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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 40,000 kW production: 80 million kWh consumption per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $132 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles, fish partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire, Sudan, Central African Republic

Imports: $201 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles; note - excludes military equipment partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon, Italy, Germany

External debt: $757 million (December 1993 )

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 31,141 km paved: 32 km unpaved: 31,109 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports: none

Airports: total: 47 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 11 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.) note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,562,052 males fit for military service: 809,210 males reach military age (20) annually: 63,254 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $74 million, 11.1% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Chile ——-



Map —-

Location: 30 00 S, 71 00 W — Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Geography ————-

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 756,950 sq km land area: 748,800 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Land boundaries: total: 6,171 km border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum

Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 16% forest and woodland: 21% other: 56%

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions



People ———

Population: 14,333,258 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29% (male 2,071,816; female 2,041,417) 15-64 years: 65% (male 4,599,173; female 4,651,030) 65 years and over: 6% (male 403,019; female 566,803) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.24% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.09 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.49 years male: 71.26 years female: 77.72 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chilean(s) adjective: Chilean

Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 95.2% male: 95.4% female: 95%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Chile conventional short form: Chile local long form: Republica de Chile local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1997); results - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other 17.6% cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) Senate (Senado): election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected) Coalition of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1), right-wing independents 10 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1997); results - Coalition of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS 12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%), Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57% (RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Coalition of Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC 2), right-wing independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are appointed by the president, the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 17-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy (CPD) consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Alejandro FOXLEY; Socialist Party (PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for Democracy (PPD), Jorge SCHAULSOHN, Radical Party (PR); Union for the Progress of Chile (UPP) consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCCP), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ

Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate member), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL del Rio chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746 FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago mailing address: use street address telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy, with the degree of government intervention varying according to the philosophy of the different regimes. Under the center-left government of President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on social welfare rose steadily. At the same time business investment, exports, and consumer spending also grew substantially. The new president, FREI, who took office in March 1994, has emphasized social spending even more. Growth in real GDP in 1991-95 has averaged more than 6.5% annually, with an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of poverty in the last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of the economy; Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of copper. Success in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends on world copper prices, the level of confidence of foreign investors and creditors, and the government's own ability to maintain a conservative fiscal stance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $113.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 8.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7.4% industry: 36.4% services: 56.2% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4.728 million by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $17 billion expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 4,810,000 kW production: 22 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,499 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

Exports: $15.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991) partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

External debt: $21.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $62 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 408.64 (December 1995), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 6,782 km broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified) narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 79,593 km paved: 10,984 km unpaved: 68,609 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km

Ports: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanarol, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 529,512 GRT/925,364 DWT ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, combination ore/oil 2, container 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 344 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 17 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 16 with paved runways under 914 m: 220 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 68 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 159, FM 0, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 131

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,808,655 males fit for military service: 2,832,198 males reach military age (19) annually: 123,443 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $970 million, 2.0% of GDP (1994 est.)



======================================================================



@China ——-

(also see separate Taiwan entry)

Map —-

Location: 35 00 N, 105 00 E — Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam



Flag ——

Description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 9,596,960 sq km land area: 9,326,410 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries: total: 22,143.34 km border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary with India in dispute; disputed sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary with Tajikistan in dispute; short section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 31% forest and woodland: 14% other: 45%

Irrigated land: 478,220 sq km (1991)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban areas; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1957 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)



People ———

Population: 1,210,004,956 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 167,448,148; female 151,601,650) 15-64 years: 67% (male 421,455,418; female 393,913,510) 65 years and over: 7% (male 35,056,409; female 40,529,821) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.01 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.62 years male: 68.33 years female: 71.06 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.) note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 81.5% male: 89.9% female: 72.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: People's Republic of China conventional short form: China local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo local short form: Zhong Guo abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Type of government: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993) elected by the National People's Congress; election last held 27 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally elected by the Eighth National People's Congress head of government: Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988) nominated by the president, decided by the National People's Congress; Vice Premiers ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991), ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991), QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March 1995) nominated by the president, decided by the National People's Congress cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui): elections last held NA March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - CCP is the only party but there are also independents; seats - (2,977 total) (elected at county or xian level)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and government organization, that vary by issue

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86] (10) 5323831 FAX: [86] (10) 5326422 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to one that is more market-oriented, but still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a strong surge in production. Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern production methods helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. GDP has more than tripled since 1978. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. In 1992-95 annual growth of GDP accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas - averaging more than 10% annually according to official figures. In late 1993 China's leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a socialist market economy." In 1995 inflation dropped sharply, reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce extortion and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the vigorous expansion of the economy. From 60 to 100 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-pay jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the nation's long-term economic viability. One of the most dangerous long-term threats to continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. The amount of arable land continues to decline because of erosion and economic development, the cumulative loss since the Communist takeover in 1949 being more than 15%. The next few years will witness increasing tensions between a highly centralized political system and an increasingly decentralized economic system.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.5 trillion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate with use of official Chinese growth figures for 1993-95; the result may overstate China's GDP by as much as 25%)

GDP real growth rate: 10.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,900 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 19% industry: 48% services: 33% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.1% (December 1995 over December 1994)

Labor force: 583.6 million (1991) by occupation: agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% in urban areas (1995 est.); substantial underemployment

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 162,000,000 kW production: 746 billion kWh consumption per capita: 593 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other livestock products; fish

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

Exports: $148.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: garments, textiles, footwear, toys, machinery and equipment (1994) partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Singapore (1994)

Imports: $132.1 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: industrial machinery, textiles, plastics, telecommunications equipment, steel bars, aircraft (1994) partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, South Korea, Germany (1994)

External debt: $92 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: donor: to less developed countries (1970-89) $NA recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.3186 (January 1996), 8.3514 (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991) note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 58,399 km standard gauge: 54,799 km 1.435-m gauge (7,174 km electrified; more than 11,000 km double track) narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.762-m gauge local industrial lines (1995)

Highways: total: 1.029 million km paved: 170,000 km unpaved: 859,000 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km (1990)

Ports: Aihui, Changsha, Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Harbin, Huangpu, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tanggu, Xiamen, Xingang, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine: total: 1,700 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,663,260 GRT/25,026,090 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 316, cargo 876, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 11, container 103, liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 227, passenger 24, passenger-cargo 28, refrigerated cargo 22, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24, short-sea passenger 45 note: China owns an additional 267 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,044,039 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Hong Kong, Malta, Liberia, Vanuatu, Cyprus, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, The Bahamas, Marshall Islands, and Singapore (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 204 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 17 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 69 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 89 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 20 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships domestic: telephone lines are being expanded; interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million



Defense ———-

Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 352,506,948 males fit for military service: 194,589,216 males reach military age (18) annually: 9,763,916 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: the officially announced but suspect figure is 70.2 billion yuan, NA% of GDP (1995 est.); note - conversion of the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Christmas Island ————————

(territory of Australia)

Map —-

Location: 10 30 S, 105 40 E — Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 135 sq km land area: 135 sq km comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard international agreements: NA

Geographic note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean



People ———

Population: 813 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -8.98% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Christmas Islander(s) adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Type of government: territory of Australia

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Administrator Danny Ambrose GILLESPIE (since NA) was appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the queen and Australia cabinet: Christmas Island Shire Council

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer economically viable. Private operators reopened the mine in 1990 under strict environmental controls, in particular to preserve the rain forest. A hotel and casino complex opened in 1993, and tourism is a likely growth sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA by occupation: all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 11,000 kW production: 30 million kWh consumption per capita: 17,800 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: NA

Exports: $NA commodities: phosphate partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA commodities: consumer goods partners: principally Australia

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January 1996),1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island ————————-

(possession of France)

Map —-

Location: 10 17 N, 109 13 W — Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area: total area: 7 sq km land area: 7 sq km comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Mexico

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

Terrain: coral atoll lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Rocher Clipperton 21 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: subject to tornadoes international agreements: NA

Geographic note: reef about 8 km in circumference



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Clipperton Island local long form: none local short form: Ile Clipperton former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Type of government: French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by the High Commissioner of the Republic

Capital: none; administered by France from French Polynesia

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands ———————————-

(territory of Australia)

Map —-

Location: 12 30 S, 96 50 E — Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri Lanka



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 14 sq km land area: 14 sq km comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year international agreements: NA

Geographic note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation



People ———

Population: 609 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Cocos Islander(s) adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic divisions: West Island: Europeans Home Island: Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Type of government: territory of Australia

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Administrator John Bell READ (since NA) was appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council; President of the Islands Council Ronald GRANT (since NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 1,000 kW production: 2 million kWh consumption per capita: 2,980 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA commodities: copra partners: Australia

Imports: $NA commodities: foodstuffs partners: Australia

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January 1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



======================================================================



@Colombia ————



Map —-

Location: 4 00 N, 72 00 W — Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 1,138,910 sq km land area: 1,038,700 sq km comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

Land boundaries: total: 7,408 km border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 29% forest and woodland: 49% other: 16%

Irrigated land: 5,150 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea



People ———

Population: 36,813,161 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 5,948,599; female 5,806,450) 15-64 years: 64% (male 11,496,931; female 11,890,875) 65 years and over: 4% (male 741,788; female 928,518) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.66% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.81 years male: 69.97 years female: 75.73 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.35 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Colombian(s) adjective: Colombian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 91.3% male: 91.2% female: 91.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia conventional short form: Colombia local long form: Republica de Colombia local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Type of government: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August 1994) elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998) results - no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote; a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held 19 June 1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE Lombana elected vice president for a four-year term by popular vote in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) Senate (Senado): elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 31, other 12 House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); seats - (161 total) Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PL), Luis Fernando JARAMILLO; Conservative Party (PC), Jaime ARIAS; New Democratic Force (NDF), Andres PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Aida ABELLA; National Salvation Movement (MSN) Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado

Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); National Liberation Army (ELN); and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL/D)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos LLERAS de la Fuente chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338 FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Myles R. R. FRECHETTE embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, No. 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831 mailing address: APO AA 34038 telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811 FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197 consulate(s): Barranquilla

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Boasting a diversified and stable economy, Colombia has enjoyed Latin America's most consistent record of growth over the last several decades. Gross domestic product (GDP) has expanded every year for more than 25 years, and unlike many other South American countries, Colombia did not default on any of its official debts during the "lost decade" of the 1980s. Since 1990, when Bogota introduced a comprehensive reform program that opened the economy to foreign trade and investment, GDP growth has averaged more than 4% annually. Growth has been fueled in recent years by the expansion of the construction and financial service industries and an influx of foreign capital. Some foreign investors have been deterred by an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure and the violence stemming from drug trafficking and persistent rural guerrilla warfare, but direct foreign investment, especially in the oil industry, is still rising at a rapid rate. Although oil consequently is overtaking coffee as the main legal export, earnings from illicit drugs probably exceed those from any other export. Non-petroleum economic growth has been slowing, however, in part because the tight monetary policies adopted to offset the inflationary impact of high capital inflows and rising government spending have slowed local sales and investment. Business confidence also has been damaged by a political crisis stemming from allegations that senior government officials, including President SAMPER, solicited contributions from drug traffickers during the 1994 election campaign. The slowdown in the growth of labor-intensive industries such as manufacturing has caused a small rise in unemployment and interfered with President SAMPER'S plans to lower the country's poverty rate, which has remained at about 40% despite the expanding economy. Nevertheless, the booming oil sector, growing foreign investment, and the fundamental stability of the economy promise to keep growth positive for the foreseeable future, barring severe, unpredictable shocks from developments in the political or international arenas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $192.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 21.5% industry: 29% services: 49.5%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 12 million (1990) by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $24 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 10,220,000 kW production: 33 billion kWh consumption per capita: 890 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp farming

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis; about 50,900 hectares of coca under cultivation in 1995; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; active aerial eradication program seeks to virtually eliminate coca and opium crops by 1997

Exports: $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

External debt: $14 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $30 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 1,011.11 (January 1996), 912.83 (1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,386 km standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia Portete) narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (1830 km in use) (1995)

Highways: total: 107,200 km paved: 12,600 km unpaved: 94,600 km

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 97,037 GRT/129,404 DWT ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 8, container 3, oil tanker 3 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 989 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 33 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 35 with paved runways under 914 m: 557 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 41 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 311 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 413 (licensed), FM 217 (licensed), shortwave 28

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 10,067,538 males fit for military service: 6,774,105 males reach military age (18) annually: 346,372 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2 billion, 2.8% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Comoros ———-



Map —-

Location: 12 10 S, 44 15 E — Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique



Flag ——

Description: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 2,170 sq km land area: 2,170 sq km comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: arable land: 35% permanent crops: 8% meadows and pastures: 7% forest and woodland: 16% other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season (December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel



People ———

Population: 569,237 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 137,235; female 136,207) 15-64 years: 49% (male 138,447; female 142,058) 65 years and over: 3% (male 7,242; female 8,048) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.55% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 45.82 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.28 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.7 years male: 56.43 years female: 61.05 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Comoran(s) adjective: Comoran

Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 57.3% male: 64.2% female: 50.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros conventional short form: Comoros local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Type of government: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali) note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March 1996) was elected by popular vote; election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001) head of government: Prime Minister MASSOUNDI Tadjidine Ben Said (since March 1996) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) ruling coalition: RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; opposition: UDZIMA 8; other smaller parties: 10; two seats remained unfilled

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), two members are appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal Assembly, one by the Council of each island, plus all the former presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of which are Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for Democracy and Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular Front (FPC), Mohamed HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ahamada DJIMBANAOU (ambassador to the US and Canada) chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010 FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992



Economy ———-

Economic overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $370 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 140,000 (1982) by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

Budget: revenues: $83 million expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32 million (1992)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 16,000 kW production: 17 million kWh consumption per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra partners: US 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5% (1992)

Imports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement, consumer goods partners: France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4% (1992)

External debt: $160 million (1992 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 375.42 (January 1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,104 km paved: 400 km unpaved: 704 km (1988 est.)

Ports: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudu

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 4 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 3,770 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 200 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Comoran Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 121,854 males fit for military service: 72,873 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Congo ——-



Map —-

Location: 1 00 S, 15 00 E — Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon



Flag ——

Description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 342,000 sq km land area: 341,500 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 5,504 km border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: long segment of boundary with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 29% forest and woodland: 62% other: 7%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation natural hazards: seasonal flooding international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them



People ———

Population: 2,527,841 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 550,971; female 545,096) 15-64 years: 53% (male 657,035; female 688,441) 65 years and over: 4% (male 34,973; female 51,325) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.35 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.77 years male: 44.21 years female: 47.37 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.15 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic divisions: south: Kongo 48% north: Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12% center: Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most widely used)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 74.9% male: 83.1% female: 67.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of the Congo conventional short form: Congo local long form: Republique Populaire du Congo local short form: Congo former: Congo/Brazzaville

Data code: CF

Type of government: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992); elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held NA August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1997); results - President Pascal LISSOUBA won 61% of the vote head of government: Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO (since 23 June 1993) appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3 Senate: election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23, MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: of Congo's many political parties, the most important are Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president; Association for Democracy and Development (RDD), Joachim Yhombi OPANGO, president; Association for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard KOLELAS, leader; Pan-African Union for Social Development (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA, leader; Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), David Charles GANAO, leader; Union for Democratic Renewal (URD); Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Daniel MOUELLET chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 726-0825 FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William C. RAMSEY embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville telephone: [242] 83 20 70 FAX: [242] 83 63 38

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing about 90% of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, falling oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover, the Congolese Government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994. Recent efforts to implement economic reforms have begun to show progress; the IMF has recommended approval of an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility agreement in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 11.4% industry: 35.2% services: 53.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 61% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 79,100 wage earners by occupation: agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $2.18 billion (1994 est.) expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (estimated average annual growth rate for 1980-92)

Electricity: capacity: 120,000 kW production: 400 million kWh consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cassava (tapioca) accounts for 90% of food output, sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: crude oil 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds partners: Italy, France, Spain, other EU countries, US, Taiwan

Imports: $600 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products partners: France, Italy, other EU countries, US, Japan, Thailand

External debt: $5 billion (1993)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 795 km (1995 est.) narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (includes 285 km that are privately owned)

Highways: total: 12,745 km paved: 1,236 km unpaved: 11,509 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,218 GRT/4,100 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 34 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 9 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 14 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 582,103 males fit for military service: 296,602 males reach military age (20) annually: 25,247 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 3.8% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Cook Islands ——————

(free association with New Zealand)

Map —-

Location: 21 14 S, 159 46 W — Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand



Flag ——

Description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 240 sq km land area: 240 sq km comparative area: slightly more than one times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 22% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 74%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: typhoons (November to March) international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 19,561 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.87 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

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