the consumption might be pushed, 89 local consumption of in China, 86, 91 tannin in, 495 consumption of, 596 oil, 518 range of prices, 83 consumption of in the British empire, 84 in all other countries, 84 Mr. Montgomery Martin's statistics of, 84 quantity that might be used free of duty, 84 value of the exports from China, high priced, used in the China market, 85 various Chinese names for, 105 immense trade in, 80 names of the green, 81 black, 81 original cost in China, 85 duty received on, 83

Teel or Til oil, 511, 533

Teff, an African bread, 308

Teinsing, a Chinese vegetable dye, 104

Temperature requisite for various plants, 8, 9

Tempering cane juice, 158

Tenacity of starches, 336

Terminalia angustifolia, 494 species of, 506

Terra Japonica, a misnomer, 490 statistics of imports, 502

Teuss, a Chinese legume, 312 oil, 215

Texas, production of sugar in, 147

Thespesia populnea, 444

Thea viridis, 103, 110 Bohea, 103, 110

Theine, analysis of, 80

Thistle oil, 511, 103, 110, 626 roots as food, 376

Theobromine, 11

Theobroma, description of the tree, 11

Tikoor, a local name for Indian arrowroot, 351

Til oil, 511

Tip-sin-ah, a wild prairie turnip of North America, 372

Tinnevelly senna, 648

Ti plant, 355

Tirhoot, production of indigo in, 475

Tobacco, memorial of American Chamber of Commerce, 595 culture of in the East, 615 duty paid on, 594 leaf, Prof. Johnston's analysis, 592 plant, 589 sources of supply, 601 fly, cure for, 607 statistics of American exports, 600 prohibited to be grown in England, 598 method of curing, 605 manufacture increasing in the United States, 599 number of persons engaged in the culture in America, 599 worm, 610 stems, trade in, 598 information respecting, 9 seed oil, 510-18 prices in London, 602 root, a wild edible plant, 376 cost of cultivating sugar in, 189

Tonquin beans, 434

Tous-les-mois, starch of, 330-33-35-37-40

Topinam bar, 365-76

Topping the coffee tree, 68

Towai bark, 505

Toddy, 555

Travers (Mr. J.I.) on consumption of tea, 87

Trinidad, exports of coffee from, 73 indigo in, 460 culture of coffee in, 72 cost of cultivating sugar, 189

Tropaeolum tuberosum, 536

Tripa, a name for damaged tobacco leaves, 611

Tripolium alpinum, 643

Truffle, 381

Tuberous plants, new, recommended, 370

Tuber cibarium, 381

Turkey berries, 442 opium, 585

Turmeric, 419, 434, 442 used for coloring tea, 436

Turnips, average weight of crop in New Brunswick, 253

Turpentine, spirits of, 565

Typha bread, 380

Tye, a preparation of opium, 585

Unearia Gambier, 496

United States, production of sugar in, 145 supplies of coffee to, 63 imports of tea and value, 92 value of its agricultural produce, 222 former culture of indigo, 461 production of maple sugar in, 215 tea plant introduced, 95

Upland rice, 302 grown in Texas, 285

Ure (Dr.), on arrowroot manufacture, 347 on manioc starch, 368 on tannin in barks, 495 on indigo manufacture, 472

Urania guianensis, 444

Valenaria edulis, 376

Valonia, 507

Van Diemen's Land, culture of oats in, 258

Vanilla, 431 plant, grows in Brazil, 130

Vara, a Spanish land measure, 9

Variolaris, species of lichens, 486

Varzeas, a Portuguese name for low and marshy ground, 183

Vateria indica, 512

Vegetable butter, 538 wax, 540 soap, 574

Velvet moss, 486

Venezuela, coffee culture in, 62

Verbesena sativa, 535

Vernonia anthelmentica, 521

Vinegar, made from millet, 306

Virginian tobacco, statistics of, 598, 600 method of culture, 604

Virola sebifera, 401, 512

Voandzou, 371

Voelcker (Dr.), analysis of quinoa, 310

Volatile or essential oils, 565

Vuelta abajo, the best class of Cuba tobacco, 613 arribo, the inferior kind of ditto, 613

Vulpinic acid, 488

Wabessepin, a wild American potato, 372

Wages paid in the Mauritius, 150

Walnut, oil from, 510

Wangle, oil seed, 533

Watappinee, an Indian edible root, 372

Water, proportion of in different kinds of wheat, 221 quantity in potatoes, 227 for making starch, 341

Wax berries, 546 palm, 541

Weinmaunia, bark of, 499 racemosa, 505

Weight per bushel of crops in New Brunswick, 253 of coffee per bushel, 47

Wellstead (Lt.) on Socotro aloes, 629

Westring (Dr.) on the Swedish lichens, 489-90

West India ginger, 418

Wheat, weight of, as an index of value, 236 imported, 218 flour do., 218 culture, statistics of, 220 annual produce of, 219 analysis of, by Boussingault, 244 average price of, 249 best soil for, 247 consumption of in England, 248 produce of in England and Wales, 248 information respecting, 10 starch of, 331-35-36-37, 343 composition of the ash of, 241 yield per acre, 240 flour, various analyses of, 237

White pepper, statistics of, 428

Whisky, quantity of maize used for, 271

Wilcockes on Paraguay tea trade, 135

Williams's Middle Kingdom, extract from, 105

Willoughbeia edulis, 378

Wilson (Mr. T.) on the cost of producing sugar, 189

Wilson's rice-cleaning machine, 290

Winnowing coffee, 51 machine for tea, 116

Woad, 452

Wood dyes, 449 oil, 511 (Mr.) on indigo culture, Wool manufacture, oil consumed in, 510

Wray's practical sugar planter, 140

Wrightia tinctoria, 463

Xanthoxylum piperitum, 421 ochroxylon, 460

Xiguilite, the indigo shrub, 460

Xylocarpus granatum, 519

Xylopia aromatica, 421

Yam, back, 333, 335, 337-38-39, 362

Yams, varieties of cultivated, 362

Yampah root, 376

Yellow berries, 443

Yerba, Spanish and native name for the Paraguay tea tree, 133

Yucca amarga, 331

Yucca, the Peruvian name for cassava, 367, 375

Zamia, arrowroot obtained from, 319, 352 pumila, 330

Zanzibar, clove plantations in, 400

Zea Mays, description of, 260

Zingiber officinale, 414

Zizania aquatica, 284

Zones, Meyen's division of, 25

Zollverein, production of beet root sugar in, 198

THE END

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