HotFreeBooks.com
The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1 ... 21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential

International organization participation: AsDB, C (suspended), CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI

chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200

FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William B. MILAM

embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000

FAX: [92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s) general: Karachi

consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar

Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam



Pakistan Economy

Economy - overview: Pakistan is a poor, heavily populated country, suffering from internal political disputes, lack of foreign investment, and a costly confrontation with neighboring India. Pakistan's economic outlook continues to be marred by its weak foreign exchange position, which relies on international creditors for hard currency inflows. The MUSHARRAF government will face an estimated $21 billion in foreign debt coming due in 2000-03, despite having rescheduled nearly $2 billion in debt with Paris Club members. Foreign loans and grants provide approximately 25% of government revenue, but debt service obligations total nearly 50% of government expenditure. Although Pakistan successfully negotiated a $600 million IMF Stand-By Arrangement, future loan installments will be jeopardized if Pakistan misses critical IMF benchmarks on revenue collection and the fiscal deficit. MUSHARRAF has complied largely with IMF recommendations to raise petroleum prices, widen the tax net, privatize public sector assets, and improve the balance of trade. However, Pakistan's economic prospects remain uncertain; too little has changed despite the new administration's intentions. Foreign exchange reserves hover at roughly $1 billion, GDP growth hinges on crop performance, the import bill has been hammered by high oil prices, and both foreign and domestic investors remain wary of committing to projects in Pakistan.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $282 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25.4%

industry: 24.9%

services: 49.7% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 27.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 40 million

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (FY99/00 est.)

Budget: revenues: $8.9 billion

expenditures: $11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 62.078 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 63.38%

hydro: 36.51%

nuclear: 0.11%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 57.732 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Exports: $8.6 billion (f.o.b., FY99/00)

Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, other agricultural products

Exports - partners: US 24%, Hong Kong 7%, UK 7%, Germany 6%, UAE 6% (FY99/00)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., FY99/00)

Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum, petroleum products, chemicals, transportation equipment, edible oils, grains, pulses, flour

Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 8%, UAE 8%, US 6%, Japan 6%, Malaysia 4% (FY99/00)

Debt - external: $38 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion (FY99/00)

Currency: Pakistani rupee (PKR)

Currency code: PKR

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 59.152 (January 2001), 52.814 (2000), 49.118 (1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997), 35.909 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Pakistan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (March 1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 158,000 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)

Radios: 13.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .pk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 30 (2000)

Internet users: 1.2 million (2000)



Pakistan Transportation

Railways: total: 8,163 km

broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km double track)

narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (1996 est.) (2000)

Highways: total: 247,811 km

paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km of expressways)

unpaved: 106,559 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 240,605 GRT/367,040 DWT

ships by type: cargo 13, container 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 117 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 82

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 32

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 17 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 8 (2000 est.)



Pakistan Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 35,770,928 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 21,897,366 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,657,723 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.435 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY99/00)



Pakistan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: status of Kashmir with India; water-sharing problems with India over the Indus River (Wular Barrage)

Illicit drugs: key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move from Afghanistan into Balochistan Province

======================================================================

@Palau



Palau Introduction

Background: After three decades as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific under US administration, this westernmost cluster of the Caroline Islands opted for independent status in 1978 rather than join the Federated States of Micronesia. A Compact of Free Association with the US was approved in 1986, but not ratified until 1993. It entered into force the following year when the islands gained their independence.



Palau Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, southeast of the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 7 30 N, 134 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 458 sq km

land: 458 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM

extended fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Ngerchelchauus 242 m

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

permanent pastures: NA%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues: inadequate facilities for disposal of solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral dredging, illegal fishing practices, and overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes World War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain



Palau People

Population: 19,092 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.88% (male 2,641; female 2,491)

15-64 years: 68.46% (male 7,128; female 5,943)

65 years and over: 4.66% (male 420; female 469) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.23 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.2 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.14 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.89 years

male: 65.77 years

female: 72.19 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Palauan(s)

adjective: Palauan

Ethnic groups: Palauan (Micronesian with Malayan and Melanesian admixtures) 70%, Asian (mainly Filipinos, followed by Chinese, Taiwanese, and Vietnamese) 28%, white 2% (2000 est.)

Religions: Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day Saints), Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this religion which is indigenous to Palau)

Languages: English and Palauan official in all states except Sonsoral (Sonsorolese and English are official), Tobi (Tobi and English are official), and Angaur (Angaur, Japanese, and English are official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92%

male: 93%

female: 90% (1980 est.)



Palau Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Palau

conventional short form: Palau

local long form: Beluu er a Belau

local short form: Belau

former: Palau District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994

Capital: Koror; note - a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast of Koror

Administrative divisions: 18 states; Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Hatobohei, Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngarchelong, Ngardmau, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Ngeremlengui, Ngiwal, Palau Island, Peleliu, Sonsoral, Tobi

Independence: 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Constitution: 1 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU Jr. (since 19 January 2001) and Vice President Sandra PIERANTOZZI (since 19 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU Jr. (since 19 January 2001) and Vice President Sandra PIERANTOZZI (since 19 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet

elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: Tommy Esang REMENGESAU Jr. elected president; percent of vote - Tommy Esang REMENGESAU Jr. 53%, Peter SUGIYAMA 46%; Sandra PIERANTOZZI elected vice president; percent of vote - Sandra PIERANTOZZI 52%, Alan SEID 45%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Olbiil Era Kelulau (OEK) consists of the Senate (16 seats; members elected by popular vote on a population basis to serve four-year terms) and the House of Delegates (16 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004); House of Delegates - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; House of Delegates - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; National Court; Court of Common Pleas

Political parties and leaders: Palau Nationalist Party [Johnson TORIBIONG]; Ta Belau Party [Kuniwo NAKAMURA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IOC, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hersey KYOTA

chancery: 1150 18th Street NW, Suite 750, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 452-6814

FAX: [1] (202) 452-6281

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the Ambassador to the Philippines is accredited to Palau; Charge d'Affaires Allen E. NUGENT

embassy: address NA, Koror

mailing address: P. O. Box 6028, Republic of Palau 96940

telephone: [680] 488-2920, 2990

FAX: [680] 488-2911

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side



Palau Economy

Economy - overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing. The government is the major employer of the work force, relying heavily on financial assistance from the US. The population enjoys a per capita income of twice that of the Philippines and much of Micronesia. Long-run prospects for the tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air travel in the Pacific and the rising prosperity of leading East Asian countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $129 million (1998 est.)

note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate: -1.4% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,100 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 8,300 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 2.3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $57.7 million

expenditures: $80.8 million, including capital expenditures of $17.1 million (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), construction, garment making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Agriculture - products: coconuts, copra, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes

Exports: $14.3 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Exports - commodities: trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts

Exports - partners: US, Japan

Imports: $126 million (f.o.b., FY99/00)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, metals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US

Debt - external: $0 (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient: $155.8 million (1995); note - the Compact of Free Association with the US, entered into after the end of the UN trusteeship on 1 October 1994, will provide Palau with up to $700 million in US aid over 15 years in return for furnishing military facilities

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Palau Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1,500 (1988)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1988)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 12,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .pw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA



Palau Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 61 km

paved: 36 km

unpaved: 25 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Koror

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Palau Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; under a Compact of Free Association between Palau and the US, the US military is granted access to the islands for 50 years



Palau Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Palmyra Atoll



Palmyra Atoll Introduction

Background: The Kingdom of Hawaii claimed the atoll in 1862, and the US included it among the Hawaiian Islands when it annexed the archipelago in 1898. The Hawaii Statehood Act of 1959 did not include Palmyra Atoll, which is now privately owned by the Nature Conservancy. This organization is managing the atoll as a nature preserve. The lagoons and surrounding waters within the 12 nautical mile US territorial seas were transferred to the US Fish and Wildlife service and designated a National Wildlife Refuge in January 2001.



Palmyra Atoll Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 5 52 N, 162 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 11.9 sq km

land: 11.9 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: very low

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 2 m

Natural resources: terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 100%

other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall



Palmyra Atoll People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; 4 to 20 Nature Conservancy staff, US Fish and Wildlife staff (July 2001 est.)



Palmyra Atoll Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Dependency status: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Palmyra Atoll Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Palmyra Atoll Transportation

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during World War II are unserviceable and overgrown (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: West Lagoon

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Palmyra Atoll Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Palmyra Atoll Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Panama



Panama Introduction

Background: With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening years. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were turned over to Panama by or on 31 December 1999.



Panama Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 78,200 sq km

land: 75,990 sq km

water: 2,210 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 555 km

border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 7%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 44%

other: 27% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean



Panama People

Population: 2,845,647 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.13% (male 436,661; female 420,625)

15-64 years: 63.86% (male 920,787; female 896,520)

65 years and over: 6.01% (male 81,682; female 89,372) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.06 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.68 years

male: 72.94 years

female: 78.53 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.54% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 24,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Panamanian(s)

adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14%

note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.8%

male: 91.4%

female: 90.2% (1995 est.)



Panama Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Panama

conventional short form: Panama

local long form: Republica de Panama

local short form: Panama

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and one territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, and Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983 and 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez elected president; percent of vote - Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (PA) 44%, Martin TORRIJOS (PRD) 37%

note: government coalition - PA, MOLIRENA, Democratic Change, MORENA, PLN, PS

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (71 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 34, PA 18, PDC 5, PS 4, MOLIRENA 3, PLN 3, Democratic Change 2, PRC 1, MORENA 1

note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders: Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ruben AROSEMENA]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC [Serguei DE LA ROSA]; Democratic Change [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Martin TORRIJOS]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Raul ARANGO Gasteazopo]; National Renovation Movement or MORENA [Pedro VALLARINO Cox]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Ramon MORALES]; Solidarity Party or PS [Samuel LEWIS Galindo]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo BOYD

chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Simon FERRO

embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 37, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5

mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002

telephone: [507] 207-7000

FAX: [507] 227-1964

Flag description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center



Panama Economy

Economy - overview: Panama's economy is based primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for three-fourths of GDP. Services include the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. A slump in Colon Free Zone and agricultural exports, high oil prices, and the withdrawal of US military forces held back economic growth in 2000. The government plans public works programs, tax reforms, and new regional trade agreements in order to stimulate growth in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%

industry: 16.5%

services: 76.5% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 37% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 35.7% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.1 million (2000 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20.8%, industry 18%, services 61.2% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.8 billion

expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $471 million (2000 est.)

Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.413 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 27.78%

hydro: 71.65%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.57% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 4.049 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 95 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 40 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp

Exports: $5.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing

Exports - partners: US 42%, Germany 11%, Costa Rica 5%, Benelux 4%, Italy 4% (1999)

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 39%, Colon Free Zone 14%, Japan 8%, Ecuador 6%, Mexico 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $7.56 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $197.1 million (1995)

Currency: balboa (PAB); US dollar (USD)

Currency code: PAB; USD

Exchange rates: balboas per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Panama Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 396,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 17,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed

domestic: NA

international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 101, FM 134, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 815,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 38 (including repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 510,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .pa

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 45,000 (2000)



Panama Transportation

Railways: total: 355 km

broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge

narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 11,592 km

paved: 4,079 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 7,513 km (2000)

Waterways: 882 km

note: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km (2001)

Ports and harbors: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Manzanillo (part of Colon area), Vacamonte

Merchant marine: total: 4,711 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 111,515,984 GRT/169,655,363 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1,381, cargo 925, chemical tanker 314, combination bulk 71, combination ore/oil 18, container 525, liquefied gas 193, livestock carrier 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 12, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 544, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 297, roll on/roll off 106, short-sea passenger 36, specialized tanker 29, vehicle carrier 208

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 11, Australia 1, Austria 1, Bermuda 21, Belgium 4, The Bahamas 7, Brazil 2, Canada 4, China 154, Chile 4, Cayman Islands 1, Colombia 6, Cuba 7, Cyprus 4, Denmark 12, Egypt 8, Ireland 2, Equatorial Guinea 1, Finland 1, France 4, Germany 17, Greece 248, Hong Kong 158, Honduras 2, Croatia 3, Indonesia 40, India 11, Iran 1, Israel 3, Italy 7, Japan 1,007, Jordan 2, South Korea 223, Latvia 4, Lithuania 1, Liberia 2, Monaco 43, Malta 1, Mexico 5, Malaysia 6, Netherlands 6, Norway 36, Netherlands Antilles 1, Peru 5, Pakistan 1, Portugal 5, Philippines 10, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 6, Seychelles 2, South Africa 5, Singapore 73, Spain 35, Sweden 4, Syria 11, Switzerland 53, UAE 11, Thailand 15, Taiwan 170, UK 18, US 79, Venezuela 18, Samoa 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 107 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 42

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 22 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 65

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 52 (2000 est.)



Panama Military

Military branches: an amendment to the Constitution abolished the armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces or PPF includes the Panamanian National Police, National Maritime Service, and National Air Service)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 775,966 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 530,916 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $128 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY99)

Military - note: on 10 February 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force, but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"



Panama Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem; Panama was cited by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) an international organization that includes the US Government, for its lack of cooperation in the fight against international money laundering

======================================================================

@Papua New Guinea



Papua New Guinea Introduction

Background: The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997, after claiming some 20,000 lives.



Papua New Guinea Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 462,840 sq km

land: 452,860 sq km

water: 9,980 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 820 km

border countries: Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries

Land use: arable land: 0.1%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 92.9%

other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast



Papua New Guinea People

Population: 5,049,055 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.7% (male 993,248; female 960,647)

15-64 years: 57.63% (male 1,507,064; female 1,402,666)

65 years and over: 3.67% (male 87,779; female 97,651) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 32.15 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.88 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.46 years

male: 61.39 years

female: 65.64 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.22% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 5,400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 450 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region

note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 72.2%

male: 81%

female: 62.7% (1995 est.)



Papua New Guinea Government

Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea

abbreviation: PNG

Government type: constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA (since NA August 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael OGIO (since 3 November 2000)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years on the basis of majority support in National Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%, NA 14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents 33%; seats by party - PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP 5, UP 3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note - association with political parties is very fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance or NA [Michael SOMARE]; National Party or NP [Michael MEL]; Papua New Guinea United Party or Pangu Pati [Chris HAIVETA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Ted DIRO]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Simon KAUMI]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Michael NALI]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Alfred KAIABE]; United Party or UP [Rimbiuk PATO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Susan JACOBS

chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680

FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arma Jane KARAER

embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby

mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby

telephone: [675] 321-1455

FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag description: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered



Papua New Guinea Economy

Economy - overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The 3.4% average annual growth rate of GDP during 1979-1998 conceals considerable year-to-year variation resulting from external economic shocks, natural disasters, and economic management problems. There has been little growth in the last half of the 1990s, with real GDP in 1999 barely 3% higher than in 1994, not enough to compensate for population growth. A new administration under the leadership of Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA in July 1999 has promised to restore integrity to state institutions, to stabilize the kina, to restore stability to the national budget, to privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and to ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the support of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Significant challenges remain for MORAUTA, however, including gaining further investor confidence, specifically for the proposed Papua New Guinea-Australia oil pipeline, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, and in maintaining the support from members of Parliament who after 15 July 2001 can dismiss him with a vote of no-confidence.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30%

industry: 35%

services: 35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 37%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.941 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion

expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.82 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 54.95%

hydro: 45.05%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.693 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns

Exports - partners: Australia 30%, Japan 12%, Germany 7%, South Korea 4%, Philippines 3%, UK 3% (1999)

Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners: Australia 53%, Singapore 13%, Japan 6%, US 4%, New Zealand 4%, Malaysia 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $400 million (1999 est.)

Currency: kina (PGK)

Currency code: PGK

Exchange rates: kina per US dollar - 2.81 (October 2000), 2.696 (2000), 2.539 (1999), 2.058 (1998), 1.434 (1997), 1.318 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Papua New Guinea Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 47,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,053 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

domestic: mostly radiotelephone

international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)

Radios: 410,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 42,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .pg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Papua New Guinea Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 19,600 km

paved: 686 km

unpaved: 18,914 km (1996)

Waterways: 10,940 km

Ports and harbors: Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine: total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,361 GRT/51,096 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 492 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 20

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 472

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 57

under 914 m: 402 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Papua New Guinea Military

Military branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, and Special Forces Unit)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,306,159 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 723,012 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY98)



Papua New Guinea Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Paracel Islands

Paracel Islands Introduction Top of Page

Background: This archipelago is surrounded by productive fishing grounds and potentially large oil reserves. In 1932, French Indochina annexed the islands and set up a weather station on Prattle Island; maintenance was continued by its successor Vietnam. China has occupied the Paracel Islands since 1974, when its troops captured a South Vietnamese garrison occupying the western islands. However, the islands are still claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan.



Paracel Islands Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 16 30 N, 112 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: NA sq km

land: NA sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: mostly low and flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Rocky Island 14 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: NA



Paracel Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there are scattered Chinese garrisons (July 2001 est.)



Paracel Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Paracel Islands



Paracel Islands Economy

Economy - overview: China announced plans in 1997 to open the islands for tourism.



Paracel Islands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island being expanded

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Paracel Islands Military

Military - note: occupied by China



Paracel Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

======================================================================

@Paraguay



Paraguay Introduction

Background: In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.



Paraguay Geography

Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 406,750 sq km

land: 397,300 sq km

water: 9,450 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: total: 3,920 km

border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

highest point: Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m

Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 55%

forests and woodland: 32%

other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Environment - current issues: deforestation (an estimated 2 million hectares of forest land were lost from 1958-85); water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many urban residents

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil



Paraguay People

Population: 5,734,139 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.9% (male 1,133,306; female 1,097,360)

15-64 years: 56.39% (male 1,622,743; female 1,610,659)

65 years and over: 4.71% (male 124,321; female 145,750) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 30.88 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.75 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.92 years

male: 71.44 years

female: 76.52 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.11 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.11% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 220 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Paraguayan(s)

adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant

Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.1%

male: 93.5%

female: 90.6% (1995 est.)



Paraguay Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form: Paraguay

local long form: Republica del Paraguay

local short form: Paraguay

Government type: constitutional republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and one capital city; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion (city), Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1811)

Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75

Executive branch: chief of state: President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); vice president Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); vice president Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

election results: Raul CUBAS Grau elected president; percent of vote - 55.3%; resigned 28 March 1999

note: President Luis GONZALEZ MACCHI, formerly president of the Chamber of Senators, constitutionally succeeded President Raul CUBAS Grau, who resigned after being impeached soon after the assassination of Vice President Luis Maria ARGANA; the successor to ARGANA was decided in an election held in August 2000

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 25, PLRA 13, PEN 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 45, PLRA 26, PEN 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders: Authentic Radical Liberal Party or PLRA [Miguel Abdon SAGUIER]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adalina GUITERREZ DE GALEANO]; Febrerista Revolutionary Party or PRF [Carlos Maria LJUBETIC]; National Encounter or PEN [Euclides ACEVEDO]; National Republican Association - Colorado Party [acting president Bader RACHID LICHI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Workers Central or CNT; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Leila RACHID

chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962

FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508

consulate(s) general: Detroit (honorary), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (honorary)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE

embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion

mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001

telephone: [595] (21) 213-715

FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag description: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)



Paraguay Economy

Economy - overview: Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97, but GDP declined slightly in 1998 and 1999. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and external debt, and deficient infrastructure. Growth rebounded slightly in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,750 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 28%

industry: 21%

services: 51% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 46.6% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%

Unemployment rate: 16% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.3 billion

expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (1999 est.)

Industries: sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 51.554 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.07%

hydro: 99.79%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.15% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.915 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 46.03 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (yucca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber

Exports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: electricity, soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils

Exports - partners: Brazil, Argentina, EU

Imports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery

Imports - partners: Brazil, US, Argentina, Uruguay, EU, Hong Kong

Debt - external: $3 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: guarani (PYG)

Currency code: PYG

Exchange rates: guarani per US dollar - 3,570.0 (January 2001), 3,486.4 (2000), 3,119.1 (1999), 2,726.5 (1998), 2,177.9 (1997), 2,056.8 (1996); note - since early 1998, the exchange rate has operated as a managed float; prior to that, the exchange rate was determined freely in the market

Fiscal year: calendar year



Paraguay Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 290,475 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 510,000 (2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion

domestic: fair microwave radio relay network

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 46, FM 27, shortwave 6 (three inactive) (1998)

Radios: 925,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (2001)

Televisions: 990,000 (2001)

Internet country code: .py

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Paraguay Transportation

Railways: total: 971 km

standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge

note: there are 470 km of various gauges that are privately owned

Highways: total: 25,901 km

paved: 3,067 km

unpaved: 22,834 km (2001)

Waterways: 3,100 km

Ports and harbors: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion

Merchant marine: total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,066 GRT/35,441 DWT

ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 915 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 904

1,524 to 2,437 m: 29

914 to 1,523 m: 340

under 914 m: 535 (2000 est.)



Paraguay Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,388,436 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,001,516 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 58,359 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $125 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98)



Paraguay Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in South America; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Southern Cone markets and Europe

======================================================================

@Peru



Peru Introduction

Background: After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years, bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.



Peru Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km

land: 1.28 million sq km

water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 5,536 km

border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM

territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 21%

forests and woodland: 66%

other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia



Peru People

Population: 27,483,864 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.41% (male 4,803,464; female 4,654,890)

15-64 years: 60.8% (male 8,408,210; female 8,302,943)

65 years and over: 4.79% (male 603,309; female 711,048) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.7% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 23.9 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.3 years

male: 67.9 years

female: 72.81 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.96 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.35% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 48,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.7%

male: 94.5%

female: 83% (1995 est.)



Peru Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru

Government type: constitutional republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

note: Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2001) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential election held 8 April 2001 with runoff election 3 June 2001); next to be held NA 2006

election results: President TOLEDO elected in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held 8 April 2001)

note: many congressmen defected to and then from former President FUJIMORI's coalition in 2000

election results: percent of vote by party - Peru 2000 42.16%, Peru Possible 23.34%, FIM 7.56%, Somos Peru 7.2%, APRA 5.5%, others 14.24%; seats by party - Peru 2000 52, Peru Possible 29, FIM 9, others 30

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)

Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Andean Rebirth [Ciro GALVEZ Herreria]; Avancemos [leader NA]; Democratic Cause [Jorge SANTISTEVAN]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Solidarity or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; National Unity [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru 2000 [leader NA]; Peru Posible or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Maniquez]; Popular Action or AP [leader NA]; Popular Agrarian Front of Peru or Frepap [leader NA]; Popular Solution [Carlos BOLONA Behr]; Project Country [Mario Antonio ARRUNATEGUI]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [leader NA]; Vamos Vecinos or VV [Absalon VASQUEZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

International organization participation: ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonso RIVERO Monsalve

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John HAMILTON

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000

FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath



Peru Economy

Economy - overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the FUJIMORI government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited economic growth in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $123 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,550 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 42%

services: 43% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 49% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 34.3% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 7.6 million (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 7.7%; extensive underemployment (1997)

Budget: revenues: $8.5 billion

expenditures: $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 18.886 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 23.04%

hydro: 76.43%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.53% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 17.565 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish

Exports: $7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, copper, zinc, gold, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton

Exports - partners: US 29%, EU 25%, Andean Community 6%, Japan 4%, Mercosur 3% (1999)

Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 32%, EU 21%, Andean Community 6%, Mercosur 8%, Japan 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $31 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $895.1 million (1995)

Currency: nuevo sol (PEN)

Currency code: PEN

Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.5230 (January 2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.383 (1999), 2.930 (1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Peru Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.509 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 504,995 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for most requirements

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)

Radios: 6.65 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.06 million (1997)

Internet country code: .pe

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000)

Internet users: 400,000 (2000)



Peru Transportation

Railways: total: 1,988 km

standard gauge: 1,608 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 380 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 72,900 km

paved: 8,700 km

unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 8,808 km

note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas

note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,623 GRT/61,769 DWT

ships by type: cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 233 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 46

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 187

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25

914 to 1,523 m: 65

under 914 m: 95 (2000 est.)



Peru Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 7,205,675 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,847,250 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 276,458 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY00)



Peru Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 64% to 34,200 hectares between 1996 and the end of 2000; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine for the international drug market; increasing amounts of finished cocaine, however, are being shipped to Europe or to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to world markets

======================================================================

@Philippines



Philippines Introduction

Background: The Philippines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained their independence in 1946 after being occupied by the Japanese in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986 when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, the US closed down its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since Marcos' removal by "people power." In January 2001, the Supreme Court declared Joseph ESTRADA unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government and administered the oath of office to Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO as his constitutional successor. The government continues to struggle with ongoing Muslim insurgencies in the south.



Philippines Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 300,000 sq km

land: 298,170 sq km

water: 1,830 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 NM from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 NM in breadth

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 12%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 46%

other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 15,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Philippines People

Population: 82,841,518 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.87% (male 15,547,712; female 14,997,544)

15-64 years: 59.45% (male 24,374,849; female 24,873,595)

65 years and over: 3.68% (male 1,355,046; female 1,692,772) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.03% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.37 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.8 years

male: 64.96 years

female: 70.79 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 28,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Filipino(s)

adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%

Languages: two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English, eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.6%

male: 95%

female: 94.3% (1995 est.)



Philippines Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines

Previous Part     1 ... 21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse