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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.14 years male: 69.2 years female: 73.1 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cook Islander(s) adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Type of government: self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Darryl DUNN (since NA 1994), representative of New Zealand was appointed by the New Zealand Government head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989) cabinet: Cabinet; collectively responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: elections last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party 2 note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Democratic Alliance Party, Norman GEORGE

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, largely from New Zealand. Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the mining and fishing industries. Despite these plans, the Cook Islands will continue to face severe financial problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $57 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $3,000 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1990)

Labor force: 5,810 by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 14,000 kW production: 21 million kWh consumption per capita: 741 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas, yams, taro

Exports: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990) commodities: copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing partners: NZ 80%, Japan

Imports: $50 million (c.i.f., 1990) commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber partners: NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

External debt: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: in 1994, Cook Islands received $5.4 million in budget support and $3.3 million in project aid from New Zealand, the country's largest source of aid

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5138 (January 1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 187 km paved: 35 km unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system: domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 studio and 8 low-powered repeaters to achieve good coverage on the island of Rarotonga

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand



======================================================================



@Coral Sea Islands ————————-

(territory of Australia)

Map —-

Location: 18 00 S, 152 00 E — Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: less than 3 sq km land area: less than 3 sq km comparative area: NA note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays) lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: no permanent fresh water resources natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones international agreements: NA

Geographic note: important nesting area for birds and turtles



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are three meteorologists



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Type of government: territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors



======================================================================



@Costa Rica —————



Map —-

Location: 10 00 N, 84 00 W — Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama



Flag ——

Description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 51,100 sq km land area: 50,660 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia note: includes Isla del Coco

Land boundaries: total: 639 km border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 7% meadows and pastures: 45% forest and woodland: 34% other: 8%

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation



People ———

Population: 3,463,083 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 612,624; female 582,566) 15-64 years: 61% (male 1,061,703; female 1,038,403) 65 years and over: 4% (male 77,773; female 90,014) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.06% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.84 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.14 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.72 years male: 73.31 years female: 78.24 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Costa Rican(s) adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 94.8% male: 94.7% female: 95%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica conventional short form: Costa Rica local long form: Republica de Costa Rica local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Type of government: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May 1994), First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May 1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May 1994) were elected for four-year terms by universal suffrage; election last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held NA February 1998); results - President FIGUERES (PLN) 49.7%, Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 47.5% cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held NA February 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC 29, minority parties 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN), Rolando ARAYA; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey; Democratic Force Party (FD), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos

Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD), Liberation Party affiliate; Confederated Union of Workers (CUT), Communist Party affiliate; Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD), Communist Party affiliate; Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for Economic Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL), rightwing militants; National Association of Educators (ANDE); Federation of Public Service Workers (FTSP)

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945 FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795 consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Austin

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose mailing address: APO AA 34020 telephone: [506] 220-3939 FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas, coffee, and other agricultural products. Recent trends have been disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in 1995, the lowest rate of growth since 1991's 2.1%. Inflation rose dramatically to 22.5% from 13.5% in 1994, well above the government's own projection of 18%. Unemployment rose from 4.0% in 1994 to 5.2% in 1995, and substantial underemployment continues. These economic woes are likely to be exacerbated in 1996 by a standby arrangement reached with the IMF on 29 November 1995. To restore fiscal balance, the government agreed to curb inflation, reduce the fiscal deficit, increase domestic savings, and improve public sector efficiency while increasing the role of the private sector. Costa Rica signed a free trade agreement with Mexico in 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 868,300 by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1995 est.); much underemployment

Budget: revenues: $1.1 billion expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity: capacity: 1,040,000 kW production: 4.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,164 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in declining timber output)

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France

Imports: $3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $4 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 193.93 (December 1995), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 950 km narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified) note: the entire system was scheduled to be shut down on 31 June 1995 because of insolvency

Highways: total: 35,560 km paved: 5,608 km unpaved: 29,952 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 145 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 16 with paved runways under 914 m: 97 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 29 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service domestic: NA international: connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Civil Guard, Coast Guard, Air Section, Rural Assistance Guard; note - the Constitution prohibits armed forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 917,566 males fit for military service: 616,420 males reach military age (18) annually: 33,504 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 2.0% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Cote d'Ivoire ——————-

(also known as Ivory Coast)

Map —-

Location: 8 00 N, 5 00 W — Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 322,460 sq km land area: 318,000 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 3,110 km border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 9% forest and woodland: 26% other: 52%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People ———

Population: 14,762,445 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 3,552,270; female 3,462,462) 15-64 years: 50% (male 3,828,538; female 3,599,920) 65 years and over: 2% (male 164,358; female 154,897) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.92% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.48 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire to escape the civil war in Liberia

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female all ages: 1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.73 years male: 46.23 years female: 47.25 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ivorian(s) adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic divisions: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)

Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 40.1% male: 49.9% female: 30%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire local short form: Cote d'Ivoire former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Type of government: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the US, maintain official presences in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993) served the remainder of the term of former President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who died in office after continuous service from November 1960; President BEDIE was elected with 96% of the vote at the last election on 22 October 1995 (next election October 2000); the president is elected for a five-year term by popular vote head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10 December 1993), appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers, appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held November 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 147, RDR 14, FPI 10, unfilled 4; note - of the unfilled seats, elections for 3 were postponed because of violence in the electoral districts and 1 seat remains contested

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE; Rally of the Republicans (RDR), Djeny KOBINA; Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan telephone: [225] 21 09 79 FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries. After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and rubber, trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and France. The 50% devaluation of Franc Zone currencies on 12 January 1994 caused a one-time jump in the inflation rate to 32% for 1994, but this rate fell to perhaps 10% in 1995, in part as the economy adjusted to the devaluation. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms led to a budget surplus in 1994. Real growth of GDP in 1994 was 1.7%, a significant improvement following several years of negative growth. In 1995 growth picked up to 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 37% industry: 24% services: 39% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 5.718 million by occupation: over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and professions

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408 million (1993)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 1,170,000 kW production: 1.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber; timber

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: cocoa 55%, coffee 12%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish partners: France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Burkina Faso, US, UK

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel partners: France, Nigeria, Japan, Netherlands, US, Italy

External debt: $19 billion (1993)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 660 km (1995 est.) narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track

Highways: total: 46,331 km paved: 3,579 km unpaved: 42,752 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons

Ports: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,726 GRT/34,711 DWT ships by type: container 2, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 35 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 10 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 12 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,386,638 males fit for military service: 1,762,412 males reach military age (18) annually: 157,712 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 1.4% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Croatia ———-



Map —-

Location: 45 10 N, 15 30 E — Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia



Flag ——

Description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 56,538 sq km land area: 56,410 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 2,073 km border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego), Slovenia 546 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International disputes: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic Serbs during the war, is currently being overseen by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia; reintegration of Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997; although Croatia does not recognize the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," both countries have agreed to open consular sections in each other's capitals; Croatia and Italy have not resolved a bilateral issue dating from WWII over property and ethnic minority rights; a border dispute with Slovenia is unresolved

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 20% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 15% other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits



People ———

Population: 5,004,112 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 453,142; female 431,118) 15-64 years: 69% (male 1,731,200; female 1,716,824) 65 years and over: 13% (male 252,897; female 418,931) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.58% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.83 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.33 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.81 years male: 69.13 years female: 76.72 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Croat(s) adjective: Croatian

Ethnic divisions: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.) total population: 97% male: 99% female: 95%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Croatia conventional short form: Croatia local long form: Republika Hrvatska local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija - singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav PARAGA received 5% of the vote head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since NA November 1995) and Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October 1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAS (since November 1995) were appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor) House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): elections last held 7 and 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3, SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1 House of Representatives (Zastupnicki Dom): elections last held 29 October 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - HDZ 45.23%, HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats - (127 total) HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Chamber of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Franjo TUDJMAN, president; Croatian Democratic Independents (HND), Stjepan MESIC, president; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Vlado GOTOVAC, president; Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP), Ivica RACAN; Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Ante DAPIC; Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS), Josip PANKRETIC; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Radimir CACIC, president; Serbian National Party (SNS), Milan DJUKIC; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia (ASH), Miko TRIPALO; Croatian Christian Democratic Union (HKDU), Marko VASELICA, president; Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), Ivan JACKOVIC; Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party (SBHS)

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899 FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345 telephone: [385] (41) 455-55-00 FAX: [385] (41) 455-85-85

Flag: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform efforts including stabilization policies and has normalized relations with creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform. The draft 1996 budget, which had raised concerns about inflation, capitalizes on the "peace dividend" to boost expenditures on the repair and upgrading of infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 12.7% industry: 30.6% services: 56.7% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1995)

Labor force: 1.444 million (1995) by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government 19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 18.1% (January 1996)

Budget: revenues: $3.86 billion expenditures: $3.72 billion, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1994 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 3,630,000 kW production: 11.234 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,000 kWh (1993 est.)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock breeding, dairy farming

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe

Exports: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7% (1993) partners: Germany 22.9%, Italy 21.2%, Slovenia 18.3% (1993)

Imports: $5.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993) partners: Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Iran

External debt: $3.15 billion (September 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia $100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1 - 5.405 (January 1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,699 km standard gauge: 2,699 km 1.435-m gauge (1213 km electrified) note: disrupted by territorial dispute with Serbia (1994)

Highways: total: 27,378 km paved: 22,176 km (including 302 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,202 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992); note - under repair following territorial dispute

Ports: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

Merchant marine: total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 203,495 GRT/252,818 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil tanker 1, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 4 note: Croatia owns an additional 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,368,035 DWT operating under the registries of Malta, Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 68 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 47 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,314,718 males fit for military service: 1,046,490 males reach military age (19) annually: 34,914 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 337 billion to 393 billion dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Cuba ——



Map —-

Location: 21 30 N, 80 00 W — Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida



Flag ——

Description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 110,860 sq km land area: 110,860 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 29 km border country: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 23% permanent crops: 6% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 17% other: 31%

Irrigated land: 8,960 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: largest country in Caribbean



People ———

Population: 10,951,334 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 1,256,674; female 1,191,652) 15-64 years: 68% (male 3,753,343; female 3,736,043) 65 years and over: 10% (male 478,630; female 534,992) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.05 years male: 72.71 years female: 77.54 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cuban(s) adjective: Cuban

Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 95.7% male: 96.2% female: 95.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Cuba conventional short form: Cuba local long form: Republica de Cuba local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Type of government: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1 January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976) and First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976) were elected by the National Assembly cabinet: Council of Ministers were proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly Council of State: members elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power (Asemblea Nacional del P: elections last held NA February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); seats - 589 total, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular), president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2639 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518 through 8520

US diplomatic representation: none; note - the US does have an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Joseph G. SULLIVAN; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559, 33-3543 through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The state retains a primary role in the economy and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has undertaken several reforms in recent years designed to stem excess liquidity, raise labor incentives, and increase the availability of food, consumer goods, and services from depressed levels. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced in October 1994, where state and private farms are authorized to sell any above-quota production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. The government's efforts to reduce subsidies to loss-making enterprises and shrink the money supply caused the black market exchange rate to move from a peak of 120 pesos to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 25-30 pesos to the dollar at yearend 1995. The number of self-employed workers licensed by the government increased more slowly in 1995, from 160,000 at yearend 1994 to 190,000 in July 1995 and to about 210,000 in January 1996. Discussions continue within the leadership over the relative affluence of self-employed workers and the growing inequality of income in what has historically been a strictly egalitarian society. The government released new economic data in 1995 which showed a 35% decline in GDP during 1989-1993, a drop precipitated by the withdrawal of massive Soviet aid and prolonged by Cuba's own economic inefficiencies. The decline in GDP apparently was halted in 1994, and government officials claim that GDP increased by 2.5% in 1995. Export earnings rose by 20% in 1995 to $1.6 billion, largely on the strength of higher world prices for key commodities and increased production of nickel through joint ventures with a Canadian firm. Higher export revenues and new credits from European firms and Mexico enabled Havana to increase its imports for the first time in six years. Imports rose 21% to almost $2.4 billion, or 30% of the 1989 level. Officials have sharply criticized provisions of legislation under consideration in the US Congress, which aims to curtail third-country investment in expropriated US properties in Cuba and deny official assistance to Havana.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7% industry: 30% services: 63% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.71 million economically active population (1989); 3,527,000 employed in state civilian sector (1989) by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 3,990,000 kW production: 12 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,022 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee partners: Canada 15%, China 15%, Russia 15% (1995 est.)

Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals partners: Spain 15%, Mexico 15%, Russia 10%, (1995 est.)

External debt: $9.1 billion (convertible currency,1995); another $20 billion owed to Russia (1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 4,677 km standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified) note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways: total: 26,500 km paved: 14,575 km unpaved: 11,925 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports: Cienfuegos, La Habana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine: total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 220,870 GRT/310,169 DWT ships by type: cargo 17, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 9 note: Cuba owns an additional 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 462,517 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta, Belize, and Mauritius (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 156 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 14 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 with paved runways under 914 m: 87 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 430,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone systems domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); Interior Ministry Border Guards (TGF)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,053,431 females age 15-49: 3,009,852 males fit for military service: 1,898,644 females fit for military service: 1,866,313 males reach military age (17) annually: 65,182 females reach military age (17) annually: 61,960 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, roughly 4% of GDP (1995 est.)

Defense note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993



======================================================================



@Cyprus ———



Map —-

Location: 35 00 N, 33 00 E — Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey



Flag ——

Description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area) land area: 9,240 sq km comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use: arable land: 40% permanent crops: 7% meadows and pastures: 10% forest and woodland: 18% other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change



People ———

Population: 744,609 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25% (male 97,400; female 92,110) 15-64 years: 64% (male 240,716; female 238,039) 65 years and over: 11% (male 33,340; female 43,004) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.39 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.26 years male: 74.11 years female: 78.52 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.19 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cypriot(s) adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic divisions: total: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.) total population: 94% male: 98% female: 91%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus conventional short form: Cyprus note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Type of government: republic note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK) note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1998); results - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.3%, Yeoryios VASSILIOU 49.7% cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed jointly by the president and vice president note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975 (president is elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage); Hakki ATUN has been "prime minister" of the Turkish area since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7 Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi): elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme Council of Judicature note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders: Greek area: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), Ioannis MATSIS; Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikolaos ROLANDIS; Free Democrats, Yeoryios VASSILIOU; New Horizons, Nikolaos KOUTSOU, secretary general Turkish area: National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Mehmet ALI TALAT; New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; Nationalist Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (BEP), Arif Salih KIRDAG; Democratic Party (DP), Serdar DENKTASH; National Birth Party (UDP), Enver EMIN; the HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the label National Struggle Unity Party (MMBP) to compete in the 12 December 1993 legislative election

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON, Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK, pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772 consulate(s) general: New York note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836 telephone: [357] (2) 476100 FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous, but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 25% to GDP and employs 26% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 70% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. After surging 9.7% in 1992, economic growth slowed to 1.6% in 1993 - its lowest level in two decades - because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor costs. However, real GDP picked up in 1994 and 1995, as inflation fell from 4.7% to about 3%. Economic prospects appear favorable for 1996: real GDP is likely to grow between 3% and 4%, and inflation is likely to rise slightly to 3.5%-4.5%. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. Economic growth sharply dropped during 1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland, and inflation soared to 215%. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen and now equals in value about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

GDP: Greek area: purchasing power parity - $7.8 billion (1995 est.) Turkish area: purchasing power parity - $520 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: Greek area: 5% (1995 est.) Turkish area: 0.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: Greek area: $13,000 (1995 est.) Turkish area: $3,900 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: Greek area - agriculture: 5.6% Greek area - industry: 24.9% Greek area - services: 69.5% (1994) Turkish area - agriculture: 11.4% Turkish area - industry: 22.9% Turkish area - services: 65.7% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): Greek area: 3% (1995 est.) Turkish area: 215% (1994)

Labor force: Greek area: 294,100 by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 26%, agriculture 12.5% (1994) Turkish area: 75,320 by occupation: services 52.9%, industry 23.6%, agriculture 23.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: Greek area: 2.7% (1994) Turkish area: 1.6% (1994)

Budget: revenues: Greek area - $2.3 billion, Turkish area - $246 million expenditures: Greek area - $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million, Turkish area - $350 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (1996 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek area: 3.7% (1994) Turkish area: 2.6% (1992)

Electricity: capacity: 550,000 kW production: 2.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus, vegetables

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey, also some cocaine transits en route to Russia

Exports: Greek area: $968 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes partners: UK 16%, Lebanon 9%, Greece 8%, Russia 12% Turkish area: $59 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles partners: UK 48%, Turkey 22%

Imports: Greek area: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery partners: UK 12%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 9%, US 8% Turkish area: $330 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery partners: Turkey 48%, UK 19%

External debt: Greek area: $1.4 billion (1994)

Economic aid: Greek area - recipient: ODA, $NA Turkish area: during 1977-93, received substantial grants and loans from Turkey

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (LC) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$ - 0.4628 (January 1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4633 (1991); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 60,502.1 (January 1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: Greek area - total: 10,448 km Greek area - paved: 5,694 km Greek area - unpaved: 4,754 km Turkish area - total: 6,116 km Turkish area - paved: 5,278 km Turkish area - unpaved: 838 km

Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine: total: 1,524 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,949,242 GRT/40,236,638 DWT ships by type: bulk 490, cargo 562, chemical tanker 27, combination bulk 53, combination ore/oil 22, container 115, liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 4, oil tanker 129, passenger 6, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 62, roll-on/roll-off cargo 28, short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 48 countries among which are Greece 706, Germany 171, Russia 44, Netherlands 31, Belgium 30, Japan 29, Cuba 21, UK 17, Spain 14, and Hong Kong 13 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 15 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 331,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek and Turkish areas domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek area: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0 Turkish area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek area: 270,000 (1993 est.) Turkish area: 42,170 (1985 est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek area: 1 (repeaters 34) Turkish area: 1

Televisions: Greek area: 107,000 (1992 est.) Turkish area: 75,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 190,372 males fit for military service: 130,880 males reach military age (18) annually: 5,749 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $493 million, 5.6% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Czech Republic ———————



Map —-

Location: 49 45 N, 15 30 E — Central Europe, southeast of Germany



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 78,703 sq km land area: 78,645 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 1,880 km border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II versus the Czech Republic claims that restitution does not precede February 1948 when the Communists seized power; unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former Czechoslovak federal government

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe



People ———

Population: 10,321,120 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 965,861; female 918,745) 15-64 years: 68% (male 3,519,753; female 3,524,913) 65 years and over: 14% (male 526,841; female 865,007) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.03% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.39 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.76 years male: 70.08 years female: 77.65 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Czech(s) adjective: Czech note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic divisions: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy: age NA and over can read and write (est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Czech Republic conventional short form: Czech Republic local long form: Ceska Republika local short form: Cechy

Data code: EZ

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993) was elected for a five-year term by the Parliament; election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav HAVEL was elected head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992) was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK (since NA June 1992), Josef LUX (since NA June 1992), Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992) cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament) Senate (Senate): elections to be held 15-16 November 1996 (next to be held NA); seats (81 total) Chamber of Deputies (Snemovna Poslancu): elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held 31 May-1 June 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA given breakup and realignment of all parliamentary opposition parties since 1992; seats - (200 total) governing coalition (ODS 65, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15), opposition (CSSD 18, LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMUS 9, SPR-RSC 6, independents 12)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: governing coalition: Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman; Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union/Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX, chairman; note - KDS was to merge with ODS in March 1996 opposition: Czech Social Democrats (CSSD - left opposition), Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc (LB - left opposition), Jaroslav ORTMAN, chairman; Communist Party (KSCM - left opposition), Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU - left opposition), Frantisek TRNKA, chairman, note - may not still be in existence; Liberal National Social Party (LSNS - center party), Vavrinec BODENLOS, chairman; Bohemian-Moravian Center Union (CMUS - center party), Jan JEGLA, chairman; Assembly for the Republic (SPR-RSC - right radical), Miroslav SLADEK, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 363-6315, 6316 FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1 mailing address: Unit 1330, APO AE 09213-1330 telephone: [42] (2) 2451-0847 FAX: [42] (2) 2451-1001

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Czech Republic, which separated from Slovakia on 1 January 1993, emerged from recession with 2.6% growth in 1994 and 5% growth in 1995. Inflation in 1994-95 was cut in half; unemployment was kept at about 3%; the budget was balanced; and exports were reoriented to the EU. Prague's mass privatization program, including its innovative distribution of ownership shares to Czech citizens via "coupon vouchers," has made the most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. About 80% of the economy is wholly or partially in private hands. Because of its progress on reform, the Czech Republic in 1995 became the first post-Communist member of the OECD. Its solid economic performance also led Standard and Poor's to upgrade the country's sovereign credit rating to "A" and attracted nearly $5.3 billion in direct foreign investment to Czech industry between 1990 and September 1995. The Czech crown became convertible for current account transactions in October 1995. Czech companies increasingly are using the international capital market to fund capital investment, and foreign currency reserves totaled $13.9 billion at the end of 1995. Prague's biggest macroeconomic concern now is limiting the inflationary effect of these large capital inflows. The Czech economy also still faces microeconomic problems. Prague has promised to strengthen its bankruptcy law and improve the transparency of stock market operations in 1996, but some changes probably will not take effect until some time after the parliamentary elections of mid-1996 and will depend largely on voluntary compliance. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, 5.5% GDP growth, 2.8% unemployment, and 8.1% inflation for 1996.

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