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The American Woman's Home
by Catherine E. Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe
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On Sunday, the folding-doors of the bow-window are to be opened for the pulpit, the sliding-doors opened, or the screen moved back, and camp-chairs brought from the adjacent closet to seat a congregation of worshipers.

During the week, the family work is to be done in the kitchen, and the room adjacent be used for both a school and an eating-room. Here the aim will be, during the week, to collect the children of the neighborhood, to be taught not only to read, write, and cipher, but to perform in the best manner all the practical duties of the family state. Two ladies residing in this building can make an illustration of the highest kind of "Christian family," by adopting two orphans, keeping in training one or two servants to send out for the benefit of other families, and also providing for an invalid or aged member of Christ's neglected ones. Here also they could employ boys and girls in various kinds of floriculture, horticulture, bee-raising, and other out-door employments, by which an income could be received and young men and women trained to industry and thrift, so as to earn an independent livelihood.

The above attempt has been made where, in a circuit of fifty miles, with a thriving population, not a single church is open for Sunday worship, and not a school to be found except what is provided by faithful Roman Catholic nuns, who, indeed, are found engaged in similar labors all over our country. The cost of such a building, where lumber is $50 a hundred and labor $3 a day, would not much exceed $1200.

Such destitute settlements abound all over the West and South, while, along the Pacific coast, China and Japan are sending their pagan millions to share our favored soil, climate, and government.

Meantime, throughout our older States are multitudes of benevolent, well-educated, Christian women in unhealthful factories, offices, and shops; and many, also, living in refined leisure, who yet are pining for an opportunity to aid in carrying the Gospel to the destitute. Nothing is needed but funds that are in the keeping of thousands of Christ's professed disciples, and organisations for this end, which are at the command of the Protestant clergy.

Let such a truly "Christian family" be instituted in any destitute settlement, and soon its gardens and fields would cause "the desert to blossom as the rose," and around would soon gather a "Christian neighborhood." The school-house would no longer hold the multiplying worshipers. A central church would soon appear, with its appended accommodations for literary and social gatherings and its appliances for safe and healthful amusements.

The cheering example would soon spread, and ere long colonies from these prosperous and Christian communities would go forth to shine as "lights of the world" in all the now darkened nations. Thus the "Christian family," and "Christian neighborhood" would become the grand ministry, as they were designed to be, in training our whole race for heaven.

This final chapter should not close without a few encouraging words to those who, in view of the many difficult duties urged in these pages, sorrowfully review their past mistakes and deficiencies. None can do this more sincerely than the writer. How many things have been done unwisely even with good motives! How many have been left undone that the light of present knowledge would have secured!

In this painful review, the good old Bible comes as the abundant comforter. The Epistle to the Romans was written especially to meet such regrets and fears. It teaches that all men are sinners, in many cases from ignorance of what is right, and in many from stress of temptation, so that neither Greek nor Jew can boast of his own righteousness. For it is not "by works of righteousness" that we are to be considered and treated as righteous persons, but through a "faith that works by love;" that faith or belief which is not a mere intellectual conviction, but a controlling purpose or spiritual principle which habitually controls the feelings and conduct. And so long as there is this constant aim and purpose to obey Christ in all things, mistakes in judgment as to what is right and wrong are pitied, "even as a father pitieth his children," when from ignorance they run into harm. And even the most guilty transgressors are freely forgiven when truly repentant and faithfully striving to forsake the error of their ways.

Moreover, this tender and pitiful Saviour is the Almighty One who rules both this and the invisible world, and who "from every evil still educes good." This life is but the infant period of our race, and much that we call evil, in his wise and powerful ruling may be for the highest good of all concerned.

The Blessed Word also cheers us with pictures of a dawning day to which we are approaching, when a voice shall be heard under the whole heavens, saying, "Alleluia"—"the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever." And "a great voice out of heaven" will proclaim, "Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he shall dwell with them, and they shall be his people. And God himself shall be with them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying; neither shall there be any more pain; for the former things are passed away."

The author still can hear the echoes of early life, when her father's voice read to her listening mother in exulting tones the poet's version of this millennial consummation, which was the inspiring vision of his long life-labors—a consummation to which all their children were consecrated, and which some of them may possibly live to behold.

"O scenes surpassing fable, and yet true! Scenes of accomplished bliss! which who can see, Though but in distant prospect, and not feel His soul refreshed with foretaste of the joy!

"Rivers of gladness water all the earth, And clothe all climes with beauty; the reproach Of barrenness is past. The fruitful field Laughs with abundance; and the land once lean, Or fertile only in its own disgrace, Exults to see its thistly curse repealed.

"Error has no place: That creeping pestilence is driven away; The breath of Heaven has chased it. In the heart No passion touches a discordant string, But all is harmony and love. Disease Is not: the pure and uncontaminate blood Holds its due course, nor fears the frost of age.

One song employs all nations; and all cry, 'Worthy the Lamb, for he was slain for us!' The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks Shout to each other; and the mountain-tops From distant mountains catch the flying joy; Till, nation after nation taught the strain,

"Behold the measure of the promise filled! See Salem built, the labor of a God! Bright as a sun the sacred city shines; All kingdoms and all princes of the earth Flock to that light; the glory of all lands Flows into her; unbounded is her joy, And endless her increase. Thy rams are there, Nebaioth, and the flocks of Kedar there; The looms of Ormus and the mines of Ind, And Saba's spicy groves pay tribute there.

"Praise is in all her gates: upon her walls, And in her streets, and in her spacious courts, Is heard salvation. Eastern Java there Kneels with the native of the farthest west; And Athiopia spreads abroad the hand, And worships. Her report has traveled forth Into all lands. From every clime they come To see thy beauty, and to share thy joy, O Zion! an assembly such as earth Saw never, such as Heaven stoops down to see!" [Footnote: Cowper's Task.]



AN APPEAL TO AMERICAN WOMEN BY THE SENIOR AUTHOR OF THIS VOLUME.

My honored countrywomen:

It is now over forty years that I have been seeking to elevate the character and condition of our sex, relying, as to earthly aid, chiefly on your counsel and cooperation. I am sorrowful at results that have followed these and similar efforts, and ask your sympathy and aid.

Let me commence with a brief outline of the past. I commenced as an educator in the city of Hartford, Ct., when only the primary branches and one or two imperfect accomplishments were the ordinary school education, and was among the first pioneers in seeking to introduce some of the higher branches. The staid, conservative citizen's queried of what use to women were Latin, Geometry, and Algebra, and wondered at a request for six recitation rooms and a study-hall for a school of nearly a hundred, who had as yet only one room. The appeal was then made to benevolent, intelligent women, and by their influence all that was sought was liberally bestowed.

But the course of study then attempted was scarcely half of what is now pursued in most of our colleges for young women, while there has been added a round and extent of accomplishments then unknown. Yet this moderate amount so stimulated brain and nerves, and so excited competition, that it became needful to enforce a rule, requiring a daily report, that only two hours a day had been devoted to study out of school hours. Even this did not avail to save from injured health both the teacher who projected these improvements and many of her pupils. This example and that of similar institutions spread all over the nation, with constantly increasing demand for more studies, and decreasing value and respect for domestic pursuits and duties.

Ten years of such intellectual excitement exhausted the nervous fountain, and my profession as a school-teacher was ended.

The next attempt was to introduce Domestic Economy as a science to be studied in schools for girls. For a while it seemed to succeed; but ere long was crowded out by Political Economy and many other economies, except those most needed to prepare a woman for her difficult and sacred duties.

In the progress of years, it came to pass that the older States teemed with educated women, qualified for no other department of woman's profession but that of a schoolteacher, while the newer States abounded in children without schools.

I again appealed to my countrywomen for help, addressing them through the press and also by the assistance of a brother (in assemblies in many chief cities) in order to raise funds to support an agent. The funds were bestowed, and thus the services of Governor Slade were secured, and, mainly by these agencies, nearly one thousand teachers were provided with schools, chiefly in the West.

Meantime, the intellectual taxation in both private and public schools, the want of proper ventilation in both families and schools, the want of domestic exercise which is so valuable to the feminine constitution, the pernicious modes of dress, and the prevailing neglect of the laws of health, resulted in the general decay of health among women. At the same time, the overworking of the brain and nerves, and the "cramming" system of study, resulted in a deficiency of mental development which is very marked. It is now a subject of general observation that young women, at this day, are decidedly inferior in mental power to those of an earlier period, notwithstanding their increased advantages. For the mind, crowded with undigested matter, is debilitated the same as is the body by over-feeding,

Recent scientific investigations give the philosophy of these results. For example, Professor Houghton, of Trinity College, Dublin, gives as one item of protracted experiments in animal chemistry, that two hours of severe study abstracts as much vital strength as is demanded by a whole day of manual labor. The reports of the Massachusetts Board of Education add other facts that, in this connection, should be deeply pondered. For example, in one public school of eighty-five pupils only fifty-four had refreshing sleep; fifty-nine had headaches or constant weariness, and only fifteen were perfectly well. In this school it was found, and similar facts are common in all our public and high schools, that, in addition to six school-hours, thirty-one studied three hours and a half; thirty-five, four hours; and twelve, from four to seven hours. And yet the most learned medical men maintain that the time devoted to brain labor, daily, should not exceed six hours for healthy men, and three hours for growing children.

Alarmed at the dangerous tendencies of female education, I made another appeal to my sex, which resulted in the organization of the American Woman's Education Association, the object being to establish endowed professional schools, in connection with literary institutions, in which woman's profession should be honored and taught as are the professions of men, and where woman should be trained for some self-supporting business. From this effort several institutions of a high literary character have come into existence at the West, but the organization and endowment of the professional schools is yet incomplete from many combining impediments, the chief being a want of appreciation of woman's profession, and of the science and training which its high and sacred duties require. But the reports of the Association will show that never before were such superior intellectual advantages secured to a new country by so economical an outlay.

Let us now look at the dangers which are impending. And first, in regard to the welfare of the family state, the decay of the female constitution and health has involved such terrific sufferings, in addition to former cares and pains of maternity, that multitudes of both sexes so dread the risks of marriage as either to avoid it, or meet them by methods always injurious and often criminal. Not only so, multitudes of intelligent and conscientious persons, in private and by the press, unaware of the penalties of violating nature, openly impugn the inspired declaration, "Children are a heritage of the Lord."

Add to these, other influences that are robbing home of its safe and peaceful enjoyments. Of such, the condition of domestic service is not the least. We abound in domestic helpers from foreign shores, but they are to a large extent thriftless, ignorant, and unscrupulous, while as thriftless and inexperienced housekeepers, from boarding-school life, have no ability to train or to control. Hence come antagonism and ceaseless "worries" in the parlor, nursery, and kitchen, while the husband is wearied with endless complaints of breakage, waste of fuel and food, neglect, dishonesty, and deception, and home is any thing but a harbor of comfort and peace. Thus come clubs to draw men from comfortless homes, and, next, clubs for the deserted women.

Meantime, domestic service—disgraced, on one side, by the stigma of our late slavery, and, on the other, by the influx into our kitchens of the uncleanly and ignorant—is shunned by the self-respecting and well educated, many of whom prefer either a miserable pittance or the career of vice to this fancied degradation. Thus comes the overcrowding in all avenues for woman's work, and the consequent lowering of wages to starvation prices for long protracted toils.

From this come diseases to the operatives, bequeathed often to their offspring. Factory girls must stand ten hours or more, and consequently in a few years debility and disease ensue, so that they never can rear healthy children, while the foreigners who supplant them in kitchen labor are almost the only strong and healthy women to rear large families. The sewing-machine, hailed as a blessing, has proved a curse to the poor; for it takes away profits from needlewomen, while employers testify that women who use this machine for steady work, in two years or less become hopelessly diseased and can rear no children. Thus it is that the controlling political majority of New-England is passing from the educated to the children of ignorant foreigners.

Add to these disastrous influences, the teachings of "free love;" the baneful influence of spiritualism, so called; the fascinations of the demi-monde; the poverty of thousands of women who, but for desperate temptations, would be pure—all these malign influences are sapping the foundations of the family state. Meantime, many intelligent and benevolent persons imagine that the grand remedy for the heavy evils that oppress our sex is to introduce woman to political power and office, to make her a party in primary political meetings, in political caucuses, and in the scramble and fight for political offices; thus bringing into this dangerous melee the distinctive tempting power of her sex. Who can look at this new danger without dismay? But it is neither generous nor wise to join in the calumny and ridicule that are directed toward philanthropic and conscientious laborers for the good of our sex, because we fear their methods are not safe. It would be far wiser to show by example a better way.

Let us suppose that our friends have gained the ballot and the powers of office: are there any real beneficent measures for our sex, which they would enforce by law and penalties, that fathers, brothers, and husbands would not grant to a united petition of our sex, or even to a majority of the wise and good? Would these not confer what the wives, mothers, and sisters deemed best for themselves and the children they are to train, very much sooner than they would give power and office to our sex to enforce these advantages by law? Would it not be a wiser thing to ask for what we need, before trying so circuitous and dangerous a method? God has given to man the physical power, so that all that woman may gain, either by petitions or by ballot, will be the gift of love or of duty; and the ballot never will be accorded till benevolent and conscientious men are the majority—a millennial point far beyond our present ken.

The American Woman's Education Association aims at a plan which its members believe, in its full development, will more effectually remedy the "wrongs of woman" than any other urged on public notice. Its general aim has been stated; its details will appear at another time and place. Its managers include ladies of high character and position from six religious denominations, and also some of the most reliable business men of New York. Any person who is desirous to aid by contributions to this object can learn more of the details of the plan by addressing me at No. 69 West Thirty-eighth Street. But it is needful to state that letters from those who seek aid or employment of any sort can not be answered at present, nor for some months to come.

Every woman who wishes to aid in this effort for the safety and elevation of our sex can do so by promoting the sale of this work, and its introduction as a text-book into schools. An edition for the use of schools will be in readiness next fall, which will contain school exercises, and questions that will promote thought and discussion in classrooms, in reference to various topics included in the science of Domestic Economy. And it is hoped that a previous large sale of the present volume will prepare the public mind to favor the introduction of this branch of study into both public and private schools. Ladies who write for the press, and all those who have influence with editors, can aid by directing general attention to this effort.

All the profits of the authors derived from the edition of this volume prepared for schools, will be paid into the Treasury of the A. W.E. Association, and the amount will be stated in the annual reports.

The complementary volume of this work will follow in a few months, and will consist, to a great extent, of receipts and directions in all branches of domestic economy, especially in the department of healthful and economical cooking. The most valuable receipts in my Domestic Receipt Book, heretofore published by the Harpers, will be retained, and a very large number added of new ones, which are healthful, economical, and in many cases ornamental. One special aim will be to point out modes of economizing labor in preparing food.

Many directions will be given that will save from purchasing poisonous milk, meats, beers, and other medicated drinks. Directions for detecting poisonous ingredients in articles for preserving the hair, and in cosmetics for the complexion, which now are ruining health, eyesight, and comfort all over the nation, will also be given.

Particular attention will be given to modes of preparing and preserving clothing, at once economical, healthful, and in good taste.

A large portion of the book will be devoted to instruction, in the various ways in which women may earn an independent livelihood, especially in employments that can be pursued in sunlight and the open air.

Should any who read this work wish for more minute directions in regard to ventilation of a house already built, or one projected, they can obtain his aid by addressing Lewis Leeds, No. 110 Broadway, New York City. His associate, Mr. Herman Kreitler, who prepared the architectural plans in this work relating to Mr. Leeds's system, can be addressed at the same place.

CATHARINE E. BEECHER.

NEW YORK, June 1, 1869.



APPENDIX.

GLOSSARY OF SUCH WORDS AND PHRASES AS MAY NOT EASILY BE UNDERSTOOD BY THE YOUNG READER

[Many words not contained in this GLOSSARY will be found explained in the body of the work, in the places where they first occur.]

Action brought by the Commonwealth: A prosecution conducted in the name of the public, or by the authority of the State.

Albumen: Nourishing matter stored up between the undeveloped germ and its protecting wrappings in the seed of many plants. It is the flowery part of grain, the oily part of poppy seeds, the fleshy part in cocoa- nuts, etc.

Alcoholic: Made of or containing alcohol, an inflammable liquid which is the basis of ardent spirits.

Alkali, (plural, alkalies:) A chemical substance, which has the property of combining with and neutralizing the properties of acids, producing salts by the combination. Alkalies change most of the vegetable blues and purples to green, red to purple, and yellow to brown. Caustic alkali: An alkali deprived of all impurities, being thereby rendered more caustic and violent in its operation. This term is usually applied to pure potash. Fixed alkali: An alkali that emits no characteristic smell, and can not be volatilized or evaporated without great difficulty. Potash and soda are called the fixed alkalies. Soda is also called a fossil or mineral alkali, and potash the vegetable alkali. Volatile alkali: An elastic, transparent, colorless, and consequently an invisible gas, known by the name of ammonia or ammoniacal gas. The odor of spirits of hartshorn is caused by this gas.

Anglo-American: English-American, relating to Americans descended from English ancestors.

Anther: That part of the stamen of a flower which contains the pollen or farina, a sort of mealy powder or dust, which is necessary to the production of the flower.

Anthracite: One of the must valuable kinds of mineral coal, containing no bitumen. It is very abundant in the United States.

Aperient: Opening.

Archaology: A discourse or treatise on antiquities.

Arrow-root: A white powder, obtained from the fecula or starch, of several species of tuberous plants in the East and West Indies, Bermuda, and other places. That from Bermuda is most highly esteemed. It is used as an article for the table, in the form of puddings, and also as a highly nutritive, easily digested, and agreeable food for invalids. It derives its name from having been originally used by the Indians as a remedy for the poison of their arrows, by mashing and applying it to the wound.

Articulating process: The protuberance or projecting part of a bone, by which it is so joined to another bone as to enable the two to move upon each other.

Asceticism: The state of an ascetic or hermit, who flies from society and lives in retirement, or who practices a greater degree of mortification and austerity than others do, or who inflicts extraordinary severities upon himself.

Astral lamp: A lamp, the principle of which was invented by Benjamin Thompson, (a native of Massachusetts, and afterward Count Rumford,) in which the oil is contained in a large horizontal ring, having at the centre a burner which communicates with the ring by tubes. The ring is placed a little below the level of the flame, and from its large surface affords a supply of oil for many hours.

Astute: Shrewd.

Auricles: (From a Latin word, signifying the ear,) the name given to two appendages of the heart, from their fancied resemblance to the ear.

Baglivi, (George): An eminent physician, who was born at Ragusa, in 1668, and was educated at Naples and Paris. Pope Clement XIV., on the ground of his great merit, appointed him, while a very young man, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the College of Sapienza, at Rome. He wrote several works, and did much to promote the cause of medical science. He died A.D. 1706.

Bass, or bass-wood: A large forest-tree of America, sometimes called the lime-tree. The wood is white and soft, and the bark is sometimes used for bandages.

Bell, Sir Charles: A celebrated surgeon, who was born in Edinburgh, in the year 1778. He commenced his career in London, in 1806, as a lecturer on Anatomy and Surgery. In 1830, he received the honors of knighthood, and in 1836 was appointed Professor of Surgery in the College of Edinburgh. He died near Worcester, in England, April 29th, 1842. His writings are very numerous and have been, much celebrated. Among the most important of these, to general readers, are his Illustrations of Paley's Natural Theology, and his treatise on The Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments, as evincing Design.

Bergamot: A fruit which was originally produced by ingrafting a branch of a citron or lemon-tree upon the stock of a peculiar kind of pear, called the bergamot pear.

Biased: Cut diagonally from one corner to another of a square or rectangular piece of cloth.

Bias pieces: Triangular pieces cut as above mentioned.

Bituminous: Containing bitumen, which is an inflammable mineral substance, resembling tar or pitch in its properties and uses. Among different bituminous substances, the names naphtha and petrolium have been given to those which are fluid, maltha, to that which has the consistence of pitch, and asphaltum to that which is solid.

Blight: A disease in plants by which they are blasted, or prevented from producing fruit.

Blonde lace: Lace made of silk.

Blood heat: The temperature which the blood is always found to maintain, or ninety-eight degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer.

Blue vitriol: Sulphate of copper.

Blunts: Needles of a short and thick shape, distinguished from Sharps, which are long and slender.

Booking: A kind of thin carpeting or coarse baize.

Botany: (From a Greek word signifying an herb,) a knowledge of plants; the science which treats of plants.

Brazil wood: The central part or heart of a large tree which grows in Brazil, called the Caesalpinia echinata. It produces very lively and beautiful red tints, but they are not permanent.

Bronze: A metallic composition, consisting of copper and tin.

Brulure: A French term, denoting a burning or scalding; a blasting of plants.

Brussels, (carpet:) A kind of carpeting, so called from the city of Brussels, in Europe. Its basis is composed of a warp and woof of strong linen threads, with the warp of which are intermixed about five times the quantity of woolen threads of different colors.

Bulb: A root with a round body, like the onion, turnip, or hyacinth.

Bulbous: Having a bulb.

Byron, (George Gordon,) Lord: A celebrated poet, who was born in London, January 23d, 1788, and died in Missolonghi, in Greece, April 18th, 1824.

Calisthenics: From two Greek words—kalos, beauty, and sthenos, strength, being the union of both.

Camwood: A dyewood, procured from a leguminous (or pod-bearing) tree, growing on the western coast of Africa, and called Baphianitida.

Canker-worm: A worm which is very destructive to trees and plants. It springs from an egg deposited by a miller that issues from the ground, and in some years destroys the leaves and fruit of apple and other trees.

Capillary: A minute, hair-like tube.

Carbon: A simple, inflammable body, forming the principal part of wood and coal, and the whole of the diamond.

Carbonic acid: A compound gas, consisting of one part of carbon and two parts of oxygen; fatal to animal life. It has lately been obtained in a solid form.

Carbonic Oxide: A compound, consisting of one part of carbon and one part of oxygen; it is fatal to animal life. Burns with a pale, blue flame, forming carbonic acid.

Carmine: A crimson color, the most beautiful of all the reds. It is prepared from a decoction of the powdered cochineal insect, to which alum and other substances are added.

Caseine: One of the great forms of blood-making matter; the cheesy or curd-part of milk; found in both animal and vegetable kingdoms.

Caster: A small vial or vessel for the table, in which to put vinegar, mustard, pepper, etc. Also, a small wheel on a swivel-joint, on which furniture may be turned in any direction.

_Chancellor of the Exchequer: In England, the highest judge of the law; the principal financial minister of a government, and the one who manages its revenue.

Chateau: A castle, a mansion.

Chemistry: The science which treats of the elementary constituents of bodies.

Chinese belle, deformities of: In China, it is the fashion to compress the feet of female infants, to prevent their growth; in consequence of which, the feet of all the females of China are distorted, and so small that the individuals can not walk with ease.

Chloride: A compound of chlorine and some other substance.

Chlorine is a simple substance, formerly called oxymuriatic acid. In its pure state, it is a gas of green color, (hence its name, from a Greek word signifying green.) Like oxygen, it supports the combustion of some inflammable substances. Chloride of lime in a compound of chlorine and lime.

Cholera infantum: A bowel-complaint to which infants are subject.

Chyle: A white juice formed from the chyme, and consisting of the finer and more nutritious parts of the food. It is afterward converted into blood.

Chyme: The result of the first process which food undergoes in the stomach previously to its being converted into chyle.

Cicuta: The common American hemlock, an annual plant of four or five feet in height, and found commonly along walls and fences and about old ruins and buildings. It is a virulent poison as well as one of the most important and valuable medicinal vegetables. It is a very different plant from the hemlock-tree or Pinus Canadiensis.

Clarke, (Sir Charles Mansfield,) Dr.: A distinguished English physician and surgeon, who was born, in London, May 28th, 1783. Ha was appointed physician to Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV., in 1830, and in 1831 he was created a baronet. He was the author of several valuable medical works.

Cobalt: A brittle metal, of a reddish-gray color and weak metallic lustre, used in coloring glass. It is not easily melted nor oxidized in the air.

Cochineal: A color procured from the cochineal insect, (or Coccus cacti,) which feeds upon the leaves of several species of the plant called cactus, and which is supposed to derive its coloring matter from its food. Its natural color is crimson; but, by the addition of a preparation of potash, it yields a rich scarlet dye.

Cologne-water: A fragrant perfume, which derives its name from having been originally made in the city of Cologne, which is situated on the river Rhine, in Germany. The best kind is still procured from that city.

Comparative anatomy: The science which has for its object a comparison of the anatomy, structure, and functions of the various organs of animals, plants, etc., with those of the human body.

Confection: A sweetmeat; a preparation of fruit with sugar; also a preparation of medicine with honey, syrup, or similar saccharine substance, for the purpose of disguising the unpleasant taste of the medicine.

Cooper, Sir Astley Paston: A celebrated English surgeon, who was born at Brooke, in Norfolk county, England, August 23d, 1768, and commenced the practice of surgery in London, in 1792. He was appointed surgeon to King George IV. in 1827, was created a baronet in 1831, and died February 12th, 1841. He was the author of many valuable works.

Copal: A hard, shining, transparent resin, of a light citron color, brought originally from Spanish-America, and now almost wholly from the East-Indies. It is principally employed in the preparation of copal varnish.

_Copper, Sulphate of:_ See _Sulphate of copper.

Copperas: (Sulphate of iron or green vitriol,) a bright green mineral substance, formed by the decomposition of a peculiar ore of iron called pyrites, which is a sulphuret of iron. It is first in the form of a greenish-white powder or crust, which is dissolved in water, and beautiful green crystals of copperas are obtained by evaporation. It is principally used in dyeing and in making black ink. Its solution, mixed with a decoction of oak bark, produces a black color.

Coronary: Relating to a crown or garland. In anatomy, it is applied to arteries which encompass the heart, in the manner, as it is fancied, of a garland.

Corrosive sublimate: A poisonous substance composed of chlorine and quicksilver.

Cosmetics: Preparations which, some people foolishly think will preserve and beautify the skin.

Cream of tartar: See Tartar.

Curculio: A weevil or worm, which affects the fruit of the plum-tree and sometimes that of the apple-tree, causing the unripe fruit to fall to the ground.

Cuvier, Baron: The moat eminent naturalist of the present age; was born A. D. 1769, and died A.D. 1832. He was Professor of Natural History in the College of France, and held various important posts under the French government at different times. His works on Natural History are of the greatest value.

Cynosure: The constellation of the Lesser Bear, containing the star near the North Pole, by which sailors steer. It is used, in a figurative sense, as synonymous with pole-star or guide, or anything to which the eyes of many are directed.

De Tocqueville: See Tocqueville.

Diamond cement: A cement sold in the shops, and used for mending broken glass and similar articles.

Drab: A thick woolen cloth, of a light brown or dun color. The name is sometimes used for the color itself.

Dredging-box: A box with holes in the top, used to sift or scatter flour on meat when roasting.

Drill: (In husbandry,) to sow grain in rows, drills, or channels; the row of grain so sowed.

Duchess of Orleans: See Orleans.

The East, and the Eastern States: Those of the United States situated in the north-east part of the country, including Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Vermont.

Elevation, (of a house:) A plan representing the upright view of a house, as a ground-plan shows its appearance on the ground.

Euclid: A celebrated mathematician, who was born in Alexandria, in Egypt, about two hundred and eighty years before Christ. He distinguished himself by his writings on music and geometry. The most celebrated of his works is his Elements of Geometry, which is in use at the present day. He established a school at Alexandria, which became so famous that, from his time to the conquest of Alexandria by the Saracens, (A.D. 646,) no mathematician was found who had not studied at Alexandria. Ptolemy, King of Egypt, was one of his pupils; and it was to a question of this king, whether there was not a shorter way of coming at geometry than by the study of his Elements, that Euclid made the celebrated answer, "There is no royal path to geometry."

Equator or equinoctial line: An imaginary line passing round the earth, from east to west and directly under the sun, which always shines nearly perpendicularly down upon all countries situated near the equator.

Evolve: To throw off, to discharge.

Exchequer: A court in England in which the Chancellor presides, and where the revenues of and the debts due to the king, are recovered. This court was originally established by King William, (called "the Conqueror,") who died A.D. 1087; and its name is derived from a checkered cloth (French echiquier, a chess-hoard, checker-work) on the table.

Excretion: Something discharged from the body, a separation of animal matters. Excrementitious: Consisting of matter excreted from the body; containing excrements.

Fahrenheit, (Gabriel Daniel:) A celebrated natural philosopher, who was born at Dantzig, A.D. 1686. He made great improvements in the thermometer, and his name is sometimes used for that instrument.

Farinaceous: Mealy, tasting like meal.

Fell: To turn down on the wrong side the raw edges of a seam after it has been stitched, run, or sewed, and then to hem or sew it to the cloth.

Festivals of the Jews, the three great annual: These were, the Feast of the Passover, that of Pentecost, and that of Tabernacles; on occasion of which, all the males of the nation were required to visit the temple at Jerusalem, in whatever part of the country they might reside. See Exodus 28:14, 17; 34:23; Leviticus 33: 4; Deuteronomy 16:16. The Passover was kept in commemoration of the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, and was so named because the night before their departure the destroying angel, who slew all the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites without entering them. See Exodus 12. The Feast of Pentecost was so called from a word meaning the fiftieth, because it was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the Passover, and was instituted in commemoration of the giving of the Law from Mount Sinai on the fiftieth day from the departure out of Egypt. It is also called the Feast of Weeks, because it was kept seven weeks after the Passover. See Exodus 34:32; Leviticus 23: 15-21; Deuteronomy 16: 9, 10. The Feast of Tabernacles, or Feast of Tents, was so called because it was celebrated under tents or tabernacles of green boughs, and was designed to commemorate their dwelling in tents during their passage through the wilderness. At this feast they also returned thanks, to God for the fruits of the earth after they had been gathered. See Exodus 23: 16; Leviticus 33: 34-44; Deuteronomy 16:13; and also St. John 7: 2.

Fire-blight: A disease in the pear and some other fruit-trees, in which they appear burnt as if by fire. It is supposed, by some to be caused by an insect, others suppose it to be caused by-an over-abundance of sap.

Fluting-iron: An instrument for making flutes, channels, furrows, or hollows in ruffles, etc.

Foundation muslin: A nice kind of buckram, stiff and white, used for the foundation or basis of bonnets, etc.

Free States: A phrase formerly used to distinguish those States in which slavery was not allowed, as distinguished from Slave States, in which slavery did exist.

French chalk: A variety of the mineral called talc, unctuous to the touch, of greenish color, glossy, soft, and easily scratched, and leaving a silvery line when drawn on paper. It is used for marking on cloth, and extracting grease-spots.

Fuller's earth: A species of clay remarkable for its property of absorbing oil, for which reason it is valuable for extracting grease from cloth, etc. It is used by fullers in scouring and cleansing cloth, whence its name.

Fustic: The wood of a tree which grows in the West-Indies called Morus tinctoria. It affords a durable but not very brilliant yellow dye, and is also used in producing some greens and drab colors.

Gastric: (From the Greek [Transliterated: gasths], gaster, the belly,) belonging or relating to the belly, or stomach. Gastric juice: The fluid which dissolves the food in the stomach. It is limpid, like water, of a saltish taste, and without odor. Geology: The science which treats of the formation of the earth.

Gluten: The glue-like, sticky, tenacious substance which gives adhesiveness to dough. The principle of gelly, (now generally written jelly.)

Gore: A triangular piece of cloth.

Goring: Cut in a triangular shape.

Gothic: A peculiar and strongly-marked style of architecture, sometimes called the ecclesiastical style, because it is most frequently used in cathedrals, churches, abbeys, and other religious edifices. Its principle seems to have originated in the imitation of groves and bowers, under which the ancients performed their sacred rites; its clustered pillars and pointed arches very well representing the trunks of trees and their in-locking branches.

Gourmand or Gormand: A glutton, a greedy eater. In agriculture, it is applied to twigs which take up the sap but bear only leaves.

Green vitriol: See Copperas.

Griddle: An iron pan, of a peculiarly broad and shallow construction, used for baking cakes.

Ground-plan: The map or plan of the floor of any building, in which the various apartments, windows, doors, fire-places, and other things are represented, like the rivers, towns, mountains, roads, etc., on a map.

Gum Arabic: A vegetable juice which exudes through the bark of the Acacia, Mimosa nilotica, and some other similar trees growing in Arabia, Egypt, Senegal, and Central Africa. It is the purest of all gums.

Hardpan: The hard, unbroken layer of earth below the mould or cultivated soil.

Hartshorn, (spirits of:) A volatile alkali, originally prepared from the horns of the stag or hart, but now procured from various other substances. It is known by the name of ammonia or spirits of ammonia.

_Hemlock_: see _Cicuta.

Horticulturist: One skilled in horticulture, or the art of cultivating gardens: horticulture being to the garden what agriculture is to the farm, the application of labor and science to a limited spot, for convenience, for profit, or for ornament—though implying a higher state of cultivation than is common in agriculture. It includes the cultivation of culinary vegetables and of fruits, and forcing or exotic gardening as far as respects useful products.

Hydrogen: A very light, inflammable gas, of which water is in part composed. It is used to inflate balloons.

Hypochondriasis: Melancholy, dejection, a disorder of the imagination, in which the person supposes he is afflicted with various diseases.

Hysteria or hysterics: A spasmodic, convulsive affection of the nerves, to which women are subject. It is somewhat similar to hypochondriasis in men.

Ingrain: A kind of carpeting, in which the threads are dyed in the grain or raw material before manufacture.

Ipecac: (An abbreviation of ipecacuanha) an Indian medicinal plant, acting as an emetic.

Isinglass: A fine kind of gelatin or glue, prepared from the swimming-bladders of fishes, used as a cement, and also as an ingredient in food and medicine. The name is sometimes applied to a transparent mineral substance called mica.

Jams: A side-piece or post.

Kamtschadales: Inhabitants of Kamtschatka, a large peninsula situated on the north-eastern coast of Asia, having the North Pacific Ocean on the east. It is remarkable for its extreme cold, which is heightened by a range of very lofty mountains extending the whole length of the peninsula, several of which are volcanic. It is very deficient in vegetable productions, but produces a great variety of animals, from which the richest and most valuable furs are procured. The inhabitants are in general below the common height, but have broad shoulders and large heads. It is under the dominion of Russia.

Kerosene: Refined Petroleum, which see.

Kink: A knotty twist in a thread or rope.

Lambrequin: Originally a kind of pendent scarf or covering attached to a helmet to protect and adorn it. Hence, a pendent ornamental curtain over a window.

Lapland: A country at the extreme north part of Europe, where it is very cold. It contains lofty mountains, some of which are covered with perpetual snow and ice.

Latin: The language of the Latins or inhabitants of Latium, the principal country of ancient Italy. After the building of Rome, that city became the capital of the whole country.

Leguminous: Pod-bearing.

Lent: A fast of the Christian Church, (lasting forty days, from Ash-Wednesday to Easter,) in commemoration of our Saviour's miraculous fast of forty days and forty nights in the wilderness. The word Lent means spring, this fast always occurring at that season of the year.

Levite: One of the tribe of Levi, the son of Jacob, which tribe was set apart from the others to minister in the services of the Tabernacle, and the Temple at Jerusalem. The priests were taken from this tribe. See Numbers 1: 47-53.

Ley: Water which has percolated through ashes, earth, or other substances, dissolving and imbibing a part of their contents. It is generally spelled lye.

Linnaeus, (Charles:) A native of Sweden, and the most celebrated naturalist of his age. He was born May 13th, 1707, and died January 11th, 1778. His life was devoted to the study of natural history. The science of botany, in particular, is greatly indebted to his labors. His Amaenitates Academicae (Academical Recreations) is a collection of the dissertations of his pupils, edited by himself, a work rich in matters relating to the history and habits of plants. He was the first who arranged Natural History into a regular system, which has been generally called by his name. His proper name was Linne.

Lobe: A division, a distinct part; generally applied to the two divisions of the lungs.

Loire: The largest river of France, being about five hundred and fifty miles in. length. It rises in the mountains of Cevennes, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean about forty miles below the city of Nantes. It divides France into two almost equal parts.

London Medical Society: A distinguished association, formed in 1773. It has published some valuable volumes of its transactions. It has a library of about 40,000 volumes, which is kept in a house presented to the Society, in 1788, by the celebrated Dr. Lettsom, who was one of its first members.

Louis XIV.: A celebrated King of France and Navarre, who was born September 5th, 1638, and died September 1st, 1715. His mother having before had no children, though she had been married twenty-two years, his birth was considered as a particular favor from heaven, and he was called the "Gift of God." He is sometimes styled "Louis the Great," is notorious as a period of licentiousness. He left behind him monuments of unprecedented splendor and expense, consisting of palaces, gardens, and other like works.

Lumbar:(From the Latin lumbus, the loin,) relating or pertaining to the loins.

Lunacy, writ of: A judicial proceeding to ascertain whether a person be a lunatic.

Mademoiselle: The French word for miss, a young girl.

Magnesia: A light and white alkaline earth, which enters into the composition of many rocks, communicating to them a greasy or soapy feeling and a striped texture, with sometimes a greenish color.

Malaria: (Italian, mal/aria, bad air,) a noxious vapor or exhalation; a state of the atmosphere or soil, or both, which, in certain regions and in warm weather, produces fever, sometimes of great violence.

Mammon: Riches, the Syrian god of riches. See Luke 16:11-13; St. Matthew 6:24. Mexico: A country situated south-west of the United States and extending to the Pacific Ocean.

Miasms: Such particles or atoms as are supposed to arise from distempered, putrefying, or poisonous bodies.

Michilimackinac or Mackinac: (Now frequently corrupted into Mackinaw, which is the usual pronunciation of the name,) a military post in the State of Michigan, situated upon an island, about nine miles in circuit, in the strait which connects Lakes Michigan and Huron. It is much resorted to by Indians and fur-traders. The highest summit of the island is about three hundred feet above the lakes and commands an extensive view of them.

Midsummer: With us, the time when the sun arrives at his greatest distance from the equator, or about the twenty-first of June, called, also the summer solstice, (from the Latin sol, the sun and sto, to stop or stand still,) because when the sun reaches this point he seems to stand still for some time, and then appears to retrace his steps. The days are then longer than at any other time.

Migrate: To remove from one place to another; to change residence.

Mildew: A disease of plants; a mould, spot, or stain in paper, cloths, etc., caused by moisture.

Militate: To oppose, to operate against.

Millinet: A coarse kind of stiff muslin, formerly used for the foundation or basis of bonnets, etc.

Mineralogy: A science which treats of the inorganic natural substances found upon or in the earth, such as earths, salts, metals, etc., and which are called by the general name of minerals.

Minutiae: The smallest particulars.

Monasticism: Monastic life; religiously recluse life in a monastery or house of religious retirement.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley: One of the most celebrated among the female literary characters of England. She was daughter of Evelyn, Duke of Kingston, and was born about 1690, at Thoresby, in England She displayed uncommon abilities at a very early age, and was educated by the best masters in the English, Latin, Greek, and French languages. She accompanied her husband (Edward Wortley Montagu) on an embassy to Constantinople, and her correspondence with her friends was published and much admired. She introduced the practice of inoculation for the small-pox into England, which proved of great benefit to millions. She died at the age of seventy-two, A.D. 1762.

Moral Philosophy: The science which treats of the motives and rules of human actions, and of the ends to which they ought to be directed.

_Moreen: A kind of woolen stuff used for curtains, covers of cushions, bed hangings, etc.

_Mortise: A cavity cut into a piece of timber to receive the end of another piece called the _Tenon_.

_Mucous:_ Having the nature of _mucus, a glutinous, sticky, thready, transparent fluid, of a salt savor, produced by different membranes of the body, and serving to protect the membranes and other internal parts against the action of the air, food, etc. The fluid of the mouth and nose is mucus.

_Mucous membrane: That membrane which lines the mouth, nose, intestines, and other open cavities of the body.

_Muriatic acid: An acid composed of chlorine and hydrogen, called also, hydrochloric acid and spirit of salt.

_Mush-stick:_ A stick to use in stirring _mush, which is corn-meal boiled in water.

Nankeen or Nankin: A light cotton cloth, originally brought from Nankin, in China, whence its name.

_Nash, (Richard:)_ Commonly called _Beau Nash, or King of Bath, a celebrated leader of the fashions in England. He was born at Swansea, in South-Wales, October 8th, 1674, and died in the city of Bath, (England,) February 3d, 1761.

Natural History: The history of animals, plants, and minerals.

Natural Philosophy: The science which treats of the powers of nature, the properties of natural bodies, and their action one upon another. It is sometimes called physics.

New-milch cow: A cow which has recently calved.

Newton, (Sir Isaac:) An eminent English philosopher and mathematician, who was born on Christmas day, 1642, and died March. 20th, 1727. He was much distinguished for his very important discoveries in Optics and other branches of Natural Philosophy. See the first volume of Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties, forming the fourteenth volume of The School Library, larger series.

Night-Soil: Human excrement, so-called because usually removed from privies by night.

Non-bearers: Plants which bear no flowers nor fruit.

Northern States: Those of the United States situated in the northern and eastern part of the country.

Ordinary: See Physician in ordinary.

Oil of Vitriol: (sulphuric acid, or vitriolic acid,) an acid composed of oxygen and sulphur.

Oino-mania: A disease of the brain produced by excessive use of alcoholic stimulants; derived from two Greek words, oinos, wine, and mania, madness. The same disease sometimes arises from overuse of tobacco and other stimulants of the nerves.

Orleans, (Elizabeth Charlotte de Baviere) Duchess of: Second wife of Philippe, the brother of Louis XIV., was born at Heidelberg, May 26th, 1652, and died at the palace of St. Cloud, in Paris, December 8th, 1722. She was author of several works; among which were Memoirs and Anecdotes of the Court of Louis XIV.

Ottoman: A kind of hassock or thick mat for kneeling upon; so-called from being used by the Ottomans or Turks.

Oxalic acid: a vegetable acid, which exists in sorrel.

Oxide: A compound of a substance with oxygen, though not enough oxygen to produce an acid; for example, oxide of iron, or rust of metals.

Oxidize: To combine oxygen with a body without producing acidity.

Oxygen: The vital element of air, a simple and very important substance which exists in the atmosphere and supports the breathing of animals and the burning of combustibles. It was called oxygen from two Greek words, signifying to produce acid, from its power of giving acidity to many compounds in which it predominates.

Oxygenized: Combined with oxygen.

Pancreas: A gland within the abdomen just below and behind the stomach, and providing a fluid to assist digestion. In animals, it is called the sweet-bread.

Pancreatic: Belonging to the pancreas.

Parterre: A level division of ground, a flower-garden.

Pearlash: The common name for impure carbonate of potash, which in a purer form is called Saleratus.

Peristaltic: Contracting in successive circles; worm-like.

Petroleum: Rock oil, an inflammable, bituminous liquid exuding from rocks or from the earth in the neighborhood of the carboniferous or coal-bearing formation.

Phosphorous: One of the elementary substances.

Physician in Ordinary to the Queen: The physician who attends the Queen in ordinary cases of illness.

Pitt, William: A celebrated English statesman, son of the Earl of Chatham. He was born May 28th, 1759, and at the age of twenty-three was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, and soon afterward Prime Minister. He died January 23d, 1806.

Political Economy: The science which treats of the general causes affecting the production, distribution, and consumption of articles of exchangeable value, in reference to their effects upon national wealth and welfare.

Pollen: The fertilizing dust of flowers, produced by the stamens and falling upon the pistils in order to render a flower capable of producing fruit or seed.

Potter's clay: The clay used in making articles of pottery.

Prairie: A French word, signifying meadow. In the United States, it is applied to the remarkable natural meadows or plains which are found in the Western States. In some of these vast and nearly level plains, the traveler may wander for days without meeting with wood or water, and see no object rising above the plane of the horizon. They are very fertile.

Prime Minister: The person appointed by the ruler of a nation to have the chief direction and management of the public affairs.

Process: A protuberance or projecting part of a bone.

Pulmonary: Belonging to or affecting the lungs.

Pulmonary artery: An artery which passes through the lungs, being divided into several branches, which form a beautiful network over the air-vessels, and finally empty themselves into the left auricle of the heart.

Puritans: A sect which professed to follow the pure word of God in opposition to traditions, human constitutions, and other authorities. In the reign, of Queen Elizabeth, part of the Protestants were desirous of introducing a simpler, and, as they considered it, a purer form of church government and worship than that established by law, from which circumstance they were called Puritans. In process of time, this party increased in numbers and openly broke off from the church, laying aside the English liturgy, and adopting a service-book published at Geneva by the disciples of Calvin. They were treated with great rigor by the government, and many of them left the kingdom and settled in Holland. Finding themselves not so eligibly situated in that country as they had expected to be, a portion of them embarked for America, and were the first settlers of New England.

Quixotic: Absurd, romantic, ridiculous; from Don Quixote, the hero of a celebrated fictitious work written by Cervantes, a distinguished Spanish writer, and intended to reform the tastes and opinions of his country-men.

Reeking: Smoking, emitting vapor.

Residue: The remainder or part which remains.

Routine: A round or course of engagements, business, pleasure, etc.

To Run a seam: To lay the two edges of a seam together and pass the threaded needle out and in, with small stitches, a few threads below the edge and on a line with it.

To Run a stocking: To pass a thread of yarn, with a needle, straight along each row of the stocking, as far as is desired, taking up one loop and missing two or three, until tie row is completed, so as to double the thickness at the part which is run.

Sabbatical year: Every seventh year among the Jews, which was a year of rest for the land, when it was to be left without culture. In this year, all debts were to be remitted, and slaves set at liberty. See Exodus 21:2:23:10; Leviticus 25:2, 3, etc.; Deuteronomy 15:12; and other similar passages.

Saleratus: See Pearlash.

Sal ammoniac: A salt, called also muriate of ammonia, which derives its name from a district in Libya, Egypt, where there was a temple of Jupiter Ammon, and where this salt was found.

Scotch Highlanders: Inhabitants of the Highlands of Scotland.

Selvedge: The edge of cloth, a border. Improperly written selvage.

Service-book: A book prescribing the order of public services in a church or congregation.

Sharps: See Blunts.

Shorts: The coarser part of wheat bran.

Shrubbery: A plantation of shrubs.

Siberia: A large country in the extreme northern part of Asia, having the Frozen Ocean on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east, and forming a part of the Russian empire. The northern part is extremely cold, almost uncultivated, and contains but few inhabitants. It furnishes fine skins, and some of the most valuable furs in the world. It also contains rich mines of iron and copper, and several kinds of precious stones.

Sinclair, Sir John: Of whom it was said, "There is no greater name in the annals of agriculture than his," was born in Caithness, Scotland, May 10th, 1754, and became a member of the British Parliament in 1780. He was strongly opposed to the measures of the British government toward America, which produced the American Revolution. He was author of many valuable publications on various subjects. He died December 21st, 1835.

Sirloin: The loin of beef. The appellation "sir" is the title of a knight or baronet, and has been added to the word "loin," when applied to beef, because a king of England, in a freak of good humor, once conferred the honor of knighthood upon a loin of beef.

Slack: To loosen, to relax, to deprive of cohesion.

Soda: An alkali, usually obtained from the ashes of marine plants.

To Spade: To throw out earth with a spade.

Spermaceti: An oily substance found in the head of a species of whale called the spermaceti whale.

Spindling: Shooting into a long, small stalk.

Spinous process: A process or bony protuberance, resembling a spine or thorn, whence it derives its name.

Spool: A piece of cane or reed or a hollow cylinder of wood, with a ridge at each end, used to wind yarn and thread upon.

Stamen, (plural, stamens and stamina:) In weaving, the warp, the thread, any thing made of threads. In botany, that part of a flower on which the artificial classification is founded, consisting of the filament or stalk, and the anther, which contains the pollen or fructifying powder.

Stigma, (plural stigmas and stigmata:) The summit or top of the pistil of a flower.

Style or Stile: The part of the pistil between the germ and the stigma.

Sub-carbonate: An imperfect carbonate.

Sulphate, Sulphates, Sulphites: Salts formed by the combination of some base with sulphuric acid, as Sulphate of copper, (blue vitriol or blue stone,) a combination of sulphuric acid with copper. Sulphate of iron: Copperas or green vitriol. Sulphate of lime: Gypsum or plaster of Paris. Sulphate of magnesia: Epsom salts. Sulphate of potash: A chemical salt, composed of sulphuric acid and potash. Sulphate of soda: Glauber's salts. Sulphate of zinc:

White vitriol. Sulphuret: A combination of an alkaline earth or metal with sulphur, as Sulphuret of iron, a combination of iron and sulphur. Sulphuric acid: Oil of vitriol, vitriolic acid.

Suture: A sewing; the uniting of parts by stitching; the seamor joint which unites the flat bones of the skull, which are notched like the teeth of a saw, and the notches, being united together, present the appearance of a seam.

Tartar: A substance, deposited on the inside of wine casks, consisting chiefly of tartaric acid and potash.

Cream of tartar: The crude tartar separated from all its impurities by being dissolved in water and then crystallized, when it becomes a perfectly white powder.

Tartaric acid: A vegetable acid which exists in the grape.

Technology: A description of the arts, considered generally in their theory and practice as connected with moral, political, and physical science.

Three-ply or triple ingrain: A kind of carpeting, in which the threads are woven in such a manner as to make three thicknesses of the cloth.

Tic douloureux: A painful affection of the nerves, mostly those of the face.

Tocqueville, (Alexis de:) A celebrated statesman and writer of France, and author of volumes on the political condition, and the penitentiaries of the United States, and other works.

Trachea: The windpipe, so named (from a Greek word signifying rough) from the roughness or inequalities of the cartilages of which it is formed.

Truckle-bed or Trundle-bed: A bed that runs on wheels.

Tuber: A solid, fleshy, roundish root, like the potato.

Tuberous: Thick and fleshy; composed of or having tubers.

Tucks, (improperly Tacks): Folds in garments.

Turmeric: The root of a plant called Curcuma longa, a native of the East-Indies, used as a yellow dye.

Twaddle: Idle, foolish talk or conversation.

Unbolted: Unsifted. Unslacked: Not loosened or deprived of cohesion. Lime, when it has been slacked, crumbles to powder from being deprived of cohesion.

Valance: The drapery or fringe hanging round the cover of a bed, couch, or other similar article.

Vascular: Relating to or full of vessels.

Venetian: A kind of carpeting, composed of a striped woolen warp on a thick woof of linen thread,

Verisimilitude: Probability, resemblance to truth.

Verbatim: Word for word.

Vice versa: The side being changed, or the question reversed, or the terms being exchanged.

Viscera, (plural of viscus:) Organs contained in the great cavities of the body, the skull, the abdomen, and the chest. Generally applied to the contents of the abdomen.

_Vitriol:_ A compound mineral salt of a very caustic taste. _Blue Vitriol_, sulphate of copper. _Green Vitriol_, see _Copperas. _Oil of Vitriol_, sulphuric acid.

White Vitriol, sulphate of zinc.

Waffle-iron: An iron utensil for the purpose of baking waffles, which are thin and soft cakes indented by the iron in which they are baked.

Wash-leather: A soft, pliable leather dressed with oil, and in such a way that it may be washed without shrinking. It is used for various articles of dress, as undershirts, drawers, etc., and also for rubbing silver, and other articles having a high polish. The article known in commerce as chamois or shammy leather is also called wash-leather.

Welting-cord: A cord sewed into the welt or border of a garment.

The West or Western World. When used in Europe, or in distinction from the Eastern World, it means America. When used in this country, the West refers to the Western States of the Union.

Western Wilds: The wild, thinly-settled lands of the Western States.

_White vitriol:_ see _Zinc.

Wilton carpet: A kind of carpets made in England, and so called from the place which is the chief seat of their manufacture. They are woolen velvets with variegated colors.

_Writ of lunacy_. See _Lunacy.

Xantippe: The wife of Socrates, noted for her violent temper and scolding propensities. The name is frequently applied to a shrew, or peevish, turbulent, scolding woman.

Zinc: A bluish-white metal, which is used as a constituent of brass and some other alloys. Sulphate of Zinc or White vitriol; A combination of Zinc with sulphuric acid.

THE END

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