HotFreeBooks.com
The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1 ... 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27 ... 31     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Other political or pressure groups: military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200 FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas SIMONS, Jr. embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 6220, APO AE 09812-2200 telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179 FAX: [92] (51) 214222 consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore consulate(s): Peshawar

Flag: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Pakistan is a poor, highly populated Third World country struggling to make the difficult transition to the modern world of high technology and internationalized markets. Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO has been under pressure from the IMF and other donors to continue the economic reforms and austerity measures begun by her predecessor, caretaker Prime Minister Moeen QURESHI (July-October 1993). The IMF suspended a $1.5 billion Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) in mid-1995 because Pakistan slowed the pace of economic reform. Islamabad's most recent budget - announced in June 1995 - reversed some reforms agreed to by the IMF earlier that year, including a slowing of tariff reform. In mid-December 1995, however, the IMF approved a $600 million standby arrangement and urged Pakistan to move forward with economic liberalization. Islamabad has agreed to new economic targets with the IMF, which could lay the basis for a return to an ESAF in 1996. Little progress was made in the privatization of large state-owned units in 1995. The sale of the power plant Kot Addu - scheduled for April 1995 - was stalled by opposition from labor unions. The sale of a 26% share of United Bank Limited and the Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation to strategic investors was due to take place in 1995 but has been pushed back to 1996. On the plus side real GDP grew 4.7% in 1995, up from 3.9% in 1994: GDP should grow even faster in 1996 as a result of an above average cotton crop. Secondly, Islamabad reduced the budget deficit to 5.6% of GDP at the end of FY94/95, down from 8% two years earlier. Thirdly, Pakistan attracted $1.6 billion in foreign direct and portfolio investment in FY94/95, more than double inflows of $650 million in the previous fiscal year; financial agreements were reached on five power projects in 1995, including the 1,300-MW $1.8 billion Hab River project. Despite these improvements, the economy remains vulnerable to crisis. Foreign exchange reserves fell dramatically in 1995, reaching a low of about $1 billion in early December 1995 - only five weeks of import cover - before rising to $1.5 billion by yearend. The trade deficit rose to $2 billion for the first six months of FY94/95, triple the deficit of $600 million during the same period in FY93/94. The government responded to this situation with a package of stabilization reforms on 28 October 1995 which included a 7% devaluation of the rupee, supplementary duties of 10% on many imports, and higher petroleum prices. Islamabad hopes these moves will help make its exports more competitive. For the long run, Pakistan must deal with serious problems of deteriorating infrastructure, low literacy levels, and persistent law and order problems in Karachi.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $274.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 24% industry: 27% services: 49% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 36 million by occupation: agriculture 46%, mining and manufacturing 18%, services 17%, other 19% note: extensive export of labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $11.9 billion expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 12,530,000 kW (1995) production: 43.3 billion kWh (1995) consumption per capita: 389 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade; remains world's fourth largest opium producer (155 metric tons in 1995); major center for processing Afghan heroin and key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western market

Exports: $8.7 billion (1995 est.) commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK, UAE, France

Imports: $10.7 billion (1995 est.) commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals partners: Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea

External debt: $26 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $697 million (1993) note: $2.5 billion (includes bilateral and multilateral aid but no US commitments) (FY93/94); $3 billion (includes bilateral and multilateral aid but no US commitments) (FY94/95)

Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 34.339 (January 1996), 31.643 (1995), 30.567 (1994), 28.107 (1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 8,163 km broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km double track) narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge; 661 km less than 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 205,304 km paved: 104,735 km unpaved: 100,569 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)

Ports: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine: total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 345,606 GRT/560,641 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 19, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 100 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 12 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 19 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 25 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 11 with paved runways under 914 m: 18 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.572 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: the domestic system is mediocre, but adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the major portion of the population domestic: microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 8, shortwave 11

Radios: 11.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 2.08 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 30,519,339 males fit for military service: 18,720,175 males reach military age (17) annually: 1,437,208 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 5.3% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Palau ——-



Map —-

Location: 7 30 N, 134 30 E — Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, southeast of the Philippines



Flag ——

Description: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, southeast of the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 7 30 N, 134 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 458 sq km land area: 458 sq km comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm extended fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Ngerchelchauus 242 m

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: inadequate facilities for disposal of solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral dredging and illegal fishing practices that involve the use of dynamite natural hazards: typhoons (June to December) international agreements: NA

Geographic note: includes World War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain



People ———

Population: 16,952 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.71% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.61 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.01 years male: 69.14 years female: 73.02 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.79 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Palauan(s) adjective: Palauan

Ethnic divisions: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and Melanesian races

Religions: Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day Saints), Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this religion which is indigenous to Palau)

Languages: English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese (official in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state of Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13 states)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 92% male: 93% female: 90%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Palau conventional short form: Palau local long form: Beluu er a Belau local short form: Belau former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Data code: PS

Type of government: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994

Capital: Koror note: a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern Babelthuap

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 16 states: Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal, Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi

Independence: 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Constitution: 1 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993) and Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993) were elected for four-year terms by popular vote; election last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Kuniwo NAKAMURA 50.7%, Johnson TORIBIONG 49.3% cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK) Senate: elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total) number of seats by party NA House of Delegates: elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (16 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; National Court; Court of Common Pleas

Political parties and leaders: Palau Nationalist Party, Polycarp BASILIUS

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF, UN, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Isaac Ngewakl SOALADAOB chancery: 2000 L Street NW, Suite 407, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 452-6814 FAX: [1] (202) 452-6281

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard G. WATKINS embassy: address NA, Koror mailing address: P.O. Box 6028, Republic of Palau 96940 telephone: [680] 488-2920, 2990 FAX: [680] 488-2911

Flag: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing. The government is the major employer of the work force, relying heavily on financial assistance from the US. The population, in effect, enjoys a per capita income of $5,000, twice that of the Philippines and much of Micronesia. Long-run prospects for the tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air travel in the Pacific and the rapidly rising prosperity of leading East Asian countries. Reducing budgeted operating expenditures - which have increased 56% from 1989 to 1993 - will be the biggest challenge for the government over the next several years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $81.8 million (1994 est.) note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $5,000 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 20% (1986)

Budget: revenues: $17 million expenditures: $57 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), some commercial fishing and agriculture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 16,000 kW production: 22 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,540 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: coconuts, copra, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes

Exports: $600,000 (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts partners: US, Japan

Imports: $24.6 million (c.i.f., 1989) commodities: NA partners: US

External debt: about $100 million (1989)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: the compact of "free association" with the US, entered into after the end of the UN trusteeship on 1 October 1994, provides Palau with $500 million in US aid over 15 years in return for furnishing military facilities

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 61 km paved: 36 km unpaved: 25 km

Ports: Koror

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,500 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 9,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 1,600 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Palmyra Atoll ——————-

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 5 52 N, 162 06 W — Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 5 52 N, 162 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 11.9 sq km land area: 11.9 sq km comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: very low lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 100% other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Data code: LQ

Type of government: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during World War II are unserviceable and overgrown

Ports: West Lagoon

Airports: airstrip has been overgrown by vegetation and is no longer serviceable



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Panama ———



Map —-

Location: 9 00 N, 80 00 W — Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica



Flag ——

Description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 78,200 sq km land area: 75,990 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 555 km border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 54% other: 23%

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean



People ———

Population: 2,655,094 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 445,382; female 426,111) 15-64 years: 62% (male 828,384; female 806,205) 65 years and over: 5% (male 71,823; female 77,189) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.2 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female all ages: 1.03 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.92 years male: 71.19 years female: 76.75 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Panamanian(s) adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West Indian 14%, white 10%, Indian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14% note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 90.8% male: 91.4% female: 90.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Panama conventional short form: Panama local long form: Republica de Panama local short form: Panama

Data code: PM

Type of government: constitutional republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla (since 1 September 1994), First Vice President Tomas Gabriel ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1 September 1994), Second Vice President Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez (since 1 September 1994) were elected for five-year terms by popular vote; election last held 8 May 1994 (next to be held 9 May 1999); results - Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES (PRD) 33%, Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER (PA) 29%, Ruben BLADES (MPE) 17%, Ruben Dario CARLES (MOLIRENA) 16% cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula; elections last held 8 May 1994 (next to be held 9 May 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) PRD 32, PS 4, PALA 1, PA 14, MPE 6, MOLIRENA 4, PLA 3, PRC 3, PL 2, PDC 1, UDI 1, MORENA 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), nine judges appointed for 10-year terms; five superior courts; three courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders: governing coalition: Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Liberal Republican Party (PLR), Rodolfo CHIARI; Labor Party (PALA), Carlos Lopez GUEVARA other parties: Solidarity Party (PS), Samuel LEWIS GALINDO; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Delia CARDENAS; Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista Party (PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ruben AROSEMENA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Papa Egoro Movement (MPE), Gloria YOUNG; Civic Renewal Party (PRC), Tomas HERRERA; National Unity Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jacinto CARDENAS; National Renovation Movement (MORENA), Pedro VALLERINO

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic Crusade; Chamber of Commerce; Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP); Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama (CTRP)

International organization participation: AG (associate), ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo Alberto ARIAS chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William John HUGHES embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002 telephone: [507] 227-1377 FAX: [507] 227-1964

Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Because of its key geographic location, Panama's economy is service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce, and tourism. The manufacturing and agriculture sectors have become inefficient under protectionist policies. After fast growth during the early 1990s, the economy has slowed down in the last two years, with GDP growth at 2.8% in 1994 and in 1995. The slowdown has been due mostly to a reduction in construction activities and stagnation in the Colon Free Zone and financial services, the three fastest growing sectors early in the decade. To counter the slowdown, the PEREZ BALLADARES administration has launched an economic reform program designed to reverse unemployment, attract foreign investment, cut back the size of government, and modernize the economy. In 1995, Panama reached an agreement in principle to reschedule its commercial debt - one of the highest in the world in per capita terms - which will allow the country to reenter international financial markets. Panama should complete all requirements to join the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 10% industry: 16% services: 74% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (1995)

Labor force: 979,000 (1994 est.) by occupation: government and community services 31.8%, agriculture, hunting, and fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%, manufacturing and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and communications 6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3% note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Unemployment rate: 13.8% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $1.86 billion expenditures: $1.86 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 960,000 kW production: 2.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,047 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; fishing (shrimp)

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug money laundering center; minor producer of coca leaf; active eradication program

Exports: $548 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2% partners: US 39%, EU, Central America and Caribbean

Imports: $2.45 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer goods, chemicals partners: US 40%, EU, Central America and Caribbean, Japan

External debt: $6.7 billion (yearend 1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $58 million (1993)

Currency: 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 355 km broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 10,103 km paved: 3,233 km unpaved: 6,870 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Ports: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo North, Vacamonte

Merchant marine: total: 3,758 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,960,500 GRT/107,632,713 DWT ships by type: bulk 902, cargo 1,050, chemical tanker 168, combination bulk 40, combination ore/oil 19, container 307, liquefied gas tanker 155, livestock carrier 7, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 488, passenger 31, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 295, roll-on/roll-off cargo 93, short-sea passenger 34, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 150 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 83 countries among which are Japan 1,212, Greece 360, Hong Kong 263, Taiwan 203, South Korea 198, US 160, China 152, Singapore 118, UK 79, Switzerland 67, and Norway 58 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 99 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 14 with paved runways under 914 m: 60 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 273,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international facilities well developed domestic: NA international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 564,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 23

Televisions: 420,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Panamanian Public Forces (PPF; includes the National Police, National Maritime Service, National Air Service, and Institutional Protective Service); Judicial Technical Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 705,427 males fit for military service: 484,571 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $78 million, NA% of GDP (1995); note - for police and security forces



======================================================================



@Papua New Guinea ————————



Map —-

Location: 6 00 S, 147 00 E — Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia



Flag ——

Description: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 461,690 sq km land area: 451,710 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 820 km border country: Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil potential

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 71% other: 28%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast



People ———

Population: 4,394,537 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 906,709; female 860,534) 15-64 years: 57% (male 1,303,084; female 1,195,245) 65 years and over: 3% (male 59,513; female 69,452) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.29% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 32.93 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female all ages: 1.07 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.25 years male: 56.4 years female: 58.15 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.45 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Papua New Guinean(s) adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant sects 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 72.2% male: 81% female: 62.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea conventional short form: Papua New Guinea abbreviation: PNG

Data code: PP

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General Wiwa KOROWI (since 11 November 1991), who was appointed by the National Executive Council head of government: Prime Minister Sir Julius CHAN (since 30 August 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Chris HAIVETA (since 7 September 1994) were appointed by the governor general cabinet: National Executive Council was appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (sometimes referred to as the House of A: elections last held 13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10, independents 30, others 18; note - association with political parties is fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice, other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission

Political parties and leaders: Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Chris HAIVETA; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI; People's Action Party (PAP), Akoka DOI; People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN; United Party (UP), Paul TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA; National Party (NP), Paul PORA; Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS

International organization participation: ACP, APEC, AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kepas Isimel WATANGIA chancery: 3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680 FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. TEARE embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby telephone: [675] 321-1455 FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for the bulk of the population. Mining of numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid under World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy. In 1995, Port Moresby reached agreement with the IMF and World Bank on a structural adjustment program. PNG will receive loans totaling $350 million over the next two years from a variety of lenders including the Fund, the Bank, the Australian Government, and the Japanese Export-Import Bank. The loans will be provided only if Port Moresby implements significant reforms to liberalize trade and investment policies, reduce the public sector, and promote sustainable development of the forestry sector. At the start of 1996, Port Moresby is looking primarily to the exploitation of mineral and petroleum resources to drive economic development but new prospecting in Papua New Guinea has slumped as other mineral-rich countries have stepped up their competition for international investment. Output from current projects will probably begin to taper off in 1996, but no new large ventures are being developed to succeed them.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1995)

Labor force: 1.941 million by occupation: agriculture 64% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1.86 billion expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 490,000 kW production: 1.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 390 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: gold, copper ore, oil, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, lobster partners: Australia, Japan, US, Singapore, New Zealand

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals partners: Australia, Japan, UK, New Zealand, Netherlands

External debt: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $291 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1 - 0.7552 (October 1995), 0.9950 (1994), 1.0221 (1993), 1.0367 (1992), 1.0504 (1991); note - the government floated the kina on 10 October 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 19,088 km paved: 640 km unpaved: 18,448 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 10,940 km

Ports: Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,565 GRT/27,114 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, combination ore/oil 5, container 1, roll-on/roll-off 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 451 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 12 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 371 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 51 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 63,212 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services domestic: mostly radiotelephone international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 298,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 10,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and Special Operations Unit)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,143,015 males fit for military service: 635,923 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 0.9% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Paracel Islands ———————-



Map —-

Location: 16 30 N, 112 00 E — Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 16 30 N, 112 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: NA sq km land area: NA sq km comparative area: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Rocky Island 14 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: typhoons international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered Chinese garrisons



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Paracel Islands

Data code: PF



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island being expanded

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (on Woody Island) (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: occupied by China



======================================================================



@Paraguay ————



Map —-

Location: 23 00 S, 58 00 W — Central South America, northeast of Argentina



Flag ——

Description: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)



Geography ————-

Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 406,750 sq km land area: 397,300 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: total: 3,920 km border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil, just west of Salto del Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has not been determined

Climate: subtropical; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m highest point: Cerro San Rafael 850 m

Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 39% forest and woodland: 35% other: 5%

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation (an estimated 2 million hectares of forest land have been lost from 1958-85); water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many urban residents natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June) international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands

Geographic note: landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil



People ———

Population: 5,504,146 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41% (male 1,144,644; female 1,096,430) 15-64 years: 55% (male 1,518,661; female 1,513,577) 65 years and over: 4% (male 106,121; female 124,713) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 30.97 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.84 years male: 72.33 years female: 75.43 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.15 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Paraguayan(s) adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Indian) 95%, whites plus Amerindians 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant denominations

Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 92.1% male: 93.5% female: 90.6%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay conventional short form: Paraguay local long form: Republica del Paraguay local short form: Paraguay

Data code: PA

Type of government: republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August 1993) and Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993) were elected for five-year terms by popular vote; election last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%, Domingo LAINO 32.06%, Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04% cabinet: Council of Ministers was nominated by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total) Colorado Party 20, PLRA 17, EN 8 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held by May 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) Colorado Party 38, PLRA 33, EN 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates (Consejo de la Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA, president; Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo LAINO; National Encounter (EN), Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Miguel MONTANER; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEVEDO; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER

Other political or pressure groups: Confederation of Workers (CUT); Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge PRIETO CONTI chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962 FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. SERVICE embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001 telephone: [595] (21) 213-715 FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The formal economy is largely oriented toward services, but 45% of the population derive their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The economy has grown an average of 3% to 4% over the past five years. Population has increased at 3% a year over the same period leaving per capita income nearly stagnant. The informal sector is marked by both reexport of imported consumer goods (electronics, whiskeys, perfumes, cigarettes and office equipment) to neighboring countries as well as by the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. The Paraguayan Government has stated publicly that it will continue its economic reform agenda in close coordination with its Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market) partners. In 1995, the government also promised to undertake efforts to formalize the financial sector, after a financial shock forced the bail-out of the second and third largest banks. Paraguay's continued integration into Mercosur also offers potential for growth; it is closely linked with the success of foreign investment promotion. Non-traditional exports, such as finished agricultural products, light manufactures, and small consumer items, are growing rapidly. Government reform efforts, including privatization, have continued, but with little success in 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 25.7% industry: 25.8% services: 48.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.5% (1995)

Labor force: 1.692 million (1993 est.) by occupation: agriculture 45%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $1.25 billion (1995 est.) expenditures: $1.66 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 6,530,000 kW production: 26.5 billion kWh (1992) consumption per capita: NA note: much of the electricity produced in Paraguay is exported to Brazil and domestic consumption cannot be determined

Agriculture: cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for Europe and the US

Exports: $819.5 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: cotton, soybeans, timber, vegetable oils, meat products, coffee, tung oil partners: EU 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%

Imports: $2.871 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, raw materials, fuels partners: Brazil 30%, EU 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

External debt: $1.38 billion (yearend 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $38 million (1993)

Currency: 1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$ - 2,003.8 (January 1996), 1,970.4 (1995), 1,911.5 (1994), 1,744.3 (1993), 1,500.3 (1992), 1,325.2 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 971 km standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge other: 470 km various gauges (privately owned)

Highways: total: 21,834 km paved: 1,778 km unpaved: 20,056 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 3,100 km

Ports: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion

Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,323 GRT/23,907 DWT ships by type: cargo 13, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 739 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 438 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 25 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 266 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 88,730 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion domestic: fair microwave radio relay network international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 775,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 370,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,334,638 males fit for military service: 968,297 males reach military age (17) annually: 58,398 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $94 million, 0.6% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Peru ——



Map —-

Location: 10 00 S, 76 00 W — Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador



Flag ——

Description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath



Geography ————-

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 1,285,220 sq km land area: 1.28 million sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 6,940 km border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 21% forest and woodland: 55% other: 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Geographic note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia



People ———

Population: 24,523,408 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 4,360,379; female 4,214,970) 15-64 years: 61% (male 7,480,747; female 7,375,825) 65 years and over: 4% (male 497,775; female 593,712) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 24.33 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.13 years male: 66.97 years female: 71.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s) adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 88.7% male: 94.5% female: 83%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Peru conventional short form: Peru local long form: Republica del Peru local short form: Peru

Data code: PE

Type of government: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67% cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress: elections last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000); results - C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, 11 other parties 33.9%; seats - (120 total, when installed on 28 July 1995) C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, FREPAP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM), Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Agustin MANTILLA Campos; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; Democratic Coordinator (CODE) - Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and Alejandro TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Raul DIEZ CANSECO; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovacion, Rafael REY Rey; Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left (IU), Agustin HAYA de la TORRE; Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA), Rolando SALVATERRIE; Peru 2000-National Front of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES; Popular Agricultural Front (FREPAP), Ezequiel ATAUCUSI

Other political or pressure groups: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY (imprisoned)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA MENDOZA chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869 FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr. embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031 telephone: [51] (12) 21-1202 FAX: [51] (12) 21-3543

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s, the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 6% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $87 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 8 million (1992) by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 15%; extensive underemployment (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $8.5 billion expenditures: $9.3 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 4,190,000 kW production: 11.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 115,300 hectares under cultivation in 1995; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton partners: US 19%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany

Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals partners: US 21%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil

External debt: $22.4 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $363 million (1993)

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.350 (January 1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.246 (1992), 0.773 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,041 km standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 315 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 69,942 km paved: 13,538 km unpaved: 56,404 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,584 GRT/144,030 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 7 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 230 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 15 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 12 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 with paved runways under 914 m: 96 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 22 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 71 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 779,306 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144

Radios: 5.7 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 140

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 6,441,513 males fit for military service: 4,347,460 males reach military age (20) annually: 255,067 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $998 million, 1.6% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Philippines —————-



Map —-

Location: 13 00 N, 122 00 E — Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 300,000 sq km land area: 298,170 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: to depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

International disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use: arable land: 26% permanent crops: 11% meadows and pastures: 4% forest and woodland: 40% other: 19%

Irrigated land: 16,200 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides, active volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunamis international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94



People ———

Population: 74,480,848 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 14,486,214; female 14,026,873) 15-64 years: 58% (male 21,403,784; female 21,968,259) 65 years and over: 4% (male 1,165,810; female 1,429,908) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 29.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.91 years male: 63.14 years female: 68.83 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Filipino(s) adjective: Philippine

Ethnic divisions: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official, based on Tagalog), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 94.6% male: 95% female: 94.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines conventional short form: Philippines local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas local short form: Pilipinas

Data code: RP

Type of government: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992) and Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992) were elected for six-year terms by popular vote; election last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - Fidel Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of the vote, a narrow plurality cabinet: Executive Secretary was appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso) Senate (Senado): elections last held 8 May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (24 total) LDP 14, Lakas/NUCD 5, NPC 2, LP 1, PRP 1, independent 1 House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan): elections last held 8 May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (204 total) Lakas/NUCD 129, LDP 29, NPC (opposition) 25, LP 6, PDP 3, KBL/NPC 1, results pending 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president on recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, LDP), Edgardo ANGARA; People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas ng EDSA-NUCD or Lakas-NUCD); Raul MANGLAPUS, president and Jose DE VENECIA, secretary general; Liberal Party (LP), Raul DAZA; National People's Coalition (NPC), Eduardo COJUANGCO; People's Reform Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan, KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador H. LAUREL, president; Filipino Democratic Party (Partido Demokratikong Philipinas or PDP), Jose COJUANGCO, is part of the ruling coalition with the LDP

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300 FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614 consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle consulate(s): San Diego and San Jose (Saipan)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Thomas C. HUBBARD embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000 mailing address: APO AP 96440 telephone: [63] (2) 521-71-16 FAX: [63] (2) 522-43-61

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Philippine economy, primarily a mixture of agriculture and light industry, continued its third year of recovery in 1995, led by growth in exports and investments. Officials have targeted 5%-6% growth for 1996 after achieving 4.8% growth in 1995. The government is continuing its economic reforms to enable the Philippines to move closer to the development of the newly industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving infrastructure and plans to overhaul the tax system to bolster government revenues.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $179.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.8% (1995)

GDP per capita: $2,530 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 22% industry: 30% services: 48%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (1995)

Labor force: 24.12 million by occupation: agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%, government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $14.1 billion expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (1993)

Electricity: capacity: 6,770,000 kW production: 20.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 278 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis despite government eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian and Golden Triangle heroin bound for the US

Exports: $17.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: electronics, textiles, coconut products, copper, fish partners: US 39%, Japan 15%, Germany 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 5% (1994)

Imports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products 10% partners: Japan 24%, US 18%, Singapore 7%, Taiwan 6%, South Korea 5% (1994)

External debt: $41 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $934 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 26.206 (December 1995), 25.714 (1995), 26.417 (1994), 27.120 (1993), 25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 499 km narrow gauge: 499 km 1.067-m gauge (1993)

Highways: total: 160,633 km paved: 22,489 km unpaved: 138,144 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine: total: 535 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,033,849 GRT/13,101,188 DWT ships by type: bulk 230, cargo 126, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 11, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 9, livestock carrier 12, oil tanker 44, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 12, refrigerated cargo 19, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 18, vehicle carrier 25 note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 22 ships, Hong Kong 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Denmark 1, and UK 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 235 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 25 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 with paved runways under 914 m: 104 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 63 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 887,229 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations international: submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 261, FM 55, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.03 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 7 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 18,722,509 males fit for military service: 13,221,513 males reach military age (20) annually: 767,056 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 1.4% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Pitcairn Islands ————————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 25 04 S, 130 06 W — Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Peru to New Zealand



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a yellow anchor



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 47 sq km land area: 47 sq km comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Previous Part     1 ... 15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27 ... 31     Next Part
Home - Random Browse