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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 2% forest and woodland: 39% other: 55%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: tropical rain forest subject to deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of rivers from the dumping of iron ore tailings and of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage natural hazards: dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March) international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation



People ———

Population: 2,109,789 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 475,138; female 470,970) 15-64 years: 52% (male 557,855; female 532,143) 65 years and over: 3% (male 35,544; female 38,139) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.72 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.95 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: until the Ghanaian-led peace negotiations are successful, many Liberian refugees will be unable to return from exile

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female all ages: 1.03 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.59 years male: 56.05 years female: 61.22 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Liberian(s) adjective: Liberian

Ethnic divisions: indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella), Americo-Liberians 5% (descendants of former slaves)

Religions: traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%

Languages: English 20% (official), Niger-Congo language group about 20 local languages come from this group

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 38.3% male: 53.9% female: 22.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Liberia conventional short form: Liberia

Data code: LI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe

Independence: 26 July 1847

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for indigenous sector

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the Council of State Wilton SANKAWULO (since NA September 1995); president was to be elected for a six-year term by universal suffrage at the end of 1995; election last held 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA August 1996); results - Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP) 26.4%, other 22.7% note: constitutional government ended in September 1990 when President Samuel Kanyon DOE was killed by rebel forces; civil war ensued and in August 1995 the Abuja peace accord was signed by the major warring factions; a transitional coalition government under Wilton SANKAWULO was formed in September 1995; presidential elections are scheduled for August 1996 cabinet: Cabinet was selected by the leaders of the major factions in the civil war

Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional Legislative Assembly, the members of which are appointed by the leaders of the major factions in the civil war note: the former bicameral legislature no longer exists and is unlikely to be reconstituted soon

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman; Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman; Unity Party (UP), Joseph KOFA, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman; National Patriotic Party (NPP), Charles TAYLOR, chairman; Liberian Peoples Party (LPP), Dusty WOLOKOLLIE, chairman

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Konah K. BLACKETT chancery: 5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 telephone: [1] (202) 723-0437 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission William MILAM embassy: 111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia mailing address: P. O. Box 100098, Mamba Point, Monrovia telephone: [231] 226-370 FAX: [231] 226-148

Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Civil war since 1990 has destroyed much of Liberia's economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Businessmen have fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them. Many will not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope. Political instability threatens prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of some 750,000 Liberian refugees who have fled to neighboring countries. The continued political turmoil has prevented restoration of normal economic life, including the re-establishment of a strong central government with effective economic development programs. The economy deteriorated further in 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.3 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $770 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 510,000 including 220,000 in the monetary economy by occupation: agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other 14.2% note: non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and engineering jobs

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $225 million expenditures: $285 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture, palm oil processing, iron ore, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA% (1993-94)

Electricity: capacity: 330,000 kW production: 440 million kWh consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timber

Illicit drugs: increasingly a transshipment point for heroin and cocaine

Exports: $530 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee partners: US, EC, Netherlands, Singapore

Imports: NA (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; rice and other foodstuffs partners: US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS, South Korea

External debt: $1.9 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (officially fixed rate since 1940); market exchange rate of US$1 - L$50 (October 1995), L$7 (January 1992), market rate floats against the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 490 km (single track); note - three rail systems owned and operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian Government; one of these, the Lamco Railroad, closed in 1989 after iron ore production ceased; the other two have been shut down by the civil war standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 145 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 10,029 km paved: 600 km unpaved: 9,429 km (1987 est.)

Ports: Buchanan, Greenville, Harper, Monrovia

Merchant marine: total: 1,601 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,449,296 GRT/98,819,081 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 411, cargo 121, chemical tanker 108, combination bulk 28, combination ore/oil 56, container 143, liquefied gas tanker 77, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 463, passenger 42, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 64, roll-on/roll-off cargo 23, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 48 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 59 countries among which are US 253, Japan 172, Norway 165, Germany 149, Greece 137, Hong Kong 114, UK 78, China 49, Monaco 41, and Cyprus 34 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 39 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 29 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: less than 25,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph service via microwave radio relay network; main center is Monrovia; most telecommunications services inoperable due to insurgency movement domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 622,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 51,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: NA; the ultimate structure of the Liberian military force will depend on who is the victor in the ongoing civil war

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 479,274 males fit for military service: 256,200 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $14 million, 2.9% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Libya ——-



Map —-

Location: 25 00 N, 17 00 E — Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia



Flag ——

Description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,759,540 sq km land area: 1,759,540 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 4,383 km border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32 degrees 30 minutes north

International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains part of the airfield and a small military presence at the airfield's water supply located in Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; claims part of northern Niger and part of southeastern Algeria

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 8% forest and woodland: 0% other: 90%

Irrigated land: 2,420 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms international agreements: party to - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 5,445,436 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 1,319,696; female 1,274,865) 15-64 years: 49% (male 1,375,441; female 1,308,613) 65 years and over: 3% (male 87,434; female 79,387) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.67% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.42 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female all ages: 1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.67 years male: 62.48 years female: 66.97 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Libyan(s) adjective: Libyan

Ethnic divisions: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 76.2% male: 87.9% female: 63%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya conventional short form: Libya local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah local short form: none

Data code: LY

Type of government: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan note: the 25 muncipalities may have been replaced by 1,500 communes in 1992

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969) was elected by the General People's Congress head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abd al Majid al-QA'UD (since 29 January 1994) cabinet: General People's Committee was established by the General People's Congress note: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples' committees

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples' committees

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: Libya does not have an embassy in the US

US diplomatic representation: the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but subsequently GDP growth has slowed on average and has fluctuated sharply in response to changes in the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs 18% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. The UN sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not yet had a major impact on the economy because Libya's oil revenues generate sufficient foreign exchange to sustain imports of food, consumer goods, and equipment for the oil industry and ongoing development projects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $32.9 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -0.9% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $6,510 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners) by occupation: industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $8.1 billion expenditures: $9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 4,600,000 kW production: 16.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,078 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts; meat, eggs

Exports: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas partners: Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods partners: Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern Europe

External debt: $3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3617 (January 1996), 0.3532 (1995), 0.3596 (1994), 0.3250 (1993), 0.3013 (1992), 0.2684 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a 1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion set for mid-1994; no progress has been reported

Highways: total: 19,189 km paved: 10,738 km unpaved: 8,451 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquefied petroleum gas 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine: total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 686,834 GRT/1,209,263 DWT ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 4 note: Libya owns an additional 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,260 DWT operating under the registries of Algeria and Turkey (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 130 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 24 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 22 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 with paved runways under 914 m: 13 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 4 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 15 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 38 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 370,000

Telephone system: modern telecommunications system domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); planned Arabsat and Intersputnik satellite earth stations; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 1 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (includes Army, Navy, and Air and Air Defense Command), Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,170,100 males fit for military service: 696,288 males reach military age (17) annually: 56,834 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion, 6.1% of GDP (1994 est.)



======================================================================



@Liechtenstein ——————-



Map —-

Location: 47 10 N, 9 32 E — Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N, 9 32 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 160 sq km land area: 160 sq km comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 78 km border countries: Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: claims 1,600 square kilometers of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when the communists seized power

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third lowest point: Ruggleller Riet 430 m highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use: arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 38% forest and woodland: 19% other: 18%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation



People ———

Population: 31,122 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 2,961; female 2,871) 15-64 years: 70% (male 10,775; female 11,113) 65 years and over: 11% (male 1,366; female 2,036) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.47 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.81 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.14 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.84 years male: 75.92 years female: 82.17 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s) adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1981 est.) total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein conventional short form: Liechtenstein local long form: Furstentum Liechtenstein local short form: Liechtenstein

Data code: LS

Type of government: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, who is a hereditary monarch, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968) head of government: Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993) and Deputy Head of Government Dr. Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993) were elected by the Landtag for a four-year term and confirmed by the prince cabinet: Cabinet was elected by the Diet; confirmed by the prince

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag): elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be held by March 1997); results - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats - (25 total) VU 13, FBP 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases; Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Oswald KRANTZ; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Otmar HASLER; The Free List (FL)

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: Liechtenstein does not have an embassy in the US, but is represented by the Swiss embassy in routine diplomatic matters

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation in Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital service sector and living standards on par with the urban areas of its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% - and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. Liechtenstein plans to join the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between EFTA and EU) in 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $630 million (1990 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $22,300 (1990 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)

Labor force: 20,000 of which 12,000 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day by occupation: industry, trade, and building 48.1%, services 50.2%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.7% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 0.9% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $455 million expenditures: $442 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 23,000 kW production: 150 million kWh consumption per capita: 5,230 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes; livestock

Exports: $1.636 billion (1993) commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery partners: EC countries 42.7%, EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), other 36.4% (1990)

Imports: $NA commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.1810 (January 1996), 1.1825 (1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways: total: 238 km paved: 238 km unpaved: 0 km (1986 est.)

Ports: none

Airports: none



Communications ———————

Telephones: 18,916 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system domestic: NA international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA note: linked to Swiss networks

Radios: 11,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA note: linked to Swiss networks

Televisions: 10,620 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Switzerland



======================================================================



@Lithuania ————-



Map —-

Location: 56 00 N, 24 00 E — Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 65,200 sq km land area: 65,200 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,273 km border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 108 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over the position of the Nemunas (Nemen) River border presently located on the Lithuanian bank and not in midriver as by international standards; disputes maritime border with Latvia (primary concern is oil exploration rights); treaty with Belarus defining the border awaits ratification

Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Juozapine Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat

Land use: arable land: 49% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 22% forest and woodland: 16% other: 13%

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Ozone Layer Protection



People ———

Population: 3,646,041 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 400,823; female 384,592) 15-64 years: 66% (male 1,162,626; female 1,244,103) 65 years and over: 12% (male 154,862; female 299,035) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.35% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.93 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.33 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female all ages: 0.89 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.03 years male: 62.15 years female: 74.21 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s) adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic divisions: Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%, Byelorussian 1.5%, other 2.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, other

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 98% male: 99% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania conventional short form: Lithuania local long form: Lietuvos Respublika local short form: Lietuva former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: LH

Type of government: republic

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and 11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas, Birsionas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Marijampoles Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininky Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Siltues Rajonas, Sirvinty Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traky Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 25 November 1992; elected acting president by Parliament 25 November 1992 and elected by direct vote 15 February 1993) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held spring 1997); results - Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS was elected; percent of vote NA head of government: Premier Mindaugas STANKEVICIUS (since 15 February 1996) was appointed by the president on approval of the Seimas cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Seimas (parliament): elections last held 26 October and 25 November 1992 (next to be held NA October 1996); results - LDDP 51%; seats - (141 total) LDDP 73, Conservative Party 30, LKDP 17, LTS 8, Farmers' Union 4, LLS 4, Center Union 2, others 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Seimas; Court of Appeal, judges appointed by the Seimas

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (LKDP), Algirdas SAUDARGAS, chairman; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania (LDDP), Mindaugas STANKEVICIUS , chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LTS), Rimantas SMETONA, chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP), Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman; Farmers' Union, Jonas CIULEVICIUS, chairman; Center Union, Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman; Homeland Union/Conservative Party, Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman; Lithuanian Polish Union (LLS), Rytardas MACIEKIANIEC, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Lithuanian Future Forum

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonsas EIDINTAS chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860, 2639 FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador James W. SWIHART, Jr. embassy: Akmenu 6, Vilnius 2600 mailing address: PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723 telephone: [78] (8) 973-0000, 227-224 FAX: [78] (8) 670-6084

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Since declaring independence in 1990, Lithuania has implemented reforms aimed at eliminating the vestiges of the former socialist system. With the help of the IMF and other international institutions, the government has adopted a disciplined program to restrain inflation, reduce price controls, lower the budget deficit and privatize the economy. Lithuania has embarked on a series of price liberalizations; most price controls have been abolished. More than two-thirds of its industrial facilities as well as most housing and agricultural enterprises have been privatized, although important "strategic" enterprises have been exempted from privatization - namely energy and telecommunications. While Lithuania has reduced its trade dependence on Russia and other republics of the FSU from 85% in 1991 to about 40% in 1995, Russia remains Lithuania's leading trading partner. Lithuania has made great strides in reducing its annual rate of inflation - from over 1,100% in 1992 to about 35% in 1995. Production bottomed out in 1994-95. A banking crisis beginning in September, during which central bank reserves dropped one-third, held back growth in 1995. If the government can stay the course on economic reform and fiscal discipline - which may be politically difficult in the election year of 1996 - Lithuania could be set for strong economic growth in the near term. As for real resources, Lithuania's growth depends largely on its ability to exploit its strategic location - with its ice-free port at Klaipeda and its rail and highway hub in Vilnius connecting it with Eastern Europe, Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Lacking important natural resources, it will remain dependent on imports of fuels and raw materials.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.3 billion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: 1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 42% services: 38% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.836 million by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.1% (January 1996)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 6,190,000 kW production: 18.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,608 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables; meat, milk, eggs; fish

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit opium; mostly for domestic consumption

Exports: $2.2 billion (1994) commodities: electronics 18%, food 10%, chemicals 6%, petroleum products 5% (1989) partners: Russia, Ukraine, Germany

Imports: $2.7 billion (1994) commodities: oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA% (1989) partners: Russia, Germany, Belarus

External debt: $895 million

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $144 million (1993) note: commitments from the West and international financial institutions, $765 million (1992-95)

Currency: introduced the convertible litas in June 1993

Exchange rates: litai per US$1 - 4.000 (January 1996), 4.000 (1995), 3.978 (1994), 4.344 (1993), 1.773 (1992); note - fixed rate since 1 May 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,002 km broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)

Highways: total: 55,603 km paved: 42,209 km (including 382 km of expressways) unpaved: 13,394 km (1994)

Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports: Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine: total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 264,639 GRT/303,649 DWT ships by type: cargo 26, combination bulk 11, oil tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 96 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 14 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 900,000

Telephone system: telecommunications system ranks among the most modern of the former Soviet republics domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in Vilnius and other cities; landlines and microwave radio relay connect switching centers international: international connections no longer depend on the Moscow international gateway switch, but are established by satellite through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from Kaunas; satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); cellular network linked internationally through Copenhagen by Eutelsat; international electronic mail is available; landlines or microwave radio relay to former Soviet republics

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 26, shortwave 1, longwave 1

Radios: 1.42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 1.77 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 903,437 males fit for military service: 712,875 males reach military age (18) annually: 26,162 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $31.7 million, 1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Luxembourg —————



Map —-

Location: 49 45 N, 6 10 E — Western Europe, between France and Germany



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 2,586 sq km land area: 2,586 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: total: 359 km border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in the southeast lowest point: Moselle River 133 m highest point: Burgplatz 559 m

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: arable land: 24% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 20% forest and woodland: 21% other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: deforestation; air and water pollution in urban areas natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 415,870 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 39,199; female 37,239) 15-64 years: 68% (male 142,394; female 138,349) 65 years and over: 14% (male 23,118; female 35,571) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.57% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.14 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.32 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.26 years male: 75.24 years female: 81.56 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s) adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, and European (guest and worker residents)

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%

Languages: Luxembourgisch, German, French, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg conventional short form: Luxembourg local long form: Grand-Duche de Luxembourg local short form: Luxembourg

Data code: LU

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, ======================================================================



@Macau ——-

(overseas territory of Portugal)

Map —-

Location: 22 10 N, 113 33 E — Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Portugal is used



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 16 sq km land area: 16 sq km comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 0.34 km border country: China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Ozone Layer Protection (extended from Portugal)

Geographic note: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland



People ———

Population: 496,837 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 24% (male 60,709; female 57,004) 15-64 years: 68% (male 167,466; female 169,486) 65 years and over: 8% (male 17,569; female 24,603) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.16 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.95 years male: 77.49 years female: 82.54 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Macanese (singular and plural) adjective: Macau

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

Religions: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2% (1981)

Languages: Portuguese (official) 4%, Chinese (Cantonese) is the language of commerce

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.) total population: 90% male: 93% female: 86%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Macau local long form: none local short form: Ilha de Macau

Data code: MC

Type of government: overseas territory of Portugal scheduled to revert to China in 1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by Beijing promulgated 31 March 1993

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986) head of government: Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20 March 1991) was appointed by the President of Portugal after consultation with the Legislative Assembly cabinet: Consultative Council consists of a total of 15 members - five appointed by the governor, two nominated by the governor, five elected for a four-year term (two represent administrative bodies, one represents moral, cultural, and welfare interests, and two represent economic interests), and three statutory members

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly: elections last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total, 8 elected by direct vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the governor) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, consisting of five magistrates including the president; lower court judges appointed for three years by governor

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy procommunist merchants representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over administration

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (Chinese territory under Portuguese administration)

US diplomatic representation: the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag: the flag of Portugal is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $13,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 180,000 (1986) by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $305 million expenditures: $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 258,000 kW production: 950 million kWh consumption per capita: 2,093 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, vegetables

Exports: $1.9 billion (1995 est.) commodities: textiles, clothing, toys partners: US 35%, Hong Kong 12.5%, Germany 12%, China 9.9%, France 8% (1992 est.)

Imports: $2 billion (1992 est.) commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods partners: Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)

External debt: $0 (1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991-95), 8.024 (1990), 8.030 (1989); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 90 km paved: 42 km unpaved: 48 km (1987 est.)

Ports: Macau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: new international airport completed in 1995; 1 seaplane station



Communications ———————

Telephones: 170,021 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services domestic: NA international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 135,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 note: TV programs received from Hong Kong

Televisions: 34,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: NA

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 142,704 males fit for military service: 79,225 (1996 est.)

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Portugal



======================================================================



@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of —————————————————————



Map —-

Location: 41 50 N, 22 00 E — Southeastern Europe, north of Greece



Flag ——

Description: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the edges of the red field



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 25,333 sq km land area: 24,856 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: total: 748 km border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: dispute with Greece over name; in September 1995, Skopje and Athens signed an interim accord resolving their dispute over symbols and certain constitutional provisions; Athens also lifted its economic embargo on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River lowest point: Vardar River 50 m highest point: Korab 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 20% forest and woodland: 30% other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants natural hazards: high seismic risks international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Geographic note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe



People ———

Population: 2,104,035 (July 1996 est.) note: the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 242,593; female 228,563) 15-64 years: 68% (male 728,969; female 703,665) 65 years and over: 10% (male 90,363; female 109,882) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.31 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.47 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.94 years male: 69.86 years female: 74.18 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s) adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic divisions: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia conventional short form: none local long form: Republika Makedonija local short form: Makedonija abbreviation: FYROM

Data code: MK

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991) was elected by the Assembly in 1991 and reelected by popular vote in 1994; election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote NA; note - following a failed assassination attempt on the president in October 1995, then Parliamentary Speaker Stojan ANDOV was acting president; GLIGOROV resumed his duties in early 1996 head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers were elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - after the withdrawal of the Liberal Party from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of Ministers was reorganized without LP participation

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly (Sobranje): elections last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) SDSM 58, LP 29, SPM 8, PDP 10, NDP 4, independents 7, other 4

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM; former Communist Party), Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity (PDP), Abdurahman HALITI, president; National Democratic Party (NDP), Ilijas HALINI, president; Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia - Liberal Party (SRSM-LP), Stojan ANDOV, president; Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM), Kiro POPOVSKI, president; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party of Yugoslavs in Macedonia (SJM), Milan DURCINOV, president; Democratic Party (DP), Petar GOSEV, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity of Albanians (PDPA), Arben XHAFFERI, president

Other political or pressure groups: Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK); Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks; Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ljubica ACEVSKA chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063 FAX: [1] (202) 337 3093

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Christopher HILL; Charge d'Affaires Victor D. COMRAS embassy: ul. 27 Mart No. 5, 9100 Skopje mailing address: United States Liaison Office Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch) telephone: [389] (91) 116-180 FAX: [389] (91) 117-103 note: the US agreed to establish full diplomatic relations with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in September 1995, and to upgrade the Liaison Office to an Embassy

Flag: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the edges of the red field



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. Its economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or enlarged with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany and other West European nations. The end of sanctions on Serbia and the lifting of the Greek embargo on Macedonia have reopened its natural trade corridors, but the country has been slow to capitalize on these opportunities. Moreover, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's geographical isolation, technological underdevelopment, and potential political instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to Western investors. An internal commitment to economic reform would encourage foreign investment over the long run.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4%

GDP per capita: $880 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 24% industry: 44% services: 32%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 591,773 (June 1994) by occupation: manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 37% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: -14% (1993)

Electricity: capacity: 1,600,000 kW production: 6.046 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,941 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

Illicit drugs: limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin

Exports: $916.2 million (1995) commodities: manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food (rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals 4.7% (1990) partners: principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Greece, Albania

Imports: $199 million (1995) commodities: fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%, raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5% (1990) partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria

External debt: $737.1 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: US, $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance); in December 1995, the EU agreed to provide a credit line of ECU 21.7 million for investment projects

Currency: the denar, which was adopted by the Macedonian legislature 26 April 1992, was initially issued in the form of a coupon pegged to the German mark; subsequently repegged to a basket of seven currencies

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 38.8 (December 1995), 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 699 km standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (232 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 10,591 km paved: 5,091 km unpaved: 5,500 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: none

Ports: none

Airports: total: 16 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 12 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 125,000

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 369,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)

Televisions: 327,011 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 571,927 males fit for military service: 458,231 males reach military age (19) annually: 16,698 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 7 billion denars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Madagascar —————



Map —-

Location: 20 00 S, 47 00 E — Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 587,040 sq km land area: 581,540 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 58% forest and woodland: 26% other: 11%

Irrigated land: 9,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered natural hazards: periodic cyclones international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel



People ———

Population: 13,670,507 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 3,105,958; female 3,034,279) 15-64 years: 52% (male 3,499,021; female 3,573,052) 65 years and over: 3% (male 224,710; female 233,487) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.83% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.63 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 14.38 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.19 years male: 51.11 years female: 53.3 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural) adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic divisions: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 80% male: 88% female: 73%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar conventional short form: Madagascar local long form: Republique de Madagascar local short form: Madagascar former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Type of government: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993) was elected for a five-year term by popular vote; election last held 10 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - Albert ZAFY (UNDD) 67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 33% head of government: Prime Minister Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY (since 30 October 1995) was elected by the National Assembly cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate (Senat): two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled from popularly elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential appointment; decentralization and formation of regional assemblies is not expected before 1997 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 16 June 1993 (next to be held NA June 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme); High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Committee of Living Forces (CFV), an alliance of National Union for Development and Democracy (UNDD), Support Group for Democracy and Development in Madagascar (CSDDM), Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar (GRAD), Congress Party for Madagascar Independence - Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana), and some 12 other parties, trade unions, and religious groups; Militant Party for the Development of Madagascar (PMDM/MFM), formerly the Movement for Proletarian Power, Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA; Confederation of Civil Societies for Development (CSCD), Guy Willy RAZANAMASY; Association of United Malagasys (Famima); Rally for Social Democracy (RPSD), Pierre TSIRANANA

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Christian Churches (FFKM); Federalist Movement

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki J. HUDDLESTON embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18 FAX: [261] (2) 234-539

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world, suffering from chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 35% of GDP and contributing more than 70% of export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; it accounts for 15% of GDP. In 1986, the government introduced a five-year development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for export, and reduced energy imports. Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform. Since 1993, corruption and political instability have caused the economy and infrastructure to decay further. Since April 1994, the government commitment to economic reforms has been erratic. Enormous obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth potential.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $820 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 35% industry: 15% services: 50% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

Labor force: total workers: 4.9 million workers not receiving money wages: 4.7 million (96% of total labor force); note - 4.3 million workers are in subsistence agriculture wage earners: 175,400 (3.6% of total work force) wage earners by occupation: agriculture 45,500, domestic service 29,750, industry 26,250, commerce 24,500, construction 19,250, service 15,750, transportation 10,500, other 3,500 (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $250 million expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 220,000 kW production: 560 million kWh consumption per capita: 40 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

Exports: $240 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, shellfish, sugar, petroleum products partners: France, US, Germany, Japan, Russia

Imports: $510 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% partners: France, Germany, Japan, UK, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $4.3 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $318 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 4,239.5 (November 1995), 3,067.3 (1994), 1,913.8 (1993), 1,864.0 (1992), 1,835.4 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 883 km narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 34,750 km paved: 5,352 km unpaved: 29,398 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliaria

Merchant marine: total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,132 GRT/31,261 DWT ships by type: cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 105 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 with paved runways under 914 m: 31 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 45 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 96,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: system is above average for Africa domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.565 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 36)

Televisions: 260,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,103,022 males fit for military service: 1,843,732 males reach military age (20) annually: 132,146 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.0% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Malawi ———



Map —-

Location: 13 30 S, 34 00 E — Southern Africa, east of Zambia



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 118,480 sq km land area: 94,080 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 2,881 km border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m highest point: Mount Mlanje Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite

Land use: arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 20% forest and woodland: 50% other: 5%

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 9,452,844 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 2,189,223; female 2,168,317) 15-64 years: 51% (male 2,371,518; female 2,472,245) 65 years and over: 3% (male 107,701; female 143,840) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 41.56 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 24.48 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: the return of refugees to Mozambique is apparently complete

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 139.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 36.16 years male: 35.87 years female: 36.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.91 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malawian(s) adjective: Malawian

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 56.4% male: 71.9% female: 41.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Malawi conventional short form: Malawi former: Nyasaland

Data code: MI

Type of government: multiparty democracy

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964); Republic Day 6 July (1966)

Constitution: 18 May 1995; most recent revision

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994), leader of the UDF, was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage cabinet: Cabinet was named by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly: elections last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) UDF 84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5; note - because of defections and a bi-election of 18 December 1995, the seats in the National Assembly were held at the end of the year as follows: UDF 87, MCP 55, AFORD 35 note: the constitution of 18 May 1995, in addition to reducing the age at which universal suffrage is conferred from 21 to 18 years, provided for a bicameral legislature; by 1999, in addition to the existing National Assembly, a Senate of 80 seats is to be elected

Judicial branch: High Court; Supreme Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: ruling party: United Democratic Front (UDF), Bakili MULUZI opposition groups: Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Green MUNLO, secretary general (top party position); Alliance for Democracy (AFORD), Chakufwa CHIHANA; Christian Democratic Party (CDP), Eston KAKHOME, president; Malawi Democratic Party (MDP), Kampelo KALUA, president

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Willie CHOKANI chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter R. CHAVEAS embassy: address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi telephone: [265] 783 166 FAX: [265] 780 471

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 31% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The new government faces strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities, and to deal with environmental problems of deforestation and erosion. Drought hurt the 1994 economy, with GDP down by 12.4%. Good weather and a strong tobacco crop resulted in an upturn in 1995. In December 1995, donors pledged $332 million in aid for 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 9.9% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 31% industry: 14% services: 55% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 83.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners by occupation: agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services 15%, commerce 9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other permanently employed 6% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $530 million expenditures: $674 million, including capital expenditures of $129 million (1993)

Industries: tea, tobacco, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1992 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 190,000 kW production: 905 million kWh (1993) consumption per capita: 92 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports: $365 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products partners: US, South Africa, Germany, Japan (1994)

Imports: $240 million (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment partners: South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

External debt: $1.95 billion (December 1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: in December 1995, donors pledged for 1996, $332 million

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 16.3516 (November 1995), 8.7364 (1994), 4.4028 (1993), 3.6033 (1992), 2.8033 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 789 km narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 27,294 km (1990 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota

Airports: total: 41 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 20 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 14 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 43,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.011 million (1995)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1987 est.)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,106,905 males fit for military service: 1,076,788 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $10.4 million, NA% of GDP (FY94/95)



======================================================================



@Malaysia ————



Map —-

Location: 2 30 N, 112 30 E — Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam



Flag ——

Description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 329,750 sq km land area: 328,550 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,669 km border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 10% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 63% other: 24%

Irrigated land: 3,420 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation natural hazards: flooding international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea



People ———

Population: 19,962,893 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36% (male 3,684,510; female 3,483,893) 15-64 years: 60% (male 5,996,369; female 6,017,327) 65 years and over: 4% (male 342,742; female 438,052) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.07% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 26.2 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.49 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.75 years male: 66.82 years female: 72.89 years (1996 est.)

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