HotFreeBooks.com
The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Bosnia and Herzegovina Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska

Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Jozo KRIZANOVI (chairman since 14 June 2001, presidency member since NA March 2001 - Croat); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Beriz BELKIC (since NA March 2001 - Bosniak); note - Ante JELAVIC was dismissed from his post by the UN High Representative in March 2001

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since 18 July 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives

elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives

election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first 8 months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Halid GENJAC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March 2001

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 27 February 2001); Vice President Safet HALILOVIC (since 27 February 2001); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms); note - as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the 11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)

election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA

note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples (74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1, Pensioners' Party 1; as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

Judicial branch: BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights)

note: a new state court, established in November 1999, has jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are ten cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [leader vacant]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Democratic National Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance (Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC

chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER

embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address: use street address

telephone: [387] (33) 445-700

FAX: [387] (33) 659-722

branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Government - note: The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government - based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The Dayton Agreement established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About 250 international and 450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.



Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999 and 2000, and GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are not available. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - has gained wide acceptance, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slower than anticipated. Banking reform accelerated in early 2001 as all the communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%

industry: 23%

services: 58% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion

expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.585 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 38.68%

hydro: 61.32%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.684 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 150 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 430 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $950 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: NA

Exports - partners: Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany

Imports: $2.45 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy

Debt - external: $3.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: marka (BAM)

Currency code: BAM

Exchange rates: marka per US dollar - 2.086 (January 2001), 2.124 (2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997), 0.015 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bosnia and Herzegovina Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 9,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics

domestic: NA

international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 3,500 (2000)



Bosnia and Herzegovina Transportation

Railways: total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam until grids are repaired)

standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge; note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction (2000)

Highways: total: 21,846 km

paved: 14,020 km

unpaved: 7,826 km

note: road system is in need of maintenance and repair (2001)

Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 28 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)



Bosnia and Herzegovina Military

Military branches: Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian and Bosniak elements), Republika Srpska Army or VRS (composed of Bosnian Serb elements); note - within both of these forces air and air defense are subordinate commands

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,127,146 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 895,780 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 29,757 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bosnia and Herzegovina Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Botswana



Botswana Introduction

Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy, one of the most robust on the continent, is dominated by diamond mining.



Botswana Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 600,370 sq km

land: 585,370 sq km

water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,013 km

border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m

highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 47%

other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country



Botswana People

Population: 1,586,119

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.3% (male 321,164; female 318,007)

15-64 years: 55.56% (male 423,954; female 457,227)

65 years and over: 4.14% (male 26,691; female 39,076) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.85 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 24.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 37.13 years

male: 36.77 years

female: 37.51 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 35.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 290,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 24,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 69.8%

male: 80.5%

female: 59.9% (1995 est.)



Botswana Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

conventional short form: Botswana

former: Bechuanaland

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East, Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 57.2%, BNF 26%, other 16.8%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Michael DINGAKE]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]

note: main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim SETSHWAELO, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Botswana Peoples Party, the Independence Freedom Party [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV

chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John E. LANGE

embassy: address NA, Gaborone

mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

telephone: [267] 353982

FAX: [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center



Botswana Economy

Economy - overview: Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $6,600 in 2000. Diamond mining has fueled much of Botswana's economic expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for three-fourths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. The government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 19%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 46% (including 36% mining)

services: 50% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 47% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion

expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560 million (FY96)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 610 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.517 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 950 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, corn, millet, pulses, groundnuts (peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds 72%, vehicles, copper, nickel, meat (1998)

Exports - partners: EU 77%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 18%, Zimbabwe 3% (1998)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 76%, Europe 10%, South Korea 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $455 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $73 million (1995)

Currency: pula (BWP)

Currency code: BWP

Exchange rates: pulas per US dollar - 5.4585 (January 2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Botswana Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 86,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: sparse system

domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations

international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (2000)



Botswana Transportation

Railways: total: 888 km

narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 18,482 km

paved: 4,343 km

unpaved: 14,139 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 81

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 22 (2000 est.)



Botswana Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 380,152 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 199,995 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 19,479 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $61 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



Botswana Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bouvet Island



Bouvet Island Introduction

Background: This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was made until 1825 when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977, Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.



Bouvet Island Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 58.5 sq km

land: 58.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 m; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (93% ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve



Bouvet Island People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Bouvet Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system: the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used



Bouvet Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve



Bouvet Island Communications

Internet country code: .bv

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station



Bouvet Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Bouvet Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



Bouvet Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Brazil



Brazil Introduction

Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.



Brazil Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 8,511,965 sq km

land: 8,456,510 sq km

water: 55,455 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total: 14,691 km

border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 5%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 22%

forests and woodland: 58%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail sentences

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador



Brazil People

Population: 174,468,575

note: Brazil took an intercensal count in August 1996 which reported a population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.57% (male 25,390,039; female 24,449,902)

15-64 years: 65.98% (male 56,603,895; female 58,507,289)

65 years and over: 5.45% (male 3,857,564; female 5,659,886) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.24 years

male: 58.96 years

female: 67.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.57% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.3%

male: 83.3%

female: 83.2% (1995 est.)



Brazil Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)

election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president; percent of vote - 53%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)

election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2, PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB 19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Jader BARBALHO, president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Teotonio VILELA Filno]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Sergio Roberto Gomes SOUZA, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Francisco Teixeira de OLIVEIRA]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Ciro GOMEZ, president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony S. HARRINGTON

embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia

mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030

telephone: [55] (061) 321-7272

FAX: [55] (061) 225-9136

consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Brazil Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. In the late eighties and early nineties, high inflation hindered economic activity and investment. "The Real Plan", instituted in the spring of 1994, sought to break inflationary expectations by pegging the real to the US dollar. Inflation was brought down to single digit annual figures, but not fast enough to avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation during the transition phase of the "Real Plan". This appreciation meant that Brazilian goods were now more expensive relative to goods from other countries, which contributed to large current account deficits. However, no shortage of foreign currency ensued because of the financial community's renewed interest in Brazilian markets as inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis of the eighties faded from memory. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 that investors had expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998. Brazil's debt to GDP ratio for 1999 beat the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil will maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with a floating currency. The economy continued to recover in 2000, with inflation remaining in the single digits and expected growth for 2001 of 4.5%. Foreign direct investment set a record of more than $30 billion in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.13 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9%

industry: 29%

services: 62% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 47.6% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2000)

Labor force: 79 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 53.2%, agriculture 23.1%, industry 23.7%

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $151 billion

expenditures: $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36 billion (1998)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 337.44 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 5.28%

hydro: 90.66%

nuclear: 1.12%

other: 2.94% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 353.674 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 39.86 billion kWh

note: supplied by Paraguay (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: $55.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: manufactures, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee

Exports - partners: US 23%, Argentina 11%, Germany 5%, Netherlands 5%, Japan 5% (1999)

Imports: $55.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemical products, oil, electricity

Imports - partners: US 24%, Argentina 12%, Germany 10%, Japan 5%, Italy 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $232 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: NA

Currency: real (BRL)

Currency code: BRL

Exchange rates: reals per US dollar - 1.954 (January 2001), 1.830 (2000), 1.815 (1999), 1.161 (1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996)

note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Brazil Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17.039 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: good working system

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations

international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Radios: 71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997)

Televisions: 36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .br

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)

Internet users: 8.65 million (2000)



Brazil Transportation

Railways: total: 30,539 km (2,129 km electrified); note - excludes urban rail

broad gauge: 5,679 km 1.600-m gauge (1199 km electrified)

standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge

narrow gauge: 24,666 km 1.000-m gauge (930 km electrified)

dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (1999 est.)

Highways: total: 1.98 million km

paved: 184,140 km

unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996)

Waterways: 50,000 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine: total: 171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,788,999 GRT/6,067,314 DWT

ships by type: bulk 33, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, combination ore/oil 9, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 56, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3,264 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 570

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 141

914 to 1,523 m: 370

under 914 m: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2,694

1,524 to 2,437 m: 68

914 to 1,523 m: 1,279

under 914 m: 1,347 (2000 est.)



Brazil Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 48,298,486 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 32,388,786 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,762,740 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY99)



Brazil Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Bolivian, Peruvian, and Colombian cocaine

======================================================================

@British Indian Ocean Territory



British Indian Ocean Territory Introduction

Background: Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently, BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands, Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers, earlier resident in the islands, were relocated primarily to Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In 2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration order which had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the special military status of Diego Garcia.



British Indian Ocean Territory Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area: total: 60 sq km

land: 60 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility



British Indian Ocean Territory People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois, were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles around the time of the construction of UK-US military facilities; in 1995, there were approximately 1,700 UK and US military personnel and 1,500 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia



British Indian Ocean Territory Government

Country name: conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory

conventional short form: none

abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Commissioner John WHITE (since NA); Administrator Louise SAVILL (since NA); note - both reside in the UK

cabinet: NA

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



British Indian Ocean Territory Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and various services needed to support the military installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.

Electricity - production: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh



British Indian Ocean Territory Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: separate facilities for military and public needs are available

domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet

international: international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)



British Indian Ocean Territory Transportation

Highways: total: NA km

paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield on Diego Garcia

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



British Indian Ocean Territory Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016



British Indian Ocean Territory Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius and Seychelles

======================================================================

@British Virgin Islands



British Virgin Islands Introduction

Background: First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were soon after (1672) annexed by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the legal currency.



British Virgin Islands Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 150 sq km

land: 150 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 20%

permanent crops: 7%

permanent pastures: 33%

forests and woodland: 7%

other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico



British Virgin Islands People

Population: 20,812 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.77% (male 2,399; female 2,339)

15-64 years: 72.31% (male 7,741; female 7,309)

65 years and over: 4.92% (male 555; female 469) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.22% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.18 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.64 years

male: 74.74 years

female: 76.59 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s)

adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



British Virgin Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: British Virgin Islands

abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Francis J. SAVAGE (since NA)

head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the Legislative Council

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - VIP 7, CCM 1, NDP 5

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



British Virgin Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an estimated 45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly from the US, visited the islands in 1997. In the mid-1980s, the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues. An estimated 250,000 companies were on the offshore registry by yearend 1997. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $311 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.8%

industry: 6.2%

services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $121.5 million

expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - production: 42 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 39.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $6.2 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $220 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.6 million (1995)

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



British Virgin Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: worldwide telephone service

domestic: NA

international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: NA



British Virgin Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 132 km

paved: 132 km

unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,285 GRT/6,946 DWT

ships by type: passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



British Virgin Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



British Virgin Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Brunei



Brunei Introduction

Background: The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries. The same family has now ruled in Brunei for over six centuries.



Brunei Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 5,770 sq km

land: 5,270 sq km

water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km

border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 85%

other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia



Brunei People

Population: 343,653 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772)

15-64 years: 66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007)

65 years and over: 2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.82 years

male: 71.45 years

female: 76.31 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s)

adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.2%

male: 92.6%

female: 83.4% (1995 est.)



Brunei Government

Country name: conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form: Brunei

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)

elections: last held in March 1962

note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam

chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159

FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD

embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507

telephone: [673] (2) 229670

FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Brunei Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. Exports of crude oil and natural gas account for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, a further widening of the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

industry: 46%

services: 49% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers and military personnel

note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Labor force - by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion

expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.445 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.274 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Exports: $2.55 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners: Japan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3% (1999)

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid - recipient: $4.3 million (1995)

Currency: Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code: BND

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.7365 (January 2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Brunei Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 79,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 43,524 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia

domestic: every service available

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 201,900 (1998)

Internet country code: .bn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 28,000 (2001)



Brunei Transportation

Railways: total: 13 km (private line)

narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways: total: 1,712 km

paved: 1,284 km

unpaved: 428 km (1996)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

ships by type: liquefied gas 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Brunei Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 106,725 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 61,640 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 3,005 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $343 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.1% (FY98)



Brunei Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: possibly involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island

Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

======================================================================

@Bulgaria



Bulgaria Introduction

Background: Bulgaria earned its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multi-party election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began accession negotiations in 2000.



Bulgaria Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 110,910 sq km

land: 110,550 sq km

water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km

border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Yugoslavia 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 43%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 14%

forests and woodland: 38%

other: 3% (1999 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia



Bulgaria People

Population: 7,707,495 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.11% (male 597,765; female 567,030)

15-64 years: 68.17% (male 2,588,805; female 2,665,736)

65 years and over: 16.72% (male 543,665; female 744,494) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.14% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 8.06 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.2 years

male: 67.72 years

female: 74.89 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s)

adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83%, Turk 8.5%, Roma 2.6%, Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Gagauz, Circassian, others (1998)

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.5%, Muslim 13%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Jewish 0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1999)



Bulgaria Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria

conventional short form: Bulgaria

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence: 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Ivan KOSTOV (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Petur ZHOTEV (since 21 December 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister

election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote - Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - National Movement for Simeon II 120, UDF 51, BSP 48, DPS 21

Judicial branch: Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF) [Ahmed DOGAN]; Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [Georgi GANCHEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Democratic Left or DL (bloc led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost Political Club and Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) [leader NA]; Euro-left [Aleksandur TOMOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or UMRO [Aleksander KARAKACHNOV]; Kingdom of Bulgaria Federation [leader NA]; Movement for Rights and Freedom or DPS [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II [Simeon II, former king]; New Civic Party for Bulgaria [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF (an alliance of pro-democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: agrarian movement; Bulgarian Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse