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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of King GYANENDRA, 7 July (1946)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King GYANENDRA Bir Bikram Shah (succeeded to the throne 4 June 2001 following the death of his nephew King DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah)

head of government: Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 22 March 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

note: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev died in a bloody shooting at the royal palace on 1 June 2001 that also claimed the lives of most of the royal family; King BIRENDRA's son, Crown Price DIPENDRA, is believed to have been responsible for the shootings before fatally wounding himself; immediately following the shootings and while still clinging to life, DIPENDRA was crowned king; he died three days later and was succeeded by his uncle

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council (60 seats; 35 appointed by the House of Representatives, 10 by the king, and 15 elected by an electoral college; one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (205 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 3 and 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NC 37.3%, CPN/UML 31.6%, NDP 10.4%, NSP 3.2%, Rastriya Jana Morcha 1.4%, Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal 0.8%, NWPP 0.5%, others 14.8%; seats by party - NC 113, CPN/UML 69, NDP 11, NSP 5, Rastriya Jana Morcha 5, Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal 1, NWPP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL, general secretary]; National Democratic Party or NDP (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP) [Surya Bahadur THAPA, chairman]; Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP [Gajendra Narayan SINGH, president]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE, party chair]; Nepali Congress or NC [Girija Prasad KOIRALA, party president, Sushil KOIRALA, general secretary]; Rastriya Jana Morcha [Chitra Bahadur K. C., chairman]; Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal [Lila Mani POKHAREL, general secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency; numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Damodar Prasad GAUTAM

chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK

embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [977] (1) 411179, 410531

FAX: [977] (1) 419963

Flag description: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun



Nepal Economy

Economy - overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world with nearly half of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting for 41% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for about 80% of foreign exchange earnings in the past three years. Agricultural production is growing by about 5% on average as compared with annual population growth of 2.3%. Since May 1991, the government has been moving forward with economic reforms, particularly those that encourage trade and foreign investment, e.g., by reducing business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify investment procedures. The government has also been cutting expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil servants. More recently, however, political instability - five different governments over the past few years - has hampered Kathmandu's ability to forge consensus to implement key economic reforms. Nepal has considerable scope for accelerating economic growth by exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism, areas of recent foreign investment interest. Prospects for foreign trade or investment in other sectors will remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The international community's role of funding more than 60% of Nepal's development budget and more than 28% of total budgetary expenditures will likely continue as a major ingredient of growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $33.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,360 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 41%

industry: 22%

services: 37% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 42% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1995-96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (FY99/00 est.)

Labor force: 10 million (1996 est.)

note: severe lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 81%, services 16%, industry 3%

Unemployment rate: NA%; substantial underemployment (1999)

Budget: revenues: $536 million

expenditures: $818 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.255 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 9.56%

hydro: 90.44%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.309 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 68 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 210 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat

Exports: $485 million (f.o.b., 1998), but does not include unrecorded border trade with India

Exports - commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain

Exports - partners: India 33%, US 26%, Germany 25% (FY97/98)

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer

Imports - partners: India 31%, China/Hong Kong 16%, Singapore 14% (FY97/98)

Debt - external: $2.4 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $411 million (FY97/98)

Currency: Nepalese rupee (NPR)

Currency code: NPR

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees per US dollar - 74.129 (January 2001), 71.104 (2000), 68.239 (1999), 65.976 (1998), 58.010 (1997), 56.692 (1996)

Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July



Nepal Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 236,816 (January 2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network

domestic: NA

international: radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (January 2000)

Radios: 840,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 130,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .np

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 35,000 (2000)



Nepal Transportation

Railways: total: 59 km; note - all in Kosi close to Indian border

narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 13,223 km

paved: 4,073 km

unpaved: 9,150 km (April 1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 45 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 29 (2000 est.)



Nepal Military

Military branches: Royal Nepalese Army (includes Royal Nepalese Army Air Service), Nepalese Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,295,990 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,272,077 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 292,589 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $44 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY96/97)



Nepal Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately 98,700 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West

======================================================================

@Netherlands



Netherlands Introduction

Background: The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I but suffered a brutal invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EC, and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999.



Netherlands Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 41,526 sq km

land: 33,883 sq km

water: 7,643 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,027 km

border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m

highest point: Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, arable land

Land use: arable land: 25%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 8%

other: 39% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)



Netherlands People

Population: 15,981,472 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.38% (male 1,501,925; female 1,436,017)

15-64 years: 67.9% (male 5,518,575; female 5,333,442)

65 years and over: 13.72% (male 899,052; female 1,292,461) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.55% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.85 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.43 years

male: 75.55 years

female: 81.44 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)

adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups: Dutch 91%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 9% (1999 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 31%, Protestant 21%, Muslim 4.4%, other 3.6%, unaffiliated 40% (1998)

Languages: Dutch

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (2000 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Netherlands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands

conventional short form: Netherlands

local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

local short form: Nederland

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day (Birthday of Queen-Mother JULIANA in 1909 and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX in 1980), 30 April

Constitution: adopted 1814; amended many times, last time 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the monarch

head of government: Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 22 August 1994) and Vice Prime Ministers Annemarie JORRITSMA (since 3 August 1998) and Els BORST-EILERS (since 3 August 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; vice prime ministers appointed by the monarch

note: government coalition - PvdA, VVD, and D'66; there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors consulted by the executive on legislative and administrative policy

Legislative branch: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: First Chamber - last held 25 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2003); Second Chamber - last held 6 May 1998 (next to be held May 2002)

election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDA 20, VVD 19, PvdA 15, D'66 4, other 17; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - PvdA 30.0%, VVD 25.3%, CDA 19.3%, D'66 9.3%, other 16.1%; seats by party - PvdA 45, VVD 38, CDA 29, D'66 14, other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Jaap de Hoop SCHEFFER]; Democrats '66 or D'66 [Tom DE GRAAF]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wim KOK]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Hans F. DIJKSTAL]; a host of minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joris M. VOS

chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300

FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia P. SCHNEIDER

embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague

mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715

telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209

FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688

consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer



Netherlands Economy

Economy - overview: The Netherlands is a prosperous and open economy depending heavily on foreign trade. The economy is noted for stable industrial relations, moderate inflation, a sizable current account surplus, and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs no more than 4% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Dutch rank third worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind the US and France. The Dutch economy has expanded by 3% or more in each of the last four years and real GDP growth is likely to be about 3.6% in 2001. The government in 2001 will implement its most comprehensive tax reform since World War II, designed to reduce high income tax levels and redirect the fiscal burden onto consumption. The Dutch were among the first 11 EU countries establishing the euro currency zone on 1 January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $388.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.3%

industry: 26.3%

services: 70.4% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.1% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 7.2 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 23%, agriculture 4% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $134 billion

expenditures: $134 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2000)

Electricity - production: 85.294 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 90.25%

hydro: 0.11%

nuclear: 4.27%

other: 5.37% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 97.76 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3.97 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 22.407 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $210.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs

Exports - partners: EU 78% (Germany 26%, Belgium-Luxembourg 12%, France 12%, UK 11%, Italy 6%), Central and Eastern Europe, US (2000)

Imports: $201.2 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 18%, Belgium-Luxembourg 10%, UK 5%, France 6%), US 9%, Central and Eastern Europe (2000)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $3.5 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: Netherlands guilder (NLG); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in the Netherlands at a fixed rate of 2.20371 Netherlands guilders per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: NLG; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Netherlands guilders per US dollar - 1.9837 (1998), 1.9513 (1997), 1.6859 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Netherlands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9,132,400 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,081,891 (April 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed and well maintained

domestic: the existing system of multi-conductor cables is gradually being replaced by fiber-optic cables; the density of cellular telephone traffic is rapidly increasing and further modernization of the system is expected in the year 2001, with the introduction of the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (1996)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 58, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 15.3 million (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 21 (plus 26 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 8.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .nl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 52 (2000)

Internet users: 6.8 million (2000)



Netherlands Transportation

Railways: total: 2,739 km

standard gauge: 2,739 km 1.435-m gauge; (1,991 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total: 125,575 km

paved: 113,018 km (including 2,235 km of expressways)

unpaved: 12,557 km (1998)

Waterways: 5,046 km

note: 47% of total route length is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km

Ports and harbors: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht, Vlissingen

Merchant marine: total: 596 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,321,500 GRT/4,877,632 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 371, chemical tanker 43, container 59, liquefied gas 21, livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 9, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 29, roll on/roll off 18, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 5 (2000 est.)

Airports: 28 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 19

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Netherlands Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,083,349 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,555,501 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 96,082 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.5 billion (FY00/01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY00/01 est.)



Netherlands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major European producer of illicit amphetamine and other synthetic drugs; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy

======================================================================

@Netherlands Antilles



Netherlands Antilles Introduction

Background: Once the center of the Caribbean slave trade, the island of Curacao was hard hit by the abolition of slavery in 1863. Its prosperity (and that of neighboring Aruba) was restored in the early 20th century with the construction of oil refineries to service the newly discovered Venezuelan oil fields. The island of Sint Maarten is shared with France; its northern portion is named Saint Martin and is part of Guadeloupe.



Netherlands Antilles Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela; the other is east of the Virgin Islands

Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 960 sq km

land: 960 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 10.2 km

border countries: Guadeloupe (Saint Martin) 10.2 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 90% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt and are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October

Environment - current issues: NA



Netherlands Antilles People

Population: 212,226 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.21% (male 27,332; female 26,169)

15-64 years: 66.99% (male 67,562; female 74,599)

65 years and over: 7.8% (male 6,874; female 9,690) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.97% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.55 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.94 years

male: 72.76 years

female: 77.22 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Dutch Antillean(s)

adjective: Dutch Antillean

Ethnic groups: mixed black 85%, Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 98%

female: 99% (1981 est.)



Netherlands Antilles Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles

local long form: none

local short form: Nederlandse Antillen

former: Curacao and Dependencies

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

note: each island has its own government

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Queen's Day (Birthday of Queen-Mother JULIANA in 1909 and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX in 1980), 30 April

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 8 November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Susanne CAMELIA-ROMER (since NA)

note: Miguel POURIER assumed prime ministership following the resignation of Susanne CAMELIA-ROMER

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten

elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

note: government coalition - PDB, DP-St. M, FOL, PLKP, PNP

Legislative branch: unicameral States or Staten (22 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PAR 4, PNP 3, SPA 1, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, PLKP 3, WIPM 1, SEA 1, DP-St. M 2, FOL 2; no party won enough seats to form a government

note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition of several parties; current seats by party - PAR 4, PNP 3, FOL 2, MAN 2, UPB 2, DP-St. M 2, PDB 1, SEA 1, WIPM 1, other 4

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Antillean Restructuring Party or PAR [Miguel POURIER]; C 93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Errol HERNANDEZ]; Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Foundation Energetic Management Anti-Narcotics or FAME [Eric LODEWIJKS]; Labor Party People's Crusade or PLKP [Errol COVA]; National People's Party or PNP [Susanne F. C. CAMELIA-ROMER]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Kenneth GIJSBERTHA]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Ramon BOOI]; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten or SPA [Vance JAMES, Jr.]; People's Party or PAPU [Richard Hodi]; Pro Curacao Party or PPK [Winston LOURENS]; Saba Democratic Labor Movement [Steve HASSELL]; Saba Unity Party [Carmen SIMMONDS]; St. Eustatius Alliance or SEA [Kenneth VAN PUTTEN]; Serious Alternative People's Party or Sapp [Julian ROLLOCKS]; Social Action Cause or KAS [Benny DEMEI]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Will JOHNSTON]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Anthony GODETT, Rignald LAK, Editha WRIGHT]

note: political parties are indigenous to each island

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WMO, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Barbara J. STEPHENSON

consulate(s) general: J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Willemstad AN, Curacao

mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao

telephone: [599] (9) 4613066

FAX: [599] (9) 4616489

Flag description: white, with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical red band, also centered; five white, five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten



Netherlands Antilles Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. Although GDP has declined slightly in each of the past five years, the islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with Venezuela, the US, and Mexico being the major suppliers. Poor soils and inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 15%

services: 84% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 89,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 13%, services 86% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.9% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $710.8 million

expenditures: $741.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.11 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.032 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical fruit

Exports: $276 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products

Exports - partners: US 17.5%, Guatemala 8%, Costa Rica 6.5%, The Bahamas 4.6%, Jamaica 4.1%, Chile 3.4% (1998)

Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: crude petroleum, food, manufactures

Imports - partners: Venezuela 35.3%, US 21%, Mexico 9.8%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 4.8%, Brazil 3.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.35 billion (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: IMF provided $61 million in 2000, and the Netherlands continued its support with $40 million

Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder (ANG)

Currency code: ANG

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders per US dollar - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Netherlands Antilles Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 76,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 13,977 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: generally adequate facilities

domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

international: submarine cables - 2; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 217,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (there is also a cable service which supplies programs received from various US satellite networks and two Venezuelan channels) (1997)

Televisions: 69,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .an

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Netherlands Antilles Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 600 km

paved: 300 km

unpaved: 300 km (1992)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine: total: 123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,113,774 GRT/1,397,841 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 35, chemical tanker 2, combination ore/oil 3, container 19, liquefied gas 4, multi-functional large-load carrier 19, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 28, roll on/roll off 7

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 8, Germany 1, Italy 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Netherlands Antilles Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Guard, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 54,284 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 30,405 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,610 (2001 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands



Netherlands Antilles Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American drugs bound for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@New Caledonia



New Caledonia Introduction

Background: Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s seems to have dissipated.



New Caledonia Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 19,060 sq km

land: 18,575 sq km

water: 485 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 12%

forests and woodland: 39%

other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1991)

Natural hazards: cyclones, most frequent from November to March

Environment - current issues: erosion caused by mining exploitation and forest fires



New Caledonia People

Population: 204,863 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.31% (male 31,674; female 30,416)

15-64 years: 63.95% (male 66,014; female 65,006)

65 years and over: 5.74% (male 5,548; female 6,205) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.37 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.02 years

male: 70.08 years

female: 76.11 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.48 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: New Caledonian(s)

adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91%

male: 92%

female: 90% (1976 est.)



New Caledonia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies

conventional short form: New Caledonia

local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances

local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1956

Government type: NA

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Commissioner Thierry LATASTE (since 19 July 1999)

head of government: President of the Government Jean LEQUES (since 28 May 1999)

cabinet: Consultative Committee

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres Territorial (54 seats; members are members of the three Provincial Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPCR 24, FLNKS 12, UNI 6, FCCI 4, FN 4, Alliance pour la Caledonie 3, LKS 1

note: New Caledonia elects 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; New Caledonia also elects 2 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance pour la Caledonie [Didier LEROUX]; Developper Ensemble pour Construire l'Avenir or DEPCA [Robert FROUIN]; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Leopald SOREDIE]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Groupe de l'Alliance Multiraciale or GAM [Dany DALMAYRAE]; Independance et Progres [Alphonse PUJAPUJANE]; Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS [Rock WAMYTAN] (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); La Caledonie Autrement [Denis MILLIARD]; Loyalty Islands Development Front or FDIL [Cono HAMU]; National Front or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Charles WASHETINE]; Rally for Caledonia in the Republic or RPCR [Jacques LAFLEUR]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [leader NA]; Renouveau [Thierry VALET]; Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]; Union Caledonienne or UC [Bernard LEPEU]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Andre GOPEA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



New Caledonia Economy

Economy - overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's known nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports. In addition to nickel, the substantial financial support from France and tourism are keys to the health of the economy. The situation in 1998 was clouded by the spillover of financial problems in East Asia and by lower prices for nickel. Nickel prices jumped in 1999-2000, and large additions were made to capacity. French Government interests in the New Caledonian nickel industry are being transferred to local ownership.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 30%

services: 66% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 79,395 (including 15, 018 unemployed, 1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 7%, industry 23%, services 70% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 19% (1996)

Budget: revenues: $861.3 million

expenditures: $735.3 million, including capital expenditures of $52 million (1996 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: -0.6% (1996)

Electricity - production: 1.52 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 78.95%

hydro: 21.05%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.414 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; beef, deer, other livestock products

Exports: $411 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: ferronickels, nickel ore, fish

Exports - partners: Japan 27%, France 17%, Taiwan 12%, South Korea 9% (1999)

Imports: $843 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: transport equipment, machinery and electrical equipment, fuels, minerals, wine, sugar, rice

Imports - partners: France 49%, Australia 14%, Singapore 6%, New Zealand 5%, US 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $79 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $880 million annual subsidy from France

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (XPF)

Currency code: XPF

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (XPF) per US dollar - 127.11 (January 2001), 129.44 (2000), 111.93 (1999), 107.25 (1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996); note - linked at the rate of 119.25 XPF to the euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



New Caledonia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 47,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 13,040 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 107,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 52,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .nc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



New Caledonia Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 4,825 km

paved: 2,287 km

unpaved: 2,538 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,261 GRT/1,600 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 29 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 6 (2000 est.)



New Caledonia Military

Military branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $192.3 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.3% (1996)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



New Caledonia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu

======================================================================

@New Zealand



New Zealand Introduction

Background: The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand withdrew from a number of defense alliances during the 1970s and 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding native Maori grievances.



New Zealand Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 268,680 sq km

land: 268,670 sq km

water: 10 sq km

note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Area - comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 50%

forests and woodland: 28%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world



New Zealand People

Population: 3,864,129 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.36% (male 442,738; female 421,462)

15-64 years: 66.11% (male 1,281,781; female 1,272,674)

65 years and over: 11.53% (male 193,895; female 251,579) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.14% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.56 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.99 years

male: 75.01 years

female: 81.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.06% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



New Zealand Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville

note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Constitution: consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Jim ANDERTON (since 10 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 27 November 1999 (next must be called by November 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NZLP 49, NP 39, Alliance 10, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 7, NZFP 5, UNZ 1

note: NZLP and Alliance formed the government coalition; the National Party became the opposition party

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: ACT, New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) [Jim ANDERTON]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [Jenny SHIPLEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; United New Zealand or UNZ [Peter DUNNE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James Brendan BOLGER

chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carol MOSELEY-BRAUN

embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington

mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001

telephone: [64] (4) 472-2068

FAX: [64] (4) 478-1701

consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation



New Zealand Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major economic restructuring, moving an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access toward a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. Per capita GDP has been moving up toward the levels of the big West European economies. New Zealand's heavy dependence on trade leaves its growth prospects vulnerable to economic performance in Asia, Europe, and the US. With the FY00/01 budget pushing up pension and other public outlays, the government's ability to meet fiscal targets will depend on sustained economic growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $67.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%

industry: 23%

services: 69% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.88 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture 10% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $19.2 billion

expenditures: $19.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2000)

Electricity - production: 37.952 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 30.49%

hydro: 61.42%

nuclear: 0%

other: 8.09% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 35.295 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $14.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: dairy products, meat, fish, wool, forestry products, manufactures

Exports - partners: Australia 22%, US 14%, Japan 13%, UK 7% (1999)

Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, consumer goods, plastics

Imports - partners: Australia 24%, US 17%, Japan 12%, UK 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $30.8 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $123 million (1995)

Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code: NZD

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.2502 (January 2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



New Zealand Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.84 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 588,000 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems

domestic: NA

international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.926 million (1997)

Internet country code: .nz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 36 (2000)

Internet users: 1.34 million (2000)



New Zealand Transportation

Railways: total: 3,913 km

narrow gauge: 3,913 km 1.067-m gauge (519 km electrified) (1999)

Highways: total: 92,200 km

paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways)

unpaved: 38,632 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,609 km

note: of little importance in satisfying total transportation requirements

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington

Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 72,389 GRT/109,018 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 111 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 44

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 67

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 42 (2000 est.)



New Zealand Military

Military branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,000,102 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 841,915 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 26,480 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $883 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY97/98)



New Zealand Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

======================================================================

@Nicaragua



Nicaragua Introduction

Background: Settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s, Nicaragua gained its independence in 1821. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 and again in 1996 saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998.



Nicaragua Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 129,494 sq km

land: 120,254 sq km

water: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the state of New York

Land boundaries: total: 1,231 km

border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: natural prolongation

territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 27%

other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasionally severe hurricanes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification



Nicaragua People

Population: 4,918,393 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.98% (male 976,087; female 941,141)

15-64 years: 58.08% (male 1,418,555; female 1,438,096)

65 years and over: 2.94% (male 62,963; female 81,551) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.82 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.05 years

male: 67.1 years

female: 71.11 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,900 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 360 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nicaraguan(s)

adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant

Languages: Spanish (official)

note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 65.7%

male: 64.6%

female: 66.6% (1995 est.)



Nicaragua Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua

conventional short form: Nicaragua

local long form: Republica de Nicaragua

local short form: Nicaragua

Government type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987, with reforms in 1995 and 2000

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (since 10 January 1997); Vice President Leopoldo NAVARRO (since 24 October 2000); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (since 10 January 1997); Vice President Leopoldo NAVARRO (since 24 October 2000); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held 4 November 2001); note - in July 1995 the term of the office of the president was amended to five years

election results: Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (Liberal Alliance - ruling party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 51.03%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 37.75%, Guillermo OSORNO (PCCN) 4.10%, Noel VIDAURRE (PCN) 2.26%, Benjamin LANZAS (PRONAL) 0.53%, other (18 other candidates) 4.33%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held 4 November 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN 3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats by party - Liberal Alliance 42, FSLN 36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PC 1, PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96 Alliance 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected for seven-year terms by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party of Nicaragua or PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Virgilio GODOY]; Liberal Alliance (ruling alliance including Liberal Constitutional Party or PLC, New Liberal Party or PALI, Independent Liberal Party for National Unity or PLIUN, and Central American Unionist Party or PUCA) [leader NA]; National Conservative Party or PC [Pedro SOLARZANO, Noel VIDAURRE]; National Project or PRONAL [Benjamin LANZAS]; Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Sergio RAMIREZ]; Unity Alliance or AU [Alejandro SERRANO]; Union Nacional Opositora 96 or UNO-96 [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonso ORTEGA Urbina

chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570

FAX: [1] (202) 939-6542

consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver P. GARZA

embassy: Apartado Postal 327, Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua

mailing address: APO AA 34021

telephone: [505] (2) 662298, 666010, 666012, 666013, 666015, 666018, 666026, 666027, 666032, 666033

FAX: [505] (2) 669074

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Nicaragua Economy

Economy - overview: Nicaragua, one of the hemisphere's poorest countries, faces low per capita income, flagging socio-economic indicators, and huge external debt. While the country has made progress toward macro-economic stabilization over the past few years, a banking crisis and scandal has shaken the economy. Managua will continue to be dependent on international aid and debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Donors have made aid conditional on improving governability, the openness of government financial operation, poverty alleviation, and human rights. Nicaragua met the conditions for additional debt service relief in December 2000. Growth should remain moderate to high in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.6%

industry: 22.8%

services: 45.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 39.8% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 43%, agriculture 42%, industry 15% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% plus considerable underemployment (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $734 million

expenditures: $836 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.349 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 67.26%

hydro: 17.71%

nuclear: 0%

other: 15.03% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.265 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 20 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products

Exports: $631 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, shrimp and lobster, cotton, tobacco, beef, sugar, bananas; gold

Exports - partners: US 37.7%, El Salvador 12.5%, Germany 9.8%, Costa Rica 5.1%, Spain 2.5%, France 2.1% (1999)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products, consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 34.5%, Costa Rica 11.4%, Guatemala 7.3%, Panama 6.9%, Venezuela 5.9%, El Salvador 5.5% (1999)

Debt - external: $6.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: NA

Currency: gold cordoba (NIO)

Currency code: NIO

Exchange rates: gold cordobas per US dollar - 12.96 (November 2000), 12.69 (2000 est.), 11.81 (1999), 10.58 (1998), 9.45 (1997), 8.44 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Nicaragua Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 140,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,911 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment

domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.24 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 320,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ni

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Nicaragua Transportation

Highways: total: 16,382 km

paved: 1,818 km

unpaved: 14,564 km (1998)

Waterways: 2,220 km (including 2 large lakes)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Ports and harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 182 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 171

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 145 (2000 est.)



Nicaragua Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,269,322 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 779,267 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 58,232 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $26 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Nicaragua Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with Honduras in the Caribbean Sea is before the ICJ; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border with Costa Rica

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing

======================================================================

@Niger



Niger Introduction

Background: Not until 1993, 33 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule in December 1999.



Niger Geography

Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,697 km

border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m

highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 2%

other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked



Niger People

Population: 10,355,156 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.97% (male 2,528,484; female 2,439,051)

15-64 years: 49.75% (male 2,518,400; female 2,633,677)

65 years and over: 2.28% (male 123,589; female 111,955) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 50.68 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 22.71 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 123.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 41.59 years

male: 41.74 years

female: 41.44 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.08 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.35% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 64,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s)

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