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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Data code: BM

Type of government: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992) State Law and Order Restoration Council: military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988

Legislative branch: People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): election last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats - (485 total) NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA; pro-regime), THAN AUNG, secretary; National Unity Party (NUP), pro-regime, THA KYAW; National League for Democracy (NLD), AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and eight minor legal parties

Other political or pressure groups: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by the elected prime minister SEIN WIN - consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU); several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador U THAUNG chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marilyn A. MEYERS embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521) mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546 telephone: [95] (1) 82055, 82182 (operator assistance required) FAX: [95] (1) 80409

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 75% private activity, mainly in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 25% state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and foreign trade. Government policy in the last seven years, 1989-95, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $47 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 60% industry: 10% services: 30% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992) by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $5.3 billion expenditures: $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (FY92/93 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 845,000 kW production: 3.5 billion kWh consumption per capita: 46 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; hardwood

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,340 metric tons in 1995) and source for over 60% of US heroin imports; minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; Rangoon's antinarcotic programs hindered by lack of resources, government commitment; growing role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption

Exports: $879 million (FY94/95 est.) commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong

Imports: $1.5 billion (FY94/95 est.) commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, food products, consumer goods partners: Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia

External debt: $5.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 5.8475 (January 1996), 5.9170 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991); unofficial - 120

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,569 km narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 26,861 km paved: 3,181 km unpaved: 23,680 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine: total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,957 GRT/610,420 DWT ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 15, chemical tanker 5, container 1, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 74 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10 with paved runways under 914 m: 28 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 17 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is good domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.) note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 11,759,636 females age 15-49: 11,588,181 males fit for military service: 6,291,986 females fit for military service: 6,184,667 males reach military age (18) annually: 473,255 females reach military age (18) annually: 454,786 (1996 est.) note: both sexes liable for military service

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $135 million, NA% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Burundi ———-



Map —-

Location: 3 30 S, 30 00 E — Central Africa, east of Zaire



Flag ——

Description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)



Geography ————-

Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 27,830 sq km land area: 25,650 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 974 km border countries: Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season from June to September

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use: arable land: 43% permanent crops: 8% meadows and pastures: 35% forest and woodland: 2% other: 12%

Irrigated land: 720 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations natural hazards: flooding, landslides international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed



People ———

Population: 5,943,057 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 1,404,375; female 1,398,228) 15-64 years: 50% (male 1,454,545; female 1,527,644) 65 years and over: 3% (male 62,955; female 95,310) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.02 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.15 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire; the refugee flows are continuing in 1996 as the ethnic violence persists

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.33 years male: 48.28 years female: 50.42 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burundian(s) adjective: Burundi

Ethnic divisions: Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% non-Africans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 35.3% male: 49.3% female: 22.5%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi conventional short form: Burundi local long form: Republika y'u Burundi local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Type of government: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (acting president from 8 April 1994 to 30 September 1994, president since 1 October 1994); note - NTIBANTUNGANYA, in his capacity as President of the National Assembly, became acting president upon the death of President Cyprien NTARYAMIRE in an airplane crash on 6 April 1994; NTIBANTUNGANYA was sworn in on 1 October 1994 as president by the "Convention on Government" to serve a four year transitional term head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA); results - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress (UPRONA); Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU); Organization of the People of Burundi (RBP); Socialist Party of Burundi (PSB); People's Reconciliation Party (PRP); opposition parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation (ABASA); Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development (RADDES); and Party for National Redress (PARENA)

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Severin NTAHOMVUKIYE chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles YELLIN embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura telephone: [257] (2) 23454 FAX: [257] (2) 22926

Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others; production has fallen sharply, and an impoverished and disorganized government can hardly implement these needed reform programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 54.1% industry: 16.8% services: 29.1% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.) by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $318 million expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 55,000 kW production: 100 million kWh consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; meat, milk, hides

Exports: $68 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides partners: EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%

Imports: $203 million (c.i.f., 1993) commodities: capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods partners: EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%

External debt: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 268.13 (November 1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 14,473 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,445 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports: Bujumbura

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,312,458 males fit for military service: 683,073 males reach military age (16) annually: 67,990 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $25 million, 2.6% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Cambodia ————



Map —-

Location: 13 00 N, 105 00 E — Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and Vietnam



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 181,040 sq km land area: 176,520 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 16% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 76% other: 4%

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap



People ———

Population: 10,861,218 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,505,998; female 2,432,620) 15-64 years: 51% (male 2,579,986; female 3,007,838) 65 years and over: 4% (male 143,759; female 191,017) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.78 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female all ages: 0.93 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.86 years male: 48.39 years female: 51.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 35% male: 48% female: 22%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form: Cambodia local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Type of government: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (khett, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev note: a new province of Otdar Mean Cheay may have been created from parts of Banteay Mean Cheay and Siem Reab

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993) is a constitutional monarch head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince Norodom RANARIDDH (since NA 1993) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN (since NA 1993) who were appointed by the king cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly: members elected for five-year terms; elections last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party 10, Molinaka 1 note: the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which became the National Assembly after the new constitution was promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution has not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet to be defined by law

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, SON SANN faction; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, IENG MOULY faction; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Molinaka, PROM NEAKAREACH

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742 FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 426436, 426438 FAX: [855] (23) 426437

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good working relations with international financial institutions. Growth, starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-95. Despite such positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough challenges because of the persistence of internal political divisions and the related lack of confidence of foreign investors. Rural Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer live, remains mired in poverty. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the countryside will hinder development and will contribute to a growing imbalance in growth between urban and rural areas over the near term. Moreover, the government's lack of experience in administering economic and technical assistance programs and rampant corruption among officials will slow the growth of critical public sector investment. The decline of inflation from the 1992 rate of more than 50% is one of the bright spots.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $660 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 52% industry: 13.5% services: 34.5% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million by occupation: agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $210 million expenditures: $346 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining

Industrial production growth rate: 7.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 40,000 kW production: 160 million kWh consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Illicit drugs: key transshipment country for Golden Triangle heroin en route to West; possibly becoming money-laundering center; high-level narcotics-related corruption in government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis

Exports: $240.7 million (1995 est.) commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

Imports: $630.5 million (1995 est.) commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

External debt: $383 million to OECD members (1993)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: IMF pledged $120 million in aid for 1995-98

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,585 (December 1994), 2,470 (December 1993), 2,800 (September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 603 km narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 34,100 km paved: 3,000 km unpaved: 31,100 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine: total: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,451 GRT/18,280 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 14 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public domestic: NA international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 70,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) Resistance forces: National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,336,606 males fit for military service: 1,302,234 males reach military age (18) annually: 79,514 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, 1.4% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Cameroon ————



Map —-

Location: 6 00 N, 12 00 E — Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 475,440 sq km land area: 469,440 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 4,591 km border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 50 nm

International disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred to the International Court of Justice

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 54% other: 13%

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa



People ———

Population: 14,261,557 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 3,295,924; female 3,266,429) 15-64 years: 51% (male 3,602,037; female 3,627,625) 65 years and over: 3% (male 213,176; female 256,366) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.89% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.49 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.56 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.6 years male: 51.55 years female: 53.68 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cameroonian(s) adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic divisions: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 63.4% male: 75% female: 52.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon conventional short form: Cameroon former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Type of government: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA October 1997); results - President Paul BIYA reelected with about 40% of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate John FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got 19% of the vote head of government: Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992) appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 1 March 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats (180 total) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) (government-controlled and the only party until legalization of opposition parties in 1990), Paul BIYA, president major opposition parties: National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP); Social Democratic Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC); Movement for the Defense of the Republic (MDR)

Other political or pressure groups: Alliance for Change (FAC), Cameroon Anglophone Movement (CAM)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12 FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most diversified primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led to rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF and World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability, following suspect elections in 1992, brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a halt; currently Cameroon receives only minimal assistance from those Bretton Woods institutions. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency of 12 January 1994 improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains the main barrier to economic improvement. The devaluation led to a spurt in inflation, to 48% in 1994, but inflation moderated in 1995. Progress toward privatization of remaining state industry remains slow.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 29% industry: 24% services: 47% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 48% (1994)

Labor force: NA by occupation: agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2% (1983)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion expenditures: $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $226 million (FY92/93 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 630,000 kW production: 2.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 196 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, aluminum, cocoa beans, coffee, cotton partners: EU (particularly France) about 50%, African countries, US

Imports: $810 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport equipment, petroleum products partners: EU (France 38%, Germany), African countries, Japan 5%, US 5%

External debt: $6.6 billion (1993)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $449 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,104 km (1995 est.) narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 64,626 km paved: 2,666 km unpaved: 61,960 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine: total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 45 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 13 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 15 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,112,339 males fit for military service: 1,572,150 males reach military age (18) annually: 151,300 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $102 million, NA% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Canada ———



Map —-

Location: 60 00 N, 95 00 W — Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US



Flag ——

Description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total area: 9,976,140 sq km land area: 9,220,970 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km border country: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 45% other: 43%

Irrigated land: 8,400 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 161 km of the US/Canada border



People ———

Population: 28,820,671 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 3,032,458; female 2,889,603) 15-64 years: 67% (male 9,663,955; female 9,660,648) 65 years and over: 12% (male 1,501,542; female 2,072,465) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.33 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.17 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.07 years male: 75.67 years female: 82.65 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian

Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other 35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986 est.) total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Type of government: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995), who was appointed by the queen head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was appointed by the governor general; on 25 October 1993; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila COPPS (since NA); note - the prime minister is the leader of the political party commanding a majority in the House of Commons cabinet: Federal Ministry was chosen by the prime minister from members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) Senate (Senat): consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 179, Bloc Quebecois 53, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc Quebecois, Michel GAUTHIER; Reform Party, Preston MANNING; New Democratic Party, Alexa MCDONOUGH; Progressive Conservative Party, Jean CHAREST

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740 FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430 telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470 FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment and a large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the confederation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $694 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $24,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 2% industry: 26% services: 72% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 13.38 million by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $90.4 billion expenditures: $114.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (1994)

Electricity: capacity: 108,090,000 kW production: 511 billion kWh consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

Exports: $185 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports: $166.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

External debt: $233 billion (1994)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $2.373 billion (1993) note: ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3666 (January 1996), 1.3724 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 70,176 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own standard gauge: 70,000 km 1.435-m gauge (63 km electrified) narrow gauge: 176 km 0.914-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 849,404 km paved: 297,291 km (including 15,983 km of expressways) unpaved: 552,113 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Montreal, New Westminister, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine: total: 62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 573,089 GRT/804,436 DWT ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 15, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1,138 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 17 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 15 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 136 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 226 with paved runways under 914 m: 422 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 53 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 269 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 14 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 7,645,245 males fit for military service: 6,575,057 males reach military age (17) annually: 197,688 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.0 billion, 1.6% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Cape Verde —————



Map —-

Location: 16 00 N, 24 00 W — Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total area: 4,030 sq km land area: 4,030 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 0% other: 85%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several indigenous species of birds and reptiles; overfishing natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site



People ———

Population: 449,066 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 50% (male 114,206; female 110,276) 15-64 years: 46% (male 90,593; female 117,485) 65 years and over: 4% (male 6,450; female 10,056) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.31 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.29 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female all ages: 0.89 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.39 years male: 61.47 years female: 65.41 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 71.6% male: 81.4% female: 63.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form: Cape Verde local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Type of government: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March 1991) elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2001); results - Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received 80.1% of vote head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13 January 1991) nominated by the People'sNational Assembly and appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister from members of the Peoples National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): elections last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA); results - MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD 6%; seats - (72 total) MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman; Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD)

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Santos SILVA-CARLOS chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820 FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 consulate(s) general: Boston

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia telephone: [238] 61 56 16 FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GNP is only 13%, of which fishing accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to GDP. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1996 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $440 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.6% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,040 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 13% industry: 17% services: 70% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.) by occupation: agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14% (1981)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $174 million expenditures: $235 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1993 est.)

Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garments, ship repair, food and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 15,000 kW production: 40 million kWh consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

Exports: $4.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: fish, bananas partners: Netherlands, Portugal, Angola, Spain

Imports: $173 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment partners: Portugal, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Brazil, France, Cote d'Ivoire

External debt: $156 million (1991)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 77.860 (December 1995), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994), 80.427 (1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,100 km paved: 680 km unpaved: 420 km (1992 est.)

Ports: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 (1995 est.) total: 4 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,632 GRT/8,872 DWT

Airports: total: 6 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,740 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes Army and Navy), Security Service

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 84,003 males fit for military service: 48,885 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 million, NA% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands ———————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 19 30 N, 80 30 W — Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras



Flag ——

Description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 260 sq km land area: 260 sq km comparative area: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 8% forest and woodland: 23% other: 69%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November) international agreements: NA

Geographic note: important location between Cuba and Central America



People ———

Population: 34,646 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.27% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.52 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.1 years male: 75.37 years female: 78.81 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Caymanian(s) adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic divisions: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970 est.) total population: 98% male: 98% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council John OWEN (since 15 September 1995) cabinet: Executive Council - three members are appointed by the governor, four members are elected by the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly: election last held 18 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected) independents 12

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Economy ———-

Economic overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a thriving offshore financial center. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded one million visitors in 1995 for the first time. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $750 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $22,500 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 1.4% industry: 3.2% services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 8,061 by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget: revenues: $141.5 million expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 80,000 kW production: 230 million kWh consumption per capita: 6,899 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Illicit drugs: a major money-laundering center for illicit drug profits; transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods partners: mostly US

Imports: $312 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

External debt: $15 million (1986)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (18 November 1993), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 406 km paved: 304 km unpaved: 102 km

Ports: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 283,734 GRT/432,610 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4 note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 1 ship, India 1, Norway 1, US 3, Sweden 1, and UAE 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Central African Republic ————————————



Map —-

Location: 7 00 N, 21 00 E — Central Africa, north of Zaire



Flag ——

Description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Geography ————-

Location: Central Africa, north of Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 622,980 sq km land area: 622,980 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,203 km border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 5% forest and woodland: 64% other: 28%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa



People ———

Population: 3,274,426 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 724,914; female 718,423) 15-64 years: 52% (male 839,118; female 877,069) 65 years and over: 4% (male 53,418; female 61,484) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.08% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.97 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 111.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.86 years male: 45.03 years female: 46.71 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.41 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Central African(s) adjective: Central African

Ethnic divisions: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%, other 11% note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 60% male: 68.5% female: 52.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Central African Republic conventional short form: none local long form: Republique Centrafricaine local short form: none former: Central African Empire abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Type of government: republic;

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993) elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel GOUMBA received 45.62% head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE (since 6 June 1996); appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (85 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, others 22 note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they are called the Congress (Congres)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), Tchapka BREDE; Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC), Andre KOLINGBA; Civic Forum (FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), the party of the president, Ange Felix PATASSE; Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD), David DACKO; Marginal Movement for Democracy, Renaissance and Evolution (MDREC), Joseph BENDOUNGA; Patriotic Front for Progress (FFP), Abel GOUMBA; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch Derant LAKOUE

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801 FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10 FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 13% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly 80%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. A major plus is the large forest reserves, which the government is moving to protect from overexploitation. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. While diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased - leading GDP to increase by 5.5% - inflation rose to 45%, fueled by the rising prices of imports on which the economy depends; inflation dropped back rapidly in 1995. The CAR's poor resource base and primitive infrastructure will keep it dependent on multilateral donors and France for the foreseeable future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 50% industry: 14% services: 36% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 45% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.) by occupation: agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3% note: about 64,000 salaried workers (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 40,000 kW production: 100 million kWh consumption per capita: 29 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco partners: France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US, Spain, Iran

Imports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products partners: France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria, Cameroon, Namibia

External debt: $904.3 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 23,738 km paved: 427 km unpaved: 23,311 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports: Bangui, Nola

Airports: total: 48 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 11 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 9 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 24 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard), Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 737,330 males fit for military service: 384,134 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2.3% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Chad ——



Map —-

Location: 15 00 N, 19 00 E — Central Africa, south of Libya



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France



Geography ————-

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1.284 million sq km land area: 1,259,200 sq km comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 5,968 km border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains part of the airfield and a small military presence at the airfield's water supply located in Chad; demarcation of international boundaries in vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south lowest point: Djourab Depression 175 m highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 36% forest and woodland: 11% other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geographic note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel



People ———

Population: 6,976,845 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 1,543,688; female 1,535,729) 15-64 years: 53% (male 1,807,361; female 1,881,930) 65 years and over: 3% (male 91,998; female 116,139) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.25 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.44 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 120.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.55 years male: 45.18 years female: 50.01 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chadian(s) adjective: Chadian

Ethnic divisions: nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French north and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) south: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic (1995 est.) total population: 48.1% male: 62.1% female: 34.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Chad conventional short form: Chad local long form: Republique du Tchad local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Type of government: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990, after seizing power on 3 December 1990); note - transitional government's mandate was scheduled to expire in May 1996; the first round of presidential elections was scheduled for 2 June 1996, with a runoff on 23 June if necessary head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April 1995) elected by the Sovereign National Conference cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition: popular elections to the former National Consultative Council (Conceil National Consultatif) were last held 8 July 1990; this body was disbanded on 3 December 1990 by President DEBY and on 8 March 1991 replaced with the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members whom he appointed; this body, in turn, was replaced on 6 April 1993 by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National Conference; popular elections, formerly scheduled for April 1995, were initially postponed by mutual agreement of the parties concerned until at least May 1996 and subsequently postponed until after the rainy season (as late as October 1996); note - the name of the anticipated new legislative body has not been announced

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), former dissident group, Idriss DEBY, chairman note: President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new constitution, and free elections by April 1994, subsequently twice postponed these initiatives; there are numerous dissident groups and at least 45 opposition political parties

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence E. POPE II embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33 FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than 80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases for cotton - the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to postpone payment of public sector salaries and to dampen economic enterprise by neglecting payments to domestic suppliers. The devaluation resulted in stepped-up inflation of 41% in 1994; in contrast to other Francophone countries, Chad continued to suffer high inflation in 1995 because of the government's lack of financial discipline. Oil production in the Lake Chad area remains a distant prospect and the subsistence-driven economy probably will continue to limp along in the near term.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 49% industry: 17% services: 34%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 41% (1994 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $120 million expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104 million (1992 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

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