HotFreeBooks.com
The 2000 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1 ... 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27 ... 37     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 58, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 15.3 million (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (plus five low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 8.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 70 (1999)

@Netherlands:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,739 km standard gauge: 2,739 km 1.435-m gauge; (1,991 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total: 125,575 km paved: 113,018 km (including 2,235 km of expressways) unpaved: 12,557 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 5,046 km, of which 47% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km

Ports and harbors: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht

Merchant marine: total: 563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,035,899 GRT/4,576,841 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 343, chemical tanker 41, combination bulk 2, container 56, liquified gas 20, livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large load carrier 8, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 32, roll-on/roll-off 16, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 5 (1999 est.) note: many Dutch-owned ships are also operating under the registry of Netherlands Antilles (1998 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 19 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Netherlands:Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,090,273 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,566,882 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 96,684 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.956 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Netherlands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major European producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe





NEW CALEDONIA

@New Caledonia:Introduction

Background: Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s seems to have dissipated.

@New Caledonia:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 19,060 sq km land: 18,575 sq km water: 485 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 12% forests and woodland: 39% other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1991)

Natural hazards: cyclones, most frequent from November to March

Environment - current issues: erosion caused by mining exploitation and forest fires

@New Caledonia:People

Population: 201,816 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 31,396; female 30,160) 15-64 years: 64% (male 65,042; female 63,961) 65 years and over: 5% (male 5,324; female 5,933) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.52% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.84 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.77 years male: 69.84 years female: 75.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: New Caledonian(s) adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91% male: 92% female: 90% (1976 est.)

@New Caledonia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies conventional short form: New Caledonia local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Data code: NC

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1956

Government type: NA

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Commissioner Thierry LATASTE (since 19 July 1999) head of government: President of the Government Jean LEQUES (since 28 May 1999) cabinet: Consultative Committee elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres Territorial (54 seats; members are members of the three Provincial Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 9 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPCR 24, FLNKS 12, UNI 6, FCCI 4, FN 4, Alliance pour la Caledonie 3, LKS 1 note: New Caledonia elects 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; New Caledonia also elects 2 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance pour la Caledonie [Didier LEROUX]; Developper Ensemble pour Construire l'Avenir or DEPCA [Robert FROUIN]; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI ; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Groupe de l'Alliance Multiraciale or GAM ; Independance et Progres ; Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, UPM); La Caledonie Autrement ; Loyalty Islands Development Front or FDIL ; National Front or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA ; Rally for Caledonia in the Republic or RPCR ; Renouveau ; Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]; Union Caledonienne or UC ; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI ; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@New Caledonia:Economy

Economy - overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's known nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports. In addition to nickel, the substantial financial support from France and tourism are keys to the health of the economy. The situation in 1998 was clouded by the spillover of financial problems in East Asia and by lower prices for nickel. Nickel prices jumped in 1999, and large additions were made to capacity.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 30% services: 66% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 79,395 (including 15, 018 unemployed, 1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 7%, industry 23%, services 70% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1994)

Budget: revenues: $861.3 million expenditures: $735.3 million, including capital expenditures of $52 million (1996 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.52 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 65.79% hydro: 34.21% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.414 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; beef, deer, other livestock products

Exports: $381 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: ferronickels, nickel ore, fish

Exports - partners: Japan 36%, France 30%, US 14%, Taiwan 9%, Australia 7% (1997)

Imports: $922 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foods, machinery and equipment, fuels, minerals

Imports - partners: France 41%, Australia 13%, New Zealand 7%, Japan 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $79 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $770 million from France (1998)

Currency: 1 Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 117.67 (January 2000), 111.93 (1999), 107.25 (1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@New Caledonia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 44,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 825 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 107,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 52,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@New Caledonia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 5,562 km paved: 975 km unpaved: 4,587 km (1993)

Ports and harbors: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,261 GRT/1,600 DWT ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 23 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1999 est.)

@New Caledonia:Military

Military branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $192.3 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.3% (1996)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@New Caledonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Matthew and Hunter Islands claimed by France and Vanuatu





NEW ZEALAND

@New Zealand:Introduction

Background: The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand withdrew from a number of defense alliances during the 1970s and 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding native Maori grievances.

@New Zealand:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 268,680 sq km land: 268,670 sq km water: 10 sq km note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Area - comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 50% forests and woodland: 28% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand:People

Population: 3,819,762 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 440,824; female 419,740) 15-64 years: 66% (male 1,263,710; female 1,254,958) 65 years and over: 11% (male 191,511; female 249,019) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.28 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.57 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.82 years male: 74.85 years female: 80.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: New Zealander(s) adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% (1980 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@New Zealand:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: New Zealand abbreviation: NZ

Data code: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21 March 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Jim ANDERTON (since 10 December 1999) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 27 November 1999 (next must be called by November 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NZLP 49, NP 39, Alliance 10, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 7, NZFP 5, UNZ 1 note: NZLP and Alliance formed the government coalition; the National Party became the opposition party

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: ACT, New Zealand ; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) ; Christian Coalition (a coalition of the Christian Democrats and Christian Heritage Party) ; Conservative Party (formerly Right of Centre Party) ; Democratic Party [John WRIGHT]; Green Party ; Mana Motuhake ; Mauri Pacific Party (composed of members who broke away from the NZFP) ; National Party or NP [Jenny SHIPLEY]; New Labor Party ; New Zealand First Party or NZFP ; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP ; New Zealand Liberal Party ; United New Zealand or UNZ International organization participation: ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James Brendan BOLGER chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 328-4800 FAX: (202) 667-5227 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Carol MOSELEY-BRAUN embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001 telephone: (4) 472-2068 FAX: (4) 471-2380 consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

@New Zealand:Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major economic restructuring, moving an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access toward a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. Per capita GDP has been moving up toward the levels of the big West European economies. New Zealand's heavy dependence on trade leaves its growth prospects vulnerable to economic performance in Asia, Europe, and the US. Moderate growth probably will characterize 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $63.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 23% services: 69% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.86 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture 10% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $24.9 billion expenditures: $23.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 35.789 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 27.17% hydro: 65.82% nuclear: 0% other: 7.01% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 33.284 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: dairy products, meat, fish, wool, forestry products, manufactures

Exports - partners: Australia 21%, Japan 13%, US 13%, UK 6% (1998)

Imports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, consumer goods, plastics

Imports - partners: Australia 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%, UK 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $53 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $123 million (1995)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January 2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.719 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 588,000 (1998)

Telephone system: excellent international and domestic systems domestic: NA international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.926 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 56 (1999)

@New Zealand:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,913 km narrow gauge: 3,913 km 1.067-m gauge (519 km electrified) (1999)

Highways: total: 92,200 km paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways) unpaved: 38,632 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington

Merchant marine: total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 102,461 GRT/133,418 DWT ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2, rail car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 111 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 44 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 28 under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 67 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 43 (1999 est.)

@New Zealand:Military

Military branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 990,774 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 834,289 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 26,649 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $883 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY97/98)

@New Zealand:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)





NICARAGUA

@Nicaragua:Introduction

Background: Settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s, Nicaragua gained its independence in 1821. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 and again in 1996 saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998.

@Nicaragua:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 129,494 sq km land: 120,254 sq km water: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the state of New York

Land boundaries: total: 1,231 km border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone continental shelf: natural prolongation territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 27% other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasionally severe hurricanes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua:People

Population: 4,812,569 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 971,580; female 936,888) 15-64 years: 57% (male 1,372,169; female 1,392,861) 65 years and over: 3% (male 60,539; female 78,532) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.2% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.26 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.74 years male: 66.81 years female: 70.77 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nicaraguan(s) adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant

Languages: Spanish (official) note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 65.7% male: 64.6% female: 66.6% (1995 est.)

@Nicaragua:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua conventional short form: Nicaragua local long form: Republica de Nicaragua local short form: Nicaragua

Data code: NU

Government type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987, with reforms in 1995 and 2000

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997); Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997); Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA October 2001); note - in July 1995 the term of the office of the president was amended to five years election results: Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (Liberal Alliance - ruling party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 51.03%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 37.75%, Guillermo OSORNO (PCCN) 4.10%, Noel VIDAURRE (PCN) 2.26%, Benjamin LANZAS (PRONAL) 0.53%, other (18 other candidates) 4.33%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN 3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats by party - Liberal Alliance 42, FSLN 36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PNC 1, PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96 Alliance 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, 16 judges elected for seven-year terms by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Central American Integrationist Party or PIAC ; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS Echaverry]; Conservative Action Movement or MAC [Hernaldo ZUNIGA]; Conservative National Party or PNC [Adolfo CALERO, Noel VIDAURRE]; Conservative Party of Nicaragua or PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI ; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity or PLIUN ; Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC ; Movement for Revolutionary Unity or MUR ; National Democratic Party or PND ; National Project or PRONAL [Antonio LACAYO Oyanguren]; Nationalist Liberal Party or PLN [Enrique SANCHEZ Herdocia]; Neoliberal Party or PALI ; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement or MDN ; Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Road or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN ; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN ; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS ; Social Christian Party or PSC ; Social Democratic Party or PSD ; Unity Alliance or AU ; UNO-96 Alliance note: political blocs include: left - FSLN; center left - MRS, PSD, PSC, MUR, PIAC, AU, PCN, PND, PUCA, UNO-96 Alliance, and MDN; center right - PALI, PRN, PLI, PRONAL, and MAC; right - PCCN, PLC, PLIUN, PNC, and PLN

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Farm Workers Association or ATC; Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD; Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO; National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN; National Union of Employees or UNE; and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG; National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers Central or CST; Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A; Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS; Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I; and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco AGUIRRE Sacasa chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: (202) 939-6570 FAX: (202) 939-6542 consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver P. GARZA embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua mailing address: APO AA 34021 telephone: (2) 662298, 666010, 666012, 666013, 666015, 666018, 666026, 666027, 666032, 666033 FAX: (2) 669074

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@Nicaragua:Economy

Economy - overview: Nicaragua is one of the hemisphere's poorest countries, with low per capita income, flagging socio-economic indicators, and huge external debt. The country has made significant progress toward macro-economic stabilization over the past few years - even with the damage caused by Hurricane Mitch in the fall of 1998. International aid, debt relief, and continued foreign investment have contributed to the stabilization process. GDP grew 6.3% in 1999, while inflation remained about 12%, and unemployment dropped. Nicaragua may qualify for the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, though aid is conditioned on improving governability, the openness of government financial operations, poverty alleviation, and human rights.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 34% industry: 22% services: 44% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6% highest 10%: 39.8% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 43%, agriculture 42%, industry 15% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.5% (1999 est.); considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues: $527 million expenditures: $617 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.714 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.43% hydro: 35.34% nuclear: 0% other: 11.23% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.52 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 99 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 95 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products

Exports: $573 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, shrimp and lobster, cotton, tobacco, beef, sugar, bananas; gold

Exports - partners: US 35%, Germany 13%, El Salvador 10%, Spain 4%, Costa Rica 4%, France 2% (1998)

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products, consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 31%, Costa Rica 11%, Guatemala 8%, Venezuela 6%, El Salvador 5%, Mexico 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $5.7 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: pledges of $1.4 billion in new aid in 1999

Currency: 1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 12.29 (December 1999),11.81 (1999), 10.58 (1998), 9.45 (1997), 8.44 (1996), 7.55 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nicaragua:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 140,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,400 (1995)

Telephone system: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System domestic: wire and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.24 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 320,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)

@Nicaragua:Transportation

Highways: total: 16,382 km paved: 1,818 km unpaved: 14,564 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Ports and harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 182 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 171 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 26 under 914 m: 144 (1999 est.)

@Nicaragua:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,229,103 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 755,002 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 57,125 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $26 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)

@Nicaragua:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with Honduras in the Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing





NIGERIA

@Nigeria:Introduction

Background: Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999 and a peaceful transition to civilian government completed. The new president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability.

@Nigeria:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 923,768 sq km land: 910,768 sq km water: 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 4,047 km border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas, hydropower, arable land

Land use: arable land: 33% permanent crops: 3% permanent pastures: 44% forests and woodland: 12% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Nigeria:People

Population: 123,337,822 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 27,181,020; female 26,872,317) 15-64 years: 53% (male 33,495,794; female 32,337,193) 65 years and over: 3% (male 1,729,149; female 1,722,349) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.16 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.72 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.56 years male: 51.58 years female: 51.55 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.66 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s) adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 57.1% male: 67.3% female: 47.3% (1995 est.)

@Nigeria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria conventional short form: Nigeria

Data code: NI

Government type: republic transitioning from military to civilian rule

Capital: Abuja note: on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion of facilities in Abuja

Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Federal Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: NA 1999 new constitution adopted

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Federal Executive Council elections: president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO 62.8%, Olu FALAE (APP-AD) 37.2%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats, three from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003); House of Representatives - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 23%, AD 19%; seats by party - PDP 65, APP 24, AD 20; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 30%, AD 12%; seats by party - PDP 215, APP 75, AD 70

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council; Federal Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee

Political parties and leaders: All People's Party or APP [Alhaji Yusuf ALI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD ; People's Democratic Party or PDP

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jibril AMINU chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: (202) 986-8400 FAX: (202) 775-1385 consulate(s) general: Atlanta and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William H. TWADDELL embassy: 2 Walter Carrington Crescent, Lagos mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos telephone: (1) 261-0097 FAX: (1) 261-0257

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

@Nigeria:Economy

Economy - overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic management, is undergoing substantial economic reform under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. In 2000, Nigeria is likely to receive a debt-restructuring deal with the Paris club and a $1 billion loan from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Increased foreign investment combined with high world oil prices should push growth to over 5% in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $110.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $970 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 33% industry: 42% services: 25% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 34.1% (1992-93 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 31.4% (1992-93)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 42.844 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry 6%, services 40% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 14.75 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 61.69% hydro: 38.31% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 13.717 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish

Exports: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber

Exports - partners: US 35%, Spain 11%, India 9%, France 6%, Italy (1998 est.)

Imports: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Imports - partners: UK 13%, US 12%, Germany 10%, France 9%, Netherlands (1998 est.)

Debt - external: $29 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $39.2 million (1995)

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: nairas (N) per US$1 - 96.261 (October 1999), 99 (1999), 21.886 (1998), 21.886 (1997), 21.895 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nigeria:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 405,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 10,000 (1999)

Telephone system: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); coaxial submarine cable SAFE (South African Far East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 82, FM 35, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios: 23.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 government-controlled; note - in addition, in 1993, 14 licenses to operate private television stations were granted (1999)

Televisions: 6.9 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)

@Nigeria:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,557 km narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge note: years of neglect of both the rolling stock and the right-of-way have seriously reduced the capacity and utility of the system; a project to restore Nigeria's railways is now underway

Highways: total: 194,394 km paved: 60,068 km (including 1,194 km of expressways) unpaved: 134,326 km (1998 est.) note: many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled; because of poor maintenance and years of heavy freight traffic (in part the result of the failure of the railroad system), much of the road system is barely usable

Waterways: 8,575 km consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km

Ports and harbors: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine: total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 360,505 GRT/644,471 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 4, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 71 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 37 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 18 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Nigeria:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 29,082,802 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 16,708,344 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,360,023 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $236 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (FY99)

@Nigeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula is currently before the ICJ; maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich areas in the Gulf of Guinea

Illicit drugs: facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets





NIGER

@Niger:Introduction

Background: Not until 1993, 33 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule in December 1999.

@Niger:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.267 million sq km land: 1,266,700 sq km water: 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,697 km border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 7% forests and woodland: 2% other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Niger:People

Population: 10,075,511 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 2,461,391; female 2,373,617) 15-64 years: 50% (male 2,445,369; female 2,563,839) 65 years and over: 2% (male 121,570; female 109,725) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.75% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 51.45 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 23.17 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 124.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 41.27 years male: 41.43 years female: 41.11 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s) adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 13.6% male: 20.9% female: 6.6% (1995 est.)

@Niger:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger conventional short form: Niger local long form: Republique du Niger local short form: Niger

Data code: NG

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular - departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president note: President Ibrahim BARE was assassinated on 9 April 1999; subsequent elections held under the nine-month provisional government of Major Daouda Mallam WANKE cabinet: 24-member cabinet appointed by President TANDJA elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 60%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (83 seats, members elected by popular vote for five-year terms) elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MNSD-Nassara 38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8, ANDPS-Zaman Lahia 4

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a ; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama ; Movement for Development and Progress-Alkwali or MDP-Alkwali ; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU, chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal or UNIRD ; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Democratic Front-Mutunci or FDN-Mutunci [Ide OUMAROU]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya ; Nigerien Social Democrat Party-Alheri or PSDN-Alheri ; Party for People's Dignity-Daraja or PDP-Daraja ; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua ; Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana ; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo BAKARY]; Workers' Movement Party-Albarka or PMT-Albarka [Omar Idi ANGO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Barbro OWENS-KIRKPATRICK embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey telephone: 72 26 61 through 72 26 64 FAX: 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

@Niger:Economy

Economy - overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export since the 1970s. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. Short-term prospects depend on upcoming negotiations with the World Bank and the IMF on debt relief and extended aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40% industry: 18% services: 42% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3% highest 10%: 29.3% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1999)

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $377 million, including $146 million from foreign sources expenditures: $377 million, including capital expenditures of $105 million (1999 est.)

Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 363 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 196 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

Exports: $269 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: uranium ore 65%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: US, Greece, Japan, France, Nigeria, Benin

Imports: $295 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

Imports - partners: France, Cote d'Ivoire, US, Benelux, Nigeria

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $222 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 670 (January 2000), 560.01 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995) note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Niger:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 5, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 680,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 125,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Niger:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 10,100 km paved: 798 km unpaved: 9,302 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Niger is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 27 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Niger:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,137,181 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,155,054 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 105,884 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY96)

@Niger:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger; delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and





NIUE

@Niue:Introduction

Background: Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to 2,100 in 2000) with substantial emigration to New Zealand.

@Niue:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 260 sq km land: 260 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: arable land: 19% permanent crops: 8% permanent pastures: 4% forests and woodland: 19% other: 50% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue:People

Population: 2,113 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Niuean(s) adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 75%, Latter-Day Saints 10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 95% male: NA% female: NA%

@Niue:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Niue

Data code: NE

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages each with its own village council whose members are elected and serve three-year terms

Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Warren SEARELL (since NA August 1993) head of government: Premier Sani LAKATANI (since 1 April 1999) cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002) election results: Sani LAKATANI elected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives) elections: last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 9, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue

Political parties and leaders: Niue People's Action Party or NPP International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross

@Niue:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid and remittances from New Zealand. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by grants from New Zealand which are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 million (1994 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,250 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1995)

Labor force: 450 (1992 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Exports: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)

Exports - commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts

Exports - partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)

Imports - commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs

Imports - partners: NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Samoa, Australia, US

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $8.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January 2000), 1.8889 (1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5082 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Niue:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 376 (1991)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1991)

Telephone system: domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Niue:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 234 km paved: 0 km unpaved: 234 km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Niue:Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Niue:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





NORFOLK ISLAND

@Norfolk Island:Introduction

Background: Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.

@Norfolk Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 34.6 sq km land: 34.6 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 25% forests and woodland: 0% other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment - current issues: NA

@Norfolk Island:People

Population: 1,892 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.68% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Norfolk Islander(s) adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesians

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian

@Norfolk Island:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Data code: NF

Dependency status: territory of Australia; Canberra administers Commonwealth responsibilities on Norfolk Island through the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and Australia are represented by Administrator A. J. MESSNER (since 4 August 1997) head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister George Charles SMITH (since 30 April 1997) cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the Administrator elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election last held 30 April 1997 (next to be held by May 2000) election results: George Charles SMITH elected chief minister; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms) elections: last held 30 April 1997 (next to be held by May 2000) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band

@Norfolk Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,395 (1991 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism NA%, subsistence agriculture NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $4.6 million expenditures: $4.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92/93)

Industries: tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% nuclear: NA% other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry

Exports: $1.5 million (f.o.b., FY91/92)

Exports - commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados

Exports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $17.9 million (c.i.f., FY91/92)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January 2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995)

Previous Part     1 ... 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27 ... 37     Next Part
Home - Random Browse