The small sized toys will always be in demand, as they make ideal little pets, suitable eminently for a city flat or an apartment house, to be carried by the lady in her carriage, or to accompany her in her walks, and they make first rate playmates for children. This class is by far the hardest to breed. For best results mate a bitch weighing about fifteen pounds, that comes from a numerous litter, to a twelve-pound dog that comes from small ancestry. Some of the pups are bound to be small. One important feature in the production of small pups is this: Bitches that whelp in the fall, the smallest pups are raised from, especially if the pups are fed a somewhat restricted diet, whereas puppies that are raised in the spring, that are generously fed, and have vigorous exercise in the sunshine, attain a far greater size. A great many breeders underfeed their young stock to stop growth, which I believe to be a very grave mistake. There is no question whatever it accomplishes the result wished, but at the expense of stamina and a fine, generous disposition. The pups from stock advanced in years, or from bitches excessively fat are very apt to run small, as are also the offspring of inbred parents. One very important fact in regard to breeding for large sized dogs to be considered is this: While a great many breeders always select for the production of large pups large bitches and dogs, yet experience has proven that the majority of big ones have been the offspring of medium sized dams that were bred to strong, heavy-boned dogs of substance. I bred a bitch weighing twenty pounds to a large bull terrier that weighed forty-five pounds for an experiment, and the pups, five in number, weighed at maturity from thirty-five to forty pounds, with noses and tails nearly as long as their sire's, and his color, but were very nice in their disposition, and were given away for stable dogs. Progressive up-to-date kennel men will see that they have on hand not only the three classes called for by the standard, but the fourth class, so to speak, that I have mentioned above, those weighing anywhere from thirty to forty pounds. Quite a number of breeders in the past have put in the kennel pail at birth extra large pups that they thought would mature too large to sell, but they need do so no longer. This precaution must always be taken where there are one or more of these large size puppies, viz., to look out that they do not get more than their proportionate share of the milk, or later the food, as they are very apt to crowd out the others.
Remember that the Boston terrier of whatever size will always hold his own as a companion, a dog that can be talked to and caressed, for between the dog and his owner will always be found a bond of affection and sympathetic understanding.
BREEDING FOR GOOD DISPOSITION.
This, to my mind, is the most important feature in the breeding of the dog that demands the most careful attention. If the disposition of the dog is not all that can be desired, of what avail is superb constitution, an ideal conformation and beautiful color and markings? Better by far obtain the most pronounced mongrel that roams the street that shows a loving, generous nature if he cost his weight in gold, than take as a gift the most royally bred Boston that could not be depended upon at all times and under all circumstances to manifest a perfect disposition.
A short time ago I went to visit a noted pack of English fox hounds. One beautiful dog especially, took my eye, a strong, vigorous, noble-looking fellow, and on my asking the kennel man, a quaint old Scotchman, if he would let the dog out for me to see, he replied: "Why, certainly, Mr. Axtell, that dog is Dashwood, he is a perfect gentleman," and this is what all Boston terriers should be. Of course, I am speaking of the well bred, properly trained, blue blooded dog, not the mongrel that so often masquerades under his name. Still, as there are black sheep in every family, a dog showing an ugly, snapping, quarrelsome disposition will occasionally be met with which, to the shame of the owner, is not mercifully put out of the way and buried so deep that he can not be scratched up, but is allowed to perpetuate his or her own kind to the everlasting detriment of the breed.
How many a one has come away from a dog show utterly disgusted with perhaps one of the best looking dogs on the bench, who, after admiring its attractiveness in every detail, discovers on too near an approach to him that he possesses a snappy, vicious disposition?
I am perfectly well aware that due allowance must be made for the unnatural excitement that surrounds a dog, perhaps for the first time shown, away from all he knows, and surrounded by strange noises and faces. Yet I consider it an outrage on the public who give their time and pay their money, to subject them to any risk of being bitten by any dog, I care not of what breed it may be. At a recent show in Boston, in company with three or four gentlemen, I was admiring a very handsome looking Boston, a candidate for high honors, when his owner called out to me: "Mr. Axtell, do not go too near him or he will bite your fingers off." I replied: "You need not advise an old dog man like me; I can tell by the look of his eye what he would do if given a chance. You have no right whatever to show such a dog." Since then I went to the kennels where a noted prize winner is placed at public stud, and he showed such a vicious disposition and attempt to bite through the bars of his pen that the attendant had to cover the bars over with a blanket. Such dogs as these should be given at once a sufficient amount of chloroform and a suitable burial without mourners. If a man must keep such a brute, then a strong chain and a secure place where his owner alone can visit him is absolutely imperative.
Boston terriers, of all breeds, must possess perfect dispositions if they are to maintain their present popularity; and yet, how many unscrupulous breeders and dealers are palming off upon a confiding public dogs which, instead of being "put away" (I think that is the general term they use) should be put under so much solid mother earth that no one would suspect their interment. I know it takes considerable grit and force of character to cheerfully put to sleep a dog for which perhaps a large sum of money has been paid, that has developed an uncertain, snappy disposition, yet it pays so to do; honesty is not alone the best policy, but the only one. In my experience as a dog man I could give many personal incidents concerning the sale of vicious dogs, but for space sake one must suffice.
Last year a Chicago banker sent me an order for a dog similar in style and disposition to the one I had sold him a few years previously, to go to his niece, a young lady staying for treatment at a large sanatorium in southern Massachusetts. I replied that I had not in my kennels a large enough dog to suit, but that I knew a dealer who possessed a fairly good reputation who had, and would get him for him if he would run the chances. This was satisfactory, and I bought the dog. He was guaranteed to me as all right in every way, but I felt somewhat suspicious, as the price was very low for a dog of his style. I kept him with me for a week and saw no outs whatever about him, and practically concluded my suspicions were unfounded.
Upon taking the dog personally to the young lady in question, I told her his history as far as I knew it, and also that while I could give her the dealer's guarantee of the dog I could not of course, endorse it, but that if she cared to run the risk she could have the dog on approval as long as she wished. I said in warning that there was something about his eye that did not altogether strike my fancy, and that if he showed the least symptom of being anything but affectionate, to ship him to my kennels in Cliftondale immediately. As he was a handsome dog, with beautiful color, I could see she wanted him at once, and the dog seemed to take to her in an even greater degree. I received a letter from her in a week's time, saying how perfectly satisfactory the dog was in every way, and what a general favorite he had become with the lady patients there, several of whom would like me to get one like him for them. I need not say how pleased I was to hear this, but what was my surprise to receive a letter the next day asking me to send at once for the dog, as he had bitten the matron. You may depend that neither she nor any other of the inmates there would ever want to see a Boston again, and who would want them to? Of course I lost my money, but that is not worth mentioning. The sorrow I felt stays by me today. I sent for the dog and kept him at my kennels for five months, taking care of him myself and never letting him out of my sight, during which time he was as gentle as a kitten, until one day a young dog man came down into the yard, and the dog, for some unaccountable reason, as in the case of the matron, jumped on him and took hold of his sleeve. The man, being accustomed to dogs, was fortunately not scared. This explained the low price of the dog, and it is needless to add, he ornamented my kennels no longer. I can only state in connection with this that that dealer has sold very few dogs since. I never purchase a dog now, unless I know the man from whom I buy.
How to breed dogs possessing an ideal disposition is the all-important question, and I give the rules as followed in our kennels with complete success. Breed only from stock that you know comes from an ancestry noted for this particular feature. Many dogs are naturally of an affectionate nature, but have been made snappish by ill treatment, or teasing. This can be bred out by judicious care, but where a vicious tendency is hereditary, look out for trouble ahead. Damages for dog bites come high, and he must be either a very rich man, or a very poor one, that can afford to keep this kind of stock.
Use only thoroughly healthy stock; disease is often productive of an uneven, sullen disposition. See that the bitch especially never shows a tendency to be cross or snappy. The male dog usually controls the shape, color and markings, and the dam the constitution and disposition. Hence it is, if anything, of more importance that the female should be strong in this feature than the male, although the male, of course, should be first class also. So well known is this physiological fact that breeders of standard bred horses, particularly hunters and carriage horses, will never breed a vicious mare to a quiet stallion, and yet they are generally willing to risk breeding a quiet mare to a stallion not as good in this respect.
The education of the puppies should begin as soon as they can run around. Very much depends upon a right start. We are admonished to "train up a child in the way he should go," and this applies with equal force to the dog. Treat them with the utmost kindness, but with a firm hand. Be sure they are taught to mind when spoken to, and never fail to correct at once when necessary. A stitch in time saves many times nine. A habit once formed is hard to break. Never be harsh with them; never whip; remember that judicious kindness with firmness is far more effective with dogs, as with children. Be sure to accustom them to mingle with people and children, and introduce them as early as possible to the sights of the street, to go on ahead, and to come at your call. Prevent the pernicious habit of running and barking at teams, etc., and other dogs. The time to check these habits as aforesaid is before they become fixed. If, after all these pains, you see a dog show the slightest disposition to be vicious, then do not hesitate to send him at once by a humane transit to dog heaven. By thus continuously breeding a strain of dogs with an affectionate nature and the elimination of any that show the least deviation from the same, in a short time kennels can be established whose dogs will not only be a source of supreme satisfaction to the owner, but will be the best advertisers of said kennels wherever they go.
It will readily be admitted by all who have given the matter any consideration that a dog of an affectionate nature, whose fidelity has always been constant, and whose devotion to its owner has always under all circumstances been perfectly sincere and lasting, makes an appeal to something that is inherent in human nature. The fact of the case is that the love of such a dog is imbedded in the soul of every normal man and woman who have red blood in their veins. I think it is instinctive, and has its foundation in the fact that from the beginning of time he has ministered to man's necessities, and has accompanied him as his best friend on man's upward march to civilization and enlightenment. "There may be races of people who have never known the dog, but I very much question if, after they have made his acquaintance, they fail to appreciate his desirable qualities, and to conceive for him both esteem and affection."
BREEDING FOR A VIGOROUS CONSTITUTION.
I think there never was a time in the history of the breed when this particular feature needed more thoughtful, systematic and scientific attention devoted to it than now. For the past few years breeders have been straining every nerve, and leaving no stone unturned, to produce small stock, toys, in fact, and everyone realizes, who has given the question thoughtful consideration, that this line of breeding has been at the expense of the vigor, and indirectly largely of a beautiful disposition, of the dog, to say nothing of the financial loss that must inevitably ensue.
Said an old Boston terrier man (Mr. Barnard) at a recent show: "Mr. Axtell, if they keep on breeding at this rate, it won't be long before they produce a race of black and tans."
In my estimation it will not be black and tan terriers, but nothing. It will be productive of a line of bitches that are either barren, or so small that they can not possibly whelp without the aid of a "Vet." One does not have to look very far to discover numbers of men who started in the breeding of the American dog with high hopes and enthusiastic endeavors to success, who have fallen by the wayside, owing largely to the fact that proper attention was not paid to the selection of suitable breeding stock, especially the matrons. Said a man to me last year: "Much as I love the dog, and crazy as I am to raise some good pups, I have given up for all time trying to breed Boston terriers. I have lost eight bitches in succession whelping." We have all of us "been there" and quite a number of us "many a time."
In order to obtain strong, vigorous puppies that will live and develop into dogs that will be noted for vigorous constitutions, we shall simply, and in language that can be readily understood by the novice as well as the established breeder, lay down the rules that a quarter of a century has demonstrated to be the correct ones for the attainment of the same as used in our kennels. As all puppies that leave our place are sold with the guarantee of reaching maturity (unless shown, when we take no risks whatever in regard to distemper, mange, etc.), it will readily be seen that they must have a first class start, and must of necessity be the progeny of stock possessing first class vigor and the quality of being able to transmit the same to their offspring. An ounce of experience is worth many tons of theory, and it is, then, with pleasure we give the system pursued by us, feeling certain that the same measure of success will attend others that will take the necessary pains to attain the same, and they will be spared the many pitfalls and mistakes that have necessarily been ours before we acquired our present knowledge. It has been for a number of years (starting as we did when the breed was in its infancy, and only the intense love of the dog, coupled with an extensive leisure, which enabled us to devote a great deal of attention to important and scientific experiments, have enabled us to arrive where we are), an uphill road, the breeding problems have had to be solved at the outlay of brains, patience and considerable money. Unlike any established breed, there was practically no data to fall back on, no books of instruction to follow, but if the pioneer work has been arduous the results obtained have far outbalanced it, and the dog today stands as a monument to all the faithful, conscientious and determined body of men who would never acknowledge defeat, but who, in spite of all discouragements from all quarters, and from many where it should have been least expected, have pressed forward until they find the object of their unfailing endeavors the supreme favorite in dogdom the continent over.
In the first place, in the attainment of vigorous puppies, we state the bitches selected are of primary importance, in our view, as already stated, far more so than the sire. For best results we choose a bitch weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds. If they happen to weigh over this we do not consider it any detriment whatever, rather otherwise. Always select said matrons from litters that have been large, bred from strong, vigorous stock, thoroughly matured, and that have been bred by reliable (we speak advisedly) men for several generations if possible. If one can, obtain from kennels that while perfectly comfortable, have not been supplied with artificial heat. There is more in this than appears on the surface. Dogs that have been coddled and brought up around a stove rarely have stamina and vitality enough to enable them to live the number of years they are entitled to, and fall a ready victim to the first serious trouble, whether distemper, or the many and one ills that beset their path. Intelligent breeders of all kinds of stock today recognize the value of fresh air and unlimited sunshine, and if best results are to be obtained these two things are imperative.
I was very much interested in the prize herd of Hereford cattle owned by Mr. Joseph Rowlands, near Worcester, England, and conceded by experts to be the best in that country, and to learn that for a number of years the herd (over one hundred in number) have been kept in the open, the cows being placed in the barn for a few days at calving, and that the prize winning bull that heads the herd, "Tumbler," is sixteen years old, and still used, and it is stated by Mr. Rowlands is producing as good stock today as ever. The significant fact about this herd is, they are and have been perfectly free from tuberculosis. Another herd of Jerseys (although not prize winners) are kept near there, under precisely the same conditions with similar results. A breeder of prize winning Belgian hares has kept these for a number of years without artificial heat, with the best of results with freedom from disease, and the attainment of strong, robust constitutions. When puppies are four months old (in the winter time) they should be placed in well built kennels, without artificial heat. (Of course, this does not apply to a colder latitude than Massachusetts.)
The reason for choosing bitches that come from dams noted for their large litters is this: the chances are (if the dog bred to comes from a similar litter) that they will inherit the propensity to give birth to large litters themselves, and the pups will necessarily be smaller than when only one or two pups are born. The bitch that has but that number runs an awful risk, especially if she has been well fed. The pups will be large and the dam has great difficulty in whelping.
If toy bitches are bred, look out for breakers ahead; only a very small per cent. live to play with their little ones. A toy bitch, bred to a toy dog, will frequently have but one pup, and that quite a large one in proportion to the size of parents. When a toy bitch is bred, attend carefully to these three things. See that the dog used is small in himself, comes from small stock, and does not possess too large a head. Secondly, be sure the bitch is kept in rather poor condition, in other words, not too fat; and thirdly, and this is the most important of all, see that she has all the natural exercise she can be induced to take. These conditions strictly and faithfully adhered to may result in success.
In the next place, the consideration of the dog to be used is in order. Whether he be a first prize winner or an equally good dog that has never been shown (and the proportion of the best raised dogs that appear on the bench is very small) insist on the following rules:
Be sure that the dog is typical with first class constitution, vigorous, and possessing an ideal disposition, and what is of the utmost importance, that he comes from a line of ancestry eminently noted for these characteristics. Breed to no other, though he were a winner of a thousand first prizes. I prefer a symmetrical dog weighing from sixteen to twenty pounds, rather finer in his make-up than the bitch, and possessing the indefinable quality of style, and evidences in his make-up courage and a fine, open, generous temperament. Do not breed to a dog that is overworked in the stud, kept on a board floor chained up in a kennel or barn, and never given a chance to properly exercise. If you do the chances are that one of three things will happen: the bitch will not be in whelp (the most likely result) the pups, or some of them will be born dead, and one runs an awful risk of the bitch dying, or, if alive at birth, a very small per cent. only of the pups will live to reach maturity. I think Boston terriers are particularly susceptible to worms or distemper, and it is absolutely imperative that they should not be handicapped at the onset.
One other very important factor is natural exercise for the bitch. Unless one is willing to take the necessary pains to give her this, give up all expectation of ever succeeding in raising puppies.
Someone asked a noted critic whom he considered the best singer he had ever heard, and he answered, "Patti." In being asked who came next, he replied, "Patti;" and on being questioned who was his third choice, gave the same answer. Were I asked the three most important essentials for the success of the brood bitch, I should say, "Exercise, exercise, exercise." By this I do not mean leading with a chain, running behind a horse or team, but the natural exercise a bitch will take if left to her own devices. Nature has provided an infallible monitor to direct the dog the best amount to take, and when to take it. One of the best bitches I ever possessed was one weighing fourteen pounds by the original Tony Boy (one of the best little dogs that ever lived) out of a bitch by Torrey's Ned, by A. Goode's Ned. Her name was Lottie, and she had thirteen litters and raised over ninety per cent. Those who have read that interesting little book on the "Boston Terrier," by the late Dr. Mott, will readily recall the genial Doctor speaking of the first Boston he ever owned, named "Muggy Dee," and how intelligent he was, and what a number of tricks the Doctor taught him, will be interested to know that Lottie was his great-grandmother, and she was equally intelligent. We had several bitches by the celebrated Mr. Mullen's "Boxer" out of her, (this is going back to ancient history), one of which, "Brownie," was, to my fancy, the nicest dog we ever had. She, with the rest of the litter, had the run of several hundred acres, and many times I did not see them for days together. They went in and out of the hayloft at pleasure, and spent the greater part of their time hunting and digging out skunks and woodchucks which were quite thick in the woods back of us at that time. I remember the first time Brownie was bred to that king of sires, "Buster," owned by Alex. Goode (than whom a more loyal Boston terrier man never lived), and I was rather anxious to see the litter when it arrived, as from the mating I expected crackerjacks. I had not seen her or her mother for two or three days, but the time for whelping having arrived, was keeping a close watch on the stable. About dusk she came in with Lottie, and in a short time gave birth to four of the most vigorous, perfectly formed little tots I had ever seen. Each one proved to be good enough to show, although only one was sold to an exhibitor, Mr. G. Rawson, the rest going into private hands. "Druid Pero" was shown in New York in 1898, taking first prize and silver cup for best in his class, but I think his brother, "Caddie," beat him, his owner, a Boston banker, being offered a number of times ten times the sum he paid for him.
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The day after Brownie whelped she and her mother went off for an hour or so, and they finished digging out Mr. Skunk (which the attention to her maternal duties necessitated a postponement of), the old dog dragging him home in triumph. I attribute the success these dogs, in common with the rest of the bitches in the kennels who had similar advantages, had in whelping and the rearing of their young to the fact that they always had unlimited natural exercise. I can enumerate scores of cases similar to these attended with equally good results, if space permitted.
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In regard to mating, one service, if properly performed, is usually enough, if the bitch is ready to take the dog. If a bitch should fail to be in whelp I should advise the next time she comes in season two or even three visits to the dog, and where convenient I should suggest a different dog this time. In case this time these services were unsuccessful, then I should suggest the course that breeders of thoroughbred horses pursue, viz., to let the female run with the male for three or four days together. There are many things connected with breeding that we do not understand, and frequently going back to nature, as in this case, is productive of results when all else fails.
One very important factor in the production of strong, rugged pups that live, is good feeding. Do not imagine that feeding dog biscuits to the bitch in whelp will give good results, it will not; she needs meat and vegetables once a day. Biscuits are all right as a supplementary food, but that is all. Meat is the natural food for a dog, and it is a wise kennel man that can improve on nature. Be sure the meat is free from taint, especially at this time and when the bitch is nursing pups. The gastric juice of a dog's stomach is a great germicide, but there is a limit.
Be certain the dogs have a plentiful supply of good, pure water. This is of far more importance than many people imagine.
Do not administer drugs of any description to your dogs, except in the case of a good vermifuge, if they are harboring worms, and a proper dose of castor oil if constipated. If the dog at any time is sick, consult a good veterinary accustomed to dogs, not one who has practiced entirely on horses or cows. If a bitch, at the time of whelping, is much distressed and can not proceed, get a veterinary and get him quick. When the pups arrive, if all is well and they are able to nurse, let them severely alone. If they are very weak they will have to be assisted to suckle—do not delay attention in this case. Be sure the box the bitch whelped in is large enough for her to turn around in, and do not use any material in the nest that the pups can get entangled with. My advice to breeders is, if the bitch is fully formed and grown to her full proportions, to breed the first time she comes in season. She will have an easier time whelping than when she is older. If delicate or immature, delay breeding till the next time. Do not use a dog in the stud until he is a year and a half old for best results; they will, of course, sire pups at a year or younger, but better wait. To those people who live in the city, or where a kennel can not be established for want of adequate room to give the dogs the necessary exercise, an excellent plan to follow is one adopted by an acquaintance of mine, and followed by him for a number of years with a good measure of success. He owns one or two good stud dogs that he keeps at his home, and he has put out on different farms, within a radius of ten miles of Boston, one bitch at each place, and pays the farmer (who is only too glad to have this source of income at the outlay of so little trouble and expense) one hundred dollars for each litter of pups the bitch has, the farmer to deliver the pups when required, usually when three months old. The farmer brings in the bitch to be bred, and the owner has no further trouble. The pups, when delivered, are usually in the pink of condition and are, in a great measure, house broken, and their manners to a certain extent cultivated. He has no trouble whatever with pups when ordered, as he simply sends the address of customers and the farmer ships them. This, to me, is a very uninteresting and somewhat mercenary way of doing business, as one misses all the charm of breeding and the bringing up of the little tots, to many of us the most delightful part of the business. To those breeders who have newly started in, do not get discouraged if success does not immediately crown your efforts; remember, if Boston terriers could be raised as easily as other dogs, the prices would immediately drop to the others' level.
BREEDING FOR COLOR AND MARKINGS.
Every one who has a Boston terrier for sale knows that a handsome seal or mahogany brindle with correct markings, with plenty of luster in the coat, provided all other things are equal, sells more readily at a far higher price than any other. When one considers the number of points given in the standard for this particular feature, and the very important factor it occupies in the sale of the dog, too much attention cannot be given by breeders for the attainment of this desideratum. I am, of course, thoroughly in sympathy with the absolute justice that should always prevail in the show ring in the consideration of the place color and markings occupy in scoring a candidate for awards. Twelve points are allowed in the standard for these, and any dog, I care not whether it be "black, white, gray, or grizzled," that scored thirteen points over the most perfectly marked dog, should be awarded the prize. But be it ever remembered that the show ring and the selling of a dog are two separate and distinct propositions. In the writer's opinion and experience a wide gulf opens up between a perfect white or black dog comporting absolutely to the standard, and one of desirable color and markings that is off a number of points. I have always found a white, black, mouse, or liver colored dog, I care not how good in every other respect, almost impossible to get rid of at any decent price. People simply would not take them. Perhaps my experience has run counter to others. I trust it may have done so, but candor compels me to make this statement.
I find that this condition of things is somewhat misleading, especially to beginners in the breed. They have seen the awards made in the shows (with absolute justice, as already stated), and have naturally inferred that in consequence of this, breeding for desirable colors was not of paramount importance after all. Only a month or two ago an article appeared in a charming little dog magazine, written evidently by an amateur, on this question of color and markings. He had visited the Boston Terrier Club show last November, and speaking of seal brindles, said: "If this color is so very desirable it seems strange that so few were seen, and that so many of the leading terriers were black and white, and some white entirely," then follows his deduction, viz., "the tendency evidently is that color is immaterial with the best judges, so that a breeder is foolish to waste his time on side issues which are not material." I can only state in passing that if he had a number of dogs on hand that were of the colors he specifies, "black and white, and some white entirely," it would doubtless "seem strange" to him why they persisted in remaining on his hands as if he had given each one an extra bath in Le Page's liquid glue. Pitfalls beset the path of the beginner and this book is written largely to avoid them. When one reads or hears the statement made that color and markings are of secondary consideration or even less, take warning. The reader's pardon will now have to be craved for the apparent egotism evidenced by the writer in speaking of himself in a way that only indirectly concerns canine matters, but which has a bearing on this very important question of color, and partially, at least, explains why this particular feature of the breeding of the Boston terrier has appealed to him so prominently. My father was a wholesale merchant in straw goods, and had extensive dye works and bleacheries where the straw, silk and cotton braids were colored. As a youngster I used to take great delight in watching the dyers and bleachers preparing their different colors and shades, etc., and was anxious to see the results obtained by the different chemical combinations. When a young man, while studying animal physiology under the direction of the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, whose diploma I value most highly, I made a number of extended scientific experiments in color breeding in poultry and rabbits, so that when I took up breeding Boston terriers later in life this feature particularly attracted me. I was "predisposed," as a physician says of a case where the infection is certain, hence I offer no apology whatever for the assertion that this chapter is scientifically correct in the rules laid down for the breeding to attain desirable shades and markings.
When we first commenced breeding Bostons in 1885, the prevailing shades were a rather light golden brindle (often a yellow), and mahogany brindles, and quite a considerable number had a great deal of white. Then three shades were debarred, viz., black, mouse and liver, and although years after the Boston Terrier Club removed this embargo, they still remain very undesirable colors.
The rich mahogany brindle next became the fashionable color (and personally I consider it the most beautiful shade), and Mr. A. Goode with Champion "Monte" and Mr. Rawson with the beautiful pair, "Druid Merke" and "Vixen," set the pace and every one followed. A few years later Messrs. Phelps and Davis (who, with the above mentioned gentlemen, were true friends of the breed), sold a handsome pair of seal brindles, Chs. "Commissioner II." and "Topsy," to Mr. Borden of New York, and confirmed, if not established, the fashion for that color in that city. I think that all people will agree, from all parts of the country, that New York sets the style for practically everything, from my lady's headgear to the pattern of her equipages, and the edict from that city has decreed that the correct color in Boston terriers is a rich seal brindle, with white markings, with plenty of luster to it, and all sections of the continent promptly say amen!
I have taken the pains to look up a number of orders that we have recently received, which include (not enumerating those received from the New England States, or New York), three from Portland, Oregon, one from California, one from St. Louis, one from Mexico, four from Canada, two from Chicago, and one from Texas, and with the exception of two who wished to replace dogs bought of us ten or twelve years previously, they practically all wanted seal brindles.
These orders were nearly all from bankers and brokers, men who are supposed to be en rapport with the dictates of fashion. It goes without saying that what a public taste demands, every effort will be made to attain the same, and breeders will strive their utmost to produce this shade. Many who do not understand scientific matings to obtain these desirable colors have fallen into a very natural mistake in so doing. In regard to the mahogany brindles they say, why not breed continuously together rich mahogany sires and dams, and then we shall always have the brindles we desire. "Like produces like" is a truism often quoted, but there are exceptions, and Boston terrier breeding furnishes an important one. A very few years of breeding this way will give a brown, solid color, without a particle of brindle, or even worse, a buckskin. If the foundation stock is a lighter brindle to start, the result will be a mouse color. The proper course to pursue is to take a golden brindle bitch that comes from a family noted for that shade, and mate her with a dark mahogany brindle dog that comes from an ancestry possessed of that color. The bitch from this mating can be bred to dark mahogany brindles, and the females from this last mating bred again to dark mahogany males, but now a change is necessary. The maxim, "twice in and once out," applies here. The last bred bitches should be bred this time to a golden brindle dog, and same process repeated, that is, the bitches from this last union and their daughters can be bred to dark mahogany brindle dogs, when the golden brindle sire comes in play again. This can be repeated indefinitely. A rule in color breeding to be observed is this: that the male largely influences the color of the pups. If darker colors are desired, use a darker male than the female. If lighter shades are desired, use a lighter colored male.
If a tiger brindle is wanted, take a gray brindle bitch and mate to a dark mahogany dog. Steel and gray brindles are in so little demand and are so easy to produce that we shall not notice them.
In regard to seal brindles. A great many breeders who do not understand proper breeding to obtain them have fallen into the same pit as the others. In their desire to obtain the dark seal brindles they have mated very dark dogs to equally dark bitches, which has resulted in a few generations in producing dogs absolutely black in color, with coats that look as if they had been steeped in a pail of ink. A visit to any of the leading shows of late will reveal the fact that quite a number of candidates for bench honors are not real brindle, except possibly on the under side of the body, or perchance a slight shading on the legs. A considerable number are perfectly black, and are called by courtesy black brindles. As well call the ace of spades by the same name. A serious feature in connection with this is, that the longer this line of breeding is persisted in, the harder will be the task to breed away. In fact, in my estimation it will be as difficult as the elimination of white. One important fact in connection here is that black color is more pronounced from white stock than from brindle. I recently went into the kennels of a man who has started a comparatively short time ago, and who has been most energetic in his endeavors to produce a line of dark seal brindles, and who is much perplexed because he has a lot of stock on hand, while first rate in every other respect, are with coats as black as crows and not worth ten dollars apiece. He seemed very much surprised when I told him his mistake, but grateful to be shown a way out of his difficulty. A visit to another kennel not far from the last revealed the fact that the owner was advertising and sending largely to the West what he called black brindles, but as devoid of brindle as a frog is of feathers. His case was rather amusing, as he honestly believed that because the dog was a Boston terrier its color of necessity must be a brindle. He reminded me a good deal of a man who started a dog store in Boston a number of years ago who advertised in his windows a Boston terrier for sale cheap. Upon stepping in to see the dog all that presented itself to view was a dog, a cross between a fox and bull terrier. When the man was told of this, he made this amusing reply: "The dog was born in Boston, and he is a terrier. Why is he not a Boston terrier?" Upon telling him that according to his reasoning if the dog had been born in New York city he would be a New York terrier he smiled. Fortunately I had "Druid Pero" with me and said: "Here is a dog bred in my kennels at Cliftondale, Mass., that was a first prize winner at the last New York show, and yet he is a Boston terrier." After looking Pero carefully over he exclaimed: "Well, by gosh, they don't look much like brothers, but I guess some greenhorn will come along who will give me twenty-five dollars for him," and on inquiring a little later was told the green gentleman had called and bought the dog.
How to breed the dogs so that the brindle will not become too dark, with the bright reddish sheen that sparkles in the sun, is the important question, and I am surprised at the ignorance displayed by kennel men that one would naturally suppose would have made the necessary scientific experiments to obtain this desirable shading. Only a short time ago a doctor, a friend of mine, told me he had just started a kennel of Bostons, buying several bitches at a bargain on account of their being black in color, and that he proposed breeding them to a white dog to get puppies of a desirable brindle. He seemed quite surprised when told the only shades he could reasonably expect would be black, white and splashed, all equally undesirable.
The system adopted in our kennels some years ago to obtain seal brindles with correct markings and the desirable luster and reddish sheen to the coat is as follows:
We take a rich red, or light mahogany bitch, with perfect markings, that comes from a family noted for the brilliancy of their color, and without white in the pedigrees for a number of generations, and mate her always to a dark seal brindle dog with an ancestry back of him noted for the same color. The pups from these matings will come practically seventy-five per cent. medium seal brindles. We now take the females that approximate the nearest in shade to their mother, and mate them to a dark seal brindle dog always. The bitches that are the result of this union are always bred to a dark seal brindle dog. The females that come from the last union are bred to a medium seal brindle dog, but now comes the time to introduce a mahogany brindle dog as a sire next time, for if these last bitches were mated to a seal brindle dog a large per cent. of the pups would come too dark or even black. This system is used indefinitely and desirable seal brindles with white markings can thus be always obtained. To the best of my recollection we have had but one black dog in twenty years. We have demonstrated, we trust, so that all may understand how golden, mahogany, and seal brindles are obtained, and how they may be bred for all time without losing the brindle so essential, and we now pass on to the consideration of a far harder problem, the obtaining of the rich seal brindles from all undesirable colors, and we present to all interested in this important, and practically unknown and misunderstood, problem the result of a number of years extended and scientific experiments which, we confess, were disheartening and unproductive for a long time, but which ultimately resulted in success, the following rules to be observed, known as "The St. Botolph Color Chart."
In presenting this we are fully aware that as far as we know this is the only scientific system evolved up to date, also that there are a number of breeders of the American dog who maintain that this is an absolute impossibility, that breeding for color is as absurd as it is impractical, but we can assure these honest doubters that we have blazed a trail, and all they now have to do is simply to follow instructions and success will crown their efforts.
We will enumerate the following colors in the order of their resistance, so to speak:
No. 1. White. This color, theoretically a combination of red, green and violet will be found the hardest to eliminate, as the shade desired will have to be worked in, so to speak, and it will take several generations before a seal brindle with perfect markings that can be depended upon to always reproduce itself can be obtained. Starting with a white bitch (always remember that the shades desired must be possessed by the dog), we breed her always to a golden brindle dog. The bitches (those most resembling the sire in color being selected) from these two are mated to a dark mahogany brindle dog, and the females from this last union are mated to a dark seal brindle dog. It will readily be observed that we have bred into the white color, golden, mahogany and seal brindle and this admixture of color will give practically over ninety per cent. of desirable brindles. Always see that the sires used are perfectly marked, from ancestry possessing the same correct markings. This is absolutely imperative, where the stock to be improved is worked upon is white.
No. 2. Black. This color is the opposite of white, inasmuch as there is an excess of pigment, which in this case will have to be worked out. Breed the black bitch to a red brindle dog (with the same conditions regarding his ancestry). The females from these matings bred always to a dark mahogany brindle dog. The females from the last matings breed to a medium seal brindle dog with a very glossy coat, and the result of these last matings will be good seal brindles. If any bitches should occasionally come black, breed always to a golden brindle dog. No other shade will do the trick.
No. 3. Gray brindle. This is practically a dead color, but easy to work out. Breed first to a golden brindle dog. The females from this union breed to a rich mahogany brindle, and the bitches from this last litter breed to a seal brindle dog.
No. 4. Buckskin. Breed bitch to golden brindle dog; the females from this union to a red brindle dog (if unobtainable, use mahogany brindle dog, but this is not so effective), and the females from last union breed to a seal brindle dog.
No. 5. Liver. This is a great deal like the last, but a little harder to manipulate. Breed first to a golden brindle dog. The females from this union breed to a seal brindle. The bitches from this union breed to mahogany brindle dog with black bars running through the coat, and the females from last mating breed to seal brindles.
No. 6. Mouse color. Use same process as for gray brindles.
No. 7. Yellow. A very undesirable shade, but easy to eliminate. Breed to mahogany brindle dog as dark as can be obtained, and bitches from this mating breed to a seal brindle dog.
No. 8. Steel and tiger brindles I class together, as the process is the same and results are easy. Breed first to a red brindle dog; bitches from this union to a dark mahogany brindle, and then use seal brindle dog on bitch from last mating.
No. 9. Red brindle. No skill is required here. Breed first to mahogany brindles, and bitches from this union to seal brindles.
We have now enumerated practically all the less desirable shades, but let me observe in passing, in the process of color breeding that the law of atavism, or "throwing back," often asserts itself, and we shall see colors belonging to a far-off ancestry occasionally presenting themselves in all these matings. Once in a while a dog will be found that no matter what color bitches he may be mated with, he will mark a certain number of the litter with the peculiar color or markings of some remote ancestor. Just a case apropos of this will suffice. We used in our kennels a dog of perfect markings, coming from an immediate ancestry of perfectly marked dogs, and mated him with quite a number of absolutely perfectly marked bitches that we had bred for a great number of years that had before that had perfectly marked pups, and every bitch, no matter how bred, had over fifty per cent. of white headed pups. We saw the pups in other places sired by this dog, no matter where bred, similarly marked. We found his grandmother was a white headed dog, and this dog inherited this feature in his blood, and passed it on to posterity. The minute a stud dog, perfect in himself, is prepotent to impress upon his offspring a defect in his ancestry, discard him at once. I have often been amused to see how frequently this law of atavism is either misunderstood or ignored. Only recently I have seen a number of letters in a leading dog magazine, in which several people who apparently ought to know better, were accusing litters of bulldog pups as being of impure blood because there were one or two black pups amongst them. They must, of course, have been conversant with the fact that bulldogs years ago frequently came of that color, and failed to reason that in consequence of this, pups of that shade are liable once in a while to occur. It is always a safe rule in color breeding to discard as a stud a dog, no matter how brilliant his coat may be, who persistently sires pups whose colors are indistinct and run together, as it were.
Remember, in closing this chapter, that as "eternal vigilance is the price of liberty," so the eternal admixtures of colors is the price of rich brindles. If one has the time the works of an Austrian monk named Mendel are of great interest as bearing somewhat on this subject, and the two English naturalists, Messrs. Everett and J. G. Millais, whose writings contain the result of extensive scientific experiments on dogs and game birds, are of absorbing interest also.
Every person who has bred Bostons for any length of time knows that a good dog sells himself. I do not imagine there is practically any part of this great country where a typical dog, of proper color and markings and all right in every respect, fails to meet a prospective buyer, and yet, of course, there are certain places where an A 1 dog, like an ideal saddle or carriage horse meets with a readier sale, at a far greater price than others. New York city, in particular, and all the larger cities of the country where there are large accumulations of wealth, offer the best markets for the greatest numbers of this aristocratic member of the dog fraternity, and from my own personal knowledge the larger cities of the countries adjacent to the United States furnish nearly as good a market, at a somewhat reduced price. Were the quarantines removed in the mother country, which England no doubt has found absolutely necessary, it would not surprise me in the least to see an unprecedented demand for the Boston at very high prices, and I am going to make a prediction that on the continent of Europe it will not be long before the American dog will follow the trotting horse, and will work his way eastward, until jealous China and strange Japan will be as enamoured with him as we are, and his devotees at the Antipodes will be wondering where he got his little screw tail, and why that sweet, serene expression on his face, like the "Quaker Oat smile," never comes off. This to a person who knows not the Boston may seem extravagant praise, but to all such we simply say: Get one, and then see if you are not ready to exclaim with the Queen of Sheba, when visiting King Solomon and being shown his treasures: "Behold, the half was not told me!" Perhaps the system of sales that has always been followed by us may be of interest to many engaged in the breeding of the dog, and while we do not hold a patent on the same, or even suggest its adoption by others, must confess it has worked with entire satisfaction in our case, and we have never once failed to receive the purchase money. We must say in explanation that our customers practically are all bankers and brokers, and that our dogs have never been sold by advertising or being exhibited at shows, but by being recommended by one man to another, starting many years ago by the first sale to a Boston banker, then to several members of his firm, going from Boston to their correspondents in other cities, until the orders come in from everywhere. We had three orders from as many countries in one mail last week. I merely mention this to show how the demand for the dog has grown. When we commenced to sell dogs we adopted the following plan, which we conceived to be just and equitable alike to buyer and seller: When a dog is ordered we send on one which we believe will fill the bill, accurately describing the dog, stating age, pedigree, etc., and stating that when the customer is perfectly satisfied with the dog (as long a trial being given as may be wished) in every respect, a check will be accepted, and not before. Should the dog at any time prove unsatisfactory in any way, the purchase money will be cheerfully refunded, or a dog of equal value will be sent in exchange. In the case of a bitch that fails to become a good breeder, the same plan, of course, is followed. In regard to the sale of puppies, we guarantee them (barring accidents, and the showing of them, when owner assumes risks) to reach maturity, and in case they do not, refund purchase money, or send on another puppy of equal value.
Of course, where the buyer is not known, or personally recommended, then the seller has to adopt entirely different methods. Still, I see no reason why an honest man who has a Boston, or any other dog, for sale, or, in fact, any article of merchandise, should not be willing to send on the same to any honest buyer. This is on the assumption, of course, that both parties are honorable men. To the seller I advise the purchase money being received before the dog is shipped, and express charges guaranteed, if the buyer is not known or unable to supply absolutely reliable references. Decline to receive any order where the object sought is to obtain a dog to use to breed to a bitch, or several, as the case may be, and then be returned as unsatisfactory. We have had no experience in this line, but are informed it has frequently been done. If such a customer presents himself, simply tell him he can inspect the dog or have an expert do so for him if too far away to come, but that when the deal is closed and the money paid that under no conditions whatever can the dog be returned. In regard to the seller shipping the dog to its destination, we will say that we think he will run practically no risk in so doing. If the dog is all right in every way it is dollars to doughnuts that he will arrive in perfect condition. We can say that in over twenty years' shipments of dogs to all parts of the country and beyond we have never had a dog die en route, lost, exchanged, or stolen. I think the express companies of this country, Canada, Mexico, and beyond, are to be highly commended for the excellent care they take of the dogs committed to their charge, neither do I think the express charges are ever excessive, when one considers the value of the dogs carried.
We will now consider the case of the buyer, assuming, of course, he is known or capable of presenting suitable references. We always advise him to deal with kennels or dealers of established reputations. Run no chances with any other unless you desire to be "trimmed." Pray do not be misled by glowing advertisements (stating that they have the largest kennels on earth) in every paper that does not know them. I have investigated quite a number of these so-called kennels and found they usually consisted of an old box stall in a cheap stable, or a room over an equally cheap barroom, and their stock in trade consisted of two or three mutts.
Be very suspicious of any man who advertises that he has dogs for sale that can win in fast company for fifty or a hundred dollars, or A 1 bitches in whelp to noted dogs for the same price. Any man who possesses these kinds of dogs does not have to advertise their sale. There are plenty of people here in Boston only too glad to buy this kind of stock at three or four times this price.
I attended the last show in Boston with a number of orders in my pocket, but failed to discover any dogs I picked out possessing the quality described at anything less than a good stiff price, for Boston terriers with the "hall mark" of quality have been, are, and, I believe, always will be, as staple in value as diamonds.
The number of letters we have received from all over the country, particularly from the West, complaining of the skin games played upon them by fake kennels and dealers, would make an angel weep, and make one almost regret that one ever knew a Boston. If the same ingenuity, skill and patience employed in the getting up of these fake advertisements had been devoted to the breeding of the dog, this class of advertising gentry (?) would have produced something fit to sell. It is stated on the best of authority that in some cases nothing was shipped for money received.
In spite of this vast number of unscrupulous breeders and dealers scattered abroad, I think the chances for reliable kennels was never so good as now in the history of the breed. Cream will always rise, and right dealing, whether in dogs or diamonds, will ever meet with their just returns. Remember that one never forgets being "taken in" in a horse trade, and when, instead of a horse a dog is involved, I think one never forgives as well. To that number of persons who, in their daily walks of life are fairly honest, but who, when it comes to a trade in dogs are apt to lose that fine sense of justice that should characterize all transactions, we would say with Shakespeare: "To thine own self be true. Thou canst not then be false to any man." Yea, we would repeat the command of a greater than Shakespeare, to whom, I trust, we all pay reverence, when He lays down for us all the Golden Rule: "Whatsoever ye would that men would do to you, do ye even so to them."
To go back to the responsible buyer who is in the market for a good dog, we say: Send your orders to responsible men, with said dogs to sell, stating exactly what you want, and the price you desire to pay, agreeing to send a check just as soon as dogs prove satisfactory, assuming, of course, express charges. Reputable dealers and breeders are looking for just such customers.
To all breeders and dealers who have not an established reputation, would say: Advertise accurately what you have for sale in first class reliable papers and magazines. In regard to prices, the following scale, adopted by us many years ago, and which we have never seen since any reason to change, is practically as follows:
For pups from two to three months old, from fifty to seventy-five dollars. When six months old, from seventy-five to a hundred: From six months to maturity, from one hundred to two hundred. These prices are, of course, for the ordinary all-around good dogs. With dogs that approximate perfection, and which only come in the same proportion as giants and dwarfs do in the human race (I believe the proportion is one in five thousand), and the advent of which would surprise the average kennel man as much as if the President had sent him a special invitation to dine with him at the White House, the price is problematical, and is negotiated solely by the demand for such a wonder by a comparatively few buyers.
I think Boston terriers as a breed occupy the same position amongst dogs as the hunter and carriage horse does amongst horses. Each are more or less a luxury. A well matched pair of horses of good all-round action, of desirable color and perfect manners and suitable age will sell in the Eastern cities (I am not sufficiently acquainted with the other sections of the country to know values there) at from eight hundred to two thousand dollars, but with a pair of carriage horses able to win on the tan bark, the price will be regulated by the comparatively few people who have sufficient money to spare to purchase this fashionable luxury, and ten times the amount paid for the first mentioned pair would be a reasonable price to pay for the prize winners. I think the winners of the blue in the Bostons would fetch a relative sum.
The important factor of the cost of production in the case of the dog necessarily enters into the selling price. Good Bostons are as hard to raise as first class hunters, and a correspondingly large sum has to be obtained to meet expenses, to say nothing of profit, but in the writer's experience the best dog or horse sells the readiest. Do not be misled by the remark "that a dog is worth all he will bring." Generally speaking, this is sound logic, but not always. Many dogs have been sold for very little by people not cognizant of their value, but this in no way changed the intrinsic worth of the dog. On the other hand, many dogs have been disposed of at many times their real value, but this transaction did not enhance their worth in the slightest degree. A gold dollar is worth one hundred cents whether changed for fifty cents or five hundred. An article of intrinsic value never changes. Our advice to all who have dogs for sale (or any other article, in fact), ask what you know is a good, honest, fair value, and although you may not sell the dog today, remember that there are other days to follow. What I am going to add now I know a great many dealers and breeders will laugh at and declare me a fit subject for an alienist to work on, but it is fundamentally true just the same, and is this: Never ask or take for a dog more than you know (not guess) the dog is worth. This is nothing but ordinary, common everyday justice that every man has every right to demand of his fellow man, and every man that is a gentleman will recognize the truth and force of.
I was reading a novel this summer, and one statement amongst a great many good ones impressed me. It stated "that all men were divided into two classes: those that behaved themselves, and those who did not." We all know that society has divided men into many classes, but I think any thoughtful man will confess, in the last analysis, that the novelist's classification was the correct one. I need not apply the moral.
It will be somewhat of a temptation to resist taking what a party, liberally supplied with this world's goods, will frequently in their ignorance offer for a dog that appeals to them, but which the owner knows perfectly well is not worth the price offered. If he belongs to the class that behaves themselves he will tell the prospective buyer what the dog is intrinsically worth, and point out the reasons why he is not worth more. You may depend that you have not only obtained a customer for life, but one that will readily advertise your kennels under all circumstances. I shall have to ask the reader to overlook the apparent egotism of the statements I am now about to make, but as this book is largely the outgrowth of the author's own experience, of necessity personal matters are spoken of.
A number of years ago I received an order from the Western coast, through a Boston house, for a good all-round puppy at two hundred dollars. I sent the puppy on, and much to the surprise of the customer, stated my price for him would be one hundred instead of two. The pup matured into a very nice dog, as I expected he would, being a Cracksman pup out of a good bitch. What has been the result of this treatment? Ever since (and no later than yesterday), orders for dogs from this gentleman have been coming right along.
Another case, and this is only a sample of several from the same city: A number of years back a New York lady, accompanied by her husband, came to our kennels to purchase a dog. I had quite a handsome litter of five or six months old pups by "Merk Jr.," out of Buster stock on the dam's side, one of which, a perfectly marked seal brindle female, at once took her fancy, and she said: "We have just come from another large kennel in Boston where they asked us three hundred dollars for a little female I do not like nearly as well as this one." Her husband was one of the leading men of one of the largest trusts in the country, and money was apparently no object, and when I replied, "Mrs. Keller, that dog you select is not worth over fifty dollars (the price I afterwards sold her for) and the best dog in the litter I shall be glad to let you have for seventy-five," she seemed much surprised. I then, of course, told her that the dogs were not worth more as their muzzles were not deep enough to be worth a higher price than I wanted. I recently received a letter from her stating that her dog was still as active and much loved as ever, and the number of orders that have come to me through the sale of this dog would surprise the owners of those kennels who stick their customers with an outrageous price, and who find to their sorrow that no subsequent orders ever come, either from the customer or any one else in the vicinity. People have a way sooner or later (usually sooner) in discovering when they have been overcharged and act accordingly.
One other recommendation I wish to make in place here is: "Never try to fill an order that one has not the dogs to suit." Frankly say so, and recommend a brother fancier that you know has. One good turn deserves another and he may have a chance later to reciprocate. This creates a kindly feeling amongst kennel men, and is productive of good will, and ofttimes a large increase in business. A few years ago a lady from Connecticut came to see me to buy a first class dog or a pair, if she could get suited. I knew that in the past she had paid the highest price for her Bostons, and she wanted a dog in the neighborhood of two thousand dollars. I told her at once I had nothing for sale to suit her, but that I knew a man who owned a dog I considered worth about that sum, and recommended her strongly to buy him, and sent her to Mr. Keady, who sold to her "Gordon Boy" for that price. The sequel to this is somewhat amusing and shows how reciprocity did not take place. I went to see a litter of pups at Mr. Keady's house soon after, and expected to obtain a somewhat favorable price on the pup I picked out of the litter on account of the sale of the dog, and offered the gentleman three hundred dollars for him, upon which he replied: "Mr. Axtell, do you think that five weeks old pup is worth that sum?" and upon my replying, "I certainly do," instead of saying, "All right, take him," he exclaimed: "If that is your opinion, and I know you always say what you believe, then he is worth that sum to me," and put him back in the box. He subsequently sold him to Mr. Borden for over six thousand dollars, the highest price ever obtained for a Boston.
While writing on the subject of sales, I think it will be in order to speak of a matter that is a source of anxiety to a great many breeders, and that is the getting rid of the small bitches that are too small to breed. We have always found a ready sale for these when properly spayed for ladies' pets, largely in New York city. They make ideal house dogs, perhaps more winning and affectionate in their manner than others, never wandering off, and I believe the license fee is the same as for a male. Great care must be taken that the operation is thoroughly performed by a competent veterinary, and it is usually best done when the pup is six months old. My first experience may be of value and interest. I had a little "Buster" bitch that I felt assured to my sorrow was to small to whelp successfully, and being much fancied by a lady doctor in Waterbury, Conn., advised spaying before being sent. I took her to a veterinary with a good reputation in Boston, and after the dog had fully recovered from the operation, sent her to Dr. Conky. What was my surprise to hear that when nine months old she had come "in season." I sent the ex-President of the Boston Terrier Club, Dr. Osgood, down and an additional cost of fifty dollars ensued, whereas the first charge of two dollars would have been all that was necessary if the operation had been properly done in the first place. Am glad to say I have seen no failures since. I can conceive of no reason why there should not be a ready sale for this class of dogs in all sections of the country, and the disposal of the same will materially help the income of a great many breeders.
In conclusion let me state: "Put a price on your dogs that in your best judgment you know (not guess) to be a fair and equitable one (and if unable to decide what is right, call in an honorable expert who can) and take neither more nor less. Always remember that a man can raise horses, corn, cotton, or dogs (or any other honest product) and be a gentleman, but the moment he raises 'Cain' he ceases to be one."
BOSTON TERRIER TYPE AND THE STANDARD.
The standard adopted by the Boston Terrier Club in 1900 was the result of earnest, sincere, thoughtful deliberations of as conservative and conscientious a body of men as could anywhere be gotten together. Nothing was done in haste, the utmost consideration was given to every detail, and it was a thoroughly matured, and practically infallible guide to the general character and type of the breed by men who were genuine lovers of the dog for its own sake, who were perfectly familiar with the breed from its start, and who were cognizant of every point and characteristic which differentiated him from the bulldog on the one side and the bull terrier on the other, and while admitting the just claims of every other breed, believed sincerely that the dog evolved under their fostering care was the peer, if not the superior, of all in the particular sphere for which he was designed, an all-round house dog and companion. In the writer's estimation this type of dog, for the particular position in life, so to speak, he is to occupy, could not in any way be improved, and the mental qualities that accompany the physical characteristics (which are particularly specified in the first chapter) are of such inestimable value that any possible change would be detrimental. It may be observed that it was the dogs of this type that have led the van everywhere in the days when he was practically unknown outside of the state in which he originated. "Monte," "Druid Vixon," "Bonnie," "Revilo Peach," and dogs of their conformation possessed a type of interesting individuality that blazed the way east, west, north and south. Does any one imagine that the so-called terrier type one so often hears of, and which a large number of people are apparently led today to believe to be "par excellence," the correct thing, would have been capable of so doing? No one realizes more fully than the writer the fact that the bully type can be carried too far, and great harm will inevitably ensue, but the swing of the pendulum to the exaggerated terrier type will in time, I firmly believe, ring in his death knell. It is a source of wonderment to me that numbers of men who don the ermine can distribute prizes to the weedy specimens, shallow in muzzle, light in bone and substance, long in body, head and tail, who adorn (?) the shows of the past few years. I am not a prophet, neither the son of one, but I will hazard my reputation in predicting that before many years have rolled, a type, approximating that authorized by the Boston Terrier Club in 1900 will prevail, and the friends of the dog will undoubtedly believe it to be good enough to last for all time.
It will readily be recalled that Lord Byron said of the eminent actor, Sheridan, "that nature broke the die in moulding one such man," and the same may be affirmed with equal truth of the Boston terrier, and he will ever remain a type superior to and differ from all other breeds in his particular sphere.
It may not be generally known by those who are insisting on a much more terrier conformation than the standard calls for, that an equally extreme desire for an exaggerated bull type prevailed a number of years ago amongst some of the dogs' warmest supporters, whose ideal was that practically of a miniature bulldog, without the pronounced contour of the same. I remember when I joined the Club in the early days that some of the members then were afraid that the dogs were approximating too much to the terrier side of the house. What their views today would be I leave the reader to imagine. The plain fact of the case is, the dog should be a happy medium between the two, the bull and the terrier. Can any intelligent man find a chance for improvement here? I admit that many people are so constituted that a change is necessary in practically everything they are brought into close contact with. But is a change necessarily an improvement? If some men could change the color of their eyes or the general contour of their features they would never rest satisfied until they had so done, but they would speedily find out that such a change would be very detrimental to their appearance, the harmony of features and correlation of one part to another would be distorted. I admit readily that one very important result would be obtained, viz., the dog of the pronounced terrier type could be bred much more easily. But is an easy production a desideratum? I certainly think not. To those who "must be doing something" and who find a certain sense of satisfaction in tinkering with the standard, we extend our pity, and state that experience is a hard school, but some people will learn in no other. To those of us who love the dog as he is, and who believe in "letting well enough alone," we admit we might as well suggest to improve the majestic proportions of the old world cathedrals and castles we all love so much to see, or advocate the lightening up of the shadows on the canvas of the old masters, or recommend the touching up of the immortal carvings of the Italian sculptors. We advise the preacher to stick to his text, and the shoemaker to his last, and to all those who would improve the standard we say: Hands off! One very important feature in connection with the Standard is, that while breeders and judges are perfectly willing to have all dogs that come in the heavyweight class conform practically to it, when the lightweights and toys are concerned, a somewhat different type is permitted and the so-called terrier type is allowed, hence we see a tendency with the smaller dogs to a narrower chest, longer face and tail. While personally I am in favor of a dog weighing from sixteen to twenty pounds, or even somewhat heavier, there is absolutely no reason why one should not have any sized dog one desires, but please observe, do not breed small dogs at the expense of the type. Let the ten or twelve pound dog conform to the standard as much as if it weighed twenty. I think an object lesson will be of inestimable value here. Every one who has visited the poultry shows of the past few years must have been delighted and impressed to see the beautiful varieties of bantams. Take the games, for example, with their magnificent plumage and sprightly bearing. On even a casual examination it will be discovered that these little fowls are an exact reproduction of the game fowl in miniature. The same identical proportions, symmetry and shape. Take the lordly Brahma and the bantam bearing the same name, and the same exact proportions prevail. And so it should be with the small Boston terrier. They should possess the same proportions and symmetry as the larger. Remember always that when the dog is bred too much away from the bulldog type, a great loss in the loving disposition of the dog is bound to ensue. Personally, if the type had to be changed, I would rather lean to the bull type than the terrier. The following testimony of a Boston banker and director of the Union Pacific Railroad, to whom I sold two large dogs that were decidedly on the bull type, may be of interest at this point. Speaking of the first dog he said: "I have had all kinds of dogs, but I get more genuine pleasure out of my Boston terrier than all my other dogs combined. When I reach home in the afternoon I am met at the gate by Prince, and when I sit down to read my paper or a book the dog is at my feet on the rug, staying there perfectly still as long as I do. When dinner is announced he goes with me to the dining room, takes his place by my side, and every little while licks my hands, and when I go out for my usual walk before retiring the dog is waiting for me at the door while I put my hat and coat on. He follows me, never running away or barking, and he sleeps on a mat outside my door at night, and I never worry about burglars." All this is very simple and commonplace, but it shows why this type of a dog is liked. In regard to the differences of opinion that different judges exhibit when passing upon a dog in the show room, one preferring one type of a dog and the other another, this, of course, is morally wrong. The standard requirements should govern, and not individual preferences. We hear a good deal said nowadays about the cleaning up of the head, and the so-called terrier finish. That seems to be the thing to do, but does not the standard call for a compactly built dog, finished in every part of his make-up, and possessing style and a graceful carriage? This being the case, a dog should not possess wrinkled, loose skin on head or neck, and the shoulders should be neat and trim. In a word, in comporting to the standard a dog is produced that possesses a harmonious whole, "a thing of beauty" and a joy as long as he lives. In short, the dog should be as far removed from the bull type as he is from the terrier. If the present judges can not see their way clear to follow the standard, why, appoint those that will, for as every fair minded man agrees, the dogs should follow the standard and not the standard follow the dogs. It is needless to add that I do not share in the pessimistic view taken by many lovers of the dog who think he will be permanently injured by the differences of opinion that prevail as to the type, etc., and the personalities that sometimes mar the showing of the dog, for I am of the same opinion as was probably felt by the great fish who had to give up Jonah, "that it is an impossible feat to keep a good man (or dog) down," and that instead of falling off, as one writer intimates, he will fall into the good graces of a larger number of people than has heretofore fallen to the lot of any variety of man's best friend.
It would seem at the first glance that to write on this subject was only a waste of time and energy, and yet I know that no one feature of the dog business is more vital in importance or more fraught with trouble than this apparently simple process of dog photography.
The novice will at once exclaim: "What could be more natural than sending on a picture of a dog I want to sell to the prospective customer? Surely he can see exactly what he is purchasing!" This may be perfectly true, and yet again it may not.
I am not writing of the subject of false pictures on the stud cards of some unscrupulous breeders, or those pictures taken of dogs whose markings are faked, only too common in some quarters. The photos look good, of course, to the buyer, but when the dog arrives, he finds, to his disgust, that the beautiful markings, in some mysterious manner, got "rubbed off" while making the journey in the crate. I recently saw a photograph of a dog sold to a Western customer, by a dealer in an adjoining town to mine, taken by an artist in photography when the dog was all "chalked up". When the dog arrived he was as free from nose band as my pocket is frequently of a dollar bill. Small wonder the buyer remarked with emphasis that the dealer was a fraud. One can almost forgive his exclamation, which he surely had not learned at Sunday school, at being taken in, in so mean a way.
I am writing more particularly of the art of the photographer in bringing out the best points of the dog, and effectually hiding the poorer ones. How many times have we heard the dealer say, in speaking of a dog with good markings, but off in many other respects: "He will make a good seller to ship away, as I can get a good looking picture of him." He knows perfectly well that a clever photographer can so pose the dog as to hide bad defects. A long muzzle, a long back, or one badly roached, poor tail, bad legs and feet, can all be minimized by posing the dog on the stand. The buyer, on receipt of the dog, although thoroughly dissatisfied, will have to admit that the photo is a genuine one, and, in most cases, is unable to obtain any redress.
Another very important side of dog photography is the mania for picture collecting. Some time ago I saw a signed article in "Dogdom", from a very charming lady living in a city fifty miles from Boston, asserting she was about to retire from the Boston terrier game, as it cost her too much to furnish photos of her dogs to people from all parts of the country, who, under the guise of wishing to buy dogs, wanted photos and pedigrees of the same. They usually stated that if they did not purchase the dog, the photo and pedigree would be promptly returned. This was the last she ever heard of them, and pictures were rarely if ever, returned. As her photos were taken by a first class photographer, the cost was considerable, and the photos were really works of art, which, perhaps, may be one reason why the recipients could not bear to let them go back. She was a lady of large wealth, and she had established a kennel of real Bostons, presided over by an expert kennel-maid, and would have become a genuine help to the breed, but "pictures" were her undoing.
Since the American dog has become the most popular breed in the canine world, many people, who cannot afford to purchase a choice specimen, seem to rest satisfied when they can obtain a photo, and they have no scruples apparently in writing to the leading kennels for pictures of their leading dogs. I have had many instances come under my notice, but, for want of space, only one typical case can be mentioned.
A few years ago, on visiting a city a short distance from Boston, I was accosted by a young man, rather flashily attired, who invited me to call and see his kennels, assuring me he had some crackerjacks. As I was unaware of the existence of any number of A-1 Bostons in his neighborhood, my curiosity was aroused and I went. I found the dogs quartered in a back room in a very small house. I have never seen such a collection of the aristocrats of the breed before or since.
When I found my voice, I managed to exclaim: "Allow me to congratulate you, my dear sir, I have never seen so many good dogs kenneled in so small a space before. You are certainly a very lucky man; the food problem never troubles you; you do not have to dodge the tax collector; no need ever to call in a vet.; no neighbors can ever complain of being kept awake at night, and the dogs that are tacked upon the ceiling seem just as content as those pasted on the walls."
He then produced his book where the pedigrees of the dogs were neatly recorded. The trouble is, he is not the only one who owns such a kennel of thorough-breds.
It must not be inferred from the above that I am averse to picture taking. By no means. They are absolutely necessary. But make them "Pen Pictures". Write a complete description of the dog in question, giving actual weight, age, conformation, color and markings, condition of health, and disposition. State the color of the brindle and the extent of the markings whether full or partial. Do not state that the dog has perfect markings if it lacks a collar or white feet. If banded only on one side of the muzzle, say so. If pinched or undershot, say so. If roached in back, poor eyes, weak in hind quarters or off in tail, say so. In fact, plainly state any defects. At the same time, if the dog is practically O. K. in all respects, stylish and trappy, do not hesitate to emphasize the fact, and if the dog likewise possesses a charming, delightful personality, make the most of it. Always remember that the perfect Boston terrier dies young!
There are several features of vital import in Boston terrier breeding that the passing years have disclosed to the writer the imperative need of attention to. Most of these have been spoken of in this book before, but they seem to me at the present time to demand being specially emphasized. Feeding and its relation to skin diseases, I think, naturally heads the list.
I have received more letters of inquiry from all parts of the country asking what to do for skin trouble than for all other ailments combined. I think our little dog is more susceptible to skin affections than most dogs, owing to the fact that he is more or less a house pet, and does not get the chance of as much outdoor exercise, and the access to nature's remedy—grass, as most breeds. At the same time if fed properly, given sufficient life in the open, no dog possesses a more beautiful glossy coat.
No one factor is more responsible for skin trouble than the indiscriminate feeding of dog biscuit. These, as previously written, are first rate supplementary food, but where they are made the "piece de resistance," look out for breakers ahead. The mere fact of their being available under all circumstances and in all places contributes largely to their general use.
At the new million dollar Angell Memorial Animal Hospital, Boston, Doctors Daly and Flanigan have conducted a series of scientific experiments on dogs. I had talked with Dr. Flanigan, and stated my experience was that an exclusive dog biscuit diet was the cause of skin trouble invariably.
They selected forty dogs in perfect physical condition, dividing them into two groups of twenty each. To one was fed exclusively dog biscuits, and the other a diet of milk in the morning, and at night a feed composed of a liberal amount of spinach—they had to use the canned article as it was in winter—boiled with meat scraps and thickened with sound stale bread.
At the end of a fortnight seventeen of the first group were afflicted more or less with skin trouble, while the other twenty were in the pink of condition. To effect a cure, the spinach diet—called by the French "the broom of the stomach"—was fed, and the coat washed with a weak sulpho-naphtha solution. No internal medicine was given. In a month's time the coats of the dogs were normal. Further comment on this is unnecessary.
Next in importance to spinach I place carrots and cabbage, boiled up with the meat and rice, oat meal and occasionally corn meal. Don't be afraid to give a good quantity of the sliced boiled carrots, especially in the winter season when the dogs cannot obtain grass.
A short time ago, I went to see a group of trained monkeys and dogs perform. They both looked in beautiful condition, and on enquiring of the proprietor as to his methods of feeding, he said it was a very easy matter, as he had trained both dogs and monkeys to eat raw carrots while on the road, during which time he had to feed dog biscuits. When at home in New York he fed a vegetable hash with sound meat and rye bread, using largely carrots, beets, a very few potatoes and some apples. While on the road he had no facilities for cooking for his animals so he accustomed them to eating cut up raw carrots every other day. Previous to this he was bothered with skin trouble with both dogs and monkeys.
The food problem at the present time is a very serious one. The high cost of all sorts of food of every variety should force those breeders who have been keeping a very inferior stock to make up their minds once and for all that it takes just as much time and cost to raise "mutts" as it does the real article. Weed out the inferior stock that never did or will pay for their keep. Keep half a dozen good ones that will reproduce, if bred rightly, their quality, if you have not plenty of room for a large number. To those fanciers who only own two or three, sufficient food is usually furnished from the scraps left from the table, supplemented, of course, with dog biscuit.
Many kennel-men, who have a large number of dogs to feed, obtain daily from hotels or boarding houses the table scraps, and this makes an ideal food. We fed quite a large number of dogs for several years in this way with perfect success. I know of a large pack of foxhounds that are fed from the same food furnished by a large hotel. Fish heads boiled with vegetables make a good diet—be sure there are no fish hooks left in them, and the scraps from the butchers that are not quite fit for human consumption make ideal food when cooked with rice or vegetables. Be careful they are not too old, however. When skimmed milk is obtainable at the right price, with waste stale bread, it makes a well balanced ration for occasional feeding. A few onions boiled up with the feed are always in order.
I think the subject of "Tails" requires more than a passing mention here. All observers at the recent shows must have noticed the tendency toward a lengthening in many of the tails of the dogs on the bench. Some dogs have been awarded high honors which carried "more than the law allows", owing doubtless to their other excellent qualities. While I personally believe in a happy medium, never lose sight of the fact that a good short screw tail has always been, and, I believe, will always remain a leading characteristic of the American dog.
In selecting a stud dog be certain his tail is O. K. The bitch can very well afford to carry a longer one, and usually whelps better on this account. I know of nothing more discouraging in the Boston terrier game than to have a litter of choice puppies in every other respect, but off in tails.
While writing on the subject of tails, it may not be out of place to note an interesting fact in connection with this at the earliest history of our little dog. Mr. John Barnard became the possessor of Tom, afterward known as Barnard's Tom. This was the first Boston terrier to rejoice in a screw tail. Mr. Barnard did not know what to make of it, so he took the pup to old Dr. Saunders, a well known and respected veterinary surgeon of the day, to have the tail, if possible, put into splints and straightened. I guess there have been quite a number of pups, descendants of Tom, whose owners would have been only too glad to have had their straight tails put in splints, if, thereby, it would have been possible to produce a "screw".
I think the subject of sufficient importance to again call the attention of breeders to the necessity of the extreme care in breeding seal brindles. The demand started some years ago for very dark color has placed upon the market many dogs devoid of any brindle shading. At the last Boston Terrier Club specialty show a beautiful little dog, almost perfect in every other respect, was given the gate on account of being practically black.
In my former chapter on Color Breeding, I urged the necessity of using a red or light mahogany brindle on black stock. If either sex come black, never use any other color than these to mix in. Enough said!
One is constantly hearing from all parts of the country of the prevalence of bitches missing. Where they are bred to over-worked stud dogs no surprise need be manifested. In case of a "miss" have the bitch bred two or three times to the dog next time. If she misses then, the next time let her run with the dog for several days. I have written this before, but it will bear repetition.
Do not acquire the habit of getting rid of the matrons of the kennel when six or seven years old. Many bitches give birth to strong pups when eight or nine years old. I write, of course, of those in strong, vigorous condition, that have always had plenty of good outdoor exercise.
Remember, there is no spot on this broad land where the Boston terrier does not make himself thoroughly "at home." What more can one wish?
I was sitting by an open fire the other evening, and there passed through my mind a review of the breed since I saw a great many years ago, when the world, to me, was young, a handsome little lad leading down Beacon street, Boston, two dogs, of a different type than I had ever seen before, that seemed to have stamped upon them an individual personality and style. They were not bulldogs, neither were they bull terriers; breeds with which I had been familiar all my life; but appeared to be a happy combination of both. I need hardly say that one was Barnard's Tom, and the other his litter brother, Atkinson's Toby. Tom was the one destined to make Boston terrier history, as he was the sire of Barnard's Mike.
Mr. J. P. Barnard has rightly been called the "Father of the Boston terrier," and he still lives, hale and hearty. May his last days be his best, and full of good cheer!
I am now rapidly approaching the allotted time for man, but I venture the assertion that were I to visit any city or even small town of the United States or Canada, I could see some handsome little lad or lassie leading one of Barnard's Mike's sons or daughters. Small wonder he is called the American dog.
The celebrated Dr. Johnson once remarked that few children live to fulfil the promise of their youth. Our little aristocrat of the dog world has more than done so. May his shadow never grow less!
I feel convinced that I ought to take this opportunity to record my kindly appreciation of the generous expressions of thanks for my efforts on behalf of the dog. They have come from all parts of the country, and from all classes of people. Were it in my power I would gladly reply to each individual writer. This is impossible. I can only say, "I thank you! May God bless us, one and all!"
TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN RELATION TO THE BOSTON TERRIER, AND THEIR MEANING.
A Crackerjack—A first class, typical dog.
A Mutt—A worthless specimen.
A Flyer—A dog capable of winning in any company.
A Weed—A leggy, thin, attenuated dog, bred so.
A Fake—A dog whose natural appearance has been interfered with to hide defects.
A Dope—A dog afflicted, usually with chorea, that has had cocaine administered to him to stop the twitching while in the judging ring.
A Ringer—A dog shown under a false name, that has previously been shown under his right name.
Apple-headed—Skull round, instead of flat on top.
Broken-up Face—Bulldog face, with deep stop and wrinkle and receding nose.
Frog or Down Face—Nose not receding.
Dish-faced—One whose nasal bone is higher at the nose than at the stop.
Butterfly Nose—A spotted nose.
Dudley Nose—A flesh-colored nose.
Rose Ear—An ear which the tip turns backward and downward, disclosing the inside.
Button Ear—An ear that falls over in front, concealing the inside.
Tulip Ear—An upright, or pricked ear.
Blaze—The white line up the face.
Cheeky—When the cheek bumps are strongly defined.
Occiput—The prominent bone at the back or top of the skull, noticeably prominent in bloodhounds.
Chops—The pendulous lips of the bulldog.
Cushion—Fullness in the top lips.
Dewlap—The pendulous skin under the throat.
Lippy—The hanging lips of some dogs, who should not possess same, as in the bull terrier.
Layback—A receding nose.
Pig-jawed—The upper jaw protruding over the lower; an exaggeration of an undershot jaw.
Overshot—The upper teeth projecting beyond the lower.
Undershot—The lower incisor teeth projecting beyond the upper, as in bulldogs.
Wrinkle—Loose, folding skin over the skull.
Wall Eye—A blue mottled eye.
Snipy—Too pointed in muzzle; pinched.
Stop—The indentation between the skull and the nasal bone near the eyes.
Septum—The division between the nostrils.
Leather—The skin of the ear.
Expression—The size and placement of the eye determines the expression of the dog.
Brisket—That part of the body in front of the chest and below the neck.
Chest—That part of the body between the forelegs, sometimes called the breast, extending from the brisket to the body.
Cobby—Thick set; low in stature, and short coupled; or well ribbed up, short and compact.
Couplings—The space between the tops of the shoulder blades, and the tops of the hip joints. A dog is accordingly said to be long or short "in the couplings."
Deep in Brisket—Deep in chest.
Elbows—The joint at the top of forearm.
Elbows Out—Self-explanatory; either congenital, or as a result of weakness.
Flat-sided—Flat in ribs; not rounded.
Forearm—The foreleg between the elbows and pastern.
Pastern—The lower section of the leg below the knee or hock respectively.
Shoulders—The top of the shoulder blades, the point at which a dog is measured.
Racy—Slight in build and leggy.
Roach-back—The arched or wheel formation of loin.
Pad—The underneath portion of the foot.
Loins—The part of body between the last rib and hindquarters.
Long in flank—Long in back of loins.
Cat-foot—A short, round foot, with the knuckles well developed.
Hare-foot—A long, narrow foot, carried forward.
Splay-foot—A flat, awkward forefoot, usually turned outward.
Stifles—The upper joint of hind legs.
Second Thighs—The muscular development between stifle joint and hock.
The Hock—The lowest point of the hind leg.
Spring—Round, or well sprung ribs; not flat.
Shelly—Narrow, shelly body.
Tucked Up—Tucked up loin, as seen in greyhounds.
Upright Shoulders—Shoulders that are set in an upright, instead of an oblique position.
Leggy—Having the legs too long in proportion to body.
Screw Tail—A tail twisted in the form of a screw.
Kink Tail—A tail with a break or kink in it.
Even Mouthed—A term used to describe a dog whose jaws are neither overhung nor underhung.
Beefy—Big, beefy hind quarters.
Bully—Where the dog approaches the bulldog too much in conformation.
Terrier Type—Where the dog approaches the terrier too much in conformation.
Cow-hocked—The hocks turning inward.
Saddle-back—The opposite of roach-back.
Lengthy—Possessing length of body.
Broody—A broody bitch; one whose length of conformation evidences a likely mother; one who will whelp easily and rear her pups.
Blood—A blood; a dog whose appearance denotes high breeding.
Condition—Another name for perfect health, without superfluous flesh, coat in the best of shape, and spirits lively and cheerful.
Style—Showy, and of a stylish, gay demeanor.
Listless—Dull and sluggish.
Character—A sub-total of all the points which give to the dog the desired character associated with his particular variety, which differentiates him from all other breeds.
Hall-mark—That stamp of quality that distinguishes him from inferior dogs, as the sterling mark on silver, or the hall-mark on the same metal in England.