The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby Knight Opened
by Kenelm Digby
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This is a proportion to make about a Gallon of Pease-porage. The quantities are set down by guess. The Coriander-seeds are as much as you can conveniently take in the hollow of your hand. You may put in a great good Onion or two. A pretty deal of Parsley, and if you will, and the season afford them, you may add what you like of other Porage herbs, such as they use for their Porages in France. But if you take the savoury herbs dry, you must crumble or beat them to small Powder (as you do the Coriander-seed) and if any part of them be too big to pass through the strainer, after they have given their taste to the quantity, in boiling a sufficient while therein, you put them away with the husks of the Pease. The Pint of Pease that you reserve whole, is only to show that it is Pease-porage. They must be of the thickness of ordinary Pease-porage. For which these proportions will make about a Gallon.


Put a Crag-end of a Neck of Mutton, a Knuckle of Veal, and a Pullet into a Pipkin of water, with a spoonful or two of French-barley first scalded in a water or two. The Pullet is put in after the other meat is well skimmed, and hath boiled an hour. A good hour after that, put in a large quantity of Sorrel, Lettice, Purslane, Borage and Bugloss, and boil an hour more at least three hours in all. Before you put in the herbs, season the broth with Salt, a little Pepper and Cloves, strain out the broth and drink it.

But for Potage, put at first a good piece of fleshy young Beef with the rest of the meat. And put not in your herbs till half an hour before you take off the Pot. When you use not herbs, but Carrots and Turneps, put in a little Peny-royal and a sprig of Thyme. Vary in the season with Green-pease, or Cucumber quartered longwise, or Green sower Verjuyce Grapes; always well-seasoned with Pepper and Salt and Cloves. You pour some of the broth upon the sliced-bread by little and little, stewing it, before you put the Herbs upon the Potage.

The best way of ordering your bread in Potages, is thus. Take light spungy fine white French-bread, cut only the crusts into tosts. Tost them exceeding dry before the fire, so that they be yellow. Then put them hot into a hot dish, and pour upon them some very good strong broth, boiling hot. Cover this, and let them stew together gently, not boil; and feed it with fresh-broth, still as it needeth; This will make the bread swell much, and become like gelly.


Take half a pint of Sack, and as much Rhenish wine, sweeten them to your taste with Sugar. Beat ten yolks of Eggs, and eight of whites exceeding well, first taking out the Cocks-tread, and if you will the skins of the yolks; sweeten these also, and pour them to the wine, add a stick or two of Cinnamon bruised, set this upon a Chafing-dish to heat strongly, but not to boil; but it must begin to thicken. In the mean time boil for a quarter of an hour three pints of Cream seasoned duly with Sugar and some Cinnamon in it. Then take it off from boiling, but let it stand near the fire, that it may continue scalding-hot whiles the wine is heating. When both are as scalding-hot as they can be without boiling, pour the Cream into the wine from as high as you can. When all is in, set it upon the fire to stew for 1/8 of an hour. Then sprinkle all about the top of it the juyce of a 1/4 part of a Limon; and if you will, you may strew Powder of Cinnamon and Sugar, or Ambergreece upon it.


In the Spring (about the beginning of May) the flowry-leaves of Tulips do fall away, and there remains within them the end of the stalk, which in time will turn to seed. Take that seedy end (then very tender) and pick from it the little excrescencies about it, and cut it into short pieces, and boil them and dress them as you would do Pease; and they will taste like Pease, and be very savoury.


The manner of boiling Rice to eat with Butter, is this. In a Pipkin pour upon it as much water, as will swim a good fingers breadth over it. Boil it gently, till it be tender, and all the water drunk into the Rice; which may be in a quarter of an hour or less. Stir it often with a woodden spatule or spoon, that it burn not to the bottom: But break it not. When it is enough, pour it into a dish, and stew it with some Butter, and season it with sugar and Cinnamon. This Rice is to appear dry, excepting for the Butter, that is melted in it.


Make thin tosts or slices of light French bread, which dry well, or toste a little by the fire, then Soak them in Canary or old Malaga-wine, or fine Muscat, and lay a row of them in a deep dish or bason; then a row of lumps of Marrow upon that; then strew a little fine sugar mingled with some Powder of Cinnamon and Ambergreece (and Nutmeg, if you like it) upon that. Then another row of sops, &c. repeating this, till the dish be full: and more Sugar, Cinnamon and Amber at the top, then on the other rows. If you will, you may put a row of stoned Raisins of the Sun upon every row of Marrow. Then cover the dish, and put it in an Oven to bake for half-an hour; or till the Marrow be sufficiently baked.


My Lady of Monmouth boileth a Capon with white broth thus. Make reasonable good broth, with the crag-ends of Necks of Mutton and Veal (of which you must have so much as to be at least three quarts of White-broth in the dish with the Capon, when all is done, else it will not come high enough upon the Capon). Beat a quarter of a pound of blanched Almonds with three or four spoonfuls of Cream, and, if you will, a little Rose water; then add some of your broth to it, so to draw out all their substance, mingling it with the rest of your broth. Boil your Capon in fair-water by it self; and a Marrow-bone or two by themselves in other water. Likewise some Chess-nuts (in stead of which you may use Pistaccios, or macerated Pine kernels) and in other water some Skirrits or Endive, or Parsley-roots, according to the season. Also plumpsome Raisins of the Sun, and stew some sliced Dates with Sugar and water. When all is ready to joyn, beat two or three New-laid-eggs (whites and all) with some of the White-broth, that must then be boiling, and mingle it with the rest, and let it boil on: and mingle the other prepared things with it, as also a little sliced Oringiado (from which the hard Candy-sugar hath been soaked off with warm-water) or a little peel of Orange (or some Limon Pickled with Sugar and Vinegar, such as serves for Salets) which you throw away, after it hath been a while boiled in it: and put a little Sack to your broth, and some Ambergreece, if you will, and a small portion of Sugar; and last of all, put in the Marrow in lumps that you have knocked out of the boiled bones. Then lay your Capon taken hot from the Liquor, he is boiled in, upon sippets and slices of tosted light bread, and pour your broth and mixture upon it, and cover it with another dish, and let all stew together a while: then serve it up. You must remember to season your broth in due time with salt and such spices as you like.


Take to a dozen of Eggs a pint of Cream; beat them well together, and put three quarters of a pound of Butter to them, and so set them on the fire to harden, and stir them, till they are as hard, as you would have them.


Take eight Gallons of Ale; take a Cock and boil him well; then take four pounds of Raisins of the Sun well stoned, two or three Nutmegs, three or four flakes of Mace, half a pound of Dates; beat these all in a Mortar, and put to them two quarts of the best Sack; and when the Ale hath done working, put these in, and stop it close six or seven days, and then bottle it, and a month after you may drink it.


Take a pound of Rue, of Rosemary, Sage, Sorrel, Celandine, Mugwort, of the tops of red brambles of Pimpernel, Wild-dragons, Agrimony, Balm, Angelica of each a pound. Put these Compounds in a Pot, fill it with White-wine above the herbs, so let it stand four days. Then still it for your use in a Limbeck.


Take Rue, Agrimony, Wormwood, Celandine, Sage, Balm, Mugwort, Dragons, Pimpernel, Marygold, Fetherfew, Burnet, Sorrel, and Elicampane-roots scraped and sliced small. Scabious, Wood-betony, Brown-mayweed, Mints, Avence, Tormentil, Carduus benedictus, and Rosemary as much as of anything else, and Angelica if you will. You must have like weight of all them, except Rosemary aforesaid, which you must have twice as much of as of any of the rest; then mingle them altogether and shred them very small; then steep them in the best White-wine you can get, three days and three nights, stirring them once or twice a day, putting no more wine then will cover the Herbs well; then still it in a Common-still; and take not too much of the first-water, and but a little of the second, according as you feel the strength, else it will be sower. There must be but half so much Elicampane as of the rest.


Take four Gallons of Deal wine, put it into an earthen jugg; put to it four Gallons of Rasberries; let them stand so infusing seven days; then press it out gently; Then infuse as many more Rasberries seven days longer, and so three times if you please; put to it as much fine Sugar as will make it pleasant; Put it into a Runlet close stopped, let it stand till it is fine; and then draw it into bottles, and keep it till it be fine.


Take all your least and worst Quinces, that are found, and cut them in pieces, with all the Corings and Parings you make; boil them more then an hour; then put the Quinces into this boiling liquor, and take them forth presently, not letting them boil, and lay them to cool one by one a part; then take the liquor and strain it; and put for every Gallon of liquor half a pint of honey; then boil it and scum it clean; let it be cold; and then put your Quinces into a pot or tub, that they be covered with the liquor, and stop it very close with your Paste.


Take three quarts of Cream, and put into it the yolks of twelve Eggs; the whites of four, being first very well beaten between three quarters of a pound of Sugar, two Nutmegs grated, a little Salt; half a pound of Raisins first plump'd. These being sliced together, cut some thin slices of a stale Manchet; dry them in a dish against the fire, and lay them on the top of the Cream, and some Marrow again upon the bread, and so bake it.


Take a piece of Brisket-beef; a piece of Mutton; a knuckle of Veal; a good Colander of pot-herbs; half minced Carrots, Onions and Cabbage a little broken. Boil all these together until they be very thick.


Take a Pot of two Gallons or more; and take a brisket rand of Beef; any piece of Mutton, and a piece of Veal; put this with sufficient water into the pot, and after it hath boiled, and been skimmed, put in a great Colander full of ordinary pot-herbs; a piece of Cabbage, all half cut; a good quantity of Onions whole, six Carrots cut and sliced, and two or three Pippins quartered. Let this boil three hours until it be almost a gelly, and stir it often, least it burn.


Take good fat Beef, slice it very thin into small pieces, and beat it well with the back of a chopping Knife. Then put it into a Pipkin, and cover it with wine and water, and put unto it a handful of good Herbs, and an Onion, with an Anchoves. Let it boil two hours; A little before you take it up, put in a few Marygold-flowers; and so season it with what Spice you please, and serve them up both with sippets.


Take very good Beef, and slice it very thin; and beat it with the back of a Knife; Put it to the gravy of some meat, and some wine or strong broth, sweet-herbs a quantity, let it stew till it be very tender; season it to your liking; and varnish your dish with Marygold-flowers or Barberries.


Take a Breast of Veal half rosted, and put it a stewing with some wine and gravy; three or four yolks of Eggs minced small; a pretty quantity of Sweet-herbs with an Onion, Anchoves or Limon; stick it either with Thyme or Limon-peels, and season it to your liking.


Take Roots of Horse-radish scraped clean, and lay them to soak in fair-water for an hour. Then rasp them upon a Grater, and you shall have them all in a tender spungy Pap. Put Vinegar to it, and a very little Sugar, not so much as to be tasted, but to quicken (by contrariety) the taste of the other.


The Queen Mothers Hotchpot of Mutton, is thus made. It is exceeding good of fresh Beef also, for those whose Stomacks can digest it. Cut a neck of Mutton, Crag-end and all into steaks (which you may beat, if you will; but they will be very tender without beating) and in the mean time prepare your water to boil in a Possnet, (which must be of a convenient bigness to have water enough, to cover the meat, and serve all the stewing it, without needing to add any more to it; and yet no superfluous water at last.) Put your meat into the boiling water, and when you have scummed it clean, put into it a good handful of Parsley, and as much of Sibboulets (young Onions or Sives) chopped small, if you like to eat them in substance; otherwise tied up in a bouquet, to throw them away, when they have communicated to the water all their taste; some Pepper; three or four Cloves, and a little Salt, and half a Limon first pared. These must stew or boil simpringly, (covered) at least three or four hours (a good deal more, if Beef) stirring it often, that it burn not too. A good hour before you intend to take it off, put some quartered Turneps to it, or, if you like them, some Carrots. A while after, take a good lump of Houshold-bread, bigger than your fist, crust and crum, broil it upon a Gridiron, that it be throughly rosted; scrape off the black burning on the on side; then soak it throughly in Vinegar, and put this lump of tost into your possnet to stew with it; which you take out and throw away after a while. About a quarter of an hour before you serve it up melt a good lump of Butter (as much as a great Egg) till it grow red; then take it from the fire, and put to it a little fine flower to thicken it (about a couple of spoonfuls) like thick Pap. Stir them very well together; then set them on the fire again, till it grow-red, stirring it all the while; then put to it a ladleful of the liquor of the pot, and let them stew a while together to incorporate, stirring it always. Then pour this to the whole substance in the Possnet, to Incorporate with all the liquor, and so let them stew a while together. Then pour it out of the possnet into your dish, meat and all: for it will be so tender, it will not endure taking up piece by piece with your hand. If you find the taste not quick enough, put into it the juyce of the half Limon, you reserved. For I should have said, that when you put in the Herbs, you squeese in also the juyce of half a Limon (pared from the yellow rinde, which else would make it bitter) and throw the pared and squeesed half (the substance) into it afterwards. The last things (of Butter, bread, flower) cause the liaison and thickening of the liquor. If this should not be enough, you may also put a little gravy of Mutton into it; stirring it well when it is in, least it curdle in stewing, or you may put the yolk of an Egg or two to your liaison of Butter, Flower, and ladleful of broth. For gravy of Mutton. Rost a juycy leg of Mutton three quarters. Then gash it in several places, and press out the juyce by a screw-press.


Take a fat and fleshy Capon, or a like Hen; Dress it in the ordinary manner, and cleanse it within from the guts, &c. Then put in the fat again into the belly, and split the bones of the legs and wings (as far as you may, not to deface the fowl) so as the Marrow may distil out of them. Add a little fresh Butter and Marrow to it; season it with Salt, Pepper, and, what other Spice you like, as also savoury herbs. Put the Capon with all these condiments into a large strong sound bladder of an Ox (first well washed and scoured with Red-wine) and tie it very close and fast to the top, that nothing may ouse out, nor any water get in (and there must be void space in the bladder, that the flesh may have room to swell and ferment in; therefore it must be a large one). Put this to boil for a couple of hours in a Kettle of water, or till you find by touching the Bladder, that the Capon is tender and boiled enough. Then serve it up in a dish, in the Bladder (dry wiped) which when you cut, you will find a precious and nourishing liquor to eat with bread, and the Capon will be short, tender, most savoury and full of juyce, and very nourishing.

I conceive, that if you put enough Ox-marrow, you need no butter; and that it may do well to add Ambergreece, Dates-sliced and pithed, Raisins, Currants, and a little Sugar.

Peradventure this might be done well in a Silver-flagon close luted, set in Balneo bulliente, as I make the nourishing broth or gelly of Mutton or Chickens, &c.


Slice thin two peny-roles, or one, of French-bread, the tender part. Lay it in a dish or pan. Pour upon it a quart of Cream, that hath been well boiled. Let it stand almost half an hour, till it be almost cold. Then stir the bread and Cream very well together, till the bread be well broken and Incorporated. (If you have no French bread, take stale Kingston bread, grated) add to this two spoonfuls of fine Wheat-flower, the yolks of four Eggs, and the whites of two; a Nutmeg—grated small; Sugar to your tast; a little Salt, and the Marrow of two bones a little shreded. Stir all these together; then pour it into a dish greased over with Butter, and set it uncovered in the Oven to bake. About half an hour will serve, and give the top a yellow crispiness. Before you put in the Marrow, put in a quarter of a pound and a half of Raisins of the Sun, and as much of Currants; Ordering them so, that they may not fall to the bottom, but be all about the pudding.


Take four pounds of Beef, Veal or Neats-Tongues, and eight pounds of Suet; and mince both the meat and Suet very small, befor you put them together. Then mingle them well together and mince it very small, and put to it six pounds of Currants washed and picked very clean. Then take the Peel of two Limons, and half a score of Pippins, and mince them very small. Then take above an Ounce of Nutmegs, and a quarter of an Ounce of Mace, some Cloves and Cinnamon, and put them together, and sweeten them with Rose-water and Sugar. And when you are ready to put them into your Paste, take Citron and Orangiadoe, and slice them very thin, and lay them upon the meat. If you please, put dates upon the top of them. And put amongst the meat an Ounce of Caraway seeds. Be sure you have very fine Paste.

My Lady of Portland told me since, that she finds Neats-tongues to be the best flesh for Pies. Parboil them first. For the proportion of the Ingredients she likes best to take equal parts of flesh, of suet, of currants and of Raisins of the Sun. The other things in proportion as is said above. You may either put the Raisins in whole, or stone the greatest part, and Mince them with the Meat. Keep some whole ones, to lay a bed of them at the top of the Pye, when all is in. You will do well to stick the Candid Orange-peel, and green Citron-peel into the meat. You may put a little Sack or Greek Muscadine into each Pye. A little Amber-sugar doth well here. A pound of flesh, and proportionably of all things else, is enough for once in a large family.


Parboil Neats-tongues. Then Peel and hash them with as much as they weigh of Beef-suet, and stoned Raisins and picked Currants. Chop all exceeding small, that it be like Pap. Employ therein at least an hour more, then ordinarily is used. Then mingle a very little Sugar with them, and a little wine, and thrust in up and down some thin slices of green Candyed Citron-peel. And put this into coffins of fine light well reared crust. Half an hour baking will be enough. If you strew a few Carvi comfits on the top, it will not be amiss.


My Lady Lasson makes her finest minced Pyes of Neats-tongues; But she holdeth the most savoury ones to be of Veal and Mutton equal parts very small minced. Her finest crust is made by sprinkling the flower (as much as it needeth) with cold water, and then working the past with little pieces of raw Butter in good quantity. So that she useth neither hot water, nor melted butter in them; And this makes the crust short and light. After all the meat and seasoning, and Plums and Citron Peel, &c. is in the Coffin, she puts a little Ambered-sugar upon it, thus; Grind much two grains of Ambergreece and half a one of Musk, with a little piece of hard loaf Sugar. This will serve six or eight pyes, strewed all over the top. Then cover it with the Liddle, and set it in the oven.


When the Capon, Chickens, or Fowl, have been long enough before the fire, to be through hot, and that it is time to begin to baste them: baste them once all over very well with fresh Butter; then presently powder it all over very thin with Flower. This by continuing turning before the fire, will make a thin crust, which will keep in all the juyce of the meat. Therefore baste no more, nor do any thing to it, till the meat be enough rosted. Then baste it well with Butter as before, which will make the crust relent and fall away; which being done, and that the meat is growing brown on the Out-side, besprinkle it over with a little ordinary white Salt in gross-grains; and continue turning, till the outside be brown enough.

The Queen useth to baste such meat with yolks of fresh Eggs beaten thin, which continue to do all the while it is rosting.


Cut a Leg of Veal into thin Collops, and beat them well with the back of a Knife. Then lay them in soak a good half hour in the yolks of four eggs, and the whites of two very well beaten, and a little small shreded Thyme mingled with it; then lay them in the Frying-pan, wherein is boiling Butter, and pour upon them the rest of the Eggs, that the Collops have not Imbibed, and carry with them, and fry them very well, turning them in due time. Then pour away all the Butter, and make them a Sauce of Gravy seasoned with Salt and Spice, and juyce of Orange at last squeesed upon them.


Boil the meat in little pieces (if Chicken, flead and beaten) in the Pan with a pint of fair-water, with due seasoning. When it is very tender, put some Butter to it, and pour upon it a Liquor made of four yolks of Eggs beaten with a little white wine and some Verjuyce; and keep this in motion over the fire, till it be sufficiently thickened. Then pour it into a warm dish, and squeese some juyce of Orange upon it, and so serve it up. If you would have the meat first made brown and Rissole, fry it first with Butter, till it be brown on the outside; then pour out all the Butter, and put water to it, in which boil it, and do all as before. If you like Onions or Garlike, you may put some to the water. Fresh broth may be used (both ways) instead of water, and maketh it more Savoury.


Take good Gravy of Mutton or Veal, or of both, with the fat clean skimmed off. Break into it a couple of new-laid Eggs, and stir them in it over a Chafing-dish of Coals; in the mean time, mingle some small cut juycy hashy of Rabet, Capon or Mutton with another parcel of like Gravy as above, till it be pretty thin. Then put this to the other upon the fire, and stir them well with a spoon, whiles they heat. When all is heated through, it will quicken of a sudden. You may put in at first a little chipping of crusty bread, if you will. Season this with white Pepper, Salt, juyce of Orange or Verjuyce, of Berberies, or Onion, or what you like best.

A pint of Gravy (or less) four or five spoonfulls of hashy, and two Eggs, is a convenient proportion for a light Supper.

Such Gravy, with an Onion split in two, lying in it, whiles it is heating, and a little Pepper and Salt, and juyce of Limon or Orange, and a few Chippings of light-bread, is very good Sauce for Partridges or Cocks.


Take Spinage, and chop it a little; then boil it, till it be tender. In the mean time make the best rich light Crust you can, and roul it out, and put a little of your Spinage into it, and Currants and Sugar, and store of lumps of Marrow; Clap the Past over this to make little Pasties deep within, and fry them with clarified Butter.


Take two large fleshy Capons, not too fat; when you have draw'd and trussed them, lay them upon a Chafing-dish of Charcoal to singe them, turning them on all sides, till the hair and down be clean singed off. Then take three pounds of good Lard, and cut it into larding pieces, about the thickness of a two-peny cord, and Lard it well, but first season your bits of Lard, with half an Ounce of Pepper, and a handful of Salt, then bind each of them well over with Pack-thread, and have ready over the fire about two Gallons of Beef-broth, and put them in a little before it boileth; when they boil, and are clean skimmed, then put in some six Bay-leaves; a little bunch of Thyme; two ordinary Onions stuck full of Cloves, and Salt, if it be not Salt enough already for pickle; when it hath boiled about half an hour, put in another half Ounce of beaten White-Pepper, and a little after, put in a quart of White-wine; So let it boil, until it hath boiled in all an hour; and so let it lie in the pickle till you use it; which you may do the next day, or any time within a fortnight; in stead of broth you may use water, which is better; in case you do four or six, which of themselves will make the pickle strong enough. If you will keep them above four days, you must make the pickle sharp with Vinegar.


To ordinary Sauce of sliced or grated-bread soaked in good Bouillon, with Butter melted in it, put Gravy of Mutton, and a Cloven-Onion or two, to stew with it whiles you put it upon the fire to heat anew. Then take out the Onion, and put in some Limon sliced, or juyce of Limon, and some white Pepper. You put in his proportion of Salt before.


Take two Neats-tongues, and boil them. Shred them with Beef-suet, and put in Cloves and Mace, beaten very small, with Raisins, Currants and Sugar; you must mingle them before you put in your Suet. Fat double tripes boiled tender, then minced, make very good Pyes.


Take two quarts of Milk to half a pound of French-barley; boil it, until it is enough; when the Milk is almost boiled away, put to it three Pintes of good Cream. Let it boil together a quarter of an hour; then sweeten it; and put in Mace, Cinnamon in the beginning, when you first put in your Cream. When you have done so, take White-wine a Pint, or Sack and White-wine together, of each half a Pint; sweeten it, as you love it, with Sugar; pour in all the Cream, but leave your Barley behind in the Skillet. This will make an Excellent Posset; nothing else but a tender Curd to the bottom; let it stand on the Coals half a quarter of an hour.


Take a Gill of cold-water; two whites of Eggs, and one yolk; to a quart of Flower one pound of Butter; so rowl it up, but keep out of the Flower so much as will rowl it up.


Take a new French peny-loaf, and slice it very thin, and lay it in a dish; and take three pints of Cream, and boil it with a little Mace and Nutmeg grated; sweeten it with a little Sugar, and add to it a little Salt. Then let it stand till it be cold. Then take ten yolks of Eggs; and beat them very well with two or three spoonfuls of the Cream; then put it into the Cream, and stir them well together: Take the Marrow of three bones; lay half the Marrow upon the bread in good big lumps, and some Citron, and Candid Limon, and what other sweet meats you like. Then pour it all upon the bread; then put the rest of your Marrow on the top with Citron and Candid Limon. I forgat to tell you, that you must lay a Puff-paste at the bottom of the dish, before you put in the bread, and cover it with the same.


Take a cold Turky, Capon or cold Veal. Shred it very small; and put almost as much Beef-suet as your meat, and mince it very small. Then put Salt and Nutmeg grated, half a pound of Currants; a little grated-bread, and a little Flower. Then put in three yolks of Eggs, and one of the whites, beaten very well. Then take so much Cream, as will wet them, and make them up as big as a Bon-christian pear; and as you make them up, take a little flower in your hand, that they may not cling. Then put in little sticks at the bottom like the stems of Pears; or make them up in Balls. Butter the dish very well, and send them up in the same dish you bake them in. They will be baked in about half an hour: I think the dish needeth not to be covered, whiles it baketh. You may make minced Pyes thus: and bake them with Puff-past in a dish like a Florenden, and use Marrow instead of Suet.


Take the pith of Beeves; a good spoonful of Almonds very small beaten with Rose-water: beat the pith, when the skin is taken off very well with a spoon; then mingle it with the Almonds, and put in it six yolks of Eggs well beaten, and four spoonfuls of Cream boiled and cold, it must be very thick; put in a little Ambergreece, and as much Sugar, as will sweeten them; a little Salt, and the Marrow of two good bones, cut in little pieces. When your Beefs-guts are seasoned, fit them up and boil them.


Take a piece of the Buttock of Beef, the leanest of it, and beat it with a rowling-pin the space of an hour, till you think you have broken the grain of it, and have made it very open both to receive the sowsing-drink, and also to make it tender. Then take a pint of Vinegar, and a pint of Claret-wine and let it lie therein two nights, and two days. Then beat a couple of Nutmegs, and put them into the sowsing-drink; then Lard it. Your Lard must be as big as your greatest finger for consuming. Then take Pepper, Cloves, Mace and Nutmegs, and season it very well in every place, and so bake it in Pye-paste, and let it stand in the oven six or seven hours. And when it hath stood three hours in your oven, then put it in your sowsing-drink as is aforesaid; and you may keep it a quarter of a year, if it be kept close.


Save the blood of your sheep, and strain it. Take grated bread almost the quantity of a Peny loaf, Pepper, Thyme, chopp'd small; mingle these Ingredients with a little of the blood, and stuff the Mutton. Then wrap up your shoulder of Mutton, and lay it in the blood twenty four hours; prick the shoulder with your Knife, to let the blood into the flesh, and so serve it with Venison Sawce.


Take a Rump of Beef, and season it with Nutmegs grated, and some Pepper and Salt mingled together, and season the Beef on the Bony-side; lay it in a pipkin with the flat-side downward. Take three pints of Elder-wine-vinegar, and as much water, and three great Onions, and a bunch of Rosemary tyed up together. Put them all into a Pipkin, and stew them three or four hours together with a soft fire being covered close. Then dish it up upon sippets, blowing off the fat from the Gravy; and some of the Gravy put into the Beef, and serve it up.


Mounsieur Overbec doth tell me, that when He boileth a Gambon of Bacon, or any salted flesh and hanged in the smoak (as Neats-tongues, Hung-beef, and Hogs-cheeks, &c.), He putteth into the Kettle of water to boil with them three or four handfuls of fleur de foin, (more or less according to the quantity of flesh and water,) tyed loosly in a bag of course-cloth. This maketh it much tenderer, shorter, mellower, and of a finer colour.


Take a Rump of Beef, or some of Brisket or Buttock cut into pieces, a loin of Mutton, with the superfluous fat taken off, and a fleshy piece of the Leg of Veal or a Knuckle, a piece of enterlarded Bacon, three or 4 Onions (or some Garlike) and if you will, a Capon or two, or three great tame Pigeons. First, put into the water the Beef and the Bacon; After a while, the Mutton and Veal and Onions. But not the Capon or Pigeons till only so much time remain, as will serve barely to boil them enough. If you have Garavanzas, put them in at the first, after they have been soaked with Ashes all night in heat, and well washed with warm water, after they are taken out; or if you will have Cabbage, or Roots, or Leeks, or whole Onions, put them in time enough to be sufficiently boiled. You may at first put in some Crusts of Bread, or Venison Pye crust. It must boil in all five or six hours gently, like stewing after it is well boiled. A quarter or half an hour before you intend to take it off, take out a porrenger full of broth, and put to it some Pepper and five or six Cloves and a Nutmeg, and some Saffran, and mingle them well in it. Then put that into the pot, and let it boil or stew with the rest a while. You may put in a bundle of Sweet-herbs. Salt must be put in as soon as the water is skimmed.


Take a quart of good, but fine broth; beat with it very well eight New laid-eggs (whites and all) and put in a little Sugar, and if you will a little Amber, or some Mace, or Nutmeg. Put all this into a fit Pipkin, and set this in a great one, or a kettle of boiling water, till it be stiffened like a Custard.


When some broth is boiling in a Pipkin, pour into it some Eggs well beaten, and they will curdle in a lump, when they are enough; take them out with a holed ladle, and lay them upon the bread in the Minestra.


Take a quart of Sheeps blood, and a quart of Cream; ten Eggs, the yolks and the whites beaten well together; stir all this Liquor very well, then thicken it with grated Bread, and Oat-meal finely beaten, of each a like quantity; Beef-suet finely shred and Marrow in little lumps: season it with a little Nutmeg and Cloves and Mace mingled with Salt, a little Sweet-marjoram, Thyme and Peny-royal shred very well together, and mingle them with the other things: Some put in a few Currants; then fill them in cleansed guts, and boil them carefully.


Take a fillet of Veal, and a good fleshy Capon; then half rost them both, and take off their skins: which being done, take only the wings and brawns with an equal proportion of Veal, which must be shred very small as is done for Sassages. To this shred half a pound of the belly part of interlarded Bacon, and half a pound of the finest leaf (la panne) of Hog cleared from the skin; then take the yolks of eighteen or twenty Eggs, and the whites of six well beaten with as much Milk and Cream, as will make it of convenient thickness; and then season it with Salt, Cloves, Nutmeg, Mace, Pepper, and Ginger, if you please. The Puddings must be boiled in half Milk and half water. You are to use small-guts, such as for white-Marrow-puddings, and they are to be cleansed in the Ordinary manner; and filled very lankley; for they will swell much in the boiling, and break if they be too full.


Take of the Tripes of Veal the whitest and finest you can find; wash them well, and let them lie in fair Fountain or River water, till they do not smell like Tripes. This done, cut them so small as is necessary to pass through a Funnel. Take also one or two pounds of Pork, that hath not been salted, and cut it as small as the Tripes, and mingle them altogether; which season with Salt, White-pepper, Anis-seeds beaten and Coriander-seeds; Then make a Liaison with a little Milk and yolks of Eggs; and after all is well mingled and thickned, as it ought to be, you must fill with it the greatest guts of a Hog, that may be had, with a Funnel of White iron, having first tyed the end of the gut below. Do not fill it too full, for fear they should break in the boiling, but leave room enough for the flesh to swell. When you are going to boil them, put them into a Kettle with as much Milk as will cover and boil them, being boiled, let them lie in the liquor till they are almost cold, then take them out and lay them in a basket upon a clean linnen cloth to cool. If they are well seasoned, they will keep twelve or fifteen days; provided you keep them in a good place, not moist, nor of any bad smell. You must still turn them and remove them from one place to another.


My Lord of Bristol's Scotch Collops are thus made: Take a leg of fine Sweet-Mutton, that, to make it tender, is kept as long as possible may be without stinking. In Winter seven or eight days. Cut it into slices with a sharp Knife as thin as possibly you can. Then beat it with the back of a heavy Knife, as long as you can, not breaking it in pieces. Then sprinkle them with Salt, and lay them upon the Gridiron over a small Charcoal-fire, to broil, till you perceive that side is enough, and before any moisture run out of them upon the fire. Then lay the Collops into a warm dish close covered, till the Gravy be run out of them. Then lay their other side upon the Gridiron, and make an end of broiling them, and put them again into the dish, where the former Gravy run out. Add to this more Gravy of Mutton, heightened with Garlike or Onions, or Eschalots; and let them stew a while together, then serve them in very hot.

They are also very good of a Rump of tender Beef.


At Franckfort, when they rost Wild-boar (or Robuck or other Venison) they lay it to soak, six or eight or ten days (according to the thickness and firmness of the piece and Penetrability of it) in good Vinegar, wherein is Salt and Juniper-berries bruised (if you will, you may add bruised Garlick or what other Haut-goust you like) the Vinegar coming up half way the flesh, and turn it twice a day. Then if you will, you may Lard it.

When it is rosted, it will be very mellow and tender. They do the like with a leg or other part of Fresh-pork.


I made good Pyes there with two Hares, a good Goose and (as much as the Goose is) the lean of fresh good Pork, all well hashed and seasoned; then larded with great Lardons well seasoned (first sprinkled with Vinegar and Wine) and covered with Bay-leaves, and sheets of Lard; then laid inpast, and baked.

I made also good Pyes of Red-Deer, larding well the lean, then laying under it a thick Plastron (or Cake of a Finger thick) of Beef-suet, first chapped small, and seasoned well with Pepper and Salt, then beaten into a Cake fit for the meat. And another such Cake upon the Deers-flesh, and so well baked in strong crust, and soaked two or three hours in the oven after it was baked enough, which required six good hours. If you use no Suet, put in Butter enough; as also, put in enough to fill the paste, after it is baked and half cold, by a hole made in the top, when it is near half baked.


My Lady of Newport bakes her Venison in a dish thus; A side or a hanch serves for two dishes. Season it as for a Pasty. Line the dish with a thin crust, of good pure Past, but make it pretty thick upwards towards the brim, that it may be there Pudding crust. Lay then the Venison in a round piece upon the Paste in the dish, that must not fill it up to touch the Pudding, but lie at ease; put over it a cover, and let it over-reach upon the brim with some carved Pasty work to grace it, which must go up with a border like a lace growing a little way upwards upon the Cover, which is a little arched up, and hath a little hole in the top to pour in unto the meat the strong well seasoned broth that is made of the broken bones, and remaining lean flesh of the Venison. Put a little pure Butter or Beef-suet to the Venison, before you put the cover on, unless it be exceeding fat. This must bake five or six hours or more as an ordinary Pasty. An hour, or an hour and half before you take it out to serve it up, open the Oven, and draw out the dish far enough to pour in at the little hole of the cover the strong decoction (in stead of decoction in water, you may boil it by it self in Balneo in duplici vase; or bake it in a pot with broth and Gravy of Mutton) of the broken bones and flesh. Then set it in again, to make an end of his baking and soaking. The meat within (even the lean) will be exceeding tender and like a gelly; so that you may cut all of it with a spoon. If you bake a side at once in two dishes, the one will be very good to keep cold; and when it is so, you may, if you please, bake it again, to have it hot; not so long as at first, but enough to have it all perfectly heated through. She bakes thus in Pewter-dishes of a large cise.

Mutton or Veal may be thus baked with their due seasoning; as with Onions, or Onions and Apples, or Larding, or a Cawdle, &c. Sweetbreads, Beatilles, Champignons, Treuffles, &c.


Cut a Rack of Mutton into tender Steaks, Rib by Rib, and beat the flesh well with the back of a Knife. Then have a composition ready, made of Crumbs of stale Manchet grated small, and a little Salt (a fit proportion to Salt the meat) and a less quantity of White-pepper. Cover over on both sides all the flesh with this, pretty thick, pressing it on with your fingers and flat Knife, to make it lie on. Then lay the Steaks upon a Gridiron over a very quick fire (for herein consisteth the well doing) and when the fire hath pierced in a little on the one side, turn the other, before any juyce drop down through the Powder. This turning the steaks will make the juyce run back the other way; and before it run through, and drop through this side, you must turn again the other side; doing so till the Steaks be broiled enough. Thus you keep all the juyce in them, so that when you go to eat them (which must be presently, as they are taken from the fire) abundance of juyce runneth out as soon as your Knife entereth into the flesh. The same Person, that doth this, rosteth a Capon so as to keep all its juyce in it. The mystery of it is in turning it so quick, that nothing can drop down. This maketh it the longer in rosting. But when you cut it up, the juyce runneth out, as out of a juycie leg of Mutton; and it is excellent meat.


Take two legs of fleshy juycie tender young Mutton, cut them into as thin slices as may be. Beat them with the back of a thick Knife, with smart, but gentle blows, for a long time, on both sides. And the stroaks crossing one another every way, so that the Collops be so short, that they scarce hang together. This quantity is near two hours beating. Then lay them in a clean frying-pan, and hold them over a smart fire: And it is best to have a fit cover for the Pan, with a handle at the top of it, to take it off when you will. Let them fry so covered, till the side next the Pan be done enough; then turn the other side, and let that fry, till it be enough. Then Pour them with all the Gravy (which will be much) into a hot dish, which cover with another hot one, and so serve it in to eat presently. You must season the Collops with Salt sprinkled upon them, either at the latter end of beating them, or whiles they fry. And if you love the taste of Onions, you may rub the Pan well over with one, before you lay in the Steaks or Collops; or when they are in the dish, you may beat some Onion-water amongst the Gravy. You may also put a little fresh-butter into the pan to melt, and line it all over before you put in the Collops, that you may be sure, they burn not to the pan. You must put no more Collops into one pan, at once, then meerly to cover it with one Lare; that the Collops may not lye one upon another.


Take three pints of Cream, and boil it with a Nutmeg quartered, three or four leaves of large Mace, and a stick of Cinnamon. Then take half a pound of Almonds, beat them and strain them with the Cream. Then take a few fine Herbs, beat them and strain them to the Cream, which came from the Almonds. Then take two or three spoonfuls (or more) of Chickens blood; and two or three spoonfuls of grated-bread, and the Marrow of six or seven bones, with Sugar and Salt, and a little Rose-water. Mix all together, and fill your Puddings. You may put in eight or ten Eggs, with the whites of two well-beaten. Put in some Musk or Ambergreece.


Take a good quantity of the pith of Oxen, and let it lie all night in water to soak out the blood. The next morning, strip it out of the skin, and so beat it with the back of a spoon, till it be as fine as Pap: You must beat a little Rose-water with it. Then take three pints of good thick Cream, and boil it with a Nutmeg quartered, three or four leaves of large Mace; and a stick of Cinnamon. Then take half a pound of the best Jordan Almonds. Blanch them in cold water all night; then beat them in a Mortar with some of your Cream; and as they grow dry, still put in more Cream; and when they be well beaten, strain the Cream from the Almonds into the Pith. Then beat them still, until the Cream be done, and strain it still to the pith. Then take the yolks of ten Eggs, with the Whites of two; beat them well, and put them to your former Ingredients. Then take a spoonful of grated-bread. Mingle all these together, with half a pound of fine-sugar, the Marrow of six or seven bones, and some Salt, and so fill your Puddings.

They will be much the better, if you put in some Ambergreece.


My Lord d'Aubigny eats Red-herrings thus broiled. After they are opened and prepared for the Gridiron, soak them (both sides) in Oyl and Vinegar beaten together in pretty quantity in a little Dish. Then broil them, till they are hot through, but not dry. Then soak them again in the same Liquor as before, and broil them a second time. You may soak and broil them again a third time; but twice may serve. They will be then very short and crisp and savoury. Lay them upon your Sallet, and you may also put upon it, the Oyl and Vinegar, you soaked the Herrings in.


Take a Pint of Milk; and put to it a Pint of large or midling Oat-meal; let it stand upon the fire, until it be scalding hot: Then let it stand by and soak about half an hour: Then pick a few sweet Herbs and shred them, and put in half a pound of Currants, and half a pound of Suet, and about two spoonfuls of Sugar, and three or four Eggs. These put into a bag, and boiled, do make a very good Pudding.


Take a cold Capon, or half-rosted, which is much better; then take Suet, shred very small the meat and Suet together; then half as much grated bread, two spoonfuls of Flower, Nutmegs, Clove and Mace; Sugar as much as you please; half a Pound of Currants; the yolks of two Eggs, and the white of one; and as much Cream, as will make it up in a stiff Paste. Then make it up in fashion of a pear, a stick of Cinnamon for the stalk, and the head a Clove.


Take three Marrow-bones, slice them; water the Marrow over night, to take away the blood. Then take the smallest of the Marrow, and put it into the Puddings, with a Peny-loaf grated, a spoonful of Flower, and Spice as before; a quarter of a pound of Currants; Sugar as much as you please, four Eggs, two of the whites taken away. Cream as much as will make it as stiff as other Puddings. Stuff the Call of Veal cut into the bigness of little Hogs-puddings; you must sow them all to one end; and so fill them; then sow up the other end, and when they are boiled, take hold of the thred, and they will all come out. You must boil them in half white Wine and half Water; with one large Mace, a few Currants, a spoonful of the Pudding stuff, the Marrow in whole lumps; all this first boiled up, then put in your Puddings, and when half boiled, put in your Marrow. One hour will boil them. Serve them up with Sippets, and no more Liquor, then will serve them up; you must put Salt in all the Puddings.


Take two Ounces of Barley pick'd and washed; boil it in Milk, till it is tender; then let your Milk run from it; Then take half a Pint of Cream, and six spoonfuls of the boiled Barley; eight spoonfuls of grated bread, four Eggs, two whites taken away. Spice as you please, and Sugar and Salt as you think fit, one Marrow-bone, put in the lumps as whole as you can; Then make Puff-paste, and rowl a thin sheet of it, and lay it in a dish. Then take a piece of Green-citron sliced thin, lay it all over the dish. Then take Cream, grated bread, your Spice, Sugar, Eggs and Salt; beat all these very well together half a quarter of an hour, pour it on your dish where Citron is, then cover it over with puff-paste, and let it bake in a quick oven three quarters of an hour. Scrape Sugar on it, and serve it up.


Take Pippins and pare, and cut off the tops of them pretty deep. Then take out as much of your Apple as you can take without breaking your Apple, then fill your Apple with pudding-stuff, made with Cream, a little Sack, Marrow, Grated bread, Eggs, Sugar, Spice and Salt; Make it pretty stiff. Put it into the Pippins; lay the tops of the Pippins upon the Pippins again, stick it through with a stick of Cinnamon. Set as many upright in your dish as you can: and so fill it up with Cream, and sweeten it with Sugar and Mace; and stew them between two dishes.


Take middle Oat-meal, pick it very clean, steep it all night in Cream, half a Pint of Oat-meal, to a quart of Cream, make your Cream scalding hot, before you put in your Oat-meal, so cover it close. Take a good handful of Penny-royal, shred it very small, with a pound of Beef-suet. Put it to your Cream with half a pound of Raisins of the Sun, Sugar, Spice, four or five Eggs, two whites away. So bake it three quarters of an hour; and then serve it up.


Take about three Pints of new morning Milk, and six or seven new laid Eggs, putting away half the whites, and two spoonfuls of fine-flower, about a quarter of a Nutmeg grated, and about a quarter of a pound of Sugar (more or less, according to your taste,) After all these are perfectly mingled and incorporated together, put the matter into a fit bag, and so put it into boiling water, and boil it up with a quick fire. If you boil it too long, the Milk will turn to whay in the body or substance of the Pudding, and there will be a slimy gelly all about the outside. But in about half an hour, it will be tenderly firm, and of an uniform consistence all over. You need not put in any Butter or Marrow or Suet, or other Spice, but the small proportion of Nutmeg set down, not grated bread. For the Sauce, you pour upon it thickened melted Butter, beaten with a little Sack, or Orange-flower water, and Sugar; or compounded in what manner you please, as in other such like Puddings.


Set a quart of good morning Milk upon the fire, having seasoned it with Salt, and sliced or grated Nutmeg. When it beginneth to boil, take it from the fire, and put into it four peny Manchets of light French-bread sliced very thin (If it were Kingstone-bread, which is firmer, it must be grated) and a lump of Sweet-butter as big as a Wall-nut, and enough Sugar to season it; and cover the possnet with a plate to keep the heat in, that the bread may soak perfectly. Whiles this standeth thus, take ten yolks of New-laid-eggs, with one White, and beat them very well with a spoonful or two of Milk; and when the Milk is cooled enough, pour it (with the bread in it,) into the bason, where the beaten Eggs are, (which likewise should first be sweetned with Sugar to their proportion,) and put about three spoonfuls of fine flower into the composition, and knead them well together. If you will, you may put in a spoonful of Sack or Muscadine, and Ambared Sugar, working all well together; as also, some lumps of Marrow or Suet shred very small: but it will be very good without either of these. Then put this mixtion into a deep Woodden dish (like a great Butter-box) which must first be on the inside a little greased with Butter, and a little Flower sprinkled thereon, to save the Pudding from sticking to the sides of the dish. Then put a linnen cloth or handkercher over the mouth of the dish, and reverse the mouth downwards, so that you may tye the Napkin close with two knots by the corners cross, or with a strong thred, upon the bottom of the dish, then turned upwards; all which is, that the matter may not get out, and yet the boiling water get through the linnen upon it on one side enough to bake the pudding sufficiently. Put the Woodden-dish thus filled and tyed up into a great Possnet or little Kettle of boiling water. The faster it boils, the better it will be. The dish will turn and rowl up and down in the water, as it gallopeth in boiling. An hours boiling is sufficient. Then unty your linnen, and take it off, and reverse the mouth of the dish downwards into the Silver-dish you will serve it up in; wherein is sufficient melted Butter thickened with beating, and sweetened to your taste with Sugar, to serve for Sauce. You may beat a little Sack or Muscadine, or Rose, or Orange-flower-water with the Sauce; a little of any of which may also go into the Composition of the Pudding. If you put in more Flower, or more then one white of Egg to this proportion, it will binde the Pudding too close and stiff.

In plain Bag-puddings it makes them much more savoury, to put into them a little Penny-royal shreded very small, as also other sweet-Herbs. You must put in so little, as not to taste strong of them, but onely to quicken the other flat Ingredients.


Take a Pint and half of good Sweet-cream; set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, take a peny Manchet, not too new, cut off the crust, and slice it very thin, put it into a clean earthen pan, and pour the Cream upon it, and cover it very close an hour or thereabouts, to steep the bread; when it is steeped enough, take four New laid-eggs, yolks and whites, beat them with a spoonful of Rose-water, and two of Sack; grate into it half a Nutmeg, and put into it a quarter of a pound of good white-Sugar finely beaten, stir all this together with the Cream and Bread; then shred very small half a pound of good Beef-kidney-suet, and put this to the rest, and mingle them very well together with a slice or spoon; then size your dish, that you intend to bake it in, and rub the bottom of it with a little sweet-Butter; then put your pudding into it, and take the Marrow of two good bones, and stick it in lumps here and there all over your Pudding; so put it into the oven three quarters of an hour, in which time it will be well baked. Strew on it some fine Sugar, and serve it.


Take a pottle of half-cut Groats; pick them clean, that there may be no husks nor foulness in them; then put them into a Mortar, bruise them a little with a Pestle; then have ready either Milk, or fresh meat-broth boiled up, and the Oat-meal immediately put into it; It must be just so much as will cover it; then cover the thing close that it is in, and let it steep twenty four hours; To this two quarts of Oatmeal, put a pint and half of blood, season it well with Salt, and a little Pepper, and a little beaten Cloves and Mace, eight Eggs, yolks and whites, five pound of Kidney-beef-suet shred, but not too small; then put in of these herbs; Peny-royal, Fennel, Leek-blades, Parsley, Sage, Straw-berry-leaves and Violet leaves, equal parts, in all to the quantity of a good handful; let them be pick'd and washed very clean, and chop'd very small, and mingled well with the former things; Then fill your Puddings.

Make ready your guts in this manner. Cleanse them very well, when they are fresh taken out of the Hog; and after they are well washed and scowred, lay them to soak in fair water three days and three nights, shifting the water twice every day: and every time you shift the water, scour them first with Water and Salt. An hour and a quarter is enough to boil them.


Take good sound clear Pippins, pare, quarter and coar them; then put them into a skillet of Conduit-water, such a proportion as you intend to make; boil it very well: then let the liquor run from the pulp through a sieve, without forcing, and let it stand till the next morning. Take Orange or Limon peel, and boil in a skillet of water, till they are tender; then rowl them up in a linnen cloth to dry the water well out of them; let them lie so all night. Then take of double refined and finely beaten and searced Sugar a pound to every pint of Pippin Liquor that ran through the sieve, and to every pound of Sugar, and pint of liquor, put ten Ounces of Pippins in quarters or in slices, but cut them not too thin; boil them a little while very fast in the Pippin-liquor, before you put in the Sugar, then strew in the Sugar all over them as it boileth, till it is all in, keeping it still fast boiling, until they look very clear; by that you may know they are enough. While they boil, you must still be scumming them; then put in your juyce of Limon to your last, and Amber, if you please; and after let it boil half a dozen walms, but no more. Then take it from the fire, and have ready some very thin Brown-paper, and clap a single sheet close upon it, and if any scum remain, it will stick to the Paper. Then put your quarters or slices into your Glasses, and strew upon them very small slices of Limon or Orange (which you please) which you had before boiled; then fill up your Glasses with your jelly.

For making your Pippin-liquor, you may take about some fourty Pippins to two quarts of water, or so much as to make your Pippin-liquor strong of the Pippins, and the juyce of about four Limons.


Cut a leg or two of Mutton into thin slices, which beat very well. Put them to fry over a very quick fire in a pan first glased over, with no more Butter melted in it, then just to besmear a little all the bottom of the Pan. Turn them in due time. There must never be but one row in the pan, nor any slice lying upon another; but every one immediate to the pan. When they are fryed enough, lay them in a hot dish covered, over a Chafing-dish, and pour upon them the Gravy that run out of them into the Pan. Then lay another row of slices in the Pan to fry as before; and when they are enough, put them into the dish to the other. When you have enough, by such repetitions, or by doing them in two or three pans, all at a time; take a Porrenger full of Gravy of Mutton, and put into it a piece of Butter as much a Wall-nut, and a quartered Onion if you will (or rub the dish afterwards with Garlike) and Pepper and Salt, and let this boil to be very hot; then throw away the Onion, and pour this into the dish upon the slices, and let them stew a little together; then squeese an Orange upon it, and serve it up.


Cut a leg of Veal into thin slices, and beat them; or the like with Chicken, which must be flead off their skin. Put about half a pint of water or flesh-broth to them in a frying-pan, and some Thyme, and Sweet-marjoram, and an Onion or two quartered, and boil them till they be tender, having seasoned them with Salt, and about twenty Corns of whole white Pepper, and four or five Cloves. When they are enough, take half a pint of White wine, four yolks of Eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter (or more) a good spoonful of Thyme, Sweet-Marjoram and Parsley (more Parsley then of the others) all minced small; a Porrenger full of gravy. When all these are well incorporated together over the fire, and well beaten, pour it into the pan to the rest, and turn it continually up and down over the fire, till all be well incorporated. Then throw away the Onion and first sprigs of Herbs, squeese Orange to it, and so serve it up hot.

If instead of a Fricacee, you will make un estuvee de veau, stew or boil simpringly your slices of Veal in White-wine and water, ana, with a good lump of Butter, seasoning it with Pepper and Salt and Onions. When it is enough, put to it store of yolks of Eggs beaten with Verjuyce, or White-wine and Vinegar, and some Nutmeg (and gravy if you will) and some Herbs as in the Fricacee; and stir all very well over the fire till the sauce be well lie together.


Take three pints of Cream, fourteen New-laid-eggs (seven whites put away) one pint of juyce of Spinage, six or seven spoonfuls of juyce of Tansy, a Nutmeg (or two) sliced small, half a pound of Sugar, and a little Salt. Beat all these well together, then fryit in a pan with no more Butter then is necessary. When it is enough, serve it up with juyce of Orange or slices of Limon upon it.


Take what quantity you will of the best Oysters to eat raw. Open them, putting all their water with the fish into a bason. Take out the Oysters one by one (that you may have them washed clean in their own water) and lay them in the dish you intend to stew them in. Then let their water run upon them through a fine linnen, that all their foulness may remain behind. Then put a good great lump of Butter to them, which may be (when melted) half as much, as their water. Season them with Salt, Nutmeg, and a very few Cloves. Let this boil smartly, covered. When it is half boiled, put in some crusts of light French-bread, and boil on, till all be enough, and then serve them up.

You may put in three or four grains of Ambergreece, when you put in the Nutmeg, that in the boiling it may melt. You may also put in a little White-wine or Verjuyce at the last, or some juyce of Orange.


At Glocester they use Lamprey's thus. Heat water in a Pot or Kettle with a narrow mouth, till it be near ready to boil; so that you may endure to dip your hand into it, but not to let it stay in. Put your Lamprey's, as they come out of the River, into this scalding-water, and cover the pot, that little while they remain in, which must be but a moment, about an Ave Maria while. Then with a Woodden ladle take them out, and lay them upon a table, and hold their head in a Napkin (else it will slip away, if held in the bare hand) and with the back of a knife scrape off the mud, which will have risen out all along the fish. A great deal and very thick will come off: and then the skin will look clean and shining and blew, which must never be flead off. Then open their bellies all along, and with a Pen-knife loosen the string which begins under the gall (having first cast away the gall and entrails) then pull it out, and in the pulling away, it will stretch much in length; then pick out a black substance, that is all along under the string, cutting towards the back as much as is needful for this end. Then rowl them up and down in a soft and dry napkin, changing this as soon as it is wet for another, using so many Napkins as may make the fishes perfectly dry; for in that consisteth a chief part of their preparation. Then powder them well with Pepper and Salt, rubbing them in well, and lay them round in a Pot or strong crust upon a good Lare of Butter, and store of Onions every where about them, and chiefly a good company in the middle. Then put more Butter upon them, covering the pot with a fit cover, and so set them into a quick oven, that is strongly heated; where they will require three or four hours (at least) baking. When they are taken out of the oven and begin to cool, pour store of melted Butter upon them, to fill up the pot at least three fingers breadth above the fish, and then let it cool and harden; And thus it will keep a year, if need be, so the Butter be not opened, nor craked, that the air get into the fish.

To eat them presently, They dress them thus: When they are prepared, as abovesaid, (ready for baking) boil them with store of Salt and gross Pepper, and many Onions, in no more water, then is necessary to cover them, as when you boil a Carp or Pike au Court bouillon. In half or three quarters of an hour, they will be boiled tender. Then take them and drain them from the water, and serve them with thickened Butter, and some of the Onions minced into it, and a little Pepper, laying the fish upon some sippets of spungy bread, that may soak up the water, if any come from the fish; and pour butter upon the fish; so serve it up hot.


Beat the fish very well with a large Woodden-Mallet, so as not to break it, but to loosen all the flakes within. It is the best way to have them beaten with hard heavy Ropes. And though thus beaten, they will keep a long time, if you put them into Pease straw, so thrust in as to keep them from all air, and that they touch not one another, but have straw enough between every fish. When you will make the best dish of them, take only the tails, and tye up half a dozen or eight of them with White-thred. First, they must be laid to soak over night in cold water. About an hour and half, (or a little more) before they are to be eaten, put them to boil in a pot or Pipkin, that you may cover with a cover of Tin or Letton so close, that no steam can get out; and lay a stone or other weight upon it, to keep the cover from being driven off by the steam of the water. Put in no more water, then well to cover them. They must never boil strongly, but very leasurely and but simpringly. It will be near half an hour before the water begin to boil so: And from their beginning to do so, they must boil a good hour. You must never put in any new water, though hot, for that will make the fish hard. After the hour, take out the fishes and untie them, and lay them loose in a colander with holes to drain out the water, and toss them in it up and down very well, as you use to do Butter and Pease; and that will loosen and break asunder all the flakes, which will make them the more susceptible of the Butter, when you stew them in it, and make it pierce the better into the flakes, and make them tender. Then lay them by thin rows in the dish, they are to be served up in: casting upon every row a little salt, and some green Parsley minced very small. They who love young-green Onions or sives, or other savory Herbs, or Pepper, may use them also in the same manner, when they are in season. When all is in, fill up with sweet Butter well melted and thickened; and so let it stew there a while, to soak well into the fish; which will lie in fine loose tender flakes, well buttered and seasoned. You may eat it with Mustard besides.


Boil Whitings as if you would eat them in the Ordinary way with thick Butter-sauce. Pick them clean from skin and bones, and mingle them well with butter, and break them very small, and season them pretty high with Salt. In the mean time Butter some Eggs in the best manner, and mingle them with the buttered Whitings, and mash them well together. The Eggs must not be so many by a good deal as the Fish. It is a most savoury dish.


The way of dressing Poor-John, to make it very tender and good meat, is this. Put it into the Kettle in cold water, and so hang it over the fire; and so let it soak and stew without boiling for 3 hours: but the water must be very hot. Then make it boil two or three walms. By this time it will be very tender and swelled up. Then take out the back-bone, and put it to fry with Onions. If you put it first into hot water (as ling and such salt fish,) or being boiled, if you let it cool, and heat it again it will be tough and hard.

Buckorne is to be watered a good hour before you put it to the fire. Then boil it till it be tender, which it will be quickly. Then Butter it as you do Ling; and if you will, put Eggs to it.


First beat it exceedingly well, a long time, but with moderate blows, that you do not break it in pieces, but that you shake and loosen all the inward Fibers. Then put it into water (which may be a little warmed) to soak, and infuse so during twelve or fourteen hours (or more, if it be not yet pierced into the heart by the water, and grown tender.) Then put it to boil very gently, (and with no more water, then well to cover it, which you must supply with new hot water as it consumeth) for six or seven hours at least, that it may be very tender and loose and swelled up. Then press and drain out all the water from it; and heat it again in a dish, with store of melted Butter thickened; and if you like it, you may season it also with Pepper and Mustard. But it will be yet better, if after it is well and tender boiled in water, and that you have pressed all the water you can out of it, you boil it again an hour longer in Milk; out of which when you take it, to put it into the dish with butter, you do not industriously press out all the Milk, as you did the water, but only drain it out gently, pressing it moderately. In the stewing it with butter, season it to your taste, with what you think fitting.


Beat it exceeding well with a large woodden Mallet, till you may easily pluck it all in pieces, severing every flake from other, and every one of them in it so being loose, spungy and limber, as the whole fish must be, and plyant like a glove, which will be in less then an hour. Pull then the bones out, and throw them away, and pluck off the skin (as whole as you can; but it will have many breaches and holes in it, by the beating) then gather all the fish together, and lap it in the skin as well as you can, into a round lump, like a bag-pudding, and tye it about with cords or strings (like a little Collar of Brawn, or souced fish) and so put it into lukewarm water (overnight) to soak, covering the vessel close; but you need not keep it near any heat whiles it lyeth soaking. Next morning take it out that water and vessel, and put it into another, with a moderate quantity of other water, to boil; which it must do very leisurely, and but simpringly. The main care must be, that the vessel it boileth in, be covered so exceeding close, that not the least breath of steam get out, else it will not be tender, but tough and hard. It will be boiled enough, and become very tender in about a good half hour. Then take it out, unty it, and throw away the skin, and lay the flaky fish in a Cullender, to drain away the water from it. You must presently throw a little Salt upon it, and all about in it, to season it. For then it will imbibe it into it self presently; whereas if you Salt it not, till it grow cold in the air, it will not take it in. Mean while prepare your sauce of melted well thickened butter (which you may heighten with shreded Onions or Syves, or what well tasted herbs you please) and if you will, you may first strew upon the fish some very small shreded young Onions, or Sibbouls, or Syves, or Parsley. Then upon that pour the melted butter to cover the fish all over, and soak into it. Serve it in warm and covered.


Scrape well three or four good large roots, cleansing well their outside, and cutting off as much of the little end as is Fibrous, and of the great end as is hard. Put them into a possnet or pot, with about a quart of Milk upon them, or as much as will cover them in boiling, which do moderately, till you find they are very tender. This may be in an hour and half, sooner or later, as the roots are of a good kind. Then take them out, and scrape all the outside into a pulpe, like the pulpe of roasted apples, which put in a dish upon a chafing dish of Coals, with a little of the Milk, you boiled them in, put to them; not so much as to drown them, but only to imbibe them: and then with stewing, the pulpe will imbibe all that Milk. When you see it is drunk in, put to the pulpe a little more of the same Milk, and stew that, till it be drunk in. Continue doing thus till it hath drunk in a good quantity of the Milk, and is well swelled with it, and will take in no more, which may be in a good half hour. Eat them so, without Sugar or Butter; for they will have a natural sweetness, that is beyond sugar, and will be Unctuous, so as not to need Butter.

Parsneps (raw) cut into little pieces, is the best food for tame Rabets, and makes them sweet. As Rice (raw) is for tame Pigeons, and they like it best, varying it sometimes with right tares, and other seeds.


A very good Cream to eat hot, is thus made. Into a quart of sweet Cream, put a spoonful of very fine powder of Rice, and boil them together sufficiently, adding Cinnamon, or Mace and Nutmeg to your liking. When it is boiled enough take it from the fire, and beat a couple of yolks of new-laid Eggs, to colour it yellow. Sweeten it to your taste. Put bread to it, in it's due time.


Doctor Pridion ordered my Lord Cornwallis, for his chief diet in his looseness, the following grewel, which he found very tastefull.

Take about two parts of Oat-meal well beaten in a Mortar, and one part of Rice in subtile powder. Boil these well in water, as you make water-grewel, adding a good proportion of Cinnamon to boil also in due time, then strain it through a cloth, and sweeten it to your taste.

The yolk of an Egg beaten with a little Sherry-sack, and put to it, is not bad in a looseness. At other times you may add Butter. It is very tasteful and nourishing.


Take two or three spoonfuls of the Liquor the Carp was boiled in, and put it into a pipkin; There must be no more, then even to cover the bottom of the pipkin. Make this boil by itself; as soon as it doth so, put to this half a pound of sweet butter, let it melt gently, or suddenly, it imports not, so as the liquor boiled, when you did put the butter in; when the butter is melted, then take it from the fire, and holding the handle in your hand, shake it round a good while and strongly, and it will come to be thick, that you may almost cut it with a Knife. Then squeese juyce of Limon into it, or of sharp Orange, or Verjuyce or Vinegar; and heat it again as much as you please upon the fire. It will ever after continue thick, and never again, upon any heating, grow oily, though it be cold and heated again twenty times. Butter done with fair water, as is said above, with the other Liquor, will be thick in the same manner, (for the liquors make no difference in that:)

Put of this butter to boiled Pease in their dish, which cover with another; so shake them very strongly, and a good while together. This is by much the best way to butter pease, and not to let the butter melt in the middle of them, and then stir them long with a spoon. This will grow Oily (though it be good at the first doing) if you heat them again: The other, never; and therefore, is the best way upon all occasions to make such thickened melted Butter. You may make sauce for a Pike in the same manner you did for a Carpe; putting Horse-radish to it if you please.


Put great store of sliced Onions, with Currants and Raisins of the Sun both above and under the Herrings, and store of Butter, and so bake them.


Take a reasonable quantity (as about half a Porrenger full) of the Syrup, that hath served in the making of dryed plums; and into a large Syllabub-pot milk or squirt, or let fall from high a sufficient quantity of Milk or Cream. This Syrup is very quick of the fruit, and very weak of Sugar; and therefore makes the Syllabub exceeding well tasted. You may also use the Syrup used in the like manner in the drying of Cherries.


The best Liquor to fry Fish in, is to take Butter and Salet Oyl, first well clarified together. This hath not the unsavoury taste of Oyl alone, nor the blackness of Butter alone. It fryeth Fish crisp, yellow, and well tasted.


When you will Butter Shrimps, first wash them well in warm Milk and Water equally mingled together, and let them soak a little in it; then wash them again in fresh Milk and Water warmed, letting them also soak therein a while. Do this twice or thrice with fresh Milk and Water. This will take away all the rankness and slimyness of them. Then Butter them, or prepare them for the table, as you think fit.


My Lady Lusson makes thus her plain tosts of kidney of Veal: Cut the kidney with all the fat about it, and a good piece of the lean flesh besides. Hash all this as small as you can. Put to it a quarter of a pound of picked and washed Currants, and as much Sugar, one Nutmeg grated, four yolks and two whites of new-laid Eggs raw; work all these very well together, seasoning it with Salt. Spread it thick upon slices of light white-bread cut like tosts. Then fry them in Butter, such quantity as may boil over the tops of the tosts.


The best way of making Mustard is this: Take of the best Mustard-seed (which is black) for example a quart. Dry it gently in an oven, and beat it to subtle powder, and searse it. Then mingle well strong Wine-vinegar with it, so much that it be pretty liquid, for it will dry with keeping. Put to this a little Pepper beaten small (white is the best) at discretion, as about a good pugil, and put a good spoonful of Sugar to it (which is not to make it taste sweet, but rather quick, and to help the fermentation) lay a good Onion in the bottom, quartered if you will, and a Race of Ginger scraped and bruised; and stir it often with a Horse-radish root cleansed, which let always lie in the pot, till it have lost it's vertue, then take a new one. This will keep long, and grow better for a while. It is not good till after a month, that it have fermented a while.

Some think it will be the quicker, if the seed be ground with fair water, in stead of vinegar, putting store of Onions in it.

My Lady Holmeby makes her quick fine Mustard thus: Choose true Mustard-seed; dry it in an oven, after the bread is out. Beat and searse it to a most subtle powder. Mingle Sherry-sack with it (stirring it a long time very well, so much as to have it of a fit consistence for Mustard. Then put a good quantity of fine Sugar to it, as five or six spoonfuls, or more, to a pint of Mustard. Stir and incorporate all well together. This will keep good a long time. Some do like to put to it a little (but a little) of very sharp Wine-vinegar.


Boil three pints of sweet Cream with a very little Salt and some sliced Nutmeg. As soon as it begins to boil, take it from the fire. In the mean time beat the yolks of twelve or fifteen new-laid Eggs very well with some Rose or Orange-flower-water, and sweeten the Cream to your taste with Sugar. Then beat three or four spoonfuls of Cream with them, and quickly as many more; so proceeding, till you have incorporated all the Cream and all the Eggs. Then pour the Eggs and Cream into a deep dish laid over with sippets of fine light bread, which will rise up to the top for the most part. When it is cooled and thickened enough to bear Raisins of the Sun, strew all over the top with them (well-washed.) Then press a little way into it with great lumps of raw Marrow. Two bones will suffice. Cover your dish with another, and set it upon a great pot of boiling water, with a good space between the water and the dish, that there be room for the hot steam to rise and strike upon the dish. Keep good fire always under your pot. In less then an hour (usually) it is baked enough. You will perceive that, if the Marrow look brown, and be enough baked. If it should continue longer on the heat, it would melt. You may bake it in an oven if you will; but it is hard to regulate it so, that it be not too much or too little: whereas the boiling water is certain. You may strew Ambred Sugar upon it, either before you set it to bake, or after it is done.


To rost fine meat (as Partridge, Pheasant, Chicken, Pigeon) that it be full of juyce; baste it as soon as it is through hot, and time to baste, with Butter. When it is very moist all over, sprinkle flower upon it every where, that by turning about the fire, it may become a thin crust. Then baste it no more till the latter end. This crust will keep in all the juyce. A little before you take it up, baste it again with Butter, and this will melt away all the crust. Then give it three or four turns of the spit, that it may make the outside yellow and crisp.

You may also baste such meat with yolks of new-laid Eggs, beaten into a thin oyl. But with this you continue basting all the while the meat rosteth.


Take a rump of Beef, break all the bones; season it with Pepper and Salt to your liking; Take three or four Nutmegs, and a quantity of Mace, beat them grossly; Then take a bunch of very good sweet herbs, and one good Onion cut in quarters, or Garlike, as you like it. Put in half a pint of White-wine Vinegar, and one pint of good Claret, one handful of Sugar; and a piece or two of beef Suet or Butter: shred some Cabbage under and over, and scrape in a pound of good old Cheese. Put all these into an earthen pot, and let it stand in an oven with brown-bread four or five hours; but let the pot be covered close with paste.


Take a fat rump of young Beef, as it comes from the Butcher, and take out all the bones, excepting the tip of it towards the tail that is all fat, which you cannot take out, without spoiling or defacing or breaking it. But take out all the thick bones towards the Chine, and the thick Sinews, that are on the outer sides of the flesh; (which will never become tender with boiling) so that you have nothing but the pure flesh and fat, without any bony or tough substance. Then beat well the lean part with a woodden roling pin, and when you have beaten well one side, turn the other. Then rub it well with Pepper grosly beaten, and salt; just as you would do, to season a Venison pasty, making the seasoning higher or gentler according to your taste. Then lay it in a fit vessel, with a flat bottom (pipkin or kettle as you have conveniency) that will but just contain it, but so that it may lye at ease. Or you may tye it up in a loose thin linnen cloth, or boulter, as they do Capons a la mode, or Brawn, or the like. Then put water upon it, but just to cover it, and boil it close covered a matter of two hours pretty smartly, so that it be well half boiled. Then take it out of that, and put it into another fit vessel, or the same cleansed, and put upon it about two quarts of good strong deep well bodied Claret-wine, and a good bundle of sweet-herbs, (Penny-royal, Sweet-Marjoram, Winter-savory, Limon Thyme, &c.) and a good large Onion peeled, and stuck as close with Cloves, as you can stick it, if you like the taste of Onions. They must be the strong biting Onions, that are round and red: a little Nutmeg, and some Mace. Put to the wine about a pint of the Liquor that you have already boiled the Beef in; and if you would have it strong of the seasoning of Pepper, and Salt; take the bottom of this Liquor. Thus let it boil very gently, simpringly, or rather stew with Char-coal over a little furnace, or a fit Chafing-dish, a matter of three hours, close covered. If the Liquor waste too much, you may recruit it with what you have kept of that, which your beef was boiled in. When it is near time to take it up, stew some Oysters in their own Liquor (to which you may add at the latter end, some of the winy Liquor, that the Beef is now stewing in, or some of the first Beef-broth, or use some good pickled Oysters) and at the same time make some thin tostes of Kingstone manchet, which toste very leisurely, or rather dry them throughly, and very hard, and Crisp, but not burned, by lying long before the fire. And if you have fresh Champignons, dress a good dish full of them, to be ready at the same time, when all the rest is ready; If not, use pickled ones, without further dressing. When you find your Beef is as tender as can be, and will scarcely hold together, to be taken up together, and that all the other things are ready, lay the tostes in the dish, where the Beef is to lye; pour some of the Liquor upon it. Then lay the Beef upon the tosts; throw away the bundle of Herbs and Onions; and pour the rest of the Liquor upon the Beef, as also the Oysters, and the Mushrooms, to which add a pretty deal, about half a pint of Broom-buds: and so let it stand a while well covered over coals to Mittoner; and to have all the several substances communicate their tastes to one another, and to have the tostes swell up like a gelly. Then serve it up. If you want Liquor, you may still recruit your self out of the first Beef-broth, which you keep all to supply any want afterwards. Have a care, whiles it is stewing, in the Winy-liquor, to lift the flesh sometimes up from the bottom of the vessel, least if it should lye always still, it may stick to the bottom, and burn; but you cannot take it out, for it would fall in pieces. It will be yet better meat, if you add to it, at the last (when you add all the other heightnings) some Marrow, and some Chess-nuts, and some Pistachios, if you will. Put to your Broom-buds (before you put them in to the rest) some elder Vinegar, enough to soak them, and even to cover them. If you find this make your composition of the whole too sharp, you may next time take less. When you put the Beef to stew with the wine (or a while after) you may put to it a pretty quantity (as much as you can take in both hands at once) of shreded Cabbage, if it be the season; or of Turneps, if you like either of these. Carrots make it somewhat flat. If the wine be not quick enough, you may put a little elder Vinegar to it. If you like Garlike, you may put in a little, or rub the dish with it.


Champignons are best, that grow upon gravelly dry rising Grounds. Gather them of the last nights growth; and to preserve them white, it is well to cast them into a pitcher of fair-water, as you gather them: But that is not absolutely necessary, if you will go about dressing them as soon as you come home. Cut the great ones into halves or quarters, seeing carefully there be no worms in them; and peel off their upper skin on the tops: the little ones, peel whole. As you peel them, throw them into a bason of fair-water, which preserves them white. Then put them into a pipkin or possnet of Copper (no Iron) and put a very little water to them, and a large proportion of Salt. If you have a pottle of Mushrooms, you may put to them ten or twelve spoonfuls of water, and two or three of Salt. Boil them with pretty quick-fire, and scum them well all the while, taking away a great deal of foulness, that will rise. They will shrink into a very little room. When they are sufficiently parboiled to be tender, and well cleansed of their scum, (which will be in about a quarter of an hour,) take them out, and put them into a Colander, that all the moisture may drain from them. In the mean time make your pickle thus: Take a quart of pure sharp white Wine Vinegar (elder-Vinegar is best) put two or three spoonfuls of whole Pepper to it, twenty or thirty Cloves, one Nutmeg quartered, two or three flakes of Mace, three Bay-leaves; (some like Limon-Thyme and Rose-mary; but then it must be a very little of each) boil all these together, till the Vinegar be well impregnated with the Ingredients, which will be in about half an hour. Then take it from the fire, and let it cool. When the pickle is quite cold, and the Mushrooms also quite cold, and drained from all moisture: put them into the Liquor (with all the Ingredients in it) which you must be sure, be enough to cover them. In ten or twelve days, they will have taken into them the full taste of the pickle, and will keep very good half a year. If you have much supernatant Liquor, you may parboil more Mushrooms next day, and put them to the first. If you have not gathered at once enough for a dressing, you may keep them all night in water to preserve them white, and gather more the next day, to joyn to them.


Pare them, put them into a Pipkin, with so much Red or Claret Wine and water, ana, as will near reach to the top of the Pears. Stew or boil gently, till they grow tender, which may be in two hours. After a while, put in some sticks of Cinnamon bruised and a few Cloves. When they are almost done, put in Sugar enough to season them well and their Syrup, which you pour out upon them in a deep Plate.


Pare them and cut them into slices. Stew them with Wine and Water as the Pears, and season them in like manner with Spice. Towards the end sweeten them with Sugar, breaking the Apples into Pap by stirring them. When you are ready to take them off, put in good store of fresh-butter, and incorporate it well with them, by stirring them together. You stew these between two dishes. The quickest Apples are the best.


The way that the Countess de Penalva makes the Portuguez Eggs for the Queen, is this. Take the yolks (clean picked from the whites and germ) of twelve new-laid Eggs. Beat them exceedingly with a little (scarce a spoonful) of Orange-flower-water. When they are exceeding liquid, clear, and uniformly a thin Liquor, put to them one pound of pure double refined Sugar (if it be not so pure, it must be clarified before) and stew them in your dish or bason over a very gentle fire, stirring them continually, whiles they are over it, so that the whole may become one uniform substance, of the consistence of an Electuary (beware they grow not too hard; for without much caution and attention, that will happen on a sudden) which then you may eat presently, or put into pots to keep. You may dissolve Ambergreece (if you will, ground first very much with Sugar) in Orange-flower or Rose-water, before hand, and put it (warm and dissolved) to the Eggs, when you set them to stew. If you clarifie your Sugar, do it with one of these waters, and whites of Eggs. The flavor of these sweet-waters goeth almost all away with boiling. Therefore half a spoonful put into the composition, when you take it from the fire, seasoneth it more then ten times as much, put in at the first.

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