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The Church and the Barbarians - Being an Outline of the History of the Church from A.D. 461 to A.D. 1003
by William Holden Hutton
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Naples, 143 Narses, general of Justinian, 32, 34, 61 Nationalism, a complicating factor in theological controversy, 9; nationalism of the Spanish Church, 73; nationalism and heresy, 110 Negus, title of the ruler of Abyssinia, 111 Nerses III., Armenian "Catholicos," 84-5 Nestorians, Nestorianism, 9, 23, 83; missions, 6, 96-8; in Armenia, 95; in Persia, 93-6, 98-9; Nestorianism and Muhammad, 101; Nestorian "Church of the East" 96 Neustria, Western Frankish kingdom, 43, 135-6, 146 Neutra (in modern Hungary), Christian Church at, 127 Nevers, S. Columban at, 56 Nicaea, First General Council (325), 89; Seventh General Council (787), 165 Nicene Creed, 193 Nicephorus I., emperor, 80 Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople, 160 Nicetius, bishop of Trier, 47, 86 Nicolas I., pope, 124, 191-6 Nimes, 75, 77, 146 Nisibis, Nestorian school of theology at, 95-6 Nobadae, a people of the Soudan, converted, 111 Nona, bishop of, 125 Normans, 150, 172, 196 Northmen, ravages of, 169; pillage Hamburg, 130; converted, 129-33. See Danes Northumbria, 116-17; schools of, 116, 167. See Deira Norway, conversion of, 121, 131-2 Nubia, missionaries in, 111

Odilo, abbat of Cluny, 174 Odo, S., abbat of Cluny, 163, 171-5 Oecumenical Councils, canons collected, 194; the Eighth disputed, 193-4. See General Councils Oecumenical patriarch, 65-6 Olaf, king of Sweden (in 853), 130 Olaf Trigvason, king of Norway (995-1000), 121, 132-3. Olaf, S., king of Norway (1017-29), 132 Olaf, Norse king of Dublin, 132 Olga, S., a "ruler of Russia," baptized, 126 Omar, Khalif, 101 Ommeyads, dynasty of Khalifs, descended from Omeyya, 156 Orange, synod at (529), 72 Ordination, anointing the hands at, 183 Origen, his doctrines condemned, 16; Origenists, 15-16 Oswald, king of Northumberland, 116 Oswald, bishop of Worcester, 119 Oswiu, king of Northumbria, 117 Otto I., emperor, revives the Empire and reforms the papacy, 197; ecclesiastical policy in Germany and Italy, 198-9; patron of Gerbert, 200; overlord of Poland, 125; Slav missions, 126; intervenes in Bohemia, 129; and Denmark, 131 Otto II., emperor, 199, 201 Otto III., emperor, 125, 198-202 Ouen, S., bishop of Rouen, 58

Paderborn, 152 Palestine, Church in, 15-16, 100. See Jerusalem, Syria Pallium, its significance, 67-8; sent to S. Boniface, 137; to S. Ansgar, 130 Pannonia, 124 Papacy and the popes: Papacy rises as the Empire decays, 4; wins political power, 5, 61, 149; acquires rights of jurisdiction, 31; popes act as envoys of Arian Gothic kings, 15, 31; papal elections confirmed by the emperor or the exarch, 34, and controlled by the Saxon emperors, 199; papacy supported by the Benedictines, 37, as afterwards by the Cluniacs, 173-5; degradation of the papacy in sixth century, 39; papal infallibility not dreamt of in sixth century, 39-40, nor in the early tenth, 197; growth of new ideals, popes begin to intervene in politics, 61; pope styled "oecumenical archbishop and patriarch," 65; papal power increases in Africa, 107-8; papacy preserves the traditions of the Empire, 143; alliance of the papacy with the Karlings, 147; growth of the temporal power, 143, 149; beginning of the Papal States, 149; loss of the Bulgarian Church, 134; papacy foments strife between the Slavs and Constantinople, 125; popes oppose iconoclastic emperors, 157; pope crowns Charles the Great emperor, 152-3; Nicolas I. claims to be the source of the Empire, 192; degeneracy of the popes in ninth and tenth centuries, 172, 196-7, 199; papal monarchy grows in theory at the time of its practical weakness, 191; papacy supports its claims by the forged decretals, 194-6; papacy reformed by the Saxon emperors, 197, 199-202; list of popes, 205-8. See Rome Paschasius Radbertus, abbat of Corbie (died about. 865), 170 Passau, see of, 138 Patriarchates, the five, 24; question of supremacy, 90; their jurisdictions not considered unalterable, 91; patriarchal rights over the Bulgarian Church, 124; Illyria lost to Rome, 157. See Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Rome "Patrician of the Romans," title conferred on Pippin the Short, 148; borne by Charles the Great, 152 Patrick, S., 57, 113-14, 183 "Patrimony of S. Peter," 65, 148 Paul the Deacon, 62 n., 65, 134, 167 Paul, patriarch of Constantinople, 164 Paul of Samosata, 80 Paul the Silentiary, 25-6 Paulicians, 80, 156 Pelagius, founder of the Pelagian heresy in fifth century, 72 Pelagius, I., pope, 16, 21, 34, 39-40, 107 Pelagius II., pope, 62, 64-6 Persecution of Catholics by Arians, 32, 74-5, 103-5; of Catholics by Moslems, 78; in the iconoclastic controversy, 155, 158, 165; of Jews, 77; of Nestorians by Muhammadans, 99 Persia, 12, 22-3, 80, 83, 110; the Church in, 93-5, 98-9; kings of, 93-5, 100, 102 Peter, S., 117, 120; Confessio of, 152; patrimony of, 65, 148; Charles the Great's gift of lands to, 151; popes act in the name of, 148-50 Peter the Stammerer, bishop of Alexandria, 8 Phantasiasts, 86 Philae, temple of, 111 Phocas the Cappadocian, emperor, 22 Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, 124, 192-4 Picts, heathens in Scotland, 114, 116 Pippin the Short, Frankish king, 150; anointed by S. Boniface (751), 139, 147; by Pope Stephen II. (754), 148; relations with the papacy, 144, 147-9; donation of, 149, 151, 194 Poictiers, Battle of, 146 Poland, conversion of, 125 Pomerania, 125 Poppo, bishop, missionary to the Danes, 131 Posen, bishopric of, 125 Pragmatic Sanction of Justinian for the government of Italy, 33-4 Prague, see of (bishopric, 973; archbishopric, 1343), 125, 129 Primasius, sixth-century theological writer in Africa, 106 Privilegia to monasteries granted by Gregory the Great, 69; to the Cluniacs, 173-4 Procession of the Holy Ghost, Double (i.e. from the Father and the Son), 76, 80-1, 193-4 Proconsularis (i.e. Africa Proconsularis, the modern Tunis and Tripoli), 104 Procopius, 11, 26, 91 n., 94, 100, 112 Prussians, missions to, 125, 129 Pseudo-Isidorian decretals, 195 Pyrrhus, Monothelite heresiarch, 89, 108

Quicunque vult, 81-2 Quierzy (on the Oise), donation of, 151 Quini-sextan Council at Constantinople (in Trullo), 85, 89-92

Rabanus Maurus, 81 Radegund, S., Frankish princess, 51; monastery of, 171 Ratramnus of Corbie (died 868), 170 Ravenna, 85, 147, 149, 151, 201; Odowakar's capital, captured by Goths, 29; recaptured by Belisarius, 30; mosaics at, 26; archbishopric, 68, 157 Reccared, Wisigothic king in Spain, 73, 75-6, 80 Recceswinth, Wisigothic king in Spain, 76 Regensburg (Ratisbon), Bohemians baptized at, 128; see of, 129, 138; Council of (792), 79 Remigius, S., baptizes Chlodowech, 43 Remismond, Suevic king in Spain, 73 Reparatus, bishop of Carthage, 106 Reunion of Eastern and Western Church (in 519), 10; sought by Justinian, 11; nominal, after the Photian Schism, 194 Rheims, 195-6, 200-1 Rimbert, S., archbishop of Bremen, 130-1 Rome, Church and patriarchate of, 24, 65-6, 157; insists on obsolete claims, 14; its supremacy repudiated at Constantinople, 85, 90; quarrel with Constantinople over the Ecthesis and Type, 98; authorises the missions of S. Augustine, 117, and S. Boniface, 136-9; attitude of S. Boniface to, 139; connection with Ireland, 113-15, 122; with the East, 123; with England, 117, 120-1; assumes the political rights of the exarchate, 148-9; Eucharist, 179; councils at (680), 88; (731), 157; (863), 192. See Church (Western), Papacy Rome, city of, its peculiar history, 143; dominated by the local nobles, 196 Romulus Augustulus, 29 Ruegen, isle of, 127 Rule of Bangor, 54-5; of Basil, reformed by Theodore the Studite, 163; of S. Benedict, 35, 58-9, 69, 119, 121, 171, 173, 175; of Cluny, 174-5; of S. Columban, 55, 171 Rupert, S., missionary in Bavaria, 135 Russia, conversion of, 6, 126-7; modern Russian Church, 95

Sabas, S., 15 Sabbas, archimandrite of the Studium, 162 Sabellians, followers of the heretic Sabellius (third century), 178 Sacramentary of Pope Gelasius I. (492-6), 182-3; of Gregory the Great, 182 Sacraments, 176-181 Saints, Celtic "age of saints," 53; Merwing, 51; images of the, 156-7 Salzburg, archbishopric, 127, 135, 138 Samaritans, 100 Samarkand, Nestorian bishopric of, 98 Sancho the Great, king of Navarre (970-1035), 78 Sapor II., king of Persia, 93 Saracens, 77, 158, 172; in Africa, 109; in Spain and Gaul, 146. See Muhammadans. Saxons, 135; forcible conversion by Charles the Great, 140-2, 197; the Saxons in Britain, 113, 117-18, 176; "Old" Saxons of the Continent, 180 Schism between East and West, formal beginning due to Monophysitism, 8; schism of 484-519, 68; schism of 649-81 caused by the Ecthesis and Type, 88; steps towards, 149; the Photian, 192-4 Schleswig, converted, 130 Scholarship, 5, 38, 55. See Learning Scholastica, S., sister of S. Benedict, 37 Scilly Isles, 132 Scotland, Church in, 114, 116-17, 119 Scotus, Johannes. See John the Scot Sebert, king of the East Saxons, 176 Seleucia, see of, 93 Semi-Pelagianism, 72, 81 Septimania, 77, 146 Serbia, Church of, 124 Serbian Church, 23, 84 Sergius I., pope, 91 Sergius I., patriarch of Constantinople, 83, 87 Sermons, 64-5, 120, 163, 185, 188 Severus, Monophysite patriarch of Antioch, 10, 15, 86 Severus, patriarch of Aquileia, 62 Sigambrians, a Teutonic tribe, allied to the Franks, 43 Sigebert (Sigibert), Frankish king of Austrasia, 43, 54, 75 Silvester II., pope, 7, 125, 200-2 Simplicius, pope, 8 Siricius, pope, 195 Slaves, slavery, 130; freed by Gregory the Great, 65; Jews enslaved in Spain, 77 Slavs, 44, 84; Charles the Great allied with heathen, 141; conversion of, 123-9; attacked by Otto I., 197 Smbat, supposed author of the Paulician Key of Truth, 80 Soissons, 139, 195 Sophia, S., the Church of the Divine Wisdom, at Constantinople, 25-7; Church of, at Kiev, 127 Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, 87 Soracte, monastery, 145 Spain, 172, 196; Gregory the Great active in, 65; invaded by the Franks, 74; Dagobert I. influential in, 44; Charles the Great in, 140; conflict of Arianism and Catholicism in, 48; Catholicism wins, 62-3, 73, 75; conquered by the Muhammadans, 77-8; Church has to contend with Islam, 72; Catholicism survives in the North, 78; Eucharist, 179; Spanish rite, 183; literature, 73 Squillace, monastery, 38-9 Stephen II. (or III.), pope, 148-9 Stephen III. (or IV.), pope, 151 Stephen, king of Hungary, 201 Strathclyde, early British Church of, 113 Studium, the, monastery at Constantinople, 161-3 Stylites, 25 Subiaco, S. Benedict at, 35 Suevi (a Teutonic confederate people) in Gaul, 41. See Mir, Remismond Sweden, missions to, 129-30 Syagrius, bishop of Autun, 49, 67 n. Symmachus, Senator, father-in-law of Boethius, executed, 32 Syntagma, a collection of canons, compiled, 85, 178 Syria, 100-1, 156; Syrian Church, Monophysite and Nestorian, 9; National Church, 13; monks disregard the Fifth General Council, 20; Jacobites in, 23, 84; Adoptianism in, 79; Monophysitism, 110; Monothelitism, 89; Muhammadan invasion, 108

Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople, 164 Tartars, 96-7 Tauresium, 91. See Justiniana Prima Tebessa (in modern Algeria), monastery, 106 Thaddeus, Studite monk, 162 Theandric energy, 87, 89 Theodebert I., Frankish king, 47 Theodelind, Lombard queen, 56, 69, 134-5 Theoderic III., king of Neustria, 146 Theodora, empress (842), wife of Theophilus, 165 Theodora, paramour of Pope John X., mother of Marozia, 196 Theodore of Mopsuestia, 16-18 Theodore of the Studium (or the Studite), S., 124, 156, 160-4 Theodore of Tarsus, 115, 117, 169 Theodoret of Cyrrhus, 16-18 Theodoric the Ostrogoth, king of Italy, 29; his tolerant ecclesiastical policy, 30; executes Symmachus and Boethius, 32; aims at a united Italy, 60 Theodoric II., Frankish king of Burgundy, son of Childebert II., 56 Theodosia, S., 158 Theodosius II., emperor, 67 Theology, important in this period, 1; the predominant interest in the literature, 5; the theology of statesmen and military men, 9, 87; theology at Constantinople, 8, 156; iconoclastic, 158-9; theology of S. John Damascene, 159-60 Theophanes, Greek chronicler (758-817), 111 Theophilus, emperor, 165 Thessalonica, 67-8, 123 Theudberga, wife of Chlothochar, king of Lotharingia, 191 Theudis, Wisigothic king in Spain, 74 Thomas of Edessa, 99 Thormod, missionary priest in Iceland, 132 Thorwald Kothransson, Icelander, 132 Thrace, Paulicianism in, 80 "Three Chapters," controversy of the, 16-20, 22, 62-3, 72, 99, 106-7 Thuringia(ns), 135-8 Tiberius II., emperor, 22 Tithes, 140 Toledo, cathedral of, 76; councils, 72; Third Synod (of 589), 76, 80; Fourth (of 633), 81; Sixteenth (of 695), 77 Tome of S. Leo, 63 Tomi, monks of, 14 Tonnenna, Victor of, 106-7 Totila, Gothic king, 37 Tours, 168; battle of, see Poictiers. See also Gregory of Tours Transubstantiation, 171 Trier (Treves), archbishop of, 192 Trullian Council (691) at Constantinople, 85, 89-92 Tunis, survival of the Church of, 110 Type, issued by Constans II., 88 Tzani, Asiatic people, converted, 94

Unity, the central idea of the period, 2, 154, 203; need of unity in the Church, 70 "Universal bishop," title declined by Gregory the Great, 66; Cluniac ideal, 175 Urban II., pope (1088-99), 174

Vandals, 197; in Gaul, 41; in Africa, 103-5 Venantius Fortunatus, bishop of Poictiers, 51, 75 Veni Creator Spiritus, 81 Venice, 143, 151, 157 Victor, bishop of Carthage, 108 Victor of Tonnenna (Victor Tununensis), 106-7 Victor Vitensis, 104-5 Vienne, 186 Vigilists, 15. See Akoimetai. Vigilius, pope, 17, 20, 39-40, 106 Vivarium, monastery of, 38 Vladimir, S., of Russia, 126-7

Wales, Church of, 113, 118, 122; West Wales (i.e. Cornwall), 113 Wallachian Church, 23 Wamba, Wisigothic king in Spain, 76 Wandrille, S., 57 Wenceslas of Bohemia, S., 128-9 Wends, missions to the, 126 Whitby, Synod of (664), 116 Wilfrith (Wilfrid) of Ripon, S., 88, 117-18, 121, 169 Willehad, archbishop of Bremen, 142 William of Aquitaine, founder of the abbey of Cluny, 173 Willibald, biographer of S. Boniface, 138 Willibrord, S., Northumbrian missionary in Frisia, 136 Winfrith of Crediton (S. Boniface), 121, 136-40, 142 Wisigoths in Spain, 73-8; corruption of society, 73-4; accept Catholicism, 5, 62-3, 73, 75; their monarchy falls before the Moors, 146 Wuerzburg, 138, 147

York, school of, 116, 167

Zacharias, pope, 147 Zacharias, patriarch of Jerusalem, 101 Zeno, emperor, 7

THE END

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