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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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domestic: modern open wire and microwave radio relay network

international: radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 55, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 173,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 22 (plus 18 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 127,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .re

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Reunion Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,724 km

paved: 1,300 km (including 73 km of four-lane road)

unpaved: 1,424 km

note: 370 km of road are maintained by national authorities, 754 km by departmental authorities and 1600 km by local authorities (1994)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,264 GRT/44,885 DWT

ships by type: chemical tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Reunion Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Gendarmerie)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 190,846 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 97,497 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 6,243 (2001 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Reunion Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Romania



Romania Introduction

Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU.



Romania Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 237,500 sq km

land: 230,340 sq km

water: 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 2,508 km

border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 41%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 21%

forests and woodland: 29%

other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine



Romania People

Population: 22,364,022 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.95% (male 2,054,323; female 1,959,196)

15-64 years: 68.51% (male 7,605,751; female 7,715,434)

65 years and over: 13.54% (male 1,255,880; female 1,773,438) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.16 years

male: 66.36 years

female: 74.19 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 350 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992)

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 3%, Uniate Catholic 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 98%

female: 95% (1992 est.)



Romania Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Adrian NASTASE]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE

embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest

mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

telephone: [40] (1) 210 40 42

FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95

branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova



Romania Economy

Economy - overview: Romania, one of the poorest countries in Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down over 40%. Corruption too has worsened. The EU ranks Romania last among enlargement candidates, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) rates Romania's transition progress the region's worst. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. A new government elected in November 2000 promises to promote economic reform. Bucharest hopes to receive financial and technical assistance from international financial institutions and Western governments; negotiations over a new IMF standby agreement are to begin early in 2001. If reform stalls, Romania's ability to borrow from both public and private sources could quickly dry up, leading to another financial crisis.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $132.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13.9%

industry: 32.6%

services: 53.5% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 44.5% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 45.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.9 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (1999)

Budget: revenues: $11.7 billion

expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000)

Electricity - production: 49.036 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.99%

hydro: 36.18%

nuclear: 9.81%

other: 0.02% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 44.768 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.935 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.1 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep

Exports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999)

Exports - partners: Italy 23%, Germany 18%, France 6%, Turkey 5%, US (1999)

Imports: $11.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)

Imports - partners: Italy 20%, Germany 19%, France 7%, Russia 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $9.3 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: leu (ROL)

Currency code: ROL

Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 26,243.0 (January 2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997), 3,084.2 (1996); note - lei is the plural form of leu

Fiscal year: calendar year



Romania Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.777 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 645,500 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving

domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 7.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 5.25 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ro

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38 (2000)

Internet users: 600,000 (2000)



Romania Transportation

Railways: total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)

standard gauge: 10,898 km

narrow gauge: 487 km (1996)

Highways: total: 153,359 km

paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways)

unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine: total: 95 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 695,227 GRT/931,598 DWT

ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 71, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 62 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 25

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 23 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Romania Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,899,536 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,962,807 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 179,951 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY00)



Romania Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Russia



Russia Introduction

Background: The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the communist period.



Russia Geography

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 17,075,200 sq km

land: 16,995,800 sq km

water: 79,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 19,961 km

border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber

note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

Land use: arable land: 8%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 46%

other: 42% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula

Environment - current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; ground water contamination from toxic waste

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture



Russia People

Population: 145,470,197 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.41% (male 12,915,026; female 12,405,341)

15-64 years: 69.78% (male 49,183,000; female 52,320,962)

65 years and over: 12.81% (male 5,941,944; female 12,703,924) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.35% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.35 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.85 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female

total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.34 years

male: 62.12 years

female: 72.83 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.18% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 850 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Russian(s)

adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Languages: Russian, other

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 100%

female: 97% (1989 est.)



Russia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Russian Federation

conventional short form: Russia

local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

local short form: Rossiya

former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Government type: federation

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics* (respublik, singular - respublika), 10 autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (singular - gorod)****, and 1 autonomous oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast'); Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy (Barnaul)***, Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya, Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya, Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya, Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**, Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*, Dagestan (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*, Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik)*, Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya (Elista)*, Kaluzhskaya, Kamchatskaya (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*, Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*, Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***, Khakasiya (Abakan)*, Khanty-Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**, Kirovskaya, Komi (Syktyvkar)*, Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya, Krasnodarskiy***, Krasnoyarskiy***, Kurganskaya, Kurskaya, Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya, Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*, Moskovskaya, Moskva (Moscow)****, Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-Mar)**, Nizhegorodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya, Omskaya, Orenburgskaya, Orlovskaya (Orel), Penzenskaya, Permskaya, Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**, Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***, Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya, Ryazanskaya, Sakha (Yakutsk)*, Sakhalinskaya (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samarskaya, Sankt-Peterburg (Saint Petersburg)****, Saratovskaya, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya [North Ossetia] (Vladikavkaz)*, Smolenskaya, Stavropol'skiy***, Sverdlovskaya (Yekaterinburg), Tambovskaya, Tatarstan (Kazan')*, Taymyrskiy (Dudinka)**, Tomskaya, Tul'skaya, Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya, Tyva (Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*, Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**, Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya, Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya, Yamalo-Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**, Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****; note - when using a place name with an adjectival ending 'skaya' or 'skiy,' the word Oblast' or Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be added to the place name

note: the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetiya were formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between Chechnya and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president since 31 December 1999, president since 7 May 2000)

head of government: Premier Mikhail Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 May 2000); First Deputy Premier Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 18 May 2000), Deputy Premiers Aleksey Vasilyevich GORDEYEV (since 20 May 2000), Viktor Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 May 1999), Ilya Iosifovich KLEBANOV (since 31 May 1999), Valentina Ivanovna MATVIYENKO (since 22 September 1998)

cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and other agency heads; all are appointed by the president

note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 March 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - PUTIN 52.9%, Gennadiy Aadreyevich ZYUGANOV 29.2%, Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY 5.8%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 89 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; half elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 5% of the vote, and half from single-member constituencies; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: State Duma - last held 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2003)

election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats - KPRF 24.29%, Unity 23.32%, OVR 13.33%, Union of Right Forces 8.52%, LDPR 5.98%, Yabloko 5.93%; seats by party - KPRF 113, Unity 72, OVR 67, Union of Rightist Forces 29, LDPR 17, Yabloko 21, other 16, independents 106, repeat election required 8, vacant 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court of Arbitration; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Mikhail Ivanovich LAPSHIN]; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or KPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Fatherland-All Russia or OVR [Yuriy Mikhailovich LUZHKOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Union of Right Forces [Anatoliy Borisovich CHUBAYS, Yegor Timurovich GAYDAR, Irina Mutsuovna KHAKAMADA, Boris Yefimovich NEMTSOV]; Unity [Sergey Kuzhugetovich SHOYGU]; Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]

note: some 150 political parties, blocs, and movements registered with the Justice Ministry as of the 19 December 1998 deadline to be eligible to participate in the 19 December 1999 Duma elections; of these, 36 political organizations actually qualified to run slates of candidates on the Duma party list ballot, 6 parties cleared the 5% threshold to win a proportional share of the 225 party seats in the Duma, 9 other organizations hold seats in the Duma: Bloc of Nikolayev and Academician Fedorov, Congress of Russian Communities, Movement in Support of the Army, Our Home Is Russia, Party of Pensioners, Power to the People, Russian All-People's Union, Russian Socialist Party, and Spiritual Heritage; primary political blocs include pro-market democrats - (Yabloko Bloc and Union of Right Forces), anti-market and/or ultranationalist (Communist Party of the Russian Federation and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia)

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy Viktorovich USHAKOV

chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708

FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James F. COLLINS

embassy: Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, 121099 Moscow

mailing address: APO AE 09721

telephone: [7] (095) 728-5000

FAX: [7] (095) 728-5203

consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red



Russia Economy

Economy - overview: A decade after the implosion of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia is still struggling to establish a modern market economy and achieve strong economic growth. In contrast to its trading partners in Central Europe - which were able to overcome the initial production declines that accompanied the launch of market reforms within three to five years - Russia saw its economy contract for five years, as the executive and legislature dithered over the implementation of many of the basic foundations of a market economy. Russia achieved a slight recovery in 1997, but the government's stubborn budget deficits and the country's poor business climate made it vulnerable when the global financial crisis swept through in 1998. The crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble, a debt default by the government, and a sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population. The economy rebounded in 1999 and 2000, buoyed by the competitive boost from the weak ruble and a surging trade surplus fueled by rising world oil prices. This recovery, along with a renewed government effort in 2000 to advance lagging structural reforms, have raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its second decade of transition. Yet serious problems persist. Russia remains heavily dependent on exports of commodities, particularly oil, natural gas, metals, and timber, which account for over 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Russia's agricultural sector remains beset by uncertainty over land ownership rights, which has discouraged needed investment and restructuring. Another threat is negative demographic trends, fueled by low birth rates and a deteriorating health situation - including an alarming rise in AIDS cases - that have contributed to a nearly 2% drop in the population since 1992. Russia's industrial base is increasingly dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve sustainable economic growth. Other problems include widespread corruption, capital flight, and brain drain.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.12 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%

industry: 34%

services: 59% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 38.7% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 66 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 30%, services 55% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.5% (2000 est.), plus considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues: $40 billion

expenditures: $33.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 798.065 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 66.31%

hydro: 19.79%

nuclear: 13.9%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 728.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 20 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 6 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

Exports: $105.1 billion (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Exports - partners: US 8.8%, Germany 8.5%, Ukraine 6.5%, Belarus 5.1%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 4.8% (1999)

Imports: $44.2 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar, semifinished metal products

Imports - partners: Germany 13.8%, Belarus 10.7%, Ukraine 8.3%, US 7.9%, Kazakhstan 4.6%, Italy 3.8% (1999)

Debt - external: $163 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $8.523 billion (1995)

Currency: Russian ruble (RUR)

Currency code: RUR

Exchange rates: Russian rubles per US dollar - 28.3592 (January 2001), 28.1292 (2000), 24.6199 (1999), 9.7051 (1998), 5,785 (1997), 5,121 (1996)

note: the post-1 January 1998 ruble is equal to 1,000 of the pre-1 January 1998 rubles

Fiscal year: calendar year



Russia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 30 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (October 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone system has undergone significant changes in the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; however, a large demand for main line service remains unsatisfied

domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density

international: Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems

Radio broadcast stations: AM 420, FM 447, shortwave 56 (1998)

Radios: 61.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7,306 (1998)

Televisions: 60.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ru

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (2000)

Internet users: 9.2 million (2000)



Russia Transportation

Railways: total: 149,000 km

note: 86,000 km are in common carrier service; 63,000 km serve specific industries and are not available for common carrier use; 40,000 km of the railway in common carrier use are electrified

broad gauge: 149,000 km 1.520-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 952,000 km

paved: 752,000 km (including, in addition to about 336,000 km of conventionally paved roads, about 416,000 km of roads, the surfaces of which have been stabilized with gravel or other coarse aggregates, making them trafficable in wet weather)

unpaved: 200,000 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1998)

Waterways: 95,900 km (total routes in general use)

note: routes with navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet-95,900 km; routes with night navigational aids-60,400 km; man-made navigable routes-16,900 km (Jan 1994)

Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural gas 140,000 km (June 1993 est.)

Ports and harbors: Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Kaliningrad, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Saint Petersburg, Rostov, Sochi, Tuapse, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg

Merchant marine: total: 878 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,314,485 GRT/5,344,958 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 20, cargo 543, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 21, combination ore/oil 7, container 31, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 35, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 164, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 17, short-sea passenger 7

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Reunion 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2,743 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 471

over 3,047 m: 56

2,438 to 3,047 m: 178

1,524 to 2,437 m: 76

914 to 1,523 m: 69

under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2,272

over 3,047 m: 28

2,438 to 3,047 m: 118

1,524 to 2,437 m: 204

914 to 1,523 m: 324

under 914 m: 1,598 (2000 est.)



Russia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 38,866,147 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 30,337,743 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,242,778 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Russia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary with China remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan; Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996, which has not been signed or ratified by Russia as of February 2001; draft treaty delimiting the boundary with Latvia has not been signed; 1997 border agreement with Lithuania not yet ratified; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of amphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe, possibly to the US, and growing domestic market; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are major concerns; heroin an increasing threat in domestic drug market

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@Rwanda



Rwanda Introduction

Background: In 1959, three years before independence, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire, now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC). Since then most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.



Rwanda Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 26,338 sq km

land: 24,948 sq km

water: 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 893 km

border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m

highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land

Land use: arable land: 35%

permanent crops: 13%

permanent pastures: 18%

forests and woodland: 22%

other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo

Environment - current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; predominantly rural population



Rwanda People

Population: 7,312,756

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.4% (male 1,555,878; female 1,544,942)

15-64 years: 54.73% (male 1,989,501; female 2,013,012)

65 years and over: 2.87% (male 83,769; female 125,654) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 33.97 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 21.13 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 38.99 years

male: 38.35 years

female: 39.65 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.89 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.21% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 40,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 52.7%, Protestant 24%, Adventist 10.4%, Muslim 1.9%, indigenous beliefs and other 6.5%, none 4.5% (1996)

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 48%

male: 52%

female: 45% (1995 est.)



Rwanda Government

Country name: conventional long form: Rwandese Republic

conventional short form: Rwanda

local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda

local short form: Rwanda

former: Ruanda

Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 12 prefectures (in French - prefectures, singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA, singular - prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: on 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly adopted as Fundamental Law the constitution of 18 June 1991, provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord, the July 1994 Declaration by the Rwanda Patriotic Front, and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: normally the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election for new president by deputies of the National Assembly and governmental ministers held 17 April 2000 (next national election to be held NA 2003); prime minister is appointed by the president

election results: Paul KAGAME (FPR) elected president in a special parliamentary/ministerial ballot receiving 81 of a possible 86 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70 seats established on 12 December 1994 following a multiparty protocol of understanding; members were named by their parties, number of seats per party predetermined by the Arusha peace accord)

note: four additional seats, two for women and two for youth, added in 2001

elections: the last national legislative elections were held 16 December 1988 for the National Development Council (the legislature prior to the advent of the Transitional National Assembly); no elections have been held for the Transitional National Assembly as the distribution of seats was predetermined by the Arusha peace accord

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FPR 13, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, RPA 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, UDPR 2; note - the distribution of seats was predetermined, four additional seats (two for women and two for youth) added in 2001

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; communal courts; appeals courts

Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Charles NTAKIRUTINKA, Vincent BIRUTA, Augusin IYAMUREMYE]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA, Emile NTWARABAKIGA, Christian MARARA]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Pie MUGABO, Enock KABERA, Prosper MUGIRANEZA]; Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rwanda Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [Medard RUTIJANWA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: IBUKA - association of genocide survivors

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard SEZIBERA

chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George M. STAPLES

embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali

mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali

telephone: [250] 756 01 through 03, 721 26, 771 47

FAX: [250] 721 28

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band



Rwanda Economy

Economy - overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. Continued growth in 2001 depends on the maintenance of international aid levels and the strengthening of world prices of coffee and tea.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

industry: 20%

services: 40% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 24.2% (1983-85)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2000)

Labor force: 3.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $198 million

expenditures: $411 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 132 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 3.03%

hydro: 96.97%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 191.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 70 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock

Exports: $68.4 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore

Exports - partners: Germany, Belgium, Pakistan, Italy, Kenya

Imports: $245.9 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material

Imports - partners: Kenya, Tanzania, US, Benelux, France, India

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $591.5 million (1997); note - in summer 1998, Rwanda presented its policy objectives and development priorities to donor governments resulting in multiyear pledges in the amount of $250 million

Currency: Rwandan franc (RWF)

Currency code: RWF

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs per US dollar - 432.24 (January 2001), 389.70 (2000), 333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Rwanda Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 15,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

note: however, Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several prefecture capitals (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government

domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone

international: international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 601,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: NA; probably less than 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .rw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Rwanda Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 12,000 km

paved: 1,000 km

unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: note: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye

Airports: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Rwanda Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,815,633 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 924,544 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $58 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (FY01)



Rwanda Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rwandan military forces are supporting the rebel forces in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

======================================================================

@Saint Helena



Saint Helena Introduction

Background: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, St. Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE's exile, from 1815 until his death in 1821, but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Ascension Island is the site of a US Air Force auxiliary airfield; Gough Island has a meteorological station.



Saint Helena Geography

Location: islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, about mid-way between South America and Africa

Geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 42 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 410 sq km

land: 410 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes St. Helena Island, Ascension, and the island group of Tristan da Cunha, which consists of Tristan da Cunha Island, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, and the three Nightingale Islands

Area - comparative: slightly more than two times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

Terrain: Saint Helena - rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

note: the other islands of the group have a volcanic origin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha 2,060 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 6%

other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns



Saint Helena People

Population: 7,266 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.08% (male 699; female 687)

15-64 years: 71.72% (male 2,711; female 2,500)

65 years and over: 9.2% (male 286; female 383) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.72% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.49 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.33 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.01 years

male: 74.13 years

female: 80.04 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Saint Helenian(s)

adjective: Saint Helenian

Ethnic groups: African descent 50%, white 25%, Chinese 25%

Religions: Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 20 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 97%

female: 98% (1987 est.)



Saint Helena Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Saint Helena

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha*

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)

Constitution: 1 January 1989

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA years of age

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Governor and Commander in Chief David HOLLAMBY (since NA June 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, two ex officio officers, and six elected members of the Legislative Council

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (15 seats, including the speaker, 3 ex officio and 12 elected members; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 9 July 1997 (next to be held NA August 2001)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court; Small Debts Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship



Saint Helena Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $5 million in 1997 or almost one-half of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing, the raising of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island, on the Falklands, and in the UK.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 3,500 (1998 est.)

note: 1,200 of whom are working offshore

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 6%, industry (mainly construction) 48%, services 46% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $11.2 million

expenditures: $11 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92)

Industries: construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 6 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.6 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: corn, potatoes, vegetables; timber; fish, crawfish (on Tristan da Cunha)

Exports: $704,000 (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports - commodities: fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts

Exports - partners: South Africa, UK

Imports: $14.434 million (c.i.f., 1995)

Imports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts

Imports - partners: UK, South Africa

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $12.6 million (1995); note - $5.3 million from UK (1997)

Currency: Saint Helenian pound (SHP)

Currency code: SHP

Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6047 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Saint Helena Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: can communicate with any place in the world

domestic: automatic network

international: HF radiotelephone from Saint Helena to Ascension which is a major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK ; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA

Communications - note: Gough Island has a meteorological station



Saint Helena Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 158 km (Saint Helena 118 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 0 km)

paved: 138 km (Saint Helena 98km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 0 km)

unpaved: NA km 20 km (Saint Helena 20 km, Ascension 0 km, Tristan da Cunha 0 km)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Georgetown (on Ascension), Jamestown

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Saint Helena Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Saint Helena Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Saint Kitts and Nevis



Saint Kitts and Nevis Introduction

Background: First settled by the British in 1623, the islands became an associated state with full internal autonomy in 1967. The island of Anguilla rebelled and was allowed to secede in 1971. Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence in 1983. In 1998, a vote in Nevis on a referendum to separate from Saint Kitts fell short of the two-thirds majority needed.



Saint Kitts and Nevis Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 261 sq km (Saint Kitts 168 sq km; Nevis 93 sq km)

land: 261 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea: 12 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Liamuiga 1,156 m

Natural resources: arable land

Land use: arable land: 22%

permanent crops: 17%

permanent pastures: 3%

forests and woodland: 17%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Saint Kitts and Nevis People

Population: 38,756 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.84% (male 5,909; female 5,654)

15-64 years: 61.37% (male 11,870; female 11,915)

65 years and over: 8.79% (male 1,406; female 2,002) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.11% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.78 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.01 years

male: 68.22 years

female: 73.97 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.41 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s)

adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian

Ethnic groups: predominantly black some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese

Religions: Anglican, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 97%

male: 97%

female: 98% (1980 est.)



Saint Kitts and Nevis Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis

former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis

Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Perlette LOUISY (since September 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation with the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (14 seats, 3 appointed and 11 popularly elected from single-member constituencies; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 6 March 2000 (next to be held by July 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SKNLP 8, CCM 2, NRP 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts and Nevis)

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Lindsey GRANT]; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osbert W. LIBURD

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 686-2636

FAX: [1] (202) 686-5740

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing two white, five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red



Saint Kitts and Nevis Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally depended on the growing and processing of sugarcane; decreasing world prices have hurt the industry in recent years. Tourism, export-oriented manufacturing, and offshore banking activity have assumed larger roles. Most food is imported. The government has undertaken a program designed to revitalize the faltering sugar sector. It is also working to improve revenue collection in order to better fund social programs. In 1997 some leaders in Nevis were urging separation from Saint Kitts on the basis that Nevis was paying far more in taxes than it was receiving in government services, but the vote on cessation failed in August 1998. In late September 1998, Hurricane Georges caused approximately $445 million in damages and limited GDP growth for the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $274 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.5%

industry: 22.5%

services: 72% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 18,172 (June 1995)

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $64.1 million

expenditures: $73.3 million, including capital expenditures of $10.4 million (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 83.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fish

Exports: $53.2 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages, tobacco

Exports - partners: US 68.5%, UK 22.3%, Caricom countries 5.5% (1995 est.)

Imports: $151.5 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels

Imports - partners: US 42.4%, Caricom countries 17.2%, UK 11.3% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $115.1 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $5.5 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Saint Kitts and Nevis Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 205 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: good interisland and international connections

domestic: interisland links to Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone

international: international calls are carried by radiotelephone to Antigua and Barbuda and switched there to submarine cable or to Intelsat; or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 28,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .kn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Saint Kitts and Nevis Transportation

Railways: total: 58 km

narrow gauge: 58 km 0.762-m gauge on Saint Kitts to serve sugarcane plantations (1995)

Highways: total: 320 km

paved: 136 km

unpaved: 184 km (2000)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Basseterre, Charlestown

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Saint Kitts and Nevis Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard, Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Defense Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Saint Kitts and Nevis Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Saint Lucia



Saint Lucia Introduction

Background: The island, with its fine natural harbor at Castries, was contested between England and France throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries (changing possession 14 times); it was finally ceded to the UK in 1814. Self-government was granted in 1967 and independence in 1979.



Saint Lucia Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 53 N, 60 68 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 620 sq km

land: 610 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Gimie 950 m

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential

Land use: arable land: 8%

permanent crops: 21%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 13%

other: 53% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the northern region

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Saint Lucia People

Population: 158,178 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.13% (male 25,951; female 24,874)

15-64 years: 62.59% (male 48,568; female 50,430)

65 years and over: 5.28% (male 3,120; female 5,235) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.23% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 21.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.57 years

male: 69 years

female: 76.39 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.38 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Saint Lucian(s)

adjective: Saint Lucian

Ethnic groups: black 90%, mixed 6%, East Indian 3%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 67%

male: 65%

female: 69% (1980 est.)



Saint Lucia Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Saint Lucia

Government type: Westminster-style parliamentary democracy

Capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dr. Perlette LOUISY (since September 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Kenneth ANTHONY (since 24 May 1997) and Deputy Prime Minister Mario MICHEL (since 24 May 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; six members appointed on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and two after consultation with religious, economic, and social groups) and the House of Assembly (17 seats; members are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held 23 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SLP 16, UWP 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

Political parties and leaders: National Freedom Party or NFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; United Workers Party or UWP [Dr. Morella JOSEPH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia Merlyn JOHNNY

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795

FAX: [1] (202) 364-6728

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Lucia; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Lucia

Flag description: blue, with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border



Saint Lucia Economy

Economy - overview: The recent changes in the EU import preference regime and the increased competition from Latin American bananas have made economic diversification increasingly important in Saint Lucia. Improvement in the construction sector and growth of the tourism industry helped expand GDP in 1998-99. The agriculture sector registered its fifth year of decline in 1997 primarily because of a severe decline in banana production. The manufacturing sector is the most diverse in the Eastern Caribbean, and the government is beginning to develop regulations for the small offshore financial sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $700 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.7%

industry: 32.3%

services: 57% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 43,800

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $141.2 million

expenditures: $146.7 million, including capital expenditures of $25.1 million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing

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